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Sample records for retail demand response

  1. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  2. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    consumers are believed to have significant potential for peak-shaving and load-shifting, thus relieving the power system while reducing costs and risk for energy retailers. This paper proposes a game theoretical model accounting for the Stackelberg relationship between retailers (leaders) and consumers......Demand response programmes are seen as one of the contributing solutions to the challenges posed to power systems by the large-scale integration of renewable power sources, mostly due to their intermittent and stochastic nature. Among demand response programmes, real-time pricing schemes for small...

  3. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...... pricing as a way to control the load for minimizing the imbalances due to wind power, assesses the overall economic results for the retailer and the consumers as well as the dynamic properties of consumer flexibility....

  4. Impact of Demand Side Response on a Commercial Retail Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Saleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The UK National Grid has placed increased emphasis on the development of Demand Side Response (DSR tariff mechanisms to manage load at peak times. Refrigeration systems, along with HVAC, are estimated to consume 14% of the UK’s electricity and could have a significant role for DSR application. However, characterized by relatively low individual electrical loads and massive asset numbers, multiple low power refrigerators need aggregation for inclusion in these tariffs. In this paper, the impact of the Demand Side Response (DSR control mechanisms on food retailing refrigeration systems is investigated. The experiments are conducted in a test-rig built to resemble a typical small supermarket store. The paper demonstrates how the temperature and pressure profiles of the system, the active power and the drawn current of the compressors are affected following a rapid shut down and subsequent return to normal operation as a response to a DSR event. Moreover, risks and challenges associated with primary and secondary Firm Frequency Response (FFR mechanisms, where the load is rapidly shed at high speed in response to changes in grid frequency, is considered. For instance, measurements are included that show a significant increase in peak inrush currents of approx. 30% when the system returns to normal operation at the end of a DSR event. Consideration of how high inrush currents after a DSR event can produce voltage fluctuations of the supply and we assess risks to the local power supply system.

  5. A novel incentive-based retail demand response program for collaborative participation of small customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehir, M. A.; Wevers, M. H.; Batman, A.; Bagriyanik, M.; Hurink, J. L.; Kucuk, U.; Soares, F. J.; Ozdemir, A.

    2017-01-01

    Integration of aggregated demand response into the wholesale electricity market is an emerging field of research. Contrary to conventional service providers, most of the demand side participants act voluntarily. However, due to wholesale market regulations, reliable and effective participation of

  6. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Following the deregulation experience of retail electricity markets in most countries, the majority of the new entrants of the liberalized retail market were pure REP (retail electricity providers). These entities were subject to financial risks because of the unexpected price variations, price...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...... taken into account with a scenario-based approach. The principal advantage of this model for REPs is reducing the risk of financial losses in DAMs, and the main benefit for the whole system is market power mitigation by virtually increasing the price elasticity of demand and reducing the peak demand....

  7. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential......Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...

  8. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  9. Post-retail Responsibility of Garments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the reuse and recycling of garments from the fashion industry's perspective. Through multiple case studies the paper maps the emerging organizational field of post-retail responsibility of garments, describing how and why several fashion companies...... and in-depth understanding. Findings – The findings demonstrate that post-retail responsibility of fashion is an emerging field in the fashion industry that offers several business opportunities to fashion companies, but also requires rethinking of existing value propositions and engagement of a wider...... stakeholder group in order to find sustainable solutions for garments’ end of life. The field is still new with limited best practice, however, two main strategies of how fashion companies address post-retail responsibility of their products can be distinguished: second hand retailing and product take...

  10. Coordination of Supply Chain with a Dominant Retailer under Demand Disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a coordination model of a one-manufacturer multi-retailers supply chain with a dominant retailer. We consider the impact of a dominant retailer on the market retail price and his sales promotion opportunity and examine how the manufacturer can coordinate such a supply chain by revenue-sharing contract after demand disruptions. We address the following important research questions in this paper. (i How do we design an appropriate revenue-sharing contract to coordinate the supply chain with a dominant retailer without demand disruptions? (ii When demand is disrupted with variations in market scale and price sensitive coefficient, can the original contract still be valid? (iii How do the demand disruptions affect the coordination mechanism under different disruption scenarios and how should the new contract change? Finally, we generate important insights by both analytical and numerical examples.

  11. Supply Chain Contracts with Multiple Retailers in a Fuzzy Demand Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengju Sang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates supply chain contracts with a supplier and multiple competing retailers in a fuzzy demand environment. The market demand is considered as a positive triangular fuzzy number. The models of centralized decision, return contract, and revenue-sharing contract are built by the method of fuzzy cut sets theory, and their optimal policies are also proposed. Finally, an example is given to illustrate and validate the models and conclusions. It is shown that the optimal total order quantity of the retailers fluctuates at the center of the fuzzy demand. With the rise of the number of retailers, the optimal order quantity and the fuzzy expected profit for each retailer will decrease, and the fuzzy expected profit for supplier will increase.

  12. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-11-09

    Dynamic retail pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought, and in some cases not given any weight at all. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period during which utilities were required to offer a default or standard offer generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached the end of their transitional period, and several have adopted or are actively considering an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. In most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service has been to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, if attention is paid in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This article, which draws from a lengthier report, describes experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand.1 As of summer 2005, default service RTP was in place or approved for future implementation in five U.S. states: New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. For each of these states, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to adoption of default RTP and interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in these states, as well as eight competitive retail suppliers active in these markets.

  13. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  14. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  15. Demand Forecast at the Foodstuff Retail Segment: a Strategic Sustainability Tool at a Small-Sized Brazilian Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand forecasting plays an increasingly relevant role within competitive and globalized marketplaces, in as much as operations planning and subsequent transition into a sustainable chain of supplies, is concerned. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present the application of demand forecasting as a strategic sustainability tool at a Brazilian SME. Therefore, this is a descriptive, ex-post facto and cross-cut, sectional time case study, which employs qualitative and historical quantitative and direct observational data and that utilizes, as both indicators of the level of service offered to consumers and of opportunity costs the artificial neural networks model and fill-rates, for demand forecasting and response purposes. The study further established cause-effect relationships between prediction accuracy, demand responsiveness and process-resulting economic, environmental and social performances. Findings additionally concurred with both widely acknowledged sustainability concepts - NRBV (Natural-Resource-Based View and 3BL (Triple Bottom Line - by demonstrating that demand forecasts ensure the efficient use of resources, improvements in customer responsiveness and also mitigate supply chain stock out and overstock losses. Further to the mentioned economic benefit, demand forecasting additionally reduced the amount of waste that arises from retail product shelf-life expiration, improving the addressing of demand itself and of customer satisfaction, thus driving consequent environmental and social gains.

  16. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights.

  17. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  18. Dynamic pricing for demand response considering market price uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi; Soares, Joao; Morais, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Retail energy providers (REPs) can employ different strategies such as offering demand response (DR) programs, participating in bilateral contracts, and employing self-generation distributed generation (DG) units to avoid financial losses in the volatile electricity markets. In this paper......, the problem of setting dynamic retail sales price by a REP is addressed with a robust optimization technique. In the proposed model, the REP offers price-based DR programs while it faces uncertainties in the wholesale market price. The main contribution of this paper is using a robust optimization approach...

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  20. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...... has been proposed to estimate the voltage at consumer point of connection (POC) to ensure operation within voltage limits. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed comprehensively with reference to three different scenarios on a low voltage (LV) feeder (Borup feeder) owned...

  1. AÇAÍ PULP DEMAND IN THE RETAIL MARKET OF BELÉM, STATE OF PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CORDEIRO DE SANTANA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to estimate the parameters associated to the demand for açaí pulp in the retail market of Belém. Multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the key variables that impact on product consumption and to estimate the price and income elasticities and cross demand. The econometric estimation method applied was the least squares to correct heteroscedastic variance problems. Results have shown that the demand for açaí pulp is price and income inelastic. Fish and cassava flour were confirmed as complementary products of strong influence on the decisions of consumers. Product quality, with regard to its association to Chagas disease, also revealed a strong influence on product choice for household consumption. Finally, the socio-economic benefit of açaí pulp was R$ 762.78 million per year.

  2. A Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Retail Price and Quality Dependent Demand with Remanufacturing and Refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, A. Y.; Fauzi, B. N.; Kurdi, N. A.; Jauhari, W. A.; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of a product is linearly dependent on the retail price and quality of the product. We address a closed-loop supply chain where the manufacturer manufactures products according to the demand and sells them through a retailer in the market. A third party collects the used products from costumers and sends to the manufacturer to increase the quality. If the products can retrieve the original quality, thus the process is called remanufacturing. Not every products can retrieve the original quality, thus manufacturer refurbish this products with lower price. We construct four different scenarios - centralized and decentralized led by manufacturer, retailer, and third party. From the comparison of the result obtained in the numerical example, we conclude that the joint profit obtained under centralized, manufacturer-led, and retailer-led policies is higher than third party-led policy.

  3. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  4. No correlation between headphone frequency response and retail price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    This study quantifies variability of measured headphone response patterns and aims to uncover any correlations between headphone type, retail price, and frequency response. For this purpose, the mean, variance, and covariance of the frequency magnitude responses were analyzed and correlated with headphone type and retail value. The results indicate that neither the measured response nor an attempt to objectively quantify perceived quality is related to price. On average, in-ear headphones have a slightly higher measured bass response than circumaural and supra-aural headphones. Furthermore, in-ear and circumaural headphones have a slightly lower deviation from an assumed target curve than supra-ear models. Ninety percent of the variance across all headphone measurements can be described by a set of six basis functions. The first basis function is similar to published target responses, while the second basis function represents a spectral tilt.

  5. The impact of point-of-sale data in demand planning in the South African clothing retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas N. Raza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In modern days’ dynamic consumer markets, supply chains need to be value driven and consumer oriented. Demand planning allows supply chain members to focus on the consumer and create optimal value. In demand planning, Point-of-Sale (POS data are an essential input to the process thereof; however, literature suggests that POS-based demand planning is often overlooked by demand planners in practice.Objective: The main purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which South African clothing retailers use POS data in demand planning.Method: This study followed the grounded theory approach based on the collection of qualitative data. The data collected was analysed following the grounded theory analysis using codes that resulted in various categories which then developed into themes.Findings: Findings suggest that companies within the clothing retail industry make considerable use of POS data and is a fundamental input factor in the demand planning process. However, this study also found that POS data cannot be applied in the planning for all types of clothing products, and that there are variables other than POS data that form a critical part of the demand planning process.Conclusion: POS data plays a fundamental role is the demand planning process and should be accurately collected and used with other qualitative and quantitative factors as an input factor to the demand planning process. The role of POS data in demand planning is expected to grow as customers are becoming increasingly demanding concerning customer service levels.

  6. Retail sector responses to changing consumer preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codron, Jean-Marie; Grunert, Klaus G.; Giraud-Heraud, Eric

    2005-01-01

    consumers are increasingly demanding organic food products and a wider selection of such products (Lohr, 2001). The social concerns for equitable income distribution and sustainable development are reflected in the growth of sales of products marketed under Fair Trade labels. The European Fair Trade market...... is estimated at $140 million annually (FAO, 1999), with participation by 50 supermarket chains in 14 countries (Lohr, 2001). INRA, Montpellier, France; and Anita Regmi is an Economist, Market and Trade Economics Division, ERS/USDA....

  7. Influence of Image Interactivity on Approach Responses towards an Online Retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; Jin, Hyun-Jeong

    2003-01-01

    Measured the effect of exposure to an image interactivity function from an apparel retailer's Web site on approach responses towards the retailer. Dependent variables included attitude towards the online store, willingness to purchase, probability of spending more time than planned shopping, and likelihood of patronizing the online retailer's…

  8. Retail clinics at tipping point. Pharmacies, chains answering demand for access and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2013-05-06

    Retail clinics are booming and the healthcare role of retail pharmacists is expanding as consumers and insurers accept the trends. Some say it's a cost-effective way to deliver care. "lt's a win-win-win scenario. Patient outcomes are better, we're getting more prescriptions and, from a payer perspective, their total cost of care is lower," says Dr. Jeffrey Kang, chief architect of Walgreen's retail expansion.

  9. Coordinating Contracts for Two-Stage Fashion Supply Chain with Risk-Averse Retailer and Price-Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the demand is sensitive to retail price, revenue sharing contract and two-part tariff contract have been shown to be able to coordinate supply chains with risk neutral agents. We extend the previous studies to consider a risk-averse retailer in a two-echelon fashion supply chain. Based on the classic mean-variance approach in finance, the issue of channel coordination in a fashion supply chain with risk-averse retailer and price-dependent demand is investigated. We propose both single contracts and joint contracts to achieve supply chain coordination. We find that the coordinating revenue sharing contract and two-part tariff contract in the supply chain with risk neutral agents are still useful to coordinate the supply chain taking into account the degree of risk aversion of fashion retailer, whereas a more complex sales rebate and penalty (SRP contract fails to do so. When using combined contracts to coordinate the supply chain, we demonstrate that only revenue sharing with two-part tariff contract can coordinate the fashion supply chain. The optimal conditions for contract parameters to achieve channel coordination are determined. Numerical analysis is presented to supplement the results and more insights are gained.

  10. Effects of inspection on retailer's ordering policy for deteriorating items with time-dependent demand under inflationary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Chandra K.; Mittal, Mandeep; Khanna, Aditi

    2013-09-01

    In this article, an Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model has been developed with unreliable supply, where each received lot may have random fraction of defective items with known distribution. Thus, the inspection of lot becomes essential in almost all the situations. Moreover, its role becomes more significant when the items are deteriorating in nature. It is assumed that defective items are salvaged as a single batch after the screening process. Further, it has been observed that the demand as well as price for certain consumer items increases linearly with time, especially under inflationary conditions. Owing to this fact, this article investigates the impact of defective items on retailer's ordering policy for deteriorating items under inflation when both demand and price vary with the passage of time. The proposed model optimises the order quantity by maximising the retailer's expected profit. Results are demonstrated with the help of a numerical example and the sensitivity analysis is also presented to provide managerial insights into practice.

  11. Coordinating a multi-retailer decentralized distribution system with random demand based on buyback and compensation contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set up the coordinating mechanism for a decentralized distribution system consisting of a manufacturer and multiple independent retailers by means of contracts. It is in the two-stage supply chain system that all retailers sell an identical product made by the manufacturer and determine their order quantities which directly affect the expected profit of the supply chain with random demand. Design/methodology/approach: First comparison of the optimal order quantities in the centralized and decentralized system shows that the supply chain needs coordination. Then the coordination model is given based on buyback cost and compensation benefit. Finally the coordination mechanism is set up in which the manufacturer as the leader uses a buyback policy to incentive these retailers and the retailers pay profit returns to compensate the manufacturer. Findings: The results of a numerical example show that the perfect supply chain coordination and the flexible allocation of the profit can be achieved in the multi-retailer supply chain by the buyback and compensation contracts. Research limitations: The results based on assumptions might not completely hold in practice and the paper only focuses on studying a single product in two-stage supply chain. Practical implications: The coordination mechanism is applicable to a realistic supply chain under a private information setting and the research results is the foundation of further developing the coordination mechanism for a realistic multi-stage supply chain system with more products. Originality/value: This paper focused on studying the coordination mechanism for a decentralized multi-retailer supply chain by the joint application of the buyback and compensation contracts. Furthermore the perfect supply chain coordination and the flexible allocation of the profit are achieved.

  12. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  13. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  14. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  15. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  16. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry; Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody M.; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Denholm, Paul; Hummon, Marissa; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Starke, Michael; Alkadi, Nasr; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jaci; Kirby, Brendan; O' Malley, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  17. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  18. Demand Response at the Naval Postgraduate School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stouffer, Dean; Wilson, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA project is to assist the Naval Postgraduate School's Public Works department to assimilate into a Demand Response program that will not only benefit the school but also the community...

  19. Refrigeration and climate change - Demands placed on food retailers; Die Forderung an den Lebensmitteleinzelhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, A.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the foodstuffs retail industry's refrigeration systems contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. The author estimates that about one third of world-wide greenhouse gas emissions come from refrigeration and air-conditioning applications used in the retail trade area. Various disagreements between trade representatives and environmental agencies are discussed. Not only the climate-relevant effects of the refrigerants themselves, but also those caused by the generation of the energy needed to drive the refrigeration and climate-control installations are discussed. Energy-efficiency is appropriately discussed, as are the costs involved in choosing and using environment-friendly refrigerants.

  20. Demand response in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler

    This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like...... and sometimes not, that will lead to power system failure. The type of demand response investigated is consumption controlled by indirect means, like an electricity price. Initially, algorithms responding to real-time electricity prices are researched and benchmarked according to comfort and cost. After...... pricing and to classify different types of customers. The proposed models are then embedded into new fiveminute electricity markets for system balancing and local congestion management. New market tools for exploiting and maintaining a degree of control over demand are developed, and the value of DR using...

  1. Demand Management Opportunities in E-fulfillment: What Internet Retailers Can Learn from Revenue Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A.M. Campbell (Ann Melissa); M. Fleischmann (Moritz); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we explain how Internet retailers can learn from proven revenue management concepts and use them to reduce costs and enhance service. We focus on attended deliveries as these provide the greatest opportunities and challenges. The key driver is service differentiation.

  2. Vendor Managed Inventory of a Single-vendor Multiple-retailer Single-warehouse Supply Chain under Stochastic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Poorbagheri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a vendor-managed inventory model is developed for a single-vendor multiple-retailer single-warehouse (SV-MR-SV supply chain problem based on the economic order quantity in which demands are stochastic and follow a uniform probability distribution. In order to reduce holding costs and to help balanced on-hand inventory cost between the vendor and the retailers, it is assumed that all inventory is held at a central warehouse with the lowest cost among the parties. The capacity of the central warehouse is limited. The objective is to find the warehouse replenishment frequency, the vendor's replenishment frequency, the order points, and the order quantities of the retailers such that the total inventory cost of the integrated supply chain is minimized. The proposed model is a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP; hence, a genetic algorithm (GA is utilized to solve this NP-hard problem. The parameters of the GA are calibrated using the Taguchi method to find better solutions. Some numerical illustrations are solved at the end to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to evaluate the performance of the solution method.

  3. The value of demand response in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady; Buechler, Elizabeth; Hale, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Many electrical loads may be operated flexibly to provide grid services, including peaking capacity, reserves, and load shifting. The authors model 14 demand end uses in Florida and analyze their operational impacts and overall value for a wide range of solar penetrations and grid flexibility options. They find demand response is able to reduce production costs, reduce the number of low-load hours for traditional generators, reduce starting of gas generators, and reduce curtailment.

  4. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Doug [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Castillo, Rafael [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Larson, Kyle [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Dobbs, Brian [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  5. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  6. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  7. Pricing and ordering policies for price-dependent demand in a supply chain of a single retailer and a single manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Hong, Yushin; Kim, Taebok

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses joint pricing and ordering policies for price-dependent demand in a supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single manufacturer. The retailer places orders for products according to an EOQ policy and the manufacturer produces them on a lot-for-lot basis. Four mechanisms with differing levels of coordination are presented. Mathematical models are formulated and solution procedures are developed to determine the optimal retail prices and order quantities. Through extensive numerical experiments, we analyse and compare the behaviours and characteristics of the proposed mechanisms, and find that enhancing the level of coordination has important benefits for the supply chain.

  8. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    Electricity has become an inevitable part of human life in present day world. In the past two centuries, the electric power system has undergone a lot of changes. Due to the awareness about the adverse impact of the fossil fuels, the power industry is adopting green and sustainable energy sources....... For a safe and reliable operation of electric power systems, the balance between electricity generation and consumption has to be maintained. The conventional fossil fuel based power generation achieves this balance by adjusting the generation to follow the consumption. In the electric power system...... with renewable energy sources, the production cannot be adjusted to match the demand due to the fluctuating nature of the renewable energy sources. Therefore, the demand has to be adjusted to match the power production. The concept of adjusting the demand to match the production is called demand response...

  9. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Lewis, Nancy Jo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Watson, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paprotny, Igor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Makarov, Yuri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource project consists of six technical tasks: • Task 2.1. Test Plan and Conduct Tests: Contingency Reserves Demand Response (DR) Demonstration—a pioneering demonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as contingency reserve. • Task 2.2. Participation in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) IntelliGrid—technical assistance to the EPRI IntelliGrid team in developing use cases and other high-level requirements for the architecture. • Task 2.3. Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Planning for Demand Response Technology Development—technical support to the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program on five topics: Sub-task 1. PIER Smart Grid RD&D Planning Document; Sub-task 2. System Dynamics of Programmable Controllable Thermostats; Sub-task 3. California Independent System Operator (California ISO) DR Use Cases; Sub-task 4. California ISO Telemetry Requirements; and Sub-task 5. Design of a Building Load Data Storage Platform. • Task 2.4. Time Value of Demand Response—research that will enable California ISO to take better account of the speed of the resources that it deploys to ensure compliance with reliability rules for frequency control. • Task 2.5. System Integration and Market Research: Southern California Edison (SCE)—research and technical support for efforts led by SCE to conduct demand response pilot demonstrations to provide a contingency reserve service (known as non-spinning reserve) through a targeted sub-population of aggregated residential and small commercial customers enrolled in SCE’s traditional air conditioning (AC) load cycling program, the Summer Discount Plan. • Task 2.6. Demonstrate Demand Response Technologies: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)—research and technical support for efforts led by PG&E to conduct a demand response pilot demonstration to provide non

  11. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    Demand Response (DR) can be defined as actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies and congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, or market conditions raise supply costs. California utilities have offered price and reliability DR based programs to customers to help reduce electric peak demand. The lack of knowledge about the DR programs and how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs, as is the lack of automation of DR systems. Most DR activities are manual and require people to first receive notifications, and then act on the information to execute DR strategies. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR (Piette et. al. 2005). Auto-DR for commercial and industrial facilities can be defined as fully automated DR initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity and that provides fully-automated connectivity to customer end-use control strategies. One important concept in Auto-DR is that a homeowner or facility manager should be able to 'opt out' or 'override' a DR event if the event comes at time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. Therefore, Auto-DR is not handing over total control of the equipment or the facility to the utility but simply allowing the utility to pass on grid related information which then triggers facility

  12. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  13. Making JIT retail a success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Johansen, John

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Just-in-time (JIT) retailers replenish continuously according to the consumer demand. Under unpredictable and seasonal consumer demand, it is essential to coordinate planning and responsiveness with the manufacturers. The purpose of this paper is to study the coordination journey betwee...

  14. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  15. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, Daniel J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matson, Nance [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Cody [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  16. Producer response to retail egg price in Ogun State Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exact study locations were Obasanjo, Oginni, Okegbenro, Kanmi and Evergreen farms, where the egg prices of five producers, five wholesalers and five retailers were collected weekly for a period of eight months and the average price for each category of marketers was used in the analysis. The analysis involved the ...

  17. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  18. Prediction Models for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalampos; Noor, Muhammad; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2015-11-02

    As Smart Grids move closer to dynamic curtailment programs, Demand Response (DR) events will become necessary not only on fixed time intervals and weekdays predetermined by static policies, but also during changing decision periods and weekends to react to real-time demand signals. Unique challenges arise in this context vis-a-vis demand prediction and curtailment estimation and the transformation of such tasks into an automated, efficient dynamic demand response (D2R) process. While existing work has concentrated on increasing the accuracy of prediction models for DR, there is a lack of studies for prediction models for D2R, which we address in this paper. Our first contribution is the formal definition of D2R, and the description of its challenges and requirements. Our second contribution is a feasibility analysis of very-short-term prediction of electricity consumption for D2R over a diverse, large-scale dataset that includes both small residential customers and large buildings. Our third, and major contribution is a set of insights into the predictability of electricity consumption in the context of D2R. Specifically, we focus on prediction models that can operate at a very small data granularity (here 15-min intervals), for both weekdays and weekends - all conditions that characterize scenarios for D2R. We find that short-term time series and simple averaging models used by Independent Service Operators and utilities achieve superior prediction accuracy. We also observe that workdays are more predictable than weekends and holiday. Also, smaller customers have large variation in consumption and are less predictable than larger buildings. Key implications of our findings are that better models are required for small customers and for non-workdays, both of which are critical for D2R. Also, prediction models require just few days’ worth of data indicating that small amounts of

  19. Use of demand response in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can provide sufficient measure, if implemented successfully, to provide economic, secure and stable supply to the customers even under the variability of the generated output from renewable energy source such as wind and solar. However, there are several issues to be analyzed...... market is analyzed. This paper also addresses the key issues and challenges in the implementation of DR in the electricity markets....... before DR implementation. This paper critically examines the present practices of the DR in the various electricity markets existing in the world including Europe. The prospect of DR in various market levels such as day-ahead (spot) market, hour-ahead market, real time/regulating market and ancillary...

  20. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This report presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  1. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in generation capacity requirements. Nevertheless, demand response is not without its challenges. The key challenges for demand response centre around establishing reliable control strategies and market frameworks so that the demand response resource can be used optimally. One of the greatest challenges...

  2. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Current power grid operation predominantly relies on scheduling and regulating generation resources to supply loads and balance load changes. Due to the inherent intermittency of renewable energy, more flexible and fast ramping capacity is required to compensate for the uncertainty and variability introduced by renewable energy resources. With the advancement of information technologies, power system end-use loads are becoming more agile and can participate in provision of balancing energy and other grid services. The use of demand response can greatly reduce the required generation reserve in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In this report, a new frequency responsive load (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.

  3. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators

  4. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently

  5. Risk implications of investments in demand response from an aggregator perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Kitzing, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Aggregators are expected to play an important role in making households provide flexibility to the electricity system. We investigate the business case of aggregators offering a demand response product in a competitive retail market, then directly accessing their customers’ flexibility through...... remotely controlled demand response devices and marketing it on the electricity markets. As the value of flexibility largely relies on price variations, we use a stochastic electricity price model, which we combine with a linear optimisation program and a cash-flow model to determine expected operating...... equipment. Furthermore, a Value-at-Risk analysis shows that income expectations are rather stable with more upside than downside potential. With foreseeable cost reductions for smart devices the aggregator business case might soon become attractive, particularly in markets with high shares of renewable...

  6. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.. In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  7. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  8. Chasing Responsible Sourcing: The case of UK retailers and sustainable seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Chironna, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Sourcing is gaining growing importance for companies willing to demonstrate responsibility and commitment to sustainable practices. Sourcing is a key element of supply chain management and by adopting responsible sourcing practices, companies can greatly contribute to the sustainability of their entire supply chains. Being close to both customers and suppliers, retailers hold a particularly influential position in the supply chain and their sourcing choices can play a key role for...

  9. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed

  10. Demand Response Resource Quantification with Detailed Building Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Horsey, Henry; Merket, Noel; Stoll, Brady; Nag, Ambarish

    2017-04-03

    Demand response is a broad suite of technologies that enables changes in electrical load operations in support of power system reliability and efficiency. Although demand response is not a new concept, there is new appetite for comprehensively evaluating its technical potential in the context of renewable energy integration. The complexity of demand response makes this task difficult -- we present new methods for capturing the heterogeneity of potential responses from buildings, their time-varying nature, and metrics such as thermal comfort that help quantify likely acceptability of specific demand response actions. Computed with an automated software framework, the methods are scalable.

  11. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  12. Does Knowledge Contribute to the Acceptance of Demand Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Annala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More flexible demand side would benefit the electricity markets, networks and sustainable power generation in many ways. The success of demand response programs, however, relies on consumer acceptance. This paper reviews previous studies about acceptability of different kinds of residential demand response programs. Furthermore, it discusses whether consumers who are more aware of the principles and benefits of demand response have more positive attitudes towards demand response programs. The results of the literature review and two survey studies suggest that price and security of supply are currently bigger motives to change consumption behaviour than environmental issues and that the savings expected to trigger any action (and to lead to lasting change in behaviour may be relatively high. Therefore, the framing of demand response programs goals may affect the acceptance. Additionally, consumers seem to prefer simple price structures that remain constant for a long time to more dynamic options.

  13. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sastry, Chellury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  15. Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

    2009-09-25

    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability

  16. Large Retailers’ Responsible Initiatives in Support of Local Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Risso

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis, and as a result of consumer pressure, enterprises are increasingly expected to evolve strategies of corporate social responsibility (CSR) into sustainable business practices to create and sustain shared values. In such, large food retailers are intensifying their efforts to develop CSR initiatives that are able to achieve economic, environmental and social goals simultaneously, both upstream and downstream, in their supply chain. Recently...

  17. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  18. Economic Dispatch of Demand Response Balancing through Asymmetric Block Offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    load to provide a response to the power system and the subsequent need to recover. The conventional system dispatch algorithm is altered to facilitate the dispatch of demand response units alongside generating units using the proposed offer structure. The value of demand response is assessed through......%. For comparative purposes, the cost savings achievable with a fully observable and controllable demand response resource are evaluated, using a time series model of the refrigeration loads. The fully modeled resource offers greater savings; however the difference is small and potentially insufficient to justify...

  19. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  20. Consumers' evaluations of socially responsible activities in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2003-01-01

    The authors approached Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a process in which particular CSR activities impact on consumers’ store evaluation and trust. They hypothesized that consumers classify CSR activities along two dimensions: (1) the beneficiary of the activity and (2) the intrinsic

  1. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  2. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  3. Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, examines storage and demand response as means to match renewable energy supply with demand.

  4. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  5. The Social Responsibility of Retailers through the Eyes of Students of a Commerce Faculty – a Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ţigu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Retailers’ social responsibility is treated in the literature in association with such topics as trade justice, ethics, or fairness. The concept can be defined according to various dimensions, involving characteristics such as quality products, price fairness, honesty, and ethical interactions with consumers. This paper aims to evaluate students' attitude towards retailers’ social responsibility in implementing the strategic and tactical decisions about product, price, distribution and promotion. It is based on a qualitative research exploring the opinions of the students in business administration about this issue, both as consumers and prospective decision makers in the retail sector. The research was conducted in two focus groups, where the students played the roles of “consumers”, respectively “managers”. It was found out that there were differences in the responses of the two groups. The members of the “consumers” group were emotionally involved and they preferred a demand driven approach that focuses on finding solutions to their needs, while the members of the “managers” group have adopted a more detached attitude and they were concerned with the identification of gain as a consequence of social responsibility actions.

  6. Aggregation Potentials for Buildings - Business Models of Demand Response and Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Buildings as prosumers have an important role in the energy aggregation market due to their potential flexible energy consumption and distributed energy resources. However, energy flexibility provided by buildings can be very complex and depend on many factors. The immaturity of the current...... in the energy aggregation market: (1) buildings participate in the implicit Demand Response (DR) program via retailers; (2) buildings with small energy consumption participate in the explicit DR via aggregators; (3) buildings directly access the explicit DR program; (4) buildings access energy market via...... aggregation market with unclear incentives is still a challenge for buildings to participate in the aggregation market. However, few studies have investigated business models for building participation in the aggregation market. Therefore, this paper develops four business models for buildings to participate...

  7. Personality predicts brain responses to cognitive demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Veena; ffytche, Dominic H; Williams, Steven C R; Gray, Jeffrey A

    2004-11-24

    Eysenck (1981) proposed that the personality dimension of introversion- extraversion (E) reflects individual differences in a cortical arousal system modulated by reticulothalamic- cortical pathways: it is chronically more active in introverts relative to extraverts and influences cognitive performance in interaction with task parameters. A circuit with connections to this system, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate (AC) cortex, has been identified in studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to a broad range of cognitive tasks. We examined the influence of E, assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1991), in fMRI activity during an "n-back" task involving four memory loads (0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-back) and a rest condition in healthy men. To confirm the specificity of E effects, we also examined the effects of neuroticism and psychoticism (P) scores. We observed that, as predicted by Eysenck's model, the higher the E score, the greater the change in fMRI signal from rest to the 3-back condition in the DLPFC and AC. In addition, E scores were negatively associated with resting fMRI signals in the thalamus and Broca's area extending to Wernicke's area, supporting the hypothesized (negative) relationship between E and resting arousal. P scores negatively correlated with resting fMRI signal in the globus pallidus-putamen, extending previous findings of a negative relationship of schizotypy to striatal activity seen with older neuroimaging modalities to fMRI. These observations suggest that individual differences affect brain responses during cognitive activity and at rest and provide evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality.

  8. Simulation-based Strategies for Smart Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Leobner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand Response can be seen as one effective way to harmonize demand and supply in order to achieve high self-coverage of energy consumption by means of renewable energy sources. This paper presents two different simulation-based concepts to integrate demand-response strategies into energy management systems in the customer domain of the Smart Grid. The first approach is a Model Predictive Control of the heating and cooling system of a low-energy office building. The second concept aims at industrial Demand Side Management by integrating energy use optimization into industrial automation systems. Both approaches are targeted at day-ahead planning. Furthermore, insights gained into the implications of the concepts onto the design of the model, simulation and optimization will be discussed. While both approaches share a similar architecture, different modelling and simulation approaches were required by the use cases.

  9. Opportunities and Challenges of Demand Response in Active Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponnaganti, Pavani; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    -shaving power or help to integrate fluctuating renewable resources. All these DR modes of operation needs conventional regulatory frameworks and market design for capitalizing the available resources. Therefore the objective of the paper is to discuss the DR classification and their control strategies, DR role...... operator to shed the load in order to maintain security of the system. With the advent of advanced smart metering infrastructure, communication between system operator and end-use customers makes it possible to adjust/curtail/shift the demand with respect to the state of the system. The response...... of the demand commonly termed as Demand Response (DR) can be attained either by incentive-based or price-based. With the help of DR, the renewable energy generation capacity can be increased by tuning the demand to match the variable and unpredictable power from renewable generation. It can also bring other...

  10. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter

  11. 76 FR 56103 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions; Conforming Changes to Existing Regulations in Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... members of the retail public (i.e., retail forex transactions). These amendments (Amendments) are... amended by the Dodd-Frank Act with respect to retail forex transactions. DATES: Effective September 12... forex transaction under CEA Section 2(c)(2)(B) (``permitted counterparty''), which similarly has...

  12. Organizational practices, work demands and the well-being of employees: a follow-up study in the metal industry and retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Kaija; Vanhala, Sinikka; Nykyri, Erkki; Janhonen, Minna

    2004-03-01

    Rapid technological change and increased international competition have changed working life and work organizations. These changes may not be considered when researching employee work ability and well-being. This study investigates the impact of organizational practices, work demands and individual factors on work ability, organizational commitment and mental well-being of employees in the metal industry and retail trade. A follow-up study was conducted to examine these connections among 1389 employees (mean age 42 years at baseline) in 91 organizations. The first survey was conducted in 1998 and was repeated in 2000. Changes in organizational practices and the demands of work were strongly associated with changes in employee well-being. Work ability, organizational commitment and the mental well-being of employees were increased most if the opportunities for development and influence and the promotion of employee well-being were increased and if the supervisory support and organization of work were improved. Well-being also improved with less uncertainty at work and with decreasing mental and physical work demands. In addition physical exercise and affluence also had favourable effects. The results confirm that several features of organizational practices are strongly associated with employees' well-being. Organizational development is an important method of improving employees' work ability, commitment and well-being.

  13. Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response throughadvanced metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

    2004-06-30

    Reliance on the standard cumulative kilowatt-hour meter substantially compromises energy efficiency and demand response programs. Without advanced metering, utilities cannot support time-differentiated rates or collect the detailed customer usage information necessary to (1)educate the customer to the economic value of efficiency and demand response options, or (2) distribute load management incentives proportional to customer contribution. These deficiencies prevent the customer feedback mechanisms that would otherwise encourage economically sound demand-side investments and behaviors. Thus, the inability to collect or properly price electricity usage handicaps the success of almost all efficiency and demand response options. Historically, implementation of the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) necessary for the successful efficiency and demand response programs has been prevented by inadequate cost-benefit analyses. A recent California effort has produced an expanded cost-effectiveness methodology for AMI that introduces previously excluded benefits. In addition to utility-centric costs and benefits, the new model includes qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits that accrue to both customers and society.

  14. Demand response scheme based on lottery-like rebates

    KAUST Repository

    Schwartz, Galina A.

    2014-08-24

    In this paper, we develop a novel mechanism for reducing volatility of residential demand for electricity. We construct a reward-based (rebate) mechanism that provides consumers with incentives to shift their demand to off-peak time. In contrast to most other mechanisms proposed in the literature, the key feature of our mechanism is its modest requirements on user preferences, i.e., it does not require exact knowledge of user responsiveness to rewards for shifting their demand from the peak to the off-peak time. Specifically, our mechanism utilizes a probabilistic reward structure for users who shift their demand to the off-peak time, and is robust to incomplete information about user demand and/or risk preferences. We approach the problem from the public good perspective, and demonstrate that the mechanism can be implemented via lottery-like schemes. Our mechanism permits to reduce the distribution losses, and thus improve efficiency of electricity distribution. Finally, the mechanism can be readily incorporated into the emerging demand response schemes (e.g., the time-of-day pricing, and critical peak pricing schemes), and has security and privacy-preserving properties.

  15. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  16. Demand Response an Alternative Solution to Prevent Load Shedding Triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mollah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an alternative solution to prevent Load Shedding (LS triggering during underfrequency and proposes a new technique to restore the frequency during emergency events. Demand response (DR is considered as one of the most promising Smart Grid concepts that can be used to support the peak demand, whereas, LS is an existing last resort method during emergency grid situations. Both schemes aim to balance the load and generation in real-time and restore the frequency very quickly. This paper incorporates integrating Incentive based Demand Response (IDR with spinning reserve for smaller underfrequency events to manage the system peak demand. It also introduces a new frequency band for an Emergency Demand Response (EDR as an alternative inexpensive solution that can replace costly spinning reserves and help to prevent LS. An energy index factor is used to identify the consumption pattern of consumers to enable them to participate in IDR. An illustrative example of the performance of the proposed scheme on a modified 15 bus test system is shown. Simulation results on different scenarios confirm that the proposed method is effective to improve the frequency restoration process along with enabling participation of new services.

  17. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will identify the needs of a distribution system to operate efficiently, safely and reliably; summarize both benefits and challenges for the operation of the distribution system with high penetration levels of distributed energy resources; define a suite of services based on those changing operational needs that could be provided by resources; identify existing demand response opportunities sponsored by distribution utilities and/or aggregators of retail customers; assess the extent to which distribution system services can be provided via DR opportunities both in their current form and with alterations to their design; and provide a qualitative assessment of coordination issues that bulk power and distribution system providers of DR opportunities will need to address.

  18. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Myong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.

  20. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  1. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  2. Improving demand response potential of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    through tests on a full scale supermarket refrigeration system made available by Danfoss A/S. The conducted application test shows that feedback based on food temperature can increase the demand flexibility during a step by approx. 60 % the first 70 minutes and up to 100%over the first 150 minutes...... a method for estimating food temperature based on measurements of evaporator expansion valve opening degree. This method requires no additional hardware or system modeling. We demonstrate the estimation method on a real supermarket display case and the applicability of knowing food temperature is shown...... - thereby strengthening the demand response potential of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  3. Demand Response Availability Profiles for California in the Year 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Demand response (DR) is being considered as a valuable resource for keeping the electrical grid stable and efficient, and deferring upgrades to generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, simulations to determine how much infrastructure upgrades can be deferred are necessary in order to plan optimally. Production cost modeling is a technique, which simulates the dispatch of generators to meet demand and reserves in each hour of the year, at minimal cost. By integrating demand response resources into a production cost model (PCM), their value to the grid can be estimated and used to inform operations and infrastructure planning. DR availability profiles and constraints for 13 end-uses in California for the year 2020 were developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and integrated into a production cost model by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), for the California Energy Commission’s Value of Energy Storage and Demand Response for Renewable Integration in California Study. This report summarizes the process for developing the DR availability profiles for California, and their aggregate capabilities. While LBNL provided potential DR hourly profiles for regulation product in the ancillary services market and five-minute load following product in the energy market for LLNL’s study, additional results in contingency reserves and an assumed flexible product are also defined. These additional products are included in the analysis for managing high ramps associated with renewable generation and capacity products and they are also presented in this report.

  4. Dynamic Pricing for Demand Response Considering Market Price Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Ali Fotouhi Ghazvini; João Soares; Hugo Morais; Rui Castro; Zita Vale

    2017-01-01

    ...) units to avoid financial losses in the volatile electricity markets. In this paper, the problem of setting dynamic retail sales price by a REP is addressed with a robust optimization technique...

  5. Efficient Customer Selection for Sustainable Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zois, Vasileios; Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalambos; Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2014-11-03

    Regulating the power consumption to avoid peaks in demand is a common practice. Demand Response(DR) is being used by utility providers to minimize costs or ensure system reliability. Although it has been used extensively there is a shortage of solutions dealing with dynamic DR. Past attempts focus on minimizing the load demand without considering the sustainability of the reduced energy. In this paper an efficient algorithm is presented which solves the problem of dynamic DR scheduling. Data from the USC campus micro grid were used to evaluate the efficiency as well as the robustness of the proposed solution. The targeted energy reduction is achieved with a maximum average approximation error of ≈ 0.7%. Sustainability of the reduced energy is achieved with respect to the optimal available solution providing a maximum average error less than 0.6%. It is also shown that a solution is provided with a low computational cost fulfilling the requirements of dynamic DR.

  6. Data-driven Demand Response Characterization and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ray, Guillaume; Pinson, Pierre; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of load behavior in demand response (DR) schemes is important to evaluate the performance of participants. Very few real-world experiments have been carried out and quantification and characterization of the response is a difficult task. Nevertheless it will be a necessary tool...... for portfolio management of consumers in a DR framework. In this paper we develop methods to quantify and characterize the amount of DR in a load. The contribution to the aggregated load from each household is quantified on a daily basis, showing the potential variability of the response in time. Clustering...

  7. Scheduling Optimization of Smart Homes Based on Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiawei; Lauri, Fabrice; Koukam, Abderrafiaa; Hilaire, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Part 4: Smart Environments, Agents, and Robots; International audience; Demand response can potentially lead to economic and environmental advantages, but non-coordinated scheduling and operation of controllable devices in a set of smart homes will make peak rebounds at periods with lower electricity prices happen, which may damage the power grid, cause unforeseen disasters, and reduce the global profit. In this work, we advocate the use of a metaheuristic algorithm based on Cooperative Parti...

  8. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  9. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  10. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  11. Chance-constrained optimization of demand response to price signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Household-based demand response is expected to play an increasing role in supporting the large scale integration of renewable energy generation in existing power systems and electricity markets. While the direct control of the consumption level of households is envisaged as a possibility......, a credible alternative is that of indirect control based on price signals to be sent to these end-consumers. A methodology is described here allowing to estimate in advance the potential response of flexible end-consumers to price variations, subsequently embedded in an optimal price-signal generator....... In contrast to some real-time pricing proposals in the literature, here prices are estimated and broadcast once a day for the following one, for households to optimally schedule their consumption. The price-response is modeled using stochastic finite impulse response (FIR) models. Parameters are estimated...

  12. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Yan [Siemens Corporate Research Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Piette, Mary [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  13. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  14. Optimal Demand Response of Smart Home with PV Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Rong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is used mainly to help to schedule a customer’s power utilization based on the electricity price that is announced by the power distribution company so that both demand and supply can optimally benefit. The work proposes a users’ load model and the interior point method for optimal scheduling with elastic power utilization to minimize power price. The interior point method has the advantages of rapid convergence and robustness. Customers can not only use PV generators and battery sets as backup power sources, but also benefit from green energy. As revealed by the results herein, the use of elastic power utilization time intervals enables customers to pay less power price.

  15. The Impact of Uncertain Physical Parameters on HVAC Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-03-01

    HVAC units are currently one of the major resources providing demand response (DR) in residential buildings. Models of HVAC with DR function can improve understanding of its impact on power system operations and facilitate the deployment of DR technologies. This paper investigates the importance of various physical parameters and their distributions to the HVAC response to DR signals, which is a key step to the construction of HVAC models for a population of units with insufficient data. These parameters include the size of floors, insulation efficiency, the amount of solid mass in the house, and efficiency of the HVAC units. These parameters are usually assumed to follow Gaussian or Uniform distributions. We study the effect of uncertainty in the chosen parameter distributions on the aggregate HVAC response to DR signals, during transient phase and in steady state. We use a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method with linear regression and Prony analysis to evaluate sensitivity of DR output to the uncertainty in the distribution parameters. The significance ranking on the uncertainty sources is given for future guidance in the modeling of HVAC demand response.

  16. Automated Dynamic Demand Response Implementation on a Micro-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppannagari, Sanmukh R.; Kannan, Rajgopal; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we describe a system for real-time automated Dynamic and Sustainable Demand Response with sparse data consumption prediction implemented on the University of Southern California campus microgrid. Supply side approaches to resolving energy supply-load imbalance do not work at high levels of renewable energy penetration. Dynamic Demand Response (D2R) is a widely used demand-side technique to dynamically adjust electricity consumption during peak load periods. Our D2R system consists of accurate machine learning based energy consumption forecasting models that work with sparse data coupled with fast and sustainable load curtailment optimization algorithms that provide the ability to dynamically adapt to changing supply-load imbalances in near real-time. Our Sustainable DR (SDR) algorithms attempt to distribute customer curtailment evenly across sub-intervals during a DR event and avoid expensive demand peaks during a few sub-intervals. It also ensures that each customer is penalized fairly in order to achieve the targeted curtailment. We develop near linear-time constant-factor approximation algorithms along with Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes (PTAS) for SDR curtailment that minimizes the curtailment error defined as the difference between the target and achieved curtailment values. Our SDR curtailment problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Program that optimally matches customers to curtailment strategies during a DR event while also explicitly accounting for customer strategy switching overhead as a constraint. We demonstrate the results of our D2R system using real data from experiments performed on the USC smartgrid and show that 1) our prediction algorithms can very accurately predict energy consumption even with noisy or missing data and 2) our curtailment algorithms deliver DR with extremely low curtailment errors in the 0.01-0.05 kWh range.

  17. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also

  18. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  19. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  20. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin

    2010-01-01

    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  1. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  2. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  3. Reliability evaluation of microgrid considering incentive-based demand response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Cheng; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Incentive-based demand response (IBDR) can guide customers to adjust their behaviour of electricity and curtail load actively. Meanwhile, distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) can provide time for the implementation of IBDR. The paper focus on the reliability evaluation of microgrid considering IBDR. Firstly, the mechanism of IBDR and its impact on power supply reliability are analysed. Secondly, the IBDR dispatch model considering customer’s comprehensive assessment and the customer response model are developed. Thirdly, the reliability evaluation method considering IBDR based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed. Finally, the validity of the above models and method is studied through numerical tests on modified RBTS Bus6 test system. Simulation results demonstrated that IBDR can improve the reliability of microgrid.

  4. Demand-side management as an equilibrium response to uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Charles Greer

    1997-08-01

    The thesis shows that a competitive firm with a strictly concave technology will increase its fixed inputs in response to an increase in the uncertainty it faces with respect to the productivity of variable inputs. Further, this result is shown to lead to bias in the estimation of the technology of the firm when the econometric model is misspecified with respect this behavior of firms. These results are extended to the situation of a regulated monopoly and the extended results are used to show that it is plausible that the conservation investment phenomenon known as demand-side management (DSM) is such an equilibrium response to the disruptions in the energy markets in the 1970s and 1980s.

  5. A Response to the Federal Trade Commission/Anderson Critique of Structure-Performance Studies in Grocery Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    1991-01-01

    This research report responds to the comprehensive critique of structure-price and structure profit studies in the food retailing industry by Keith Anderson, Staff Economist, Federal Trade Commission. Mr. Anderson's critique was in response to a request from certain members of the House Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law that the Federal Trade Commission explain why these studies should not serve as the basis for more rigorous enforcement of the antitrust laws. The introduction of ...

  6. Retailer brand architecture and consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Which assortment of products and services should retailers offer consumers? Which foods can be deleted from the present assortment? Which brands do retailers have to have in their assortment to satisfy consumer demands? These are a few of the questions food retailers continuously strive to answer...

  7. 2015 California Demand Response Potential Study - Charting California’s Demand Response Future. Interim Report on Phase 1 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter; Potter, Jennifer; Piette, Mary Ann; Schwartz, Peter; Berger, Michael A.; Dunn, Laurel N.; Smith, Sarah J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Stensson, Sofia; Szinai, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Demand response (DR) is an important resource for keeping the electricity grid stable and efficient; deferring upgrades to generation, transmission, and distribution systems; and providing other customer economic benefits. This study estimates the potential size and cost of the available DR resource for California’s three investor-owned utilities (IOUs), as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) evaluates how to enhance the role of DR in meeting California’s resource planning needs and operational requirements. As the state forges a clean energy future, the contributions of wind and solar electricity from centralized and distributed generation will fundamentally change the power grid’s operational dynamics. This transition requires careful planning to ensure sufficient capacity is available with the right characteristics – flexibility and fast response – to meet reliability needs. Illustrated is a snapshot of how net load (the difference between demand and intermittent renewables) is expected to shift. Increasing contributions from renewable generation introduces steeper ramps and a shift, into the evening, of the hours that drive capacity needs. These hours of peak capacity need are indicated by the black dots on the plots. Ultimately this study quantifies the ability and the cost of using DR resources to help meet the capacity need at these forecasted critical hours in the state.

  8. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated

  9. Enabling Automated Dynamic Demand Response: From Theory to Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalampos; Aman, Saima; Saeed, Rizwan; Zois, Vasileios; Prasanna, Viktor

    2015-07-14

    Demand response (DR) is a technique used in smart grids to shape customer load during peak hours. Automated DR offers utilities a fine grained control and a high degree of confidence in the outcome. However the impact on the customer's comfort means this technique is more suited for industrial and commercial settings than for residential homes. In this paper we propose a system for achieving automated controlled DR in a heterogeneous environment. We present some of the main issues arising in building such a system, including privacy, customer satisfiability, reliability, and fast decision turnaround, with emphasis on the solutions we proposed. Based on the lessons we learned from empirical results we describe an integrated automated system for controlled DR on the USC microgrid. Results show that while on a per building per event basis the accuracy of our prediction and customer selection techniques varies, it performs well on average when considering several events and buildings.

  10. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  11. A Generalized Formulation of Demand Response under Market Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Y.; Nguyen, Duc M.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation of Demand Response (DR) under deregulated electricity markets. The problem is scheduling and controls the consumption of electrical loads according to the market price to minimize the energy cost over a day. Taking into account the modeling of customers' comfort (i.e., preference), the formulation can be applied to various types of loads including what was traditionally classified as critical loads (e.g., air conditioning, lights). The proposed DR scheme is based on Dynamic Programming (DP) framework and solved by DP backward algorithm in which the stochastic optimization is used to treat the uncertainty, if any occurred in the problem. The proposed formulation is examined with the DR problem of different loads, including Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Electric Vehicles (EVs) and a newly DR on the water supply systems of commercial buildings. The result of simulation shows significant saving can be achieved in comparison with their traditional (On/Off) scheme.

  12. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  13. Market transformation lessons learned from an automated demand response test in the Summer and Fall of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockman, Christine; Piette, Mary Ann; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program. The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research team's development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic

  14. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  15. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  16. Bank employees’ engagement in corporate social responsibility initiatives at a South African retail bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C. Penn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Many firms encourage employees to undertake corporate social responsibility (CSR projects. With any project, it is important that firm resources are committed to create valued outcomes for stakeholders.Research purpose: The study purpose was to gain insight into criteria that can practically help define the success of employee run CSR projects.Motivation for the study: CSR activities are reported in literature as creating valuable intangible and tangible assets for firms when planned as strategies to improve brand reputation, customer loyalty and future profit. This research reviews a South African retail bank that promotes CSR undertakings to employees exploring the bank’s support for employees engaged in CSR.Research design, approach and method: Two of the bank’s completed community CSR projects were identified by the bank’s senior CSR managers for this review. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with employees, bank CSR managers and project recipients. Participant interviews were transcribed into text then analysed to identify where stakeholder value diminished on these projects.Main findings: The study found that this bank’s CSR processes do not fully support the employees, detrimentally affecting the ability of the employees to optimise project outcomes.Practical or managerial implication: Because employee CSR efforts are often aligned with a firm’s value creation strategies, optimising the project management of employee CSR activities can improve the value of the outcomes achieved.Contribution or value add: Determining specific conditions that influence successful project management of employee CSR projects can help to improve the potential of CSR projects in co-creating optimised value for stakeholders.

  17. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  18. Residential Demand Response Scheduling with Consideration of Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new demand response scheduling framework for an array of households, which are grouped into different categories based on socio-economic factors, such as the number of occupants, family decomposition and employment status. Each of the households is equipped with a variety of appliances. The model takes the preferences of participating households into account and aims to minimize the overall production cost and, in parallel, to lower the individual electricity bills. In the existing literature, customers submit binary values for each time period to indicate their operational preferences. However, turning the appliances “on” or “off” does not capture the associated discomfort levels, as each appliance provides a different service and leads to a different level of satisfaction. The proposed model employs integer values to indicate household preferences and models the scheduling problem as a multi-objective mixed integer programming. The main thrust of the framework is that the multi-level preference modeling of appliances increases their “flexibility”; hence, the job scheduling can be done at a lower cost. The model is evaluated by using the real data provided by the Department of Energy & Climate Change, UK. In the computational experiments, we examine the relation between the satisfaction of consumers based on the appliance usage preferences and the electricity costs by exploring the Pareto front of the related objective functions. The results show that the proposed model leads to significant savings in electricity cost, while maintaining a good level of customer satisfaction.

  19. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2010-08-02

    This study examines the use of OpenADR communications specification, related data models, technologies, and strategies to send dynamic prices (e.g., real time prices and peak prices) and Time of Use (TOU) rates to commercial and industrial electricity customers. OpenADR v1.0 is a Web services-based flexible, open information model that has been used in California utilities' commercial automated demand response programs since 2007. We find that data models can be used to send real time prices. These same data models can also be used to support peak pricing and TOU rates. We present a data model that can accommodate all three types of rates. For demonstration purposes, the data models were generated from California Independent System Operator's real-time wholesale market prices, and a California utility's dynamic prices and TOU rates. Customers can respond to dynamic prices by either using the actual prices, or prices can be mapped into"operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different methods for mapping actual prices. Some of these methods were implemented in demonstration projects. The study results demonstrate show that OpenADR allows interoperability with existing/future systems/technologies and can be used within related dynamic pricing activities within Smart Grid.

  20. An Informatics Approach to Demand Response Optimization in Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Aman, Saima; Cao, Baohua; Giakkoupis, Mike; Kumbhare, Alok; Zhou, Qunzhi; Paul, Donald; Fern, Carol; Sharma, Aditya; Prasanna, Viktor K

    2011-03-03

    Power utilities are increasingly rolling out “smart” grids with the ability to track consumer power usage in near real-time using smart meters that enable bidirectional communication. However, the true value of smart grids is unlocked only when the veritable explosion of data that will become available is ingested, processed, analyzed and translated into meaningful decisions. These include the ability to forecast electricity demand, respond to peak load events, and improve sustainable use of energy by consumers, and are made possible by energy informatics. Information and software system techniques for a smarter power grid include pattern mining and machine learning over complex events and integrated semantic information, distributed stream processing for low latency response,Cloud platforms for scalable operations and privacy policies to mitigate information leakage in an information rich environment. Such an informatics approach is being used in the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration Project, and the resulting software architecture will lead to an agile and adaptive Los Angeles Smart Grid.

  1. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... wholesale energy markets and remove barriers to the participation of demand response resources, thus... meaningful demand-side participation.\\1\\ After nearly 3,800 pages of comments, a subsequent technical... energy markets by removing barriers to participation of demand response resources. For example, in Order...

  2. Real-Time Implementation of Demand Response Programs Based on Open ADR Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Abrishambaf; Pedro Faria; Zita Vale

    2017-01-01

    In the Demand Response (DR) concepts, we witness several barriers that need to be addressed such as, data transferring from promoting entities to demand side. The Open Automated Demand Response (Open ADR) standard specification is a solution for overcoming these barriers. This PhD work proposes a real business model for DR implementation based on Open ADR technology.

  3. Uganda Coffee Supply Response and Export Demand: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.

  4. Fast demand response in support of the active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, P.; Heskes, P.; Crolla, P.; Burt, G.; Warmer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management has traditionally been investigated for "normal" operation services such as balancing and congestion management. However they potentially could be utilized for Distributed Network Operator (DNO) services. This paper investigates and validates the use of a supply and demand

  5. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    While the traditional goal of an electric power system has been to control supply to fulfill demand, the demand-side can plan an active role in power systems via Demand Response (DR), defined by the Department of Energy (DOE) as “a tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to give incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized” [29]. DR can provide a variety of benefits including reducing peak electric loads when the power system is stressed and fast timescale energy balancing. Therefore, DR can improve grid reliability and reduce wholesale energy prices and their volatility. This dissertation focuses on analyzing both recent and emerging DR paradigms. Recent DR programs have focused on peak load reduction in commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities). We present methods for using 15-minute-interval electric load data, commonly available from C&I facilities, to help building managers understand building energy consumption and ‘ask the right questions’ to discover opportunities for DR. Additionally, we present a regression-based model of whole building electric load, i.e., a baseline model, which allows us to quantify DR performance. We use this baseline model to understand the performance of 38 C&I facilities participating in an automated dynamic pricing DR program in California. In this program, facilities are expected to exhibit the same response each DR event. We find that baseline model error makes it difficult to precisely quantify changes in electricity consumption and understand if C&I facilities exhibit event-to-event variability in their response to DR signals. Therefore, we present a method to compute baseline model error and a metric to determine how much observed DR variability results from baseline model error rather than real

  6. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.

  7. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  8. Review of barriers to the introduction of residential demand response : A case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weck, M. H J; van Hooff, J.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    Demand response, defined as the shifting of electricity demand, is generally believed to have value both for the grid and for the market: by matching demand more closely to supply, consumers could profit from lower prices, while in a smart grid environment, more renewable electricity can be used and

  9. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alkadi, Nasr [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Ookie [USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  10. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  11. The adaptative response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünheid, T.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Korfage, J.A.M.; Zentner, A.; van Eijden, T.M.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function

  12. Implementation and Test of Demand Response using Behaviour Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullmann, Daniel; Gehrke, Oliver; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2011-01-01

    The term Smart Grid describes the effort to enable the integration of large numbers of renewable distributed energy resources into the power grid. The fluctuations inherent in renewable energy resources imply the need to also integrate the demand side actively into the control of the power system...

  13. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brandon F.; Rouse, Mark; Green, Richard B.; Clay, Connie

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs. PMID:16795672

  14. Performance Assessment of Aggregation Control Services for Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Heussen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    . This paper formulates performance measures and an index to evaluate in hind sight the quality of service delivery by an aggregator, both with respect to ancillary service and asset management service. The index is based on requirements formulated in service contracts and provides an overall assessment......Aggregation algorithms that provide services to the grid via demand side management are moving from research ideas to the market. With the diversity of the technology delivering such services, it becomes essential to establish transparent performance standards from a service delivery perspective...... of the quality of service provided by an aggregation control algorithm. By a detailed case study we present and an application of the index, comparing the performance of two different control architectures for demand side management delivering a distribution grid service....

  15. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  16. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    . Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective for calculating the optimum demand response. From the test scenarios, it is inferred that absorption of renewable energy from PV increased by 38% applying optimum demand response during the evaluation period in the studied distribution network....

  17. Implementation of a building energy management system for residential demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger Griful, Sergi; Welling, Ubbe; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    Demand response is proposed as a solution to handle the fluctuations in the power supply in a scenario with higher penetration of renewable energy sources. Although demand response already offers a positive business case in certain domains, it still lacks maturity in other areas, especially in th...

  18. The Cobweb Effect in Balancing Markets with Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    to control and integrate DR into the power system remains an open question. Integration into existing electricity markets is one option, but dynamic pricing with DR has been observed to be unstable, resulting in oscillations in supply and demand. This socalled Cobweb effect is presented here using the market...... structure and measurements from the EcoGrid EU demonstration, where five minute electricity pricing is sent to 1900 houses. A new tool for quantifying volatility is presented, and the causes for volatility are investigated. A key outcome of this study shows that increases in social welfare due to DR appear...

  19. Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated Response to Dynamic Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Callaway, Duncan S.; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-08-15

    Controlling electric loads to deliver power system services presents a number of interesting challenges. For example, changes in electricity consumption of Commercial and Industrial (C&I) facilities are usually estimated using counterfactual baseline models, and model uncertainty makes it difficult to precisely quantify control responsiveness. Moreover, C&I facilities exhibit variability in their response. This paper seeks to understand baseline model error and demand-side variability in responses to open-loop control signals (i.e. dynamic prices). Using a regression-based baseline model, we define several Demand Response (DR) parameters, which characterize changes in electricity use on DR days, and then present a method for computing the error associated with DR parameter estimates. In addition to analyzing the magnitude of DR parameter error, we develop a metric to determine how much observed DR parameter variability is attributable to real event-to-event variability versus simply baseline model error. Using data from 38 C&I facilities that participated in an automated DR program in California, we find that DR parameter errors are large. For most facilities, observed DR parameter variability is likely explained by baseline model error, not real DR parameter variability; however, a number of facilities exhibit real DR parameter variability. In some cases, the aggregate population of C&I facilities exhibits real DR parameter variability, resulting in implications for the system operator with respect to both resource planning and system stability.

  20. Co-Planning of Demand Response and Distributed Generators in an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed generators can be coordinated to accommodate the renewable energy. However, the investment cost for demand response facilities, i.e., load control switch and advanced metering infrastructure, cannot be ignored, especially when the responsive demand is large. In this paper, an optimal coordinated investment for distributed generator and demand response facilities is proposed, based on a linearized, price-elastic demand response model. To hedge against the uncertainties of renewables and load demand, a two-stage robust investment scheme is proposed, where the investment decisions are optimized in the first stage, and the demand response participation with the coordination of distributed generators is adjusted in the second stage. Simulations on the modified IEEE 33-node and 123-node DN demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  1. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  2. Design and Implementation of Demand Response Information Interactive Service Platform Based on “Internet Plus” Smart Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gaoying; Fan, Jie; Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Guangyan

    2017-05-01

    In order to promote the effective use of demand response load side resources, promote the interaction between supply and demand, enhance the level of customer service and achieve the overall utilization of energy, this paper briefly explain the background significance of design demand response information platform and current situation of domestic and foreign development; Analyse the new demand of electricity demand response combined with the application of Internet and big data technology; Design demand response information platform architecture, construct demand responsive system, analyse process of demand response strategy formulate and intelligent execution implement; study application which combined with the big data, Internet and demand response technology; Finally, from information interaction architecture, control architecture and function design perspective design implementation of demand response information platform, illustrate the feasibility of the proposed platform design scheme implemented in a certain extent.

  3. Part-time labour in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); N. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractRetailers have to deal with a fluctuating demand for labor. The use of part-time employees is one of their instruments to cope with these fluctuations. This article gives theoretical considerations regarding the use of part-time labor in the retail trade and empirical evidence regarding

  4. Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Applying a partial equilibrium model of the electricity market we analyse effects of exposing household electricity customers to retail products with variable pricing. Both short-term and long-term effects of exposing customers to hourly spot market prices and a simpler rebate scheme are analysed...... under scenarios with large shares of wind power in a Danish case study. Our results indicate strategies that could be favourable in ensuring high adoption of products and efficient response by households. We find that simple pricing schemes, though economically less efficient, could become important...... in an early phase to initialise the development of household demand response. At a later point, when long-term dynamics take effect, a larger effort should be made to shift consumers onto real-time rates, and an increased focus on overall adoption of variable pricing will be required. Another finding...

  5. Religiosity, attitude and the demand for socially responsible products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between various Christian denominations and attitude and behavior regarding consumption of socially responsible (SR) products. Literature on the relationship between religiosity and pro-social behavior has shown that religiosity strengthens positive

  6. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  7. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  8. The Quota-Based Compensation Plan in Fashion Retailing Industry under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a compensation plan problem in the fashion retailing industry, which involves a risk-neutral fashion retailer and a risk-neutral salesperson, in a two-stage game framework with asymmetric information. In the first stage, the fashion retailer provides a menu of compensation plans to the salesperson who decides which plan to sign based on his superior market demand information. Confronted with the asymmetric demand information, the fashion retailer could observe market information from the salesperson's response by designing a menu of compensation plans rather than a single one to the salesperson. In the second stage, the fashion retailer then makes production decision and the salesperson determines his selling effort. We consider both adverse selection and moral hazard. We adopt the quota-based plan to derive the fashion retailer’s optimal compensation plan design and the salesperson's best response. We emphasize the impact of the quota level on the system outcomes. The results reveal that a higher quota level is disadvantageous to the fashion retailer but advantageous to the salespersons.

  9. Price, environment and security: Exploring multi-modal motivation in voluntary residential peak demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyamfi, Samuel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Krumdieck, Susan, E-mail: susan.krumdieck@canterbury.ac.n [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2011-05-15

    Peak demand on electricity grids is a growing problem that increases costs and risks to supply security. Residential sector loads often contribute significantly to seasonal and daily peak demand. Demand response projects aim to manage peak demand by applying price signals and automated load shedding technologies. This research investigates voluntary load shedding in response to information about the security of supply, the emission profile and the cost of meeting critical peak demand in the customers' network. Customer willingness to change behaviour in response to this information was explored through mail-back survey. The diversified demand modelling method was used along with energy audit data to estimate the potential peak load reduction resulting from the voluntary demand response. A case study was conducted in a suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand, where electricity is the main source for water and space heating. On this network, all water heating cylinders have ripple-control technology and about 50% of the households subscribe to differential day/night pricing plan. The survey results show that the sensitivity to supply security is on par with price, with the emission sensitivity being slightly weaker. The modelling results show potential 10% reduction in critical peak load for aggregate voluntary demand response. - Highlights: {yields} Multiple-factor behaviour intervention is necessarily for effective residential demand response. {yields} Security signals can achieve result comparable to price. {yields} The modelling results show potential 10% reduction in critical peak load for aggregate voluntary demand response. {yields} New Zealand's energy policy should include innovation and development of VDR programmes and technologies.

  10. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  11. Locational specialization of retail trade functions in Warszawa

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Chudzynska

    1981-01-01

    The concentric-belt spatial structure of retail trade in Warszawa (Warsaw) in 1970 and the four-level hierarchy of retail trade functions are determined and analysed, and a comparison made of the spatial distributions of the retail trade and of demand.

  12. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    generation and load forecasts, network topology and market price signals as inputs, limits of network voltages, line power flows, transformer loading and demand response dynamics as constraints to find the required demand response at each time step. The proposed method can be used by the DSOs to purchase...... the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system...

  13. Multi-Objective Demand Response Model Considering the Probabilistic Characteristic of Price Elastic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR programs provide an effective approach for dealing with the challenge of wind power output fluctuations. Given that uncertain DR, such as price elastic load (PEL, plays an important role, the uncertainty of demand response behavior must be studied. In this paper, a multi-objective stochastic optimization problem of PEL is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the relationship between price elasticity and probabilistic characteristic, which is about stochastic demand models for consumer loads. The analysis aims to improve the capability of accommodating wind output uncertainty. In our approach, the relationship between the amount of demand response and interaction efficiency is developed by actively participating in power grid interaction. The probabilistic representation and uncertainty range of the PEL demand response amount are formulated differently compared with those of previous research. Based on the aforementioned findings, a stochastic optimization model with the combined uncertainties from the wind power output and the demand response scenario is proposed. The proposed model analyzes the demand response behavior of PEL by maximizing the electricity consumption satisfaction and interaction benefit satisfaction of PEL. Finally, a case simulation on the provincial power grid with a 151-bus system verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed mechanism and models.

  14. Strategic Demand-Side Response to Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraeepour, Ali; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of allowing large, price-responsive consumers to provide reserves in a power system with significant penetration of wind energy. A bilevel optimization model represents the utility maximization problem of a large consumer, subject to a stochastic day-ahead co-optim...

  15. A Bayesian Combination Forecasting Model for Retail Supply Chain Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailing plays an important part in modern economic development, and supply chain coordination is the research focus in retail operations management. This paper reviews the collaborative forecasting process within the framework of the collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment of retail supply chain. A Bayesian combination forecasting model is proposed to integrate multiple forecasting resources and coordinate forecasting processes among partners in the retail supply chain. Based on simulation results for retail sales, the effectiveness of this combination forecasting model is demonstrated for coordinating the collaborative forecasting processes, resulting in an improvement of demand forecasting accuracy in the retail supply chain.

  16. Fatigued and dissatisfied or fatigued but satisfied? Goal orientations and responses to high job demands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Janssen, O.

    2002-01-01

    The present study tested dispositional goal orientation as an explanation for variation in responses to high job demands. Survey data from 322 university employees demonstrated that job demands were positively related to fatigue, for all combinations of goal orientation. In line with our main

  17. Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; Aarnoudse, CC; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, Gysbertus; Mulder, Lambertus

    Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children A psychofysiological study of the cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding reaction time tasks demonstrated that children with a lesser variant of the pervasive developmental disorder (DSM-IV: PDDNOS) exhibit less

  18. The value of online information for demand response in Walrasian electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Claessen (Felix); B.J. Liefers (Bart); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSmart energy systems integrate renewables and demand response. Most European electricity markets coordinate the resulting time-varying flexibility in demand and supply by organising day-ahead trade with Walrasian mechanisms, using simultaneous call auctions and sealed bids. These

  19. The Effects of Application of Lean Concept in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and techniques can be successfully applied in the retail sector. In the retail sector, lean approach improves operational flows. Lean retail encourages manufacturers to produce standard products in accordance with the created (placed orders from retailers pursuant to the demand of their consumers. Characteristics of the retail market are: strong competition, shorter product life cycle, longer product development time and high sensitivity of demand. In order to be more competitive and profitable today's retailers operate strategically oriented to lower prices and gain exemption from holding unnecessary stocks. Lean retail is an example of best practices of successful operational strategies which management need to accept - to maximize the operating efficiency of the retail process.

  20. How task demands shape brain responses to visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Tanja Maria; Tempelmann, Claus; Noesselt, Toemme

    2017-06-01

    Several previous imaging studies have aimed at identifying the neural basis of visual food cue processing in humans. However, there is little consistency of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results across studies. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this variability across studies might - at least in part - be caused by the different tasks employed. In particular, we assessed directly the influence of task set on brain responses to food stimuli with fMRI using two tasks (colour vs. edibility judgement, between-subjects design). When participants judged colour, the left insula, the left inferior parietal lobule, occipital areas, the left orbitofrontal cortex and other frontal areas expressed enhanced fMRI responses to food relative to non-food pictures. However, when judging edibility, enhanced fMRI responses to food pictures were observed in the superior and middle frontal gyrus and in medial frontal areas including the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results indicates that task sets can significantly alter the neural underpinnings of food cue processing. We propose that judging low-level visual stimulus characteristics - such as colour - triggers stimulus-related representations in the visual and even in gustatory cortex (insula), whereas discriminating abstract stimulus categories activates higher order representations in both the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2897-2912, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  2. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  3. Hierarchical Control Architecture for Demand Response in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    , a number of issues, including DR enabling technologies, control strategy, and control architecture, are still under discussion. This paper outlines novel control requirements based on the categorization of existing DR techniques. More specifically, the roles and responsibilities of smart grid actors...... effective tool for optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need for new infrastructure investment. Furthermore, most of the power networks are under the process of reconfiguration to realize the concept of smart grid and are at the transforming stage to support various forms of DR. However...

  4. How price responsive is the demand for specialty care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Kavee, Andrew L; Olsen, Maren K

    2012-08-01

    Outpatient visit co-payments have increased in recent years. We estimate the patient response to a price change for specialty care, based on a co-payment increase from $15 to $50 per visit for veterans with hypertension. A retrospective cohort of veterans required to pay co-payments was compared with veterans exempt from co-payments whose nonequivalence was reduced via propensity score matching. Specialty care expenditures in 2000-2003 were estimated via a two-part mixed model to account for the correlation of the use and level outcomes over time, and results from this correlated two-part model were compared with an uncorrelated two-part model and a correlated random intercept two-part mixed model. A $35 specialty visit co-payment increase had no impact on the likelihood of seeking specialty care but induced lower specialty expenditures over time among users who were required to pay co-payments. The log ratio of price responsiveness (semi-elasticity) for specialty care increased from -0.25 to -0.31 after the co-payment increase. Estimates were similar across the three models. A significant increase in specialty visit co-payments reduced specialty expenditures among patients obtaining medications at the Veterans Affairs medical centers. Longitudinal expenditure analysis may be improved using recent advances in two-part model methods. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilcox, Edmund [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  6. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    boilers for grid integration are investigated: single mass model (with uniform temperature inside tank) and two mass model (with ideal single stratified layers). In order to investigate the influence of demand response and grid voltage quality with the measurable parameter of electrical boiler in practice......, selection of a proper model is equally important. The results obtained from comparison of two models (when input to the model is thermal energy demand) are present with their significance and advantages for grid integration and demand response. Models mathematics are shown in detail with the validation...

  7. Demand Response Integration Through Agent-Based Coordination of Consumers in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Ma, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Power Plant design that is able to balance the demand of energy-intensive, industrial loads with the supply situation in the electricity grid. The proposed Virtual Power Plant design uses a novel inter-agent, multi-objective, multi-issue negotiation mechanism, to coordinate the electricity demands...... of industrial loads. Coordination happens in response to Demand Response events, while considering local objectives in the industrial domain. We illustrate the applicability of our approach on a Virtual Power Plant scenario with three simulated greenhouses. The results suggest that the proposed design is able...

  8. The impact of residential demand response on the costs of a fossil-free system reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Balyk, Olexandr; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    to contribute to determining the least-cost options for regulation in a fossil-free power system. We extend an existing energy system model with demand response and reserve modelling and analyse the impact for the case of Denmark in 2035 to reflect a system based on renewable resources for electricity......In order to achieve a better understanding of the system value of residential demand response, we study the potential impact of flexible demand on the costs of system reserves in a fossil-free electricity supply. Comparing these costs with traditional means of regulation our analysis aims...

  9. Marketing solutions for Romanian retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the consumer goods market raises important and complex issues for all retail companies. Under increasingly strong competition, Romanian retail businesses need to solve outstanding issues regarding the integration in market mechanisms, the diagnose of problems faced in the competitive environment, the initiation and development of business or the determination of any activity’s feasibility. Furthermore, being employed in a direct relationship with market demand, retailers must permanently know and follow its requirements and demands, phenomenon requiring multiple researches, studies and analysis.

  10. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  11. Demand Response Programs Design and Use Considering Intensive Penetration of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Faria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Further improvements in demand response programs implementation are needed in order to take full advantage of this resource, namely for the participation in energy and reserve market products, requiring adequate aggregation and remuneration of small size resources. The present paper focuses on SPIDER, a demand response simulation that has been improved in order to simulate demand response, including realistic power system simulation. For illustration of the simulator’s capabilities, the present paper is proposes a methodology focusing on the aggregation of consumers and generators, providing adequate tolls for the demand response program’s adoption by evolved players. The methodology proposed in the present paper focuses on a Virtual Power Player that manages and aggregates the available demand response and distributed generation resources in order to satisfy the required electrical energy demand and reserve. The aggregation of resources is addressed by the use of clustering algorithms, and operation costs for the VPP are minimized. The presented case study is based on a set of 32 consumers and 66 distributed generation units, running on 180 distinct operation scenarios.

  12. The Role of Demand Response in Reducing Water-Related Power Plant Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Brinkman, G.; Zhou, E.; O'Connell, M.; Newmark, R. L.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The electric sector depends on readily available water supplies for reliable and efficient operation. Elevated water temperatures or low water levels can trigger regulatory or plant-level decisions to curtail power generation, which can affect system cost and reliability. In the past decade, dozens of power plants in the U.S. have curtailed generation due to water temperatures and water shortages. Curtailments occur during the summer, when temperatures are highest and there is greatest demand for electricity. Climate change could alter the availability and temperature of water resources, exacerbating these issues. Constructing alternative cooling systems to address vulnerabilities can be capital intensive and can also affect power plant efficiencies. Demand response programs are being implemented by electric system planners and operators to reduce and shift electricity demands from peak usage periods to other times of the day. Demand response programs can also play a role in reducing water-related power sector vulnerabilities during summer months. Traditionally, production cost modeling and demand response analyses do not include water resources. In this effort, we integrate an electricity production cost modeling framework with water-related impacts on power plants in a test system to evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on power system costs and reliability. Specifically, we i) quantify the cost and reliability implications of incorporating water resources into production cost modeling, ii) evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on reducing system costs and vulnerabilities, and iii) consider sensitivity analyses with cooling systems to highlight a range of potential benefits of demand response measures. Impacts from climate change on power plant performance and water resources are discussed. Results provide key insights to policymakers and practitioners for reducing water-related power plant vulnerabilities via lower cost methods.

  13. Demand effects on positive response distortion by police officer applicants on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T; Call, Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Understanding and detecting response distortion is important in the high-demand circumstances of personnel selection. In this article, we describe positive response distortion on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) among police officer applicants under high and low demand conditions. Positive response distortion primarily reflected denial/minimization of Neuroticism and accentuation of traits associated with moralistic bias (Agreeableness and Conscientiousness). Validity of the NEO PI-R research validity scale, Positive Presentation Management, was weakly supported with respect to the Neuroticism domain only. Results will be useful in interpreting personality inventory results in the police personnel selection process.

  14. Corporate social responsibility in China: an analysis of domestic and foreign retailers' sustainability dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Hong, P.; van Dolen, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, a sizeable body of literature has built up on the concept and characteristics of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Western countries, where it has also been referred to as sustainability. More recently, attention has grown for CSR in emerging countries. Remarkably, China

  15. Approaches for Accommodating Demand Response in Operational Problems and Assessing its Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh

    welfare value it generates by reducing overall power system operation costs, and the commercial value it can accrue by participating in competitive electricity markets. Social welfare value provides an indicator of the viability of any new power system resource, but does not guarantee that the necessary...... in this thesis that the value offered by demand response is very low under current power system conditions, and when it is restricted to operating within existing operational frameworks. Prices and costs on the studied power systems are insufficient to allow demand response to generate significant value......This thesis deals with the development of operational models of demand response and the evaluation of this novel resource within existing frameworks for power system dispatch and market clearing. Increasing shares of power generation from variable renewable sources, and climate change policies...

  16. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Price, Phillip N.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-17

    We present methods for analyzing commercial and industrial facility 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building managers to better understand their facility's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to ask the right questions to discover opportunities for demand response, energy efficiency, electricity waste elimination, and peak load management. We primarily focus on demand response. Methods discussed include graphical representations of electric load data, a regression-based electricity load model that uses a time-of-week indicator variable and a piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence, and the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads and demand response behavior. In the future, these methods could be translated into easy-to-use tools for building managers.

  17. Demand response pilot event conducted August 2,2011 : summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Donald; Evans, Christoper

    2012-01-01

    Energy management in a commercial facility can be segregated into two areas: energy efficiency and demand response (DR). Energy efficiency focuses on steady-state load minimization. Demand response reduces load for event driven periods during the peak load. Demand-response-driven changes in electricity use are designed to be short-term in nature, centered on critical hours during the day when demand is high or when the electricity supplier's reserve margins are low. Due to the recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 745, Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets the potential annual compensation to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) from performing DR ranges from $300K to $2,400K. While the current energy supply contract does not offer any compensation for participating in DR, there is benefit in understanding the issues and potential value in performing a DR event. This Report will be helpful in upcoming energy supply contract negotiations to quantify the energy savings and power reduction potential from DR at SNL. On August 25, 2011 the Facilities Management and Operations Center (FMOC) performed the first DR pilot event at SNL/NM. This report describes the details and results of this DR event.

  18. Grocery retail dynamics and store choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In response to maturing markets and declining growth, retailers in Europe and the United States alike have been forced to rethink their business. In this dissertation, two recent phenomena are studied that are increasingly being used by retailers in response to this trend: store acquisitions and

  19. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  20. A fuzzy chance-constrained program for unit commitment problem considering demand response, electric vehicle and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    commitment model is proposed in this paper considering demand response and electric vehicles, which can promote the exploitation of wind power. On the one hand, demand response and electric vehicles have the feasi- bility to change the load demand curve to solve the mismatch problem. On the other hand...... system operation more eco-friendly and economical....

  1. 2008-2010 Research Summary: Analysis of Demand Response Opportunities in California Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the work of the Industrial Demand Response (DR) Team of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) from 2008-2010, in the context of its mandate to conduct and disseminate research that broadens the knowledge base of DR strategies, with a focus on the Industrial-Agricultural-Water (IAW) sector. Through research and case studies of industrial sectors and entities, the DRRC-IAW Team continued to assimilate knowledge on the feasibility of industrial DR strategies with an emphasis on technical and economic evaluation and worked to encourage implementation of these strategies.

  2. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  3. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to properly operate the hybrid microgrid. These batteries increase the system cost, require proper operation and maintenance, and have been shown to be unreliable in case studies on hybrid microgrids. This work examines the impacts of leveraging demand response in a hybrid microgrid in lieu of energy storage. The study is performed by simulating two different hybrid diesel generator—PV microgrid topologies, one with a single diesel generator and one with multiple paralleled diesel generators, for a small residential neighborhood with varying levels of demand response. Various system designs are considered and the optimal design, based on cost of energy, is presented for each level of demand response. The solar resources, performance of solar PV source, performance of diesel generators, costs of system components, maintenance, and operation are modeled and simulated at a time interval of ten minutes over a twenty-five year period for both microgrid topologies. Results are quantified through cost of energy, diesel fuel requirements, and utilization of the energy sources under varying levels of demand response. The results indicate that a moderate level of demand response can have significant positive impacts to the operation of hybrid microgrids through reduced energy cost, fuel consumption, and increased utilization of PV sources.

  4. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  5. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing

  6. Agility in consumer retail: Sense-Response Alignment through the eyes of customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Atapattu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In hyper competition, firms that are agile: sensing and responding better to customer requirements tend to be more successful and achieve supernormal profits. In spite of the widely accepted importance of customer agility, research is limited on this construct. The limited research also has predominantly focussed on the firm’s perspective of agility. However, we propose that the customers are better positioned to determine how well a firm is responding to their requirements (aka a firm’s customer agility. Taking the customers’ stand point, we address the issue of sense and respond alignment in two perspectives-matching and mediating. Based on data collected from customers in a field study, we tested hypothesis pertaining to the two methods of alignment using polynomial regression and response surface methodology. The results provide a good explanation for the role of both forms of alignment on customer satisfaction. Implication for research and practice are discussed.

  7. The factors of retail brand positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the basic characteristics of a retail process as a function of the development of a successful brand. The retail network is continuously progressing, developing its abilities, successfully adjusting to its environment, and which is the most important it is persistently following wishes and needs of its consumers, and is satisfying them through high-quality offers. The retail network is relatively a new business structure, which has a great potential for competitive advantage. Once, prestigious partners to retailers, which have represented successful brands, they are often perceived to be stripped of rank and to come back at the level of common suppliers. Also, the suppliers' brands have no longer the position as they had, their status has decreased and their former power is gone, as a more superior, compared to the retailers. The inertia, enjoying 'the old glory', thinking in the manner of the same well-established formula as well as the inability to adjust themselves to the changes occurring among consumers have led the majority of the brands to be stuck in the past. The companies have to stop this increasing phenomenon, if they do not want to face in the near future, even more dramatic and more harmful consequences. Since the main aim of the research, performed in this work, was to determine the importance of retail brand positioning, the retail environment was analyzed, with special emphases on the consumer role in retail, and factors of successful retail activities. As a special aspect of successful retail, the environment of retail place was determined and within this, the effects of the retail places' atmosphere. For setting the retail strategy framework, the following basic entities are observed: product, price, exclusivity, quick response, information technology, price strategy, logistics and competitiveness. .

  8. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains ...... loyalty, supermarket type and ownership structure is studied. The relationship between results after taxes and customer loyalty is documented.......Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...... in other countries, e.g. in the Scandinavian countries. This development will demand even more focus on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in order to stay in business and may also demand that existing actors on the market place form new coalitions. Promising new partners may be identified, partly...

  9. Residential Demand Response of Thermostatically Controlled Loads Using Batch Reinforcement Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruelens, F; Claessens, BJ; Vandael, S; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Babuska, R.; Belmans, R

    2017-01-01

    Driven by recent advances in batch Reinforcement Learning (RL), this paper contributes to the application of batch RL to demand response. In contrast to conventional model-based approaches, batch RL techniques do not require a system identification step, making them more suitable for a large-scale

  10. Universities Response to Oil and Gas Industry Demands in South Texas (USA) and Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of hydrocarbons for this area, the purpose of this paper is to explore the response of universities to cope with new demands in the south of Texas and Tamaulipas, especially in relation to gas plays of Eagle Ford (Texas side) and Burgos Basin (Mexican side). To accomplish this task, in the first section of the paper a broad…

  11. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... (RTOs) \\2\\ with tariff provisions allowing demand response \\3\\ resources \\4\\ to participate in wholesale... (March 29, 2010), 130 FERC ] 61,213 (March 18, 2010). \\2\\ The following RTOs and ISOs have organized... energy markets, i.e., the day-ahead and real-time markets administered by ISOs and RTOs. Under the...

  12. Flexibility dynamics in clusters of residential demand response and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, P.A.; Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.; Roossien, B.

    2013-01-01

    Supply and demand response is a untapped resource in the current electrical system. However little work has been done to investigate the dynamics of utilizing such flexibility as well as the potential effects it could have on the infrastructure. This paper provides a starting point to seeing the

  13. Impact of Competition on Quality of Service in Demand Responsive Transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenboers, F.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Zargayouna, M.

    2010-01-01

    Demand responsive transportation has the potential to provide efficient public door-to-door transport with a high quality. In currently implemented systems in the Netherlands, however, we observe a decrease in the quality of service (QoS), expressed in longer travel times for the customers.

  14. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... ] 61,253, at P 19 and n.23 (2009) (``The Smart Grid concept envisions a power system architecture that... compensation structures, the Commission is concerned that some existing, inadequate compensation structures... pricing structures, before they will make an investment in demand response.'' \\31\\ Some participants have...

  15. Design and Co-simulation of Hierarchical Architecture for Demand Response Control and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Lévesque, Martin; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Demand response (DR) plays a key role for optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need of new infrastructure investment. However, coordinated execution of multiple DRs is desired to maximize the DR benefits. In this study, we propose a hierarchical DR architecture (HDRA) to control an...

  16. Demands on Attention and the Role of Response Priming in Visual Discrimination of Feature Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Lisa R.; Herbert, Rhonda J.; Farris, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how response mapping of features within single- and multiple-feature targets affects decision-based processing and attentional capacity demands. Observers judged the presence or absence of 1 or 2 target features within an object either presented alone or with distractors. Judging the presence of 2 features relative to the less…

  17. 49 CFR 37.189 - Service requirement for OTRB demand-responsive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.189 Service requirement... business of transporting people, whose operations affect commerce, and that provide demand-responsive OTRB... who needs an accessible bus, or someone who later buys a seat in the block of seats the group has...

  18. Automated Price and Demand Response Demonstration for Large Customers in New York City using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-10-01

    Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), an XML-based information exchange model, is used to facilitate continuous price-responsive operation and demand response participation for large commercial buildings in New York who are subject to the default day-ahead hourly pricing. We summarize the existing demand response programs in New York and discuss OpenADR communication, prioritization of demand response signals, and control methods. Building energy simulation models are developed and field tests are conducted to evaluate continuous energy management and demand response capabilities of two commercial buildings in New York City. Preliminary results reveal that providing machine-readable prices to commercial buildings can facilitate both demand response participation and continuous energy cost savings. Hence, efforts should be made to develop more sophisticated algorithms for building control systems to minimize customer's utility bill based on price and reliability information from the electricity grid.

  19. Residential Demand Response Behaviour Modeling applied to Cyber-physical Intrusion Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Tyge, Emil; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    be identified and how the characterization can be updated continuously. Finally, we propose an approach to apply this behaviour characterization to the identification of anomalous and potentially malicious behaviour modifications as part of a cyber-physical intrusion detection mechanism.......A real-time demand response system can be viewed as a cyber-physical system, with physical systems dependent on cyber infrastructure for coordination and control, which may be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The time domain dynamic behaviour of individual residential demand responses is governed...... by a mix of physical system parameters, exogenous influences, user behaviour and preferences, which can be characterized by unstructured models such as a time-varying finite impulse response. In this study, which is based on field data, it is shown how this characteristic response behaviours can...

  20. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  1. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  2. Impact of Competition on Quality of Service in Demand Responsive Transit

    OpenAIRE

    Grootenboers, F.; De Weerdt, M.M.; ZARGAYOUNA, M

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Demand responsive transportation has the potential to provide efficient public door-to-door transport with a high quality. In currently implemented systems in the Netherlands, however, we observe a decrease in the quality of service (QoS), expressed in longer travel times for the customers. Currently, generally one transport company is responsible for transporting all customers located in a specified geographic zone. In general it is known that when multiple companies ...

  3. Energy Optimization and Management of Demand Response Interactions in a Smart Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework enables innovative power management in smart campuses, integrating local renewable energy sources, battery banks and controllable loads and supporting Demand Response interactions with the electricity grid operators. The paper describes each system component: the Energy Management System responsible for power usage scheduling, the telecommunication infrastructure in charge of data exchanging and the integrated data repository devoted to information storage. We also discuss the relevant use cases and validate the framework in a few deployed demonstrators.

  4. Demand Response Potential for California SubLAPs and Local Capacity Planning Areas: An Addendum to the 2025 California Demand Response Potential Study – Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, Laurel N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stensson, Sofia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Szinai, Julia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The 2025 California Demand Response Potential Study Phase 2 Report1 was released on March 1, 2017, and described a range of pathways for Demand Response (DR) to support a clean, stable, and cost-effective electric grid for California. One of the Report’s key findings was that while there appears to be very low future value for untargeted DR Shed aimed at system-wide peak load conditions, there could be significant value for locally focused Shed resources. Although the dynamics of renewable capacity expansion have reduced the pressure to build new thermal generation in general, there are still transmission-constrained areas of the state where load growth needs to be managed with the addition of new local capacity, which could include DERs and/or DR. This Addendum to the Phase 2 Report presents a breakdown of the expected future “Local Shed” DR potential at a finer geographic resolution than what is available in the original report, with results summarized by SubLAP and Local Capacity Area (LCA).

  5. An Economic Customer-Oriented Demand Response Model in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choice theory is a branch of microeconomics. This theory relates to adjusting consumption expenditures and consumer demand curve. Consumer choice science is trying to realize the buyer's decision-making process. This science studies customer characteristics, such as behavioral criteria...... demand response (DR) models have been developed based on this concept, this will also be deemed as a disadvantage for them. In this paper, we propose an economic DR model based on economic theories and mathematical methods. In addition to abate the defects of price-elasticity based DR models...

  6. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  7. Occupancy-based demand response and thermal comfort optimization in microgrids with renewable energy sources and energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkas, C; Baldi, S.; Michailidis, I; Kosmatopoulos, EB

    2016-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources in microgrids can be achieved via demand response programs, which change the electric usage in response to changes in the availability and price of electricity over time. This paper presents a novel control algorithm for joint demand response management and

  8. Effect of Response Reduction Factor on Peak Floor Acceleration Demand in Mid-Rise RC Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Mitesh; Singh, Yogendra; Lang, Dominik H.

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of Peak Floor Acceleration (PFA) demand along the height of a building is crucial for the seismic safety of nonstructural components. The effect of the level of inelasticity, controlled by the response reduction factor (strength ratio), is studied using incremental dynamic analysis. A total of 1120 nonlinear dynamic analyses, using a suite of 30 recorded ground motion time histories, are performed on mid-rise reinforced-concrete (RC) moment-resisting frame buildings covering a wide range in terms of their periods of vibration. The obtained PFA demands are compared with some of the major national seismic design and retrofit codes (IS 1893 draft version, ASCE 41, EN 1998, and NZS 1170.4). It is observed that the PFA demand at the building's roof level decreases with increasing period of vibration as well as with strength ratio. However, current seismic building codes do not account for these effects thereby producing very conservative estimates of PFA demands. Based on the identified parameters affecting the PFA demand, a model to obtain the PFA distribution along the height of a building is proposed. The proposed model is validated with spectrum-compatible time history analyses of the considered buildings with different strength ratios.

  9. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  10. The Activity Demands and Physiological Responses Encountered During Basketball Match-Play: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Emilija; Stojiljković, Nenad; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Milanović, Zoran

    2018-01-01

    Basketball is a popular, court-based team sport that has been extensively studied over the last decade. The purpose of this article was to provide a systematic review regarding the activity demands and physiological responses experienced during basketball match-play according to playing period, playing position, playing level, geographical location, and sex. An electronic database search of relevant articles published prior to 30 September 2016 was performed with PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, SCIndex, and ScienceDirect. Studies that measured activity demands and/or physiological responses during basketball match-play were included. Following screening, 25 articles remained for review. During live playing time across 40-min matches, male and female basketball players travel 5-6 km at average physiological intensities above lactate threshold and 85% of maximal heart rate (HR). Temporal comparisons show a reduction in vigorous activities in the fourth quarter, likely contributing to lower blood lactate concentrations and HR responses evident towards the end of matches. Guards tend to perform a higher percentage of live playing time sprinting and performing high-intensity shuffling compared with forwards and centers. Guards also perform less standing and walking during match-play compared with forwards and centers. Variations in activity demands likely account for the higher blood lactate concentrations and HR responses observed for guards compared with forwards and centers. Furthermore, higher-level players perform a greater intermittent workload than lower-level players. Moreover, geographical differences may exist in the activity demands (distance and frequency) and physiological responses between Australian, African, and European basketball players, whereby Australian players sustain greater workloads. While activity demands and physiological data vary across playing positions, playing levels, and geographical locations, male and female players competing

  11. Do exporting firms benefit from retail internationalization? Evidence from France

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Emlinger, Charlotte; Latouche, Karine

    2015-01-01

    We explore the link between globalization of the retail sector and the export activity of firms from their origin country. In a previous paper (Cheptea et al., 2015), we showed that exporting firms from countries with internationalized retail companies benefit more from this process than firms from other countries. Two mechanisms can explain this effect: a trade cost advantage for retailers' domestic suppliers, or a shift in foreign demand from which benefit all origin country firms. In this ...

  12. Travel Distance and Market Size in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the process of change in urban systems, specifically the changes in the relationships between urban transportation and food retail distribution activities. The dynamic properties of food retailing and transportation systems are identified by tracing location patterns of food stores in Seattle, Washington. Increases in travel demand due to food shopping trips are estimated based on changes in spatial arrangement of food retail activities over the past 50 years. The study ...

  13. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents a load optimization method to time......-of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation....

  14. Hierarchical control framework for integrated coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Lian, Jianming; Sun, Yannan; Yang, Tao; Hansen, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Demand response is representing a significant but largely untapped resource that can greatly enhance the flexibility and reliability of power systems. In this paper, a hierarchical control framework is proposed to facilitate the integrated coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response. The proposed framework consists of coordination and device layers. In the coordination layer, various resource aggregations are optimally coordinated in a distributed manner to achieve the system-level objectives. In the device layer, individual resources are controlled in real time to follow the optimal power generation or consumption dispatched from the coordination layer. For the purpose of practical applications, a method is presented to determine the utility functions of controllable loads by taking into account the real-time load dynamics and the preferences of individual customers. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is validated by detailed simulation studies.

  15. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    operators, utilities and consumers must adopt strategies and methods to take full advantage of demand response and distributed generation. This requires that all the involved players consider all the market opportunities, as the case of energy and reserve components of electricity markets. The present paper...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...... the probability of actually using the reserve and the distribution network constraints. Its application is illustrated in this paper using a 32-bus distribution network with 66 DG units and 218 consumers classified into 6 types of consumers....

  16. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh......The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...

  17. Evaluation and assessment of demand response potential applied to the meat industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar Ortega, Manuel; Álvarez Bel, Carlos María; Escrivá Escrivá, Guillermo; Domijan, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Demand response has proven to be a useful mechanism that produces important benefits for both the customer and the power system. In the context of an increasingly competitive electricity market, where prices are constantly rising and the presence of renewable energy resources is gaining prominence, this paper analyzes the flexibility potential of customers in the meat industry, based on the management of the most energy consuming process in this type of segment: cooling production...

  18. Distribution transformer lifetime analysis in the presence of demand response and rooftop PV integration

    OpenAIRE

    Behi Behnaz; Arefi Ali; Pezeshki Houman; Shahnia Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Many distribution transformers have already exceeded half of their expected service life of 35 years in the infrastructure of Western Power, the electric distribution company supplying southwest of Western Australia, Australia. Therefore, it is anticipated that a high investment on transformer replacement happens in the near future. However, high renewable integration and demand response (DR) are promising resources to defer the investment on infrastructure upgrade and extend the lifetime of ...

  19. Demand Response Management For Power Throttling Air Conditioning Loads In Residential Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Yawar Ismail; Hassan, Naveed Ul; Yuen, Chau; Huang, Shisheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop an algorithm for peak load reduction to reduce the impact of increased air conditioner usage in a residential smart grid community. We develop Demand Response Management (DRM) plans that clearly spell out the maximum duration as well as maximum severity of inconvenience. We model the air conditioner as a power throttling device and for any given DRM plan we study the impact of increasing the number of power states on the resulting peak load reduction. Through simulati...

  20. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    OpenAIRE

    White, David

    2016-01-01

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated w...

  1. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-09-10

    This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

  2. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  3. Analysis of Open Automated Demand Response Deployments in California and Guidelines to Transition to Industry Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Riess, David; Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-02

    This report reviews the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) deployments within the territories serviced by California?s investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and the transition from the OpenADR 1.0 specification to the formal standard?OpenADR 2.0. As demand response service providers and customers start adopting OpenADR 2.0, it is necessary to ensure that the existing Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) infrastructure investment continues to be useful and takes advantage of the formal standard and its many benefits. This study focused on OpenADR deployments and systems used by the California IOUs and included a summary of the OpenADR deployment from the U.S. Department of Energy-funded demonstration conducted by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected and analyzed data about OpenADR 1.0 deployments, categorized architectures, developed a data model mapping to understand the technical compatibility of each version, and compared the capabilities and features of the two specifications. The findings, for the first time, provided evidence of the total enabled load shed and average first cost for system enablement in the IOU and SMUD service territories. The OpenADR 2.0a profile specification semantically supports AutoDR system architectures and data propagation with a testing and certification program that promotes interoperability, scaled deployments by multiple vendors, and provides additional features that support future services.

  4. Indian Organized Retail Sector: Impediments and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The winds of globalization have yielded rich dividends to the social and economic growth of India. The boom in Indian market has widened the horizons for the customers to be selective while purchasing any product. On the other hand, the sellers are more proactive in facilitating their customers’ quality services and cater to their growing demands. There is a paradigm shift in the customer’s perception and purchasing tendencies. The traditional shops and shopkeepers are now being slowly but gradually replaced by big/mini retail stores (shopping malls and retailers (top corporate houses. Indian consumers are evolving and accepting modern retail formats. In the context of Indian retail sectors, Big Bazaar, More, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, ITC's e-choupal Reliance Retail Ltd, Vishal Mega Mart, Titan Industries, Archies, Bata India Ltd etc. are dominating the scene and have a wide spread network to execute their operation. The present paper is an attempt to study impediment and opportunities related to organized retailing in India.

  5. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  6. Understanding consumer's responses to negative emotions related to crowding on satisfaction and impulse purchase in retail: the mediating role of coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.

  7. Approaches to Enable Demand Response by Industrial Loads for Ancillary Services Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    Demand response has gained significant attention in recent years as it demonstrates potentials to enhance the power system's operational flexibility in a cost-effective way. Industrial loads such as aluminum smelters, steel manufacturers, and cement plants demonstrate advantages in supporting power system operation through demand response programs, because of their intensive power consumption, already existing advanced monitoring and control infrastructure, and the strong economic incentive due to the high energy costs. In this thesis, we study approaches to efficiently integrate each of these types of manufacturing processes as demand response resources. The aluminum smelting process is able to change its power consumption both accurately and quickly by controlling the pots' DC voltage, without affecting the production quality. Hence, an aluminum smelter has both the motivation and the ability to participate in demand response. First, we focus on determining the optimal regulation capacity that such a manufacturing plant should provide. Next, we focus on determining its optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and ancillary services markets. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in steel manufacturing consume a large amount of electric energy. However, a steel plant can take advantage of time-based electricity prices by optimally arranging energy-consuming activities to avoid peak hours. We first propose scheduling methods that incorporate the EAFs' flexibilities to reduce the electricity cost. We then propose methods to make the computations more tractable. Finally, we extend the scheduling formulations to enable the provision of spinning reserve. Cement plants are able to quickly adjust their power consumption rate by switching on/off the crushers. However, switching on/off the loading units only achieves discrete power changes, which restricts the load from offering valuable ancillary services such as regulation and load following, as continuous power changes

  8. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  9. Going Shopping in the 1990s: Retailing Enters the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Terry R.

    1983-01-01

    Tomorrow's marketplace will undergo many changes, triggered by new technologies, new products to sell, and the demands of increasingly sophisticated consumers. Growth will be especially strong for off-price retail outlets, discount department stores, specialized mass merchandisers, and specialty stores with specific clienteles. Retailers must plan…

  10. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  11. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  12. Demand Response Control in Low Voltage Grids for Technical and Commercial Aggregation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Szczesny, Ireneusz; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    . In this way, a system operator playing a role of an aggregator not only could trade flexible demand in the power markets but also materialize its energy agreements while ensuring the local network security and reliability. To verify the effectiveness of this extended method, a Danish low voltage networks...... hand, some of those represent a source of flexibility which can be used to satisfy different technical and commercial purposes. This paper introduces an upgraded hierarchical structure which aims to serve as a platform for activating and controlling the demand response in low voltage networks...... is considered. The results show that it is possible to fulfill energy commitments in energy markets such as the regulation power market while respecting the proper network operation. However, the activation of the flexibility offered might be limited depending on the network characteristics and the season...

  13. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    , the proposed DCPs are able to reflect the real congestion cost and further direct the schedule of the responses of electric demands. Based on the NordPool Spot market structure, the interactions between aggregators and the distribution system operator (DSO) are discussed, and the procedure for calculating DCPs......With the development of smart grid technologies, some of the electric demands which are traditionally considered fixed and inflexible will become promising distributed energy resources (DERs) in future power systems. However, the participation of small scale or household energy sources...... into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model...

  14. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  15. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  16. On the measurement of retail marketing mix effects in the presence of different economic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis study deals with the measurement of the effects of retail marketing instruments on annual sales in retail stores. We assume that the sales level in retail stores is determined by an interplay of supply capacity and demand factors. In some stores sales are supply-determined, whereas

  17. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  18. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....

  19. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota.

  20. Demand Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot E. Combs

    2017-01-01

    Price elasticity shows the responsiveness of demand to changes in price. Negative price elasticity of demand (PED) signifies the inverse relationship between price and demand. According to the equation, PED is -1.19 for widgets, which means that an increase in price of $1 would result in a contraction of demand of $1.19. Since the change in price corresponds with a more than proportionate change in demand, PED is said to be elastic. As a result, an increase in price would discourage consumers...

  1. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  2. Response demands and the recruitment of heuristic strategies in syllogistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Rusconi, Patrice; Paulesu, Eraldo; Cherubini, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments investigated whether dealing with a homogeneous subset of syllogisms with time-constrained responses encouraged participants to develop and use heuristics for abstract (Experiment 1) and thematic (Experiment 2) syllogisms. An atmosphere-based heuristic accounted for most responses with both abstract and thematic syllogisms. With thematic syllogisms, a weaker effect of a belief heuristic was also observed, mainly where the correct response was inconsistent with the atmosphere of the premises. Analytic processes appear to have played little role in the time-constrained condition, whereas their involvement increased in a self-paced, unconstrained condition. From a dual-process perspective, the results further specify how task demands affect the recruitment of heuristic and analytic systems of reasoning. Because the syllogisms and experimental procedure were the same as those used in a previous neuroimaging study by Goel, Buchel, Frith, and Dolan (2000), the result also deepen our understanding of the cognitive processes investigated by that study.

  3. Day-Ahead Scheduling Considering Demand Response as a Frequency Control Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qing Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced metering technologies makes demand response (DR able to provide fast response services, e.g., primary frequency control. It is recognized that DR can contribute to the primary frequency control like thermal generators. This paper proposes a day-ahead scheduling method that considers DR as a frequency control resource, so that the DR resources can be dispatched properly with other resources. In the proposed method, the objective of frequency control is realized by defining a frequency limit equation under a supposed contingency. The frequency response model is used to model the dynamics of system frequency. The nonlinear frequency limit equation is transformed to a linear arithmetic equation by piecewise linearization, so that the problem can be solved by mixed integer linear programming (MILP. Finally, the proposed method is verified on numerical examples.

  4. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  5. Multi-Agent System-Based Microgrid Operation Strategy for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jun Cha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microgrid and demand response (DR are important technologies for future power grids. Among the variety of microgrid operations, the multi-agent system (MAS has attracted considerable attention. In a microgrid with MAS, the agents installed on the microgrid components operate optimally by communicating with each other. This paper proposes an operation algorithm for the individual agents of a test microgrid that consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and an intelligent load. A microgrid central controller to manage the microgrid can exchange information with each agent. The BESS agent performs scheduling for maximum benefit in response to the electricity price and BESS state of charge (SOC through a fuzzy system. The intelligent load agent assumes that the industrial load performs scheduling for maximum benefit by calculating the hourly production cost. The agent operation algorithm includes a scheduling algorithm using day-ahead pricing in the DR program and a real-time operation algorithm for emergency situations using emergency demand response (EDR. The proposed algorithm and operation strategy were implemented both by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test using OPAL-RT and an actual hardware test by connecting a new distribution simulator.

  6. Optimal Ordering and Pricing Policies for Seasonal Products: Impacts of Demand Uncertainty and Capital Constraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinzhao Shi; Richard Y. K. Fung; Ju'e Guo

    2016-01-01

      With a stochastic price-dependent market demand, this paper investigates how demand uncertainty and capital constraint affect retailer's integrated ordering and pricing policies towards seasonal products...

  7. Which retailers adopt a loyalty program? An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines antecedents of retailers’ loyalty program adoption and their perceptions regarding loyalty program effectiveness. The investigated antecedents consists of sector, competitive and demand, and firm characteristics. To test the hypotheses, we surveyed 180 retail companies active in

  8. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings: from a Business Ecosystem Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors...

  9. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Parker, Eric; Bernier, Clark; Young, Paul; Sheehan, Dave; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan

    2009-04-30

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneering demonstration showing that existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as spinning reserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinning reserve as demonstrated in this project will give grid operators at the California Independent System Operator (CA ISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful new tool to improve reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lower grid operating costs.In the first phase of this demonstration project, we target marketed SCE?s air-conditioning (AC) load-cycling program, called the Summer Discount Plan (SDP), to customers on a single SCE distribution feederand developed an external website with real-time telemetry for the aggregated loads on this feeder and conducted a large number of short-duration curtailments of participating customers? air-conditioning units to simulate provision of spinning reserve. In this second phase of the demonstration project, we explored four major elements that would be critical for this demonstration to make the transition to a commercial activity:1. We conducted load curtailments within four geographically distinct feeders to determine the transferability of target marketing approaches and better understand the performance of SCE?s load management dispatch system as well as variations in the AC use of SCE?s participating customers;2. We deployed specialized, near-real-time AC monitoring devices to improve our understanding of the aggregated load curtailments we observe on the feeders;3. We integrated information provided by the AC monitoring devices with information from SCE?s load management dispatch system to measure the time required for each step in the curtailment process; and4. We established connectivity with the CA ISO to explore the steps involved in responding to CA ISO-initiated requests for dispatch of spinning reserve.The major findings from

  10. Energy shift estimation of demand response activation on domestic refrigerators – A field test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Gudmand-Høyer, Kristian; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the amount of energy that can be shifted during demand response (DR) activation on domestic refrigerator. Though there are many methods for DR activation like load reduction, load shifting and onsite generation, the method under study is load shifting....... Electric heating and cooling equipment like refrigerators, water heaters and space heaters and coolers are preferred for such DR activation because of their energy storing capacity. Accurate estimation of available regulating power and energy shift is important to understand the value of DR activation...

  11. Technical Resource Potential of Non-disruptive Residential Demand Response in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, Johanna; Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Sørensen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has one of the most aggressive renewable energy strategies in the world; however, large penetrations of fluctuating renewable energy resources will pose new problems in the Danish power system. Demand response (DR) has the potential to mitigate these problems by providing a new source...... of flexibility. This paper estimates the technical resource potential of residential DR in Denmark. We focus on DR that is non-disruptive to the consumer, meaning that DR actions harness inherent load flexibility and are not noticeable by the consumer. We build on existing methodologies for computing DR...

  12. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  13. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  14. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  15. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  16. Referral service and customer incentive in online retail supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.G. Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an online retail supply chain that includes one referral infomediary and one retailer, in which the infomediary provides demand referral service to retailers and incentive rebates to customers. A linear dual-channel demand with the effect of customer incentive and horizontal service cooperation model was established, and then the optimal policies of infomediary and retailers in centralized and decentralized supply chain were analyzed. Moreover, a horizontal cooperation contract based on customer incentive cost as well as referral service price was developed to coordinate the supply chain. The results revealed that the contract contributed to profit optimization of online retail supply chain and effective win-win cooperation. Finally, we analyze the impact of rebate sensitivity and market share on these optimal policies and illustrate the results by some numerical examples.

  17. A Comparison of Sales Response Predictions From Demand Models Applied to Store-Level versus Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Rick L.; Currim, Imran S.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    In order to generate sales promotion response predictions, marketing analysts estimate demand models using either disaggregated (consumer-level) or aggregated (store-level) scanner data. Comparison of predictions from these demand models is complicated by the fact that models may accommodate

  18. Reversibly pH-responsive polyurethane membranes for on-demand intravaginal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungil; Chen, Yufei; Ho, Emmanuel A; Liu, Song

    2017-01-01

    To provide better protection for women against sexually transmitted infections, on-demand intravaginal drug delivery was attempted by synthesizing reversibly pH-sensitive polyether-polyurethane copolymers using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and 1,4-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine (HEP). Chemical structure and thermo-characteristics of the synthesized polyurethanes were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and melting point testing. Membranes were cast by solvent evaporation method using the prepared pH-sensitive polyurethanes. The impact of varying pH on membrane swelling and surface morphology was evaluated via swelling ratio change and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared pH-responsive membranes showed two times higher swelling ratio at pH 4 than pH 7 and pH-triggered switchable surface morphology change. The anionic anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (NaDF) was used as a model compound for release studies. The prepared pH-responsive polyurethane membranes allowed continuous NaDF release for 24h and around 20% release of total NaDF within 3h at pH 7 but little-to-no drug release at pH 4.5. NaDF permeation across the prepared membranes demonstrated a reversible pH-responsiveness. The pH-responsive polyurethane membranes did not show any noticeable negative impact on vaginal epithelial cell viability or induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to controls. Overall, the non-cytotoxic HEP-based pH-responsive polyurethane demonstrated its potential to be used in membrane-based implants such as intravaginal rings to achieve on-demand "on-and-off" intravaginal drug delivery. A reversible and sharp switch between "off" and "on" drug release is achieved for the first time through new pH-sensitive polyurethane membranes, which can serve as window membranes in reservoir-type intravaginal rings for on-demand drug delivery to prevent sexually

  19. Development and Demonstration of the Open Automated Demand Response Standard for the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Rasin, Josh; Perry, Tim

    2009-11-30

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate a demand response system that can signal nearly every customer in all sectors through the integration of two widely available and non- proprietary communications technologies--Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) over lnternet protocol and Utility Messaging Channel (UMC) over FM radio. The outcomes of this project were as follows: (1) a software bridge to allow translation of pricing signals from OpenADR to UMC; and (2) a portable demonstration unit with an lnternet-connected notebook computer, a portfolio of DR-enabling technologies, and a model home. The demonstration unit provides visitors the opportunity to send electricity-pricing information over the lnternet (through OpenADR and UMC) and then watch as the model appliances and lighting respond to the signals. The integration of OpenADR and UMC completed and demonstrated in this study enables utilities to send hourly or sub-hourly electricity pricing information simultaneously to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors.

  20. Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer; Cappers, Peter

    2017-08-28

    The Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs research describe a variety of DR opportunities and the various bulk power system services they can provide. The bulk power system services are mapped to a generalized taxonomy of DR “service types”, which allows us to discuss DR opportunities and bulk power system services in fewer yet broader categories that share similar technological requirements which mainly drive DR enablement costs. The research presents a framework for the costs to automate DR and provides descriptions of the various elements that drive enablement costs. The report introduces the various DR enabling technologies and end-uses, identifies the various services that each can provide to the grid and provides the cost assessment for each enabling technology. In addition to a report, this research includes a Demand Response Advanced Controls Database and User Manual. They are intended to provide users with the data that underlies this research and instructions for how to use that database more effectively and efficiently.

  1. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  2. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  3. Adaptive support and pressure support ventilation behavior in response to increased ventilatory demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Samir; Sebbane, Mustapha; Verzilli, Daniel; Matecki, Stefan; Wysocki, Marc; Eledjam, Jean-Jacques; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-03-01

    Dual-control modes of ventilation adapt the pressure delivery to keep a volume target in response to changes in respiratory mechanics, but they may respond poorly to changes in ventilatory demand. Adaptive support ventilation (ASV), a complex minute volume-targeted pressure-regulated ventilation, was compared to adaptive pressure ventilation (APV), a dual-mode in which the pressure level is adjusted to deliver a preset tidal volume, and to pressure support ventilation (PSV) when facing an increase in ventilatory demand. A total of 14 intensive care unit patients being weaned off mechanical ventilation were included in this randomized crossover study. The effect of adding a heat-and-moisture exchanger to augment circuit dead space was assessed with a same fixed level of ASV, PSV, and APV. Arterial blood gases, ventilator response, and patient respiratory effort parameters were evaluated at the end of the six periods. Adding dead space significantly increased minute ventilation and PaCO2 values with the three modes. Indexes of respiratory effort (pressure-time index of respiratory muscles and work of breathing) increased with all ventilatory modes after dead-space augmentation. This increase was significantly greater with APV than with PSV or ASV (P ventilator.

  4. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... platforms for providing necessary balancing services, where the market clearing (nodal or zonal prices depending on markets) is very close to real time operations of power systems. One of the primary functions of RTMs in modern power systems is establishing an efficient and effective mechanism for small DER...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This paper...

  5. A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response MarketPotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers,Peter

    2007-08-01

    Demand response (DR) is increasingly recognized as an essential ingredient to well-functioning electricity markets. DR market potential studies can answer questions about the amount of DR available in a given area and from which market segments. Several recent DR market potential studies have been conducted, most adapting techniques used to estimate energy-efficiency (EE) potential. In this scoping study, we: reviewed and categorized seven recent DR market potential studies; recommended a methodology for estimating DR market potential for large, non-residential utility customers that uses price elasticities to account for behavior and prices; compiled participation rates and elasticity values from six DR options offered to large customers in recent years, and demonstrated our recommended methodology with large customer market potential scenarios at an illustrative Northeastern utility. We observe that EE and DR have several important differences that argue for an elasticity approach for large-customer DR options that rely on customer-initiated response to prices, rather than the engineering approaches typical of EE potential studies. Base-case estimates suggest that offering DR options to large, non-residential customers results in 1-3% reductions in their class peak demand in response to prices or incentive payments of $500/MWh. Participation rates (i.e., enrollment in voluntary DR programs or acceptance of default hourly pricing) have the greatest influence on DR impacts of all factors studied, yet are the least well understood. Elasticity refinements to reflect the impact of enabling technologies and response at high prices provide more accurate market potential estimates, particularly when arc elasticities (rather than substitution elasticities) are estimated.

  6. Water Demands with Two Adaptation Responses to Climate Change in a Mexican Irrigation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, W.; Iñiguez-Covarrubias, M.; Rojano, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is well documented that climate change is inevitable and that farmers need to adapt to changes in projected climate. Changes in water demands for a Mexican irrigation district were assessed using an irrigation scheduling model. The impact of two adaptations actions on water demands were estimated and compared with a baseline scenario. Wet and dry cropping plans were selected from the last 15 water years with actual climatology (1961-1990) taken as reference and three A1B climate change projection periods P1, P2 and P3 (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2098). Projected precipitation and air temperature (medium, maximum and minimum) data were obtained through weighted averages of the best CGCM projections for Mexico, available at the IPCC data distribution center, using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging method (REA). Two adaptation farmers' responses were analyzed: use of longer season varieties and reduction of planting dates toward colder season as warming intensifies in the future. An annual accumulated ETo value of 1554 mm was estimated for the base period P0. Cumulative and Daily irrigations demands were generated for each agricultural season using the four climate projection series and considering adaptations actions. Figure 1 integrates in a unique net flow curve for the Fall-Winter season under selected adaptations actions. The simulation results indicated that for mid century (Period P2), the use of longer-season cultivars (AV) will have more pronounced effect in daily net flow based than the reduction of planting season (APS) as climate change intensifies during present century. Without adaptation (WA), the increase in temperature will shorten the growing season of all annual crops, generating a peak shift with respect to reference case (WA-P0). Combined adoptions of adaptation actions (AP+V) can generate higher, peak and cumulative, crop water requirements than actual values as Figure 1 shows. There are clear trends that without adaptations, water

  7. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  8. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  9. Wholesale Price Discrimination between High Street Retailers and Online Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Aiura

    2007-01-01

    We analyze wholesale pricing and retail pricing when a monopolistic manufacturer sells its product to a high street retailer and an online electronic retailer, which have different selling qualities and marginal selling costs. We observe that (1) the wholesale price for an online electronic retailer is higher than that for a high street retailer if an online electronic retailer's selling cost advantage is greater than its selling quality disadvantage for all consumers buying products, and (2)...

  10. The Integration of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, DemandResponse and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluatorsand Planners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward

    2007-05-29

    This paper explores the feasibility of integrating energyefficiency program evaluation with the emerging need for the evaluationof programs from different "energy cultures" (demand response, renewableenergy, and climate change). The paper reviews key features andinformation needs of the energy cultures and critically reviews theopportunities and challenges associated with integrating these withenergy efficiency program evaluation. There is a need to integrate thedifferent policy arenas where energy efficiency, demand response, andclimate change programs are developed, and there are positive signs thatthis integration is starting to occur.

  11. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  12. Field Testing of Telemetry for Demand Response Control of Small Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weber, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-30

    The electricity system in California, from generation through loads, must be prepared for high renewable penetration and increased electrification of end uses while providing increased resilience and lower operating cost. California has an aggressive renewable portfolio standard that is complemented by world-leading greenhouse gas goals. The goal of this project was to evaluate methods of enabling fast demand response (DR) signaling to small loads for low-cost site enablement. We used OpenADR 2.0 to meet telemetry requirements for providing ancillary services, and we used a variety of low-cost devices coupled with open-source software to enable an end-to-end fast DR. The devices, architecture, implementation, and testing of the system is discussed in this report. We demonstrate that the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Home movements provide an opportunity for diverse small loads to provide fast, low-cost demand response. We used Internet-connected lights, thermostats, load interruption devices, and water heaters to demonstrate an ecosystem of controllable devices. The system demonstrated is capable of providing fast load shed for between 20 dollars and $300 per kilowatt (kW) of available load. The wide range results from some loads may have very low cost but also very little shed capability (a 10 watt [W] LED light can only shed a maximum of 10 W) while some loads (e.g., water heaters or air conditioners) can shed several kilowatts but have a higher initial cost. These costs, however, compare well with other fast demand response costs, with typically are over $100/kilowatt of shed. We contend these loads are even more attractive than their price suggests because many of them will be installed for energy efficiency or non-energy benefits (e.g., improved lighting quality or controllability), and the ability to use them for fast DR is a secondary benefit. Therefore the cost of enabling them for DR may approach zero if a software-only solution can be

  13. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS

  14. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  15. An ILP based Algorithm for Optimal Customer Selection for Demand Response in SmartGrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppannagari, Sanmukh R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kannan, Rajgopal [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Demand Response (DR) events are initiated by utilities during peak demand periods to curtail consumption. They ensure system reliability and minimize the utility’s expenditure. Selection of the right customers and strategies is critical for a DR event. An effective DR scheduling algorithm minimizes the curtailment error which is the absolute difference between the achieved curtailment value and the target. State-of-the-art heuristics exist for customer selection, however their curtailment errors are unbounded and can be as high as 70%. In this work, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation for optimally selecting customers and curtailment strategies that minimize the curtailment error during DR events in SmartGrids. We perform experiments on real world data obtained from the University of Southern California’s SmartGrid and show that our algorithm achieves near exact curtailment values with errors in the range of 10-7 to 10-5, which are within the range of numerical errors. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art heuristic being deployed in practice in the USC SmartGrid. We show that for the same set of available customer strategy pairs our algorithm performs 103 to 107 times better in terms of the curtailment errors incurred.

  16. A Vision for Co-optimized T&D System Interaction with Renewables and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C. Lindsay [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Zéphyr, Luckny [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Liu, Jialin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Cardell, Judith B. [Smith College, Northampton MA (United States)

    2017-01-07

    The evolution of the power system to the reliable, effi- cient and sustainable system of the future will involve development of both demand- and supply-side technology and operations. The use of demand response to counterbalance the intermittency of re- newable generation brings the consumer into the spotlight. Though individual consumers are interconnected at the low-voltage distri- bution system, these resources are typically modeled as variables at the transmission network level. In this paper, a vision for co- optimized interaction of distribution systems, or microgrids, with the high-voltage transmission system is described. In this frame- work, microgrids encompass consumers, distributed renewables and storage. The energy management system of the microgrid can also sell (buy) excess (necessary) energy from the transmission system. Preliminary work explores price mechanisms to manage the microgrid and its interactions with the transmission system. Wholesale market operations are addressed through the devel- opment of scalable stochastic optimization methods that provide the ability to co-optimize interactions between the transmission and distribution systems. Modeling challenges of the co-optimization are addressed via solution methods for large-scale stochastic op- timization, including decomposition and stochastic dual dynamic programming.

  17. Multi-Objective Low-Carbon Economic Dispatch Considering Demand Response with Wind Power Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation cost, carbon emissions and customers’ satisfaction are considered in this paper. On the basis of this, the multi-objective and low-carbon economic dispatch model with wind farm, this considers demand response, is established. The model user stochastic programming theory to describe the uncertainty of the wind power and converts it into an equivalent deterministic model by using distribution function of wind power output, optimizes demand side resources to adjust the next day load curve and to improve load rate and absorptive capacity of wind power, introduce customers’ satisfaction to ensure that the scheduling scheme satisfies customer and integrate the resources of source and load to unify coordination wind farm access to network and to meet the requirements of energy saving and emission reduction. The search process of artificial fish school algorithm introducing Tabu search and more targeted search mechanism, an multi-objective improved artificial fish school algorithm is proposed to solve this model. Using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to sort the Pareto frontier, the optimal scheduling scheme is determined. Simulation results verify the rationality and validity of the proposed model and algorithm.

  18. A Price-Based Demand Response Scheme for Discrete Manufacturing in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is a key technique in smart grid (SG technologies for reducing energy costs and maintaining the stability of electrical grids. Since manufacturing is one of the major consumers of electrical energy, implementing DR in factory energy management systems (FEMSs provides an effective way to manage energy in manufacturing processes. Although previous studies have investigated DR applications in process manufacturing, they were not conducted for discrete manufacturing. In this study, the state-task network (STN model is implemented to represent a discrete manufacturing system. On this basis, a DR scheme with a specific DR algorithm is applied to a typical discrete manufacturing—automobile manufacturing—and operational scenarios are established for the stamping process of the automobile production line. The DR scheme determines the optimal operating points for the stamping process using mixed integer linear programming (MILP. The results show that parts of the electricity demand can be shifted from peak to off-peak periods, reducing a significant overall energy costs without degrading production processes.

  19. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy

    2010-06-01

    We take the perspective of a microgrid that has installed distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of distributed generation with combined heat and power applications. Given uncertain electricity and fuel prices, the microgrid minimizes its expected annual energy bill for various capacity sizes. In almost all cases, there is an economic and environmental advantage to using DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected annualized energy bill is reduced by 9percent while CO2 emissions decline by 25percent. Furthermore, the microgrid's risk is diminished as DER may be deployed depending on prevailing market conditions and local demand. In order to test a policy measure that would place a weight on CO2 emissions, we use a multi-criteria objective function that minimizes a weighted average of expected costs and emissions. We find that greater emphasis on CO2 emissions has a beneficial environmental impact only if DR is available and enough reserve generation capacity exists. Finally, greater uncertainty results in higher expected costs and risk exposure, the effects of which may be mitigated by selecting a larger capacity.

  20. Data-Driven Baseline Estimation of Residential Buildings for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehong Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI generates a large volume of data related with energy service. This paper exploits data mining approach for customer baseline load (CBL estimation in demand response (DR management. CBL plays a significant role in measurement and verification process, which quantifies the amount of demand reduction and authenticates the performance. The proposed data-driven baseline modeling is based on the unsupervised learning technique. Specifically we leverage both the self organizing map (SOM and K-means clustering for accurate estimation. This two-level approach efficiently reduces the large data set into representative weight vectors in SOM, and then these weight vectors are clustered by K-means clustering to find the load pattern that would be similar to the potential load pattern of the DR event day. To verify the proposed method, we conduct nationwide scale experiments where three major cities’ residential consumption is monitored by smart meters. Our evaluation compares the proposed solution with the various types of day matching techniques, showing that our approach outperforms the existing methods by up to a 68.5% lower error rate.

  1. An Economic Demand Response Model in Liberalized Electricity Markets with Respect to Flexibility of Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Before restructuring in the electricity industry, the primary decision-makers of the electricity market were deemed to be power generation and transmission companies, market regulation boards, and power industry regulators. In this traditional structure, consumers were interested in receiving....... The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...... model is developed based on constant elasticity of substitution (CES) utility function known as one of the most popular utility functions in microeconomics. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model is adaptable to any group of residential consumers with any disposition toward participation...

  2. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric...... vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  3. Demand Response Design and Use Based on Network Locational Marginal Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Power systems have been experiencing huge changes mainly due to the substantial increase of distributed generation (DG) and the operation in competitive environments. Virtual Power Players (VPP) can aggregate several players, namely a diversity of energy resources, including distributed generation...... (DG) based on several technologies, electric storage systems (ESS) and demand response (DR). Energy resources management gains an increasing relevance in this competitive context. This makes the DR use more interesting and flexible, giving place to a wide range of new opportunities. This paper...... proposes a methodology to support VPPs in the DR programs’ management, considering all the existing energy resources (generation and storage units) and the distribution network. The proposed method is based on locational marginal prices (LMP) values. The evaluation of the impact of using DR specific...

  4. Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential:Integrating Price and Customer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT=Demand response (DR) is increasingly recognized asan essential ingredient to well-functioning electricity markets. DRmarket potential studies can answer questions about the amount of DRavailable in a given area, from which market segments. Several recent DRmarket potential studies have been conducted, most adapting techniquesused to estimate energy-efficiency (EE) potential. In this scoping study,we: reviewed and categorized seven recent DR market potential studies;recommended a methodology for estimating DR market potential for large,non-residential utility customers that uses price elasticities to accountfor behavior and prices; compiled participation rates and elasticityvalues from six DR options offered to large customers in recent years,and demonstrated our recommended methodology with large customer marketpotential scenarios at an illustrative Northeastern utility. We recommendan elasticity approach for large-customer DR options that rely oncusto!

  5. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  6. Day-ahead resource scheduling including demand response for electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Joao; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Summary form only given. The energy resource scheduling is becoming increasingly important, as the use of distributed resources is intensified and massive gridable vehicle (V2G) use is envisaged. This paper presents a methodology for day-ahead energy resource scheduling for smart grids considering...... the intensive use of distributed generation and V2G. The main focus is the comparison of different EV management approaches in the day-ahead energy resources management, namely uncontrolled charging, smart charging, V2G and Demand Response (DR) programs in the V2G approach. Three different DR programs....... Mixed integer non-linear programming is also used for comparison purposes. Full ac power flow calculation is included to allow taking into account the network constraints. A case study with a 33-bus distribution network and 2000 V2G resources is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method....

  7. Optimizing Industrial Consumer Demand Response Through Disaggregation, Hour-Ahead Pricing, and Momentary Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaal, Ahmed

    The work in this study addresses the current limitations of the price-driven demand response (DR) approach. Mainly, the dependability on consumers to respond in an energy aware conduct, the response timeliness, the difficulty of applying DR in a busy industrial environment, and the problem of load synchronization are of utmost concern. In order to conduct a simulation study, realistic price simulation model and consumers' building load models are created using real data. DR action is optimized using an autonomous control method, which eliminates the dependency on frequent consumer engagement. Since load scheduling and long-term planning approaches are infeasible in the industrial environment, the proposed method utilizes instantaneous DR in response to hour-ahead price signals (RTP-HA). Preliminary simulation results concluded savings at the consumer-side at the cost of increased supplier-side burden due to the aggregate effect of the universal DR policies. Therefore, a consumer disaggregation strategy is briefly discussed. Finally, a refined discrete-continuous control system is presented, which utilizes multi-objective Pareto optimization, evolutionary programming, utility functions, and bidirectional loads. Demonstrated through a virtual testbed fit with real data, the new system achieves momentary optimized DR in real-time while maximizing the consumer's wellbeing.

  8. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 1: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2013-09-09

    Demand response (DR) has the potential to improve electric grid reliability and reduce system operation costs. However, including DR in grid modeling can be difficult due to its variable and non-traditional response characteristics, compared to traditional generation. Therefore, efforts to value the participation of DR in procurement of grid services have been limited. In this report, we present methods and tools for predicting demand response availability profiles, representing their capability to participate in capacity, energy, and ancillary services. With the addition of response characteristics mimicking those of generation, the resulting profiles will help in the valuation of the participation of demand response through production cost modeling, which informs infrastructure and investment planning.

  9. Do the rotator cuff tendons of young athletic subjects hypertrophy in response to increased loading demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Charles; Moran, Daniel S; Safran, Ori; Finsestone, Aharon S

    2012-11-01

    The rotator cuff is composed of muscle and tendon units. Although muscle has been shown to adapt to mechanical loads, the response of human tendon is not well defined. We hypothesized that increased loading demands on the rotator cuff of young trainees would cause an adaptive muscle response but not an adaptive hypertrophic tendon response. The hypertrophic response of the rotator cuff tendon, shoulder strength, aerobic fitness, and the lean body weight of 70 young male recruits were studied before and after a 1-year course of elite infantry training. Shoulder strength was assessed by the maximum number of pull-ups done and the rotator cuff thickness by ultrasound measurement of the supraspinatus thickness. Aerobic physical fitness was assessed by maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2) max). Lean body weight was measured by skin-fold thickness. The mean number of pull-ups done increased from 17.5 to 21.7 (P = .01), but the supraspinatus thickness at the beginning of training (6.1 mm) was unchanged at the end of the training. Vo(2) max increased from 57 to 64 mL/kg/min (P = .0001). Lean body weight increased from 58.3 to 64.7 kg (P = .0001). As a result of increased loading, the strength of the rotator cuff muscles of young trainees increased, but by the parameter of hypertrophy, no evidence was found of a parallel adaptive response of the rotator cuff tendon. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Behaviour of retail entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); J. Koerts (Johan)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractRetailers' goal attainment is studied using a model consisting of relationships concerning the productivity of labour and floor-space. Evidence from large supermarkets shows that retailers concentrate on the maximisation of the value of annual sales rather than on maximising annual

  11. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...

  12. Social Responsibility of the University of Cotopaxi Facing the Demands of the Development in the Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ángel Francisco Esquivel-Valverde

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The social responsibility of the universities is to guarantee the access to knowledge of high level, new methods and development forms, as well as to technology of last generation, having the moral obligation and ethics of increasing the quality of its systems through the improvement of the administration of the university processes. For it the implementation of a model of administration of the knowledge in the State University of Cotopaxi (UTC that propitiates the recognition from the society to the results that the university generates it constitutes a necessity and a priority for the institution and its authorities that its gives answer to the demands that the society generates and the execution of the responsibility social university. In this address ours thinks about the necessity of a theoretical reflection on the contradictions that impact in the relevancy of the superior education and the list of the UTC in the Ecuadorian context of development.Keywords:  knowledge, university impact, university relevancy, social commitment, generation knowledge.

  13. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  14. Executing the Perfect Retail Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Rygaard Jonas, Louise

    The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally fo...... and management levels in the organisation. It is argued that responsibility for brand expressions should be more decentralised.......The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally...... focus has been on using corporate communication to align employees around the corporate brand to achieve this. Through in-depth, longitudinal, ethnographic research this paper suggests that coherence can only be achieved by understanding the complex interplay of identities between occupational groups...

  15. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  16. Consumer Retail Experience: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Höpner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern of retailers with the consumer experience in the store environment demonstrates the use of ever more advanced techniques, to create interesting experiences for consumers in the store environment. These efforts, however, can sometimes not be aligned with the demands of consumers, which reveal that their experiments to store a great extent, are influenced by traditional values. This study aims to analyze how the customer experience in retail has been discussed in publications in journals in the main area. The bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on customer experience and customer experience in retail was held. The choice of bibliometrics stems from the growing need to assess the progress and development of science and technology in the various fields of knowledge. There was significant concentration of publications in recent years, especially in 2013, which demonstrates the growing concern of marketing scholars with consumer behavior in the retail environment. The consumer experience as a research area is becoming more popular in journals and proving to be an important area of ​​study for the marketing of services, especially in retail. With the maturing of this field of study, there are new trends in research and expansion of consumer behavior analysis scope. Knowing the recent empirical findings brought by the studies is able to create new space for discussion, based on evidence, studied, analyzed and structured.

  17. FORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS WITH THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE GLOBAL RETAIL CHAINS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Kudyrko; I. Sevruk

    2015-01-01

    ... the author’s definition of the term “global retail chain”. The role and responsibilities of international retailers in the formation of marketing structures on international markets are discovered...

  18. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  19. Culturally responsive middle school science: A case study of needs, demands, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Kelli Ellen

    2007-12-01

    Culturally responsive programming has been proposed as a remedy for the well-documented disconnect between schools and the ethnically and culturally diverse students who attend them. These programs often focus on creating instructional materials and pedagogical practices that are aligned with the knowledges, perspectives and practices of these students. This study builds on that literature and examines the needs, demands, and challenges of developing a culturally responsive health science program for ethnically and culturally diverse urban middle school students. I approached this problem through a content analysis of the intended curriculum and a microethnography of the enacted curriculum. In my analysis of the intended curriculum, I adapted a science textbook analysis instrument created by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to include criteria related to identified features of culturally responsive education. Using these modified analytic criteria, I found that the pilot drafts of the curricular materials excelled in the areas of engaging students in relevant phenomenon but lacked many of these specifically culturally responsive elements. Recommendations were made to redress these deficiencies. In my analysis of the enacted curriculum, I observed in five eighth grade classrooms where the program was being implemented. I used participant observation, audio and video tape recordings, artifacts, and interviews over a six-month period to investigate teacher/student interactions, the social organization of the classrooms, and students' culturally distinctive knowledge resources---or what is sometimes referred to as their "funds of knowledge." I found that the affective interactions between teachers and students were precursors to any reform, and that students and teachers similarly defined these interactions as "teacher care." In addition, I found that the social organization of the classroom often privileged official content and ways of

  20. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources and the development of advanced information give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimise the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response as a way for modifying the consumption pattern...... of customers can be effectively applied to balance the demand and supply in electricity networks. This study presents a novel stochastic model from a microgrid (MG) operator perspective for energy and reserve scheduling considering risk management strategy. It is assumed that the MG operator can procure energy...... from various sources, including local generating units and demand-side resources to serve the customers. The operator sells electricity to customers under real-time pricing scheme and the customers response to electricity prices by adjusting their loads to reduce consumption costs. The objective...

  1. Developing Gis-Based Demand-Responsive Transit System in Tehran City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi, H.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its' members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  2. DEVELOPING GIS-BASED DEMAND-RESPONSIVE TRANSIT SYSTEM IN TEHRAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Faroqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its’ members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  3. Big Data Analytics for Demand Response: Clustering Over Space and Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kolte, Jahanvi [Nirma Univ., Gujarat (India); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The pervasive deployment of advanced sensing infrastructure in Cyber-Physical systems, such as the Smart Grid, has resulted in an unprecedented data explosion. Such data exhibit both large volumes and high velocity characteristics, two of the three pillars of Big Data, and have a time-series notion as datasets in this context typically consist of successive measurements made over a time interval. Time-series data can be valuable for data mining and analytics tasks such as identifying the “right” customers among a diverse population, to target for Demand Response programs. However, time series are challenging to mine due to their high dimensionality. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We explore novel representations of time-series data for BigData analytics, and propose a clustering technique for determining natural segmentation of customers and identification of temporal consumption patterns. Our method is generizable to large-scale, real-world scenarios, without making any assumptions about the data. We evaluate our technique using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~ 18,200,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our technique in efficiency detecting the number of optimal number of clusters.

  4. Hardware-in-the-Loop Co-simulation of Distribution Grid for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotger-Griful, Sergi; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Jacobsen, Rune H.; Stewart, Emma M.; Domingo, Javier M.; Wetter, Michael

    2016-06-20

    In modern power systems, co-simulation is proposed as an enabler for analyzing the interactions between disparate systems. This paper introduces the co-simulation platform Virtual Grid Integration Laboratory (VirGIL) including Hardware-in-the-Loop testing, and demonstrates its potential to assess demand response strategies. VirGIL is based on a modular architecture using the Functional Mock-up Interface industrial standard to integrate new simulators. VirGIL combines state-of-the-art simulators in power systems, communications, buildings, and control. In this work, VirGIL is extended with a Hardware-in-the-Loop component to control the ventilation system of a real 12-story building in Denmark. VirGIL capabilities are illustrated in three scenarios: load following, primary reserves and load following aggregation. Experimental results show that the system can track one minute changing signals and it can provide primary reserves for up-regulation. Furthermore, the potential of aggregating several ventilation systems is evaluated considering the impact at distribution grid level and the communications protocol effect.

  5. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  6. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouliot, D. [OZZ Energy Solutions, Concord, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Energy management is a continuum of directing and controlling energy use at an optimum level. A well-informed manager must know how much energy is used, what the costs are, what the loads are, and when the energy is used. Energy profiling uses remote site surveillance to enable the collection and precise measurement of actual consumption data for utilities. Energy profiling provides analysis, interpretation and reporting of the acquired energy information, which is displayed using graphics via the internet. Energy profiling can include various classes of information on energy use; building characteristics; weather data; energy prices; and energy demand-response event information. This presentation provided details of energy management and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) tools developed by OZZ Corporation, a Canadian-owned energy services company based in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The company's AMI metering services include multi-vendor support, advanced meter reading, meter data management and bill processing, and web-based energy profiling and information services. The company's Energy Trakker software provides benchmarking, auditing and validation processes, as well as ongoing monitoring and verification. Case studies of 2 large residential rental complexes using energy management tools developed by the company were provided. It was concluded that effective energy management tools help to reduce operating costs, enhance tenant satisfaction and raise property values. Investment in energy data profiling will allow utilities to identify and act on savings opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Near-infrared light-responsive composite microneedles for on-demand transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chin; Ling, Ming-Hung; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Lin, Zhi-Wei; Lai, Bo-Hung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2015-05-11

    This study presents near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive polymer-nanostructure composite microneedles used for on-demand transdermal drug delivery. Silica-coated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6@SiO2) nanostructures were incorporated into polycaprolactone microneedles, serving as an NIR absorber. When the microneedles were irradiated with NIR light, light-to-heat transduction mediated by the LaB6@SiO2 nanostructures caused the microneedle melting at 50 °C. This increased the mobility of the polymer chains, enabling drug release from the matrix. Drug release from the microneedles was evaluated for four laser on/off cycles. In each cycle, the samples were irradiated until the temperature reached 50 °C for 3 min (laser on); the laser was then turned off for 30 min (laser off). The results showed that light-induced phase transition in the polymer triggered drug release from the melted microneedles. A stepwise drug-release behavior was observed after multiple cycles of NIR light exposure. No notable drug leakage was found in the off state. This NIR-light-triggerable device exhibits excellent reproducibility, low off-state leakage, and noninvasive triggerability and, thus, represents an advance in transdermal delivery technology.

  8. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  9. Pomen managementa na dereguliranem maloprodajnem trgu električne energije v Sloveniji = The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Papler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital intensity, in labour productivity growth in the retail electricity distribution enterprise. Electricity demand in industry is determined positively by real income growth and negatively by real electricity price increases. Multivariate factor analysis confirms two main common components of efficient retail electricity supply and satisfaction of consumers in industry. In the first group of factors of efficient retail electricity supply the highest weights are for consumption, quality of services, expenses and advice. In the second group of factors of consumers’ satisfaction the highest weights are for response, needs, reliability and personnel. The impacts of changes in the dynamics of competition in the deregulated retail electricity market on management and organisational behaviours are found significant for quality of services, marketing and marketing strategies, supply-chain and customer relationship management.

  10. Incentive mechanism based on cooperative advertising for cost information sharing in a supply chain with competing retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setak, Mostafa; Kafshian Ahar, Hajar; Alaei, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new motivation for information sharing in a decentralized channel consisting of a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer provides a common product to the retailers at the same wholesale price. Both retailers add their own values to the product and distribute it to consumers. Factors such as retail prices, values added to the product, and local advertising of the retailers simultaneously have effect on market demand. Each retailer has full information about the own added value which is unknown to the manufacturer and other retailer. The manufacturer uses a cooperative advertising program for motivating the retailers to disclose their private information. A numerical study is presented to compare different scenarios of information sharing. Computational results show that there is a condition in which full information sharing is beneficial for all members of the supply chain through cooperative advertising program and, therefore, retailers have enough incentive to disclose their cost information to the manufacturer.

  11. Research on Simulation Requirements and Business Architecture of Automated Demand Response in Power Sales Side Market Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Songsong

    2018-01-01

    With the gradual reform of the electricity market, the power sale side liberalization has become the focus of attention as the key task of reform. The open power market provides a good environment for DR (Demand Response). It is of great significance to research the simulation requirements and business architecture of ADR (Automatic Demand Response) in power sale side market liberalization. Firstly, this paper analyzes the simulation requirements of ADR. Secondly, it analyzes the influence factors that the business development of ADR from five aspects after power sale side market liberalization. Finally, Based on ADR technology support system, the business architecture of ADR after power sale side market liberalization is constructed.

  12. Analisis Industri Retail Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Martinus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast moving in retail industry is the latest trading industry in trading chain. The study is to identify the condition of retail industry in Indonesia. This uses normative juridical approach. The research material is gathered by literature or document review. The analysis for modern retail industry is conducted through qualitative, thus explaining law material gathered from library being selected, arranging systematically, and finally getting conclusion figured to answer problems related to the rules for monopoly and dysfunction business competition in retail industry. The study result showed that modern market, which so far having a good performance, will have challenges. One biggest challenge is the potential for slow-moving revenue growth as the effects of slow-moving economic caused by global crisis.  

  13. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  14. RETAIL-FARM PRICE MARGINS AND CONSUMER PRODUCT DIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Albert J.; Elitzak, Howard; Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin provides an alternative approach for computing retail-farm price margins. Current published estimates of retail-farm price margins are calculated assuming that food markets are comprised of identical firms producing, in fixed-factor proportions, a homogeneous set of final food products. The approach presented here relaxes these assumptions by relying on an expenditure-based measure, justified by the Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem, that reflects consumer demand for the m...

  15. Demand response evaluation and forecasting — Methods and results from the EcoGrid EU experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Leimgruber, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    into a real-time market. EcoGrid EU is a smart grid experiment with 1900 residential customers who are equipped with smart meters and automated devices reacting to five-minute electricity pricing. Customers are grouped and analysed according to the manufacturer that controlled devices. A number of advanced......Understanding electricity consumers participating in new demand response schemes is important for investment decisions and the design and operation of electricity markets. Important metrics include peak response, time to peak response, energy delivered, ramping, and how the response changes...... with respect to external conditions. Such characteristics dictate the services DR is capable of offering, like primary frequency reserves, peak load shaving, and system balancing. In this paper, we develop methods to characterise price-responsive demand from the EcoGrid EU demonstration in a way that was bid...

  16. Responsible management of tropical peatlands: balancing competing demands on a fragile resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Susan; Evans, Christopher; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In 2010 the International Peatland Society published a strategy for responsible peatland management, with the following guiding principles: (i) ensure that high conservation value peatlands are identified and conserved, (ii) manage 'utilised' peatlands responsibly, and (iii) rehabilitate or restore drained, degraded or otherwise irreversibly changed peatlands to restore as many ecological and landscape functions as possible. At the time of its publication, the main focus of the strategy was on northern peatlands, although a few partner organisations in SE Asia were involved in the strategy consultation process. Given the rapid rate of peatland development in SE Asia in the last 7 years and the growing interest in tropical peatland rehabilitation and restoration, we believe that it is now timely to review what a strategy for responsible tropical peatland management might look like. SE Asia's peatlands cover 250,000 km2 of the region and store 69 Gt C but they are subject to continuing deforestation, biodiversity loss, land subsidence/flooding, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and health impacts due to air pollution from land-clearing fires, all of which pose huge regional and global challenges. Around 75% of the peatlands have been deforested in the last 20 years, with 35% of cleared land now under industrial plantation, 34% under smallholder cultivation, and 25% unutilised, largely as a result of uncontrolled land-clearing fires. The production intensity (GHG emissions per calorie produced) of crops grown on SE Asian organic soils is among the highest in the world (Carlson et al. 2016). There are clear tensions between reconciling peatland management for conservation goals (of biodiversity, carbon and natural resources) with economic and livelihood development goals. A balance needs to be struck between the absolute value and distribution of short term economic gains vs. peatland management strategies that deliver longer-term, sustainable and shared

  17. A demand response modeling for residential consumers in smart grid environment using game theory based energy scheduling algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofana Reka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, demand response modeling scheme is proposed for residential consumers using game theory algorithm as Generalized Tit for Tat (GTFT Dominant Game based Energy Scheduler. The methodology is established as a work flow domain model between the utility and the user considering the smart grid framework. It exhibits an algorithm which schedules load usage by creating several possible tariffs for consumers such that demand is never raised. This can be done both individually and among multiple users of a community. The uniqueness behind the demand response proposed is that, the tariff is calculated for all hours and the load during the peak hours which can be rescheduled is shifted based on the Peak Average Ratio. To enable the vitality of the work simulation results of a general case of three domestic consumers are modeled extended to a comparative performance and evaluation with other algorithms and inference is analyzed.

  18. Consumers' reaction towards involvement of large retailers in selling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two clusters have been identified. Cluster one is the male 'ethical consumers' group influenced by retailers' image and social responsibilities activities. This group was ... This alarmed the Fairtrade Labelling Organisation (FLO) to review its policy of allowing the large retailers (LRs) to use own brand. The findings of the ...

  19. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  20. Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of demand response (DR programs and battery energy storage system (BESS in microgrids are beneficial for both microgrid owners and consumers. The intensity of DR programs and BESS size can alter the operation of microgrids. Meanwhile, the optimal size for BESS units is linked with the uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources and load variations. Similarly, the participation of enrolled customers in DR programs is also uncertain and, among various other factors, uncertainty in market prices is a major cause. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of DR program intensity and BESS size on the operation of networked microgrids is analyzed while considering the prevailing uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with forecast load values, output of renewable generators, and market price are realized via the robust optimization method. Robust optimization has the capability to provide immunity against the worst-case scenario, provided the uncertainties lie within the specified bounds. The worst-case scenario of the prevailing uncertainties is considered for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed method. The two representative categories of DR programs, i.e., price-based and incentive-based DR programs are considered. The impact of change in DR intensity and BESS size on operation cost of the microgrid network, external power trading, internal power transfer, load profile of the network, and state-of-charge (SOC of battery energy storage system (BESS units is analyzed. Simulation results are analyzed to determine the integration of favorable DR program and/or BESS units for different microgrid networks with diverse objectives.

  1. Distribution transformer lifetime analysis in the presence of demand response and rooftop PV integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behi Behnaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many distribution transformers have already exceeded half of their expected service life of 35 years in the infrastructure of Western Power, the electric distribution company supplying southwest of Western Australia, Australia. Therefore, it is anticipated that a high investment on transformer replacement happens in the near future. However, high renewable integration and demand response (DR are promising resources to defer the investment on infrastructure upgrade and extend the lifetime of transformers. This paper investigates the impact of rooftop photovoltaic (PV integration and customer engagement through DR on the lifetime of transformers in electric distribution networks. To this aim, first, a time series modelling of load, DR and PV is utilised for each year over a planning period. This load model is applied to a typical distribution transformer for which the hot-spot temperature rise is modelled based on the relevant standard. Using this calculation platform, the loss of life and the actual age of distribution transformer are obtained. Then, various scenarios including different levels of PV penetration and DR contribution are examined, and their impacts on the age of transformer are reported. Finally, the equivalent loss of net present value of distribution transformer is formulated and discussed. This formulation gives major benefits to the distribution network planners for analysing the contribution of PV and DR on lifetime extension of the distribution transformer. In addition, the provided model can be utilised in optimal investment analysis to find the best time for the transformer replacement and the associated cost considering PV penetration and DR. The simulation results show that integration of PV and DR within a feeder can significantly extend the lifetime of transformers.

  2. Fluid milk consumption and demand response to advertising for non-alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RICKERTSEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian fluid milk consumption has declined steadily over the last twenty years, despite the dairy industry spending increasing amounts of money on advertising. Using a two-stage model, we investigate whether advertising has increased the demand for milk. No effect of advertising on the demand for non-alcoholic beverages is found in the first stage. In the second stage, an almost ideal demand system including advertising expenditures on competing beverages is estimated. The effects of generic advertising within the beverage group are positive and significant for whole milk and negative and significant for lower fat milk. The own-advertising elasticity for the combined fluid milk group is 0.0008. This highly inelastic elasticity suggests that increased advertising will not be profitable for the producers. Several cross-advertising effects are statistically significant, emphasizing the usefulness of a demand system approach.

  3. NIR-Responsive On-Demand Release of CO from Metal Carbonyl-Caged Graphene Oxide Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qianjun; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Qu, Ying; Fu, Xiao; Fan, Jing; Huang, Peng; Liu, Yijing; Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Yi; Qian, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-11-01

    On-demand release of carbon monoxide (CO) is realized through a novel near-infrared-responsive nanomedicine in favor of the enhancement of therapy efficacy and biosafety of CO therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Load shift incentives for household demand response: A model to evaluate effects from a Danish field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    picture of what to expect from household demand response under spot pricing schemes as compared and simplified product schemes; it also prepares for interpreting the field experiment results. Using preliminary assumptions we estimate both short-term and long-term welfare effects of a shift of customers...

  5. Supply Chain Response to Institutional Markets’ Demand for Healthy and Sustainable Food Options

    OpenAIRE

    Abate-Kassa, Getachew

    2011-01-01

    Institutional food buyers in the U.S. are increasingly demanding food products that are safe, traceable, healthier, local/regional, or sustainably produced and supplied. These markets consist of schools, universities, hospitals, charities, correction facilities, clubs and other similar organizations that buy goods and services to meet demands of their end-customers (students, patients, prisoners, etc.). These institutions comprise a large portion of the U.S. population. In 2008, the total num...

  6. Investigating online complaint intention and service recovery expectations of clothing retail customers / Simonne Fourie

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Simonne

    2014-01-01

    The retail industry is faced with increased customer service demands and a competitive market environment. For retailers to survive in a competitive marketplace, a customer orientation is vital in order to establish and maintain long-term relationships with customers. As the clothing retail industry is characterised as an industry with high human involvement, employee-related service failures are inevitable. Service failures cause the disconfirmation of service expectations which lead to cust...

  7. Cigarette demand is responsive to higher prices: findings from a survey of University students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand for university students aged 18-24 years in Jordan. Questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were adapted and administered to students from 10 public universities in Jordan in 2014. A two-part econometric model of cigarette demand was estimated. Nearly one-third of university students in Jordan smoke, purchasing 33.2 packs per month and paying 1.70 Jordanian dinars on average (US$2.40) for a pack of 20 cigarettes. The price elasticity of cigarette demand was estimated to be -1.15. Higher taxes may be particularly effective in reducing smoking among University students in Jordan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Provision of information to consumers about the calorie content of alcoholic drinks: did the Responsibility Deal pledge by alcohol retailers and producers increase the availability of calorie information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Douglas, N; Knai, C; Maani Hessari, N; Durand, M A; Eastmure, E; Mays, N

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol is a significant source of dietary calories and is a contributor to obesity. Industry pledges to provide calorie information to consumers have been cited as reasons for not introducing mandatory ingredient labelling. As part of the Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England, alcohol retailers and producers committed to providing consumers with information on the calorie content of alcoholic drinks. This study examines what was achieved following this commitment and considers the implications for current industry commitments to provide information on alcohol calories. Analysis of RD pledge delivery plans and progress reports. Assessment of calorie information in supermarkets and in online stores. (i) Analysis of the content of pledge delivery plans and annual progress reports of RD signatories to determine what action they had committed to, and had taken, to provide calorie information. (ii) Analysis of the availability of calorie information on product labels; in UK supermarkets; and on online shopping sites and websites. No information was provided in any of 55 stores chosen to represent all the main UK supermarkets. Calorie information was not routinely provided on supermarkets' websites, or on product labels. One of the stated purposes of the RD was to provide consumers with the information to make informed health-related choices, including providing information on the calorie content of alcoholic drinks. This study indicates that this did not take place to any significant extent. The voluntary implementation of alcohol calorie labelling by industry needs to continue to be carefully monitored to determine whether and how it is done. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Similar Demands, Different Responses: Teacher Evaluation in the United Kingdom and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Tracey L.; Struthers, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework grounded in globalization and the knowledge economy, this paper addresses teacher evaluation policy reform in the United Kingdom*** and Singapore. Specifically, the authors discuss similar demands faced by both countries: maintaining economic competitiveness in a globalized society, preparing citizens to participate in…

  10. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator...

  11. Overvoltage Mitigation Using Coordinated Control of Demand Response and Grid-tied Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Overvoltages in low voltage distribution grids with high solar photovoltaic (PV) integration are usually alleviated by implementing various active/reactive power control techniques. As those methods create revenue loss or inverter cost increase to PV owners, a coordinated control of load demand...

  12. Effect of Bioenergy Demands and Supply Response on Markets, Carbon, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt; Christopher Galik

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the demand for wood for energy, including liquid fuels, bioelectricity, and pellets, has the potential to affect traditional wood users, forestland uses, management intensities, and, ultimately, carbon sequestration. Recent studies have shown that increases in bioenergy harvests could lead to displacement of traditional wood-using industries in the short...

  13. Innovations and czech retail business

    OpenAIRE

    Pecho, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe current trends in global retail, the current state of retail in Czech Republic and possible need of bringing innovation to the outburst of Millennials generation economic activity. Introduction is devoted to theoretical description of retail and its meaning. As part of the thesis, there is a significant part containing relations within the worldwide retail and also its current trends and development. Furthermore, part of the thesis is devoted to the devel...

  14. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  15. Sexual health promotion and adult retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine

    2004-05-01

    To explore the extent to which adult retail stores may contribute to a community's sexual health promotion infrastructure, we collected data from 294 customer service employees of 80 adult retail stores in 61 U.S. cities. Findings indicated that these stores and their employees do possess at least a baseline level of characteristics that indicate they are serving, or have the potential to serve, as sexual health resources in their communities. As researchers and practitioners continue to explore new and effective mechanisms for responding to sexual health issues, they should consider outlets such as adult stores. Enhancing the capacity of these stores to contribute to sexual health may require strategic collaborations between sexual health researchers, sexual health practitioners, and the adult retail industry in order to develop initiatives that are responsive to the unique goals and cultures of each. Copyright The American Society of Gene Therapy

  16. The State of Online Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  17. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  18. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  19. Retailer brand architectures: Consumer perceptions of five Danish food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In this paper we adapt the concept of brand architecture to food retailing. We present initial findings of a study investigating how consumer perceive and evaluate the brand architectures of five different Danish food retailers. Our findings show that consumers perceive differences in the brand...... architecture of food retailers and that it is an important factor in relation to evaluations of food retailers. We also find that consumers have considerable difficulties distinguishing between retailer brands and manufacturer brands, which has potentially disconcerting implications for branded food...

  20. An Analysis of Decentralized Demand Response as Frequency Control Support under CriticalWind Power Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Villena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In power systems with high wind energy penetration, the conjunction of wind power fluctuations and power system inertia reduction can lead to large frequency excursions, where the operating reserves of conventional power generation may be insufficient to restore the power balance. With the aim of evaluating the demand-side contribution to frequency control, a complete process to determine critical wind oscillations in power systems with high wind penetration is discussed and described in this paper. This process implies thousands of wind power series simulations, which have been carried out through a validated offshore wind farm model. A large number of different conditions have been taken into account, such as frequency dead bands, the percentages of controllable demand and seasonal factor influence on controllable loads. Relevant results and statistics are also included in the paper.

  1. Water and Climate Impacts on Power System Operations: The Importance of Cooling Systems and Demand Response Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miara, Ariel [City College of New York, NY (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy Connections, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hummon, Marissa [Tendril, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector is highly dependent upon water resources; changes in water temperatures and water availability can affect operational costs and the reliability of power systems. Despite the importance of water for power system operations, the effects of changes in water characteristics on multiple generators in a system are generally not modeled. Moreover, demand response measures, which can change the magnitude and timing of loads and can have beneficial impacts on power system operations, have not yet been evaluated in the context of water-related power vulnerabilities. This effort provides a first comprehensive vulnerability and cost analysis of water-related impacts on a modeled power system and the potential for demand response measures to address vulnerability and cost concerns. This study uniquely combines outputs and inputs of a water and power plant system model, production cost, model, and relative capacity value model to look at variations in cooling systems, policy-related thermal curtailments, and demand response measures to characterize costs and vulnerability for a test system. Twenty-five scenarios over the course of one year are considered: a baseline scenario as well as a suite of scenarios to evaluate six cooling system combinations, the inclusion or exclusion of policy-related thermal curtailments, and the inclusion or exclusion of demand response measures. A water and power plant system model is utilized to identify changes in power plant efficiencies resulting from ambient conditions, a production cost model operating at an hourly scale is used to calculate generation technology dispatch and costs, and a relative capacity value model is used to evaluate expected loss of carrying capacity for the test system.

  2. Optimization and Modelling of Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal by ANAMMOX Process Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jalilzadeh; Ramin Nabizadeh; Alireza Mesdaghinia; Aliakbar Azimi; Simin Nasseri; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Kazem Naddafi

    2013-01-01

    A systematic model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using the ANAMMOX (Anaerobic AMMonium OXidation) process was provided based on an experimental design. At first, the experimental data was collected from a combined biological aerobic/anaerobic reactor. For modelling and optimization of COD removal, the main parameters were considered, such as COD loading, ammonium, pH, and temperature. From the models, the optimum conditions were determined as COD 97.5 mg/L, ammonium concentration e...

  3. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Children with dyslexia show cortical hyperactivation in response to increasing literacy processing demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøydis eMorken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study aimed to examine how differences in literacy processing demands may affect cortical activation patterns in 11- to 12-year-old children with dyslexia as compared to children with typical reading skills. 11 children with and 18 without dyslexia were assessed using a reading paradigm based on different stages of literacy development. In the analyses, six regions showed an interaction effect between group and condition in a factorial ANOVA. These regions were selected as regions of interest for further analyses. Overall, the dyslexia group showed cortical hyperactivation compared to the typical group. The difference between the groups tended to increase with increasing processing demands. Differences in cortical activation were not reflected in in-scanner reading performance. The six regions further grouped into three patterns, which are discussed in terms of processing demands, compensatory mechanisms, orthography and contextual facilitation. We conclude that the observed hyperactivation is chiefly a result of compensatory activity, modulated by other factors.

  5. BEYOND JOB POSITIONS. A SOCIAL RESPONSE TO THE CHANGES IN JOB DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pirog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the recent changes in the job market and discuss the process this triggered in the social politics of the welfare states. We examine the economic reasons for the changes in job demand and furthermore explore the associated changes in the social structures. New forms of employment and gratification demand a restructurization in the social politics in order to elasticise the job supply. The mismatch between the demand and supply on the job market may result in unemployment, work outside the norms of the law and a growing deficit of social security. This in turn leads to the situation where the sale of own work force doesn't always result in a dignified life standard. As a result, new ways to support people outside the regular job market need to be found. These new solution are essential in the modern society where the distribution of work is an important issue shaping the social bonds and individual identities.

  6. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  7. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Rooderkerk (Robert); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be

  8. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  9. Optimizing Retail Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number. of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKIT sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  10. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  11. An Optimization Model for Large–Scale Wind Power Grid Connection Considering Demand Response and Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs and energy storage systems (ESSs are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS to generate the initial scenario set and constructs a scenario reduction strategy based on Kantorovich distance. Since DRPs and ESSs can influence the distribution of demand load, this paper constructs a joint scheduling optimization model for wind power, ESSs and DRPs under the objective of minimizing total coal cost, and constraints of power demand and supply balance, users’ demand elasticity, thermal units’ startup-shutdown, thermal units’ output power climbing and wind power backup service. To analyze the influences of ESSs and DRPs on system wind power consumption capacity, example simulation is made in a 10 thermal units system with a 1000 MW wind farm and 400 MW energy storage systems under four simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the introduction of DRPs and ESSs could promote system wind power consumption capacity with significantly economic and environment benefits, which include less coal consumption and less pollutant emission; and the optimization effect reaches the optimum when DRPs and ESSs are both introduced.

  12. DC microgrids with energy storage systems and demand response for providing support to frequency regulation of electrical power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandzic, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Frequency regulation of electric power systems efficiency depends on response time and on power reserves for frequency regulation. As integration of non-dispatchable renewable generation in the power system results with increased need for power reserves from fast responding power units, the idea...... of using aggregated DC microgrids in frequency regulation is presented. Model proposed in this work is based on using battery energy storage, combined with demand response for achieving efficient usage of battery energy storage. It is shown that large number of DC microgrids can provide sufficient....

  13. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the development of advanced information, give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimize the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response (DR) as a way for modifying the consumption...... is to determine the optimal scheduling with considering risk aversion and system frequency security to maximize the expected profit of operator. To deal with various uncertainties, a risk-constrained two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed where the risk aversion of MG operator is modeled using...

  14. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  15. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... and find that research findings appear scattered and unrelated. Most of the previous research has been concerning with generating lists of criteria used by retailers when deciding whether or not t accept a new product. Other areas that have caught the interest of researcher are: the role of buying...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  16. Empirical assessment of loyalty drivers using consumers’ retail format choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindi, A.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Stimulus–Organism–Response (S-O-R framework, this study examines Stimulus– Response relationships of fresh vegetable consumers’ behavior in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In particular, the study focused on how loyalty drivers affect retail formats choice by the fresh vegetable (FV consumers. The Stimuli that pertain to loyalty drivers include promotional activities, perceived price and social interaction and the Response is the retail format choice. Three hypotheses were developed and tested with the data collected from a survey using simple random sampling technique. Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in analyzing the data. Results of the study revealed that Stimuli (loyalty drivers influence Response (retail format choice for the different FV markets in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the research, Malaysian retailers have different marketing strategies to be considered with regards to loyalty drivers.

  17. Coordinated Demand Response and Distributed Generation Management in Residential Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Mokhtari, Ghassem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays with the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs) in form of residential smart microgrids (SMGs), a large portion of energy can be saved through coordinated scheduling of smart household devices and management of distributed energy resources (DERs). There are significant...... potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy, and typical implementation of building-level DERs by integrating them into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems...

  18. Different Optimal Control Strategies for Exploitation of Demand Response in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    resources, intermittent renewable energy resources in the Smart Grid. This paper presents different optimal control (Genetic Algorithm-based and Model Predictive Control-based) algorithms that schedule controlled loads in the industrial and residential sectors, based on dynamic price and weather forecast......, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. It is demonstrated in this work that the GA-based and MPC-based optimal control strategies are able to achieve load shifting for grid reliability and energy savings, including demand...

  19. Decisions on Energy Demand Response Option Contracts in Smart Grids Based on Activity-Based Costing and Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred J. Hildreth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids enable a two-way energy demand response capability through which a utility company offers its industrial customers various call options for energy load curtailment. If a customer has the capability to accurately determine whether to accept an offer or not, then in the case of accepting an offer, the customer can earn both an option premium to participate, and a strike price for load curtailments if requested. However, today most manufacturing companies lack the capability to make the correct contract decisions for given offers. This paper proposes a novel decision model based on activity-based costing (ABC and stochastic programming, developed to accurately evaluate the impact of load curtailments and determine as to whether or not to accept an energy load curtailment offer. The proposed model specifically targets state-transition flexible and Quality-of-Service (QoS flexible energy use activities to reduce the peak energy demand rate. An illustrative example with the proposed decision model under a call-option based energy demand response scenario is presented. As shown from the example results, the proposed decision model can be used with emerging smart grid opportunities to provide a competitive advantage to the manufacturing industry.

  20. Strategy-making for a proactive distribution company in the real-time market with demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to optimize the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) in the real-time market by mobilizing the demand response. Each distribution-level demand is considered as an elastic one. To capture the interrelation between the PDISCO and the real......-time market, a bi-level model is presented for the PDISCO to render continuous offers and bids strategically. The upper level problem expresses the PDISCO's profit maximization, while the lower-level problem minimizes the operation cost of the transmission-level real-time market. To solve the proposed model......, a primal-dual approach is used to translate this bi-level model into a single-level mathematical program with equilibrium constraints. Results of case studies are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed model. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. An Integrated Multiperiod OPF Model with Demand Response and Renewable Generation Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhsh, Waqquas Ahmed; Zhang, Chunyu; Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar have received much attention in recent years, and large amount of renewable generation is being integrated to the electricity networks. A fundamental challenge in a power system operation is to handle the intermittent nature of the renewable...... generation. In this paper we present a stochastic programming approach to solve a multiperiod optimal power flow problem under renewable generation uncertainty. The proposed approach consists of two stages. In the first stage, operating points for the conventional power plants are determined. The second...... stage realizes generation from the renewable resources and optimally accommodates it by relying on the demand-side flexibilities and limited available flexibilities from the conventional generating units. The proposed model is illustrated on a 4-bus and a 39- bus system. Numerical results show...

  2. Future water supply and demand in response to climate change and agricultural expansion in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Zhou, T.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.

    2016-12-01

    With ongoing global environmental change and an increasing population, it is challenging (to say the least) to understand the complex interactions of irrigation and reservoir systems. Irrigation is critical to agricultural production and food security, and is a vital component of Texas' agricultural economy. Agricultural irrigation currently accounts for about 60% of total water demand in Texas, and recent occurrences of severe droughts has brought attention to the availability and use of water in the future. In this study, we aim to assess future agricultural irrigation water demand, and to estimate how changes in the fraction of crop irrigated land will affect future water availability in Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the United States. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which has been calibrated and validated over major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model, coupling with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module, is adopted to simulate the water management and regulations. The evolution on agricultural land is also considered in the model as a changing fraction of crop for each grid cell. The reservoir module is calibrated and validated based on the historical (1915-2011) storage records of major reservoirs in Texas. The model is driven by statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The lowest (RCP 2.6) and highest (RC P8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios are adopted for future projections to provide an estimate of uncertainty bounds. We expect that our results will be helpful to assist decision making related to reservoir operations and agricultural water planning for Texas under future climate and environmental changes.

  3. Nations of Retailers: The Comparative Political Economy of Retail Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Bartholomew Clark

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the development of the retail sector in the United States and Western Europe. The predominant literature on the service sector in both economics and political science has argued that the only way to create jobs in services such as retailing is through the low-wage, high-inequality route epitomized by the United States. Nevertheless, in the retail trade sector, a number of European countries have matched or exceeded American productivity and employment growth, desp...

  4. Retailers and consumers in sequential auctions of collectibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Chanel, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    ); others have a specific single-unit demand (consumers). By examining equilibrium bidding strategies and price sequences, we show that the presence of consumers leads to more aggressive bidding from the retailers on average and heterogeneous bidders is a plausible explanation of the price decline effect...

  5. Retail supply chains and efficiency of retail trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since in today's supply chains in particular areas (for example in the grocery sector most power is in the hands of retail chains on which manufacturers depend, this paper analyzes the retail supply chains. The aim of this paper is to propose a new indicator of retail trade efficiency for an individual national economy. This indicator would then be used to complement the usual analyses. As large marketing systems, retail supply chains present new competition for production companies in particular states, because they can get around them or replace them with other production companies. Methods: Concepts relating to retail supply chains are analyzed on the basis of accessible literature, and available data sources are used as the basis for a table presentation of 10 world's largest retail chains in the grocery sector, with basic remarks about their logistics and about the development of the their supply chains (basic models are described. Efficiency of the total retail trade in the selected countries is analyzed on the basis of the following indicators (a turnover per unit of selling surface; (b turnover per 1 employee in the retail trade. These indicators are presented in tables and graphically for the selected European countries. Results: The performed analysis leads to the conclusion that retail trade efficiency, as measured by the realized turnover per 1 employee in the retail trade and by the realized turnover per unit of selling surface in the retail trade, is realized diversely in individual observed countries; yet there are no differences in the results between transitional and market-developed countries. However, the analysis of retail trade efficiency of entire economies of the observed states shows that there are differences between transitional and market-developed countries. Conclusions: Thus, in order to evaluate the retail trade efficiency for the total economy in a particular country it would be necessary to also take

  6. Dynamic Price Vector Formation Model-Based Automatic Demand Response Strategy for PV-Assisted EV Charging Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qifang; Wang, Fei; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Zhigang; Shafie-Khah, Miadreza; Catalao, Joao P. S.

    2017-11-01

    A real-time price (RTP)-based automatic demand response (ADR) strategy for PV-assisted electric vehicle (EV) Charging Station (PVCS) without vehicle to grid is proposed. The charging process is modeled as a dynamic linear program instead of the normal day-ahead and real-time regulation strategy, to capture the advantages of both global and real-time optimization. Different from conventional price forecasting algorithms, a dynamic price vector formation model is proposed based on a clustering algorithm to form an RTP vector for a particular day. A dynamic feasible energy demand region (DFEDR) model considering grid voltage profiles is designed to calculate the lower and upper bounds. A deduction method is proposed to deal with the unknown information of future intervals, such as the actual stochastic arrival and departure times of EVs, which make the DFEDR model suitable for global optimization. Finally, both the comparative cases articulate the advantages of the developed methods and the validity in reducing electricity costs, mitigating peak charging demand, and improving PV self-consumption of the proposed strategy are verified through simulation scenarios.

  7. On the Trade-off Between Real-time Pricing and the Social Acceptability Costs of Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Hendrigo Batista; Santiago, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic tariff policies have become an essential feature of modern electric grid design. The successful implementation of such policies usually depends on overcoming the resistance of end-users to real-time pricing and its political implications. In this paper, we review the literature...... on the social acceptability costs of implementing demand response programs, and we discuss the key features of implementing a real-time price to energy. Although the literature acknowledges the existence of a social acceptability cost, it does not propose an explicit approach to dealing with this issue. A model...

  8. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    , namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed...

  9. Online retailing: open all hours?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Globally, online retailing has become increasingly important to retailers and consumers. In the UK, the online shopping spend has increased from 0.07% to 7% of the annual retail sales and the consumers' appetite for buying online continues to grow as the internet becomes increasingly accessible, convenient and secure. However, does the internet provide a truly comprehensive shopping experience or are there limitations? A visit to eBay can enable bargain hunters to find almost any product, but...

  10. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  11. Stepwise pH-responsive nanoparticles for enhanced cellular uptake and on-demand intracellular release of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Fang; Tang, Yan; Yang, Shu-di; Li, Ji-Zhao; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-Nong

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug release behavior, affect targeting efficiency, cellular uptake, and antitumor effect of nanocarriers in a formulated drug-delivery system. In this study, a novel stepwise pH-responsive nanodrug delivery system was developed to efficiently deliver and significantly promote the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX). The system comprised dimethylmaleic acid-chitosan-urocanic acid and elicited stepwise responses to extracellular and intracellular pH. The nanoparticles (NPs), which possessed negative surface charge under physiological conditions and an appropriate nanosize, exhibited advantageous stability during blood circulation and enhanced accumulation in tumor sites via enhanced permeability and retention effect. The tumor cellular uptake of DOX-loaded NPs was significantly promoted by the first-step pH response, wherein surface charge reversion of NPs from negative to positive was triggered by the slightly acidic tumor extracellular environment. After internalization into tumor cells, the second-step pH response in endo/lysosome acidic environment elicited the on-demand intracellular release of DOX from NPs, thereby increasing cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Furthermore, stepwise pH-responsive NPs showed enhanced antiproliferation effect and reduced systemic side effect in vivo. Hence, the stepwise pH-responsive NPs provide a promising strategy for efficient delivery of antitumor agents.

  12. Challenge Online Time Series Clustering For Demand Response A Theory to Break the ‘Curse of Dimensionality'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Ranjan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The advent of smart meters and advanced communication infrastructures catalyzes numerous smart grid applications such as dynamic demand response, and paves the way to solve challenging research problems in sustainable energy consumption. The space of solution possibilities are restricted primarily by the huge amount of generated data requiring considerable computational resources and efficient algorithms. To overcome this Big Data challenge, data clustering techniques have been proposed. Current approaches however do not scale in the face of the “increasing dimensionality” problem where a cluster point is represented by the entire customer consumption time series. To overcome this aspect we first rethink the way cluster points are created and designed, and then design an efficient online clustering technique for demand response (DR) in order to analyze high volume, high dimensional energy consumption time series data at scale, and on the fly. Our online algorithm is randomized in nature, and provides optimal performance guarantees in a computationally efficient manner. Unlike prior work we (i) study the consumption properties of the whole population simultaneously rather than developing individual models for each customer separately, claiming it to be a ‘killer’ approach that breaks the “curse of dimensionality” in online time series clustering, and (ii) provide tight performance guarantees in theory to validate our approach. Our insights are driven by the field of sociology, where collective behavior often emerges as the result of individual patterns and lifestyles.

  13. A Joint Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Energy Storage Systems considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Aiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power random on system operation, energy storage systems (ESSs and demand response (DR are introduced to the traditional scheduling model of wind power and thermal power with carbon emission trading (CET. Firstly, a joint optimization scheduling model for wind power, thermal power, and ESSs is constructed. Secondly, DR and CET are integrated into the joint scheduling model. Finally, 10 thermal power units, a wind farm with 2800 MW of installed capacity, and 3×80 MW ESSs are taken as the simulation system for verifying the proposed models. The results show backup service for integrating wind power into the grid is provided by ESSs based on their charge-discharge characteristics. However, system profit reduces due to ESSs’ high cost. Demand responses smooth the load curve, increase profit from power generation, and expand the wind power integration space. After introducing CET, the generation cost of thermal power units and the generation of wind power are both increased; however, the positive effect of DR on the system profit is also weakened. The simulation results reach the optimum when both DR and CET are introduced.

  14. Stochastic Unit Commitment of Wind-Integrated Power System Considering Air-Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of extensive penetration of wind farms into electricity grids, power systems face enormous challenges in daily operation because of the intermittent characteristics of wind energy. In particular, the load peak-valley gap has been dramatically widened in wind energy-integrated power systems. How to quickly and efficiently meet the peak-load demand has become an issue to practitioners. Previous literature has illustrated that the demand response (DR is an important mechanism to direct customer usage behaviors and reduce the peak load at critical times. This paper introduces air-conditioning loads (ACLs as a load shedding measure in the DR project. On the basis of the equivalent thermal parameter model for ACLs and the state-queue control method, a compensation cost calculation method for the ACL to shift peak load is proposed. As a result of the fluctuation and uncertainty of wind energy, a two-stage stochastic unit commitment (UC model is developed to analyze the ACL users’ response in the wind-integrated power system. A simulation study on residential and commercial ACLs has been performed on a 10-generator test system. The results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed stochastic programming strategy and that the system peak load can be effectively reduced through the participation of ACL users in DR projects.

  15. Cognitive load and autonomic response patterns under negative priming demand in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, Erwin; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L; Gasston, David; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups. Evoked haemodynamic responses for basic Stroop/negative priming activations were compared. For basic Stroop to neutral contrast, patients with DPRD differed in the location (inferior vs. superior lobule) of the parietal region involved, but showed similar activations in the left frontal region. In addition, patients with DPRD also co-activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA9) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA31), which were also found to be the main between-group difference regions. These regions furthermore showed connectivity with frequency of depersonalization states. Evoked haemodynamic responses drawn from regions of interest indicated significant between-group differences in 30-40% of time points. Brain-behaviour correlations differed mainly in laterality, yet only slightly in regions. A reversal of autonomic patterning became evident in patients with DPRD for cognitive load spans, indicating less effective arousal suppression under cognitive stress - patients with DPRD showed positive associations of cognitive load with autonomic responses, whereas controls exhibit respective inverse association. Overall, the results of the present study show only minor executive cognitive peculiarities, but further support the notion of abnormalities in autonomic functioning in patients with DPRD. © 2016 Federation of European

  16. Forecasting product demand of a bottling company in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forecasting product demand is crucial to any supplier, manufacturer, or retailer; as the process determines the quantities that might be purchased, produced, supplied or shipped in future. For forecasting product demand of a Bottling Company in Kumasi (Ghana), seasonality indices were calculated to predict the demand ...

  17. Demand Response of Thermostatic Loads by Optimized Switching-Fraction Broadcast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Method is used to spatially discretize these equations. Next, a broadcast strategy with two switching-fraction signals is proposed for actuating the population. This is applied in an open-loop scenario for tracking a power reference by running an optimization with a multilinear objective....... response capabilities within the intrinsic flexibility of the population. A temperature distribution model based on Fokker-Planck partial differential equations is used to capture the behavior of the population. To ensure probability conservation and high accuracy of the numerical solution, Finite Volume...

  18. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision. Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers to end tobacco sales.

  19. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded.We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision.Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69% supported the decision.Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers to end tobacco sales.

  20. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  1. Omni-Channel Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    GREU, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the internet, shopping has been a key component in its commercial use and usefulness. Products and services such as books, clothing, household goods, theatre/cinema tickets and holidays were some of the original offerings. Over time the range of products and services available has been extended significantly. However in the last few years it is not the product set that is the area of dynamism, but the ways in which retailers and shoppers are using the internet to purchase ...

  2. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  3. Application of qualitative response models in a relevance study of older adults' health depreciation and medical care demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ching-Yu; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Tang, Yih-Jing; Yang, Shu-Hui; Lin, Jwu-Rong

    2017-04-01

    The effect of health depreciation in older people on medical care demand is not well understood. We tried to assess the medical care demand with length of hospitalization and their impact on profits as a result of health depreciation. All participants who underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment were from a prospective cohort study at a tertiary hospital. A total of 1191 cases between September 2008 to October 2012 were investigated. Three sets of qualitative response models were constructed to estimate the impact of older adults' health depreciation on multidisciplinary geriatric care services. Furthermore, we analyzed the factors affecting the composite end-point of rehospitalization within 14 days, re-admission to the emergency department within 3 days and patient death. Greater health depreciation in elderly patients was positively correlated with greater medical care demand. Three major components were defined as health depreciation: elderly adaptation function, geriatric syndromes and multiple chronic diseases. On admission, the better the basic living functions, the shorter the length of hospitalization (coefficient = -0.35, P < 0.001 in Poisson regression; coefficient = -0.33, P < 0.001 in order choice profit model; coefficient = -0.29, P < 0.001 in binary choice profit model). The major determinants for poor outcome were male sex, middle old age and length of hospitalization. However, factors that correlated with relatively good outcome were functional improvement after medical care services and level of disease education. An optimal allocation system for selection of cases into multidisciplinary geriatric care is required because of limited resources. Outcomes will improve with health promotion and preventive care services. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 645-652. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Expectations and retail profit margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.J. den Hertog; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this study expectations and prediction errors are introduced in the context of retail price setting. A new model and a new data set are used to examine whether prediction errors influence retail price setting, whether prediction errors cause only limited price changes to maintain

  5. Price and Service Competition in the Supply Chain with both Pure Play Internet and Strong Bricks-and-Mortar Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional retail industry, some supermarket chains and department stores have been maintaining strong positions as the market comes to maturity. They can make use of the strong positions to squeeze their suppliers and obtain extra earnings. This situation may be challenged by the rapid development of e-commerce. Consumers’ purchase habits have been changing and many manufacturers are starting to sell goods through electronic retailers, in addition to their traditional distribution channels. This paper analyzes price and service competition in the dual-channel supply chain with both pure play Internet and strong bricks-and mortar retailers, investigates the influence of retailer power and proposes some competitive strategies for traditional retailer under e-commerce environment. The demand model is proposed based on consumer utility theory, and Stackelberg theory is used to analyze the game process in which the manufacturer is the leader and the two retailers, acting simultaneously, are the followers. The equilibrium price and service decisions of the supply chain members are reached. The analysis of the competitive strategy is divided into two parts. Firstly, the influence of the retailer power on members of the supply chain is examined. We find that although the traditional retailer can use its power to depress the wholesale price, this strategy cannot help the traditional retailer increase its profit. Secondly, other competitive strategies of the traditional retailer are analyzed and the traditional retailer is found to be able to improve its operating status through adjusting prices and services via specific actions.

  6. Firearm retailers' willingness to participate in an illegal gun purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen

    2010-09-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or "straw" purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun's use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well.

  7. Enhancement of membrane stability on magnetic responsive hydrogel microcapsules for potential on-demand cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Huiyun; Gao, Ting; Fu, Zizhen; Liu, Xing; Xu, Jiatong; He, Yishu; Xu, Ningxia; Jiao, Ping; Fan, An; Huang, Saipeng; Xue, Weiming

    2017-02-10

    It is of high interest to obtain hydrogel membranes with optimum mechanical stability, which is a prerequisite to the successful fabrication of hydrogel microcapsules for cell separation. In this work, we developed magnetic responsive alginate/chitosan (MAC) hydrogel microcapsules by co-encapsulation of microbial cells and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) reacting under a high voltage electrostatic field. We investigated the influence of the molecular weight of chitosan, microcapsules size, and membrane crosslinking time on the swelling behavior of microcapsules as an indicator of stability of the membranes. The results demonstrated that the suitable membrane stability conditions were obtained by a crosslinking of the microspheres with a chitosan presenting a molecular weight of 70kDa for 15-30min resulting in a membrane thickness of approximately 30mm. Considering the need of maintaining the cells inside the microcapsules, fermentation at 37°C and at neutral pH was favorable. Moreover, the MAC microcapsules sizing between 300 and 380μm were suitable for immobilizing Bacillus licheniformis in a 286h multiple fed-bath operation with no leakage of the SPIONs and cells. Overall, the results of this study provided strategies for the rational design of magnetic microcapsules exhibiting suitable mechanical stable membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, Jeff

    2002-05-01

    In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

  9. Data Driven Models to Forecast Groundwater Level in Response to Hydro-climatological Conditions and Agricultural Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, Alessandro; Corzo Perez, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri; Meyer, George; Munoz-Arriola, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Water table forecasts are important for development of water management plans, especially in areas where groundwater is the main resource for irrigation. This study aims to investigate the capability of different data-driven models to forecast water table levels from one to five months ahead. Five different models (Random Forest, Support Vector Machines, Artificial Neural Networks, Deep Neural Networks and Genetic Programming) are developed to predict the water table level in response to hydro-climatological variables (precipitation, snowmelt and evapotranspiration) in an intensively corn-cultivated area in the Platte River Basin (Nebraska, USA). Corn water demand and precipitation forecasts are also considered as possible inputs to the model. Four error statistics (root mean squared error, coefficient of determination, percent bias and Nash-Sutcliffe index) and two baseline references models (autoregressive and naïve) are used to compare the accuracy of the different models. Results for the case under investigation show that all considered data-driven models predict water table depth with high accuracy up to two months ahead. When the prediction horizon increases, a model using genetic programming is showing better results than the other modelling techniques, in particular when the corn water demand and the forecasted precipitation are included as inputs.

  10. Physical demands and salivary immunoglobulin A responses of elite Australian rules football athletes to match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Sam; Gray, Bon; Wehbe, George; McLellan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    To examine the response or pre- and postmatch salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) to Australian Football League (AFL) match play and investigate the acute and cumulative influence of player workload and postmatch [s-IgA] after repeated participation in AFL match play. Eleven elite AFL athletes (21.8±2.4 y, 186.9±7.9 cm, 87.4±7.5 kg) were monitored throughout 3 matches during the preseason that were separated by 7 d. Saliva samples were collected across each AFL match at 24 h and 1 h prematch and 1, 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch to determine [s-IgA]. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to determine total player workload during match play. Hypothesis testing was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load using a repeated-measures ANOVA. Player load during match 3 (1266±124.6 AU) was significantly (P<.01) greater than in match 1 (1096±115.1 AU) and match 2 (1082±90.4 AU). Across match 3, [s-IgA] was significantly (P<.01) suppressed at 2 postmatch measures (12 and 36 h) compared with prematch measures (24 and 1 h), which coincided with significantly (P<.01) elevated player load. The findings indicate that an increase in player load during AFL preseason match play resulted in compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function. Longitudinal assessment of AFL-match player load and mucosal immunological function across the first 60 h of recovery may augment monitoring and preparedness strategies for athletes.

  11. Why do German retailers think and act as they do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    think. A recent MAPP study looked at how German retailers perceive themselves, how they perceive and interpret the world around them (their customers, competitors and suppliers etc.) and which quality and documentation they demand when they buy fresh pork. However, not all retail buyers share the view...... to make them correspond to the suppliers' perceptions and products. From the retailers' point of view, it is important to be aware of one's identity to be able to evaluate whether the chain actually is different from its competitors and how the surrounding world should be interpreted. This will help...... to keep one's eyes open to alternative interpretations of the surrounding world, market, competitors and unexploited possibilities....

  12. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    and claims are able to successfully influence Spanish consumers’ perceived value of seafood and to which degree consumers and retailers in a traditional fish market differ in their choice reaction to these attributes. A heteroscedastic logit model was used to assess the impact of seafood claims on consumer......Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can...

  13. Responses of Lower-Body Power and Match Running Demands Following Long-Haul Travel in International Rugby Sevens Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John A; Pumpa, Kate L; Pyne, David B

    2017-03-01

    Mitchell, JA, Pumpa, KL, and Pyne, DB. Responses of lowerbody power and match running demands after long-haul travel in international rugby sevens players. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 686-695, 2017-This study determined the effect of long-haul (>5 hours) travel on lower-body power and match running demands in international rugby sevens players. Lower-body power was assessed in 22 male international rugby sevens players (age 21.7 ± 2.7 years, mass 89.0 ± 6.7 kg, stature 180.5 ± 6.2 cm; mean ± SD) monitored over 17 rugby sevens tournaments. A countermovement jump was used to monitor lower-body power (peak and mean power) over repeated three week travel and competition periods (pretravel, posttravel, and posttournament). Small decreases were evident in peak power after both short and long-haul travel (-4.0%, ±3.2%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) with further reductions in peak and mean power posttournament (-4.5%, ±2.3% and -3.8%, ±1.5%) culminating in a moderate decrease in peak power overall (-7.4%, ±4.0%). A subset of 12 players (completing a minimum of 8 tournaments) had the effects of match running demands assessed with lower-body power. In this subset, long-haul travel elicited a large decrease in lower-body peak (-9.4%, ±3.5%) and mean power (-5.6%, ±2.9%) over the monitoring period, with a small decrease (-4.3%, ±3.0% and -2.2%, ±1.7%) posttravel and moderate decrease (-5.4%, ±2.5% and -3.5%, ±1.9%) posttournament, respectively. Match running demands were monitored through global positioning system. In long-haul tournaments, the 12 players covered ∼13%, ±13% greater total distance (meter) and ∼11%, ±10% higher average game meters >5 m·s when compared with short-haul (rugby sevens tournaments after long-haul travel.

  14. Evaluation of Reliability in Risk-Constrained Scheduling of Autonomous Microgrids with Demand Response and Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    Uncertain natures of the renewable energy resources and consumers’ participation in demand response (DR) programs have introduced new challenges to the energy and reserve scheduling of microgrids, particularly in the autonomous mode. In this paper, a risk-constrained stochastic framework...... by using conditional value at risk (CVaR) method. The influence of consumers’ participation in DR programs and their emergency load shedding for different values of lost load (VOLL) are then investigated on the expected profit of operator, CVaR, expected energy not served (EENS) and scheduled reserves...... of microgrid. Moreover, the impacts of different VOLL and risk aversion parameter are illustrated on the system reliability. Extensive simulation results are also presented to illustrate the impact of risk aversion on system security issues with and without DR. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages...

  15. Real-time pricing strategy of micro-grid energy centre considering price-based demand response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Gan

    2017-07-01

    With the development of energy conversion technology such as power to gas (P2G), fuel cell and so on, the coupling between energy sources becomes more and more closely. Centralized dispatch among electricity, natural gas and heat will become a trend. With the goal of maximizing the system revenue, this paper establishes the model of micro-grid energy centre based on energy hub. According to the proposed model, the real-time pricing strategy taking into account price-based demand response of load is developed. And the influence of real-time pricing strategy on the peak load shifting is discussed. In addition, the impact of wind power predicted inaccuracy on real-time pricing strategy is analysed.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  17. The impacts of climate on retailing in the UK with particular reference to the anomalously hot summer of 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, M. D.; Palutikof, J. P.

    1999-11-01

    The impacts on the UK retailing sector of the extreme climate of 1995 are analysed in the context of monthly climate conditions in the previous two decades. Over the period from November 1994 to October 1995, the mean monthly Central England temperature (CET) was 1.6°C above the 1961-1990 normal, the highest mean 12-month temperature since the CET records began in 1659. Retail activities are geared towards average conditions and are therefore affected in the short-term by any unexpected change in supply and demand. This study focuses on those areas of retailing where the responses to climate in terms of a change in consumer demand are most likely to be clear: first, clothing and footwear and, second, food and drink. Economic time series are extracted from official government publications (1972-1995). Stepwise multiple regressions are performed to assess the amount of variance in the retail series accounted for by monthly temperature, rainfall and sunshine indices.Statistically significant associations are found between retail and climate indices over the 1972-1995 study period, these are generally strongest in winter and spring, and weakest in summer. There is some indication of an increase in the climate-sensitivity of the retail series in unusually hot years. This may be a function of factors such as: just-in-time supply chains, refrigeration and changes in the trading environment. The anomalous climate of 1995 has the greatest economic impact on the clothing and footwear market, with extreme temperatures at the end of the summer associated with a decline in the market. An attempt is made to place a monetary value on the 1995 impacts. It is estimated that the clothing and footwear market sustained a loss of #383 million (1.7% of turnover). However, the extreme climate of 1995 brought gains to the beer and wine industries of #123 million (0.9% of turnover) and #11 million (0.2% of turnover), respectively, and a gain of approximately #25 million (1.8% of turnover

  18. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general structure of the sector was determined. Secondly, size of the global market, industry, and demand growth rate and the future status of the coffee retail industry were determined. Finally, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers of the sector were evaluated. According to the evaluation obtained, it was understood that coffee retailing is an attractive, large and dynamic sector. In the analysis according to the study of Porter’s five force model, important information was obtained for coffee retailing.

  19. Manufacturer's pricing strategies in cooperative and non-cooperative advertising supply chain under retail competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the manufacturer's pricing strategy in a supply chain with a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer, as a Stackelberg leader specifies wholesale prices to two retailers who face advertisement dependent demand. Based on this gaming structure, two mathematical models are developed - the cooperative advertising model where manufacturer shares a fraction of retailers' advertising costs and the non-cooperative advertising model where manufacturer does not share any retailer's advertising expenses. The optimal strategies of the manufacturer and retailers are determined and a numerical example is taken to illustrate the theoretical results derived. We show that cooperative advertising policy is beneficial not only for the participating entities but also for the entire supply chain.

  20. The geography of Internet adoption by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Atzema, O.A.L.C.; Frenken, K.; Kruif, K. de; Oort, F.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Up till now, the literature on Internet adoption by retailers paid little attention to spatial variables. Using data on 27,000 retail outlets in the Netherlands, we investigate the geographical diffusion of Internet adoption by Dutch retailers. More precise, we examine to what extent retail

  1. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the retail inventory method, the retail selling price of ending inventory is converted to approximate... denominator is the retail selling prices of beginning inventories plus the initial retail selling prices of...

  2. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a good...

  3. Understanding the responses of precipitation, evaporative demand, and terrestrial water availability to planetary temperature in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Jacob

    In many models of land hydrology, precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET, a.k.a. evaporative demand) are the main inputs that determine actual evapotranspiration, runoff, soil moisture, and aridity or drought. In the first three chapters of this work, we attempt to understand the robust subtropical P declines, planet-wide PET increases, and widespread P/PET declines projected under strong greenhouse warming in CMIP5, a large suite of global climate models (GCMs). Motivated by the apparent absence of this aridification during past greenhouse eras (and the apparent aridity of the ice ages), in the final chapter we use a very simple land model coupled to an atmospheric GCM and a slab ocean to evaluate the relevance and robustness of the P/PET responses to warming across a wide range of boundary conditions and modeling choices. In the CMIP5 projections, robust P declines are almost entirely found within the equator-side flanks and extensions of the model extratropical P belts (including both dry and wet regions), not in the centers of the subtropical dry zones nor on the dry margins of the tropical wet belts. This implies that they are primarily caused by the dynamic poleward retreat of extratropically driven P, not by the thermodynamic increase in dry-zone moisture divergence (which occurs largely as an evaporation increase.) The robust P declines are largely found over the oceans and intersect land only in certain regions; most land locations see non-robust changes in P or robust increases in P. On the other hand, Penman-Monteith PET robustly increases everywhere on land, usually by a low double-digit percentage. This is because the simulated Penman-Monteith PET response is almost always dominated by the response to the local warming itself, not by the responses to concurrent changes in surface radiation, relative humidity (RH), or wind speed. For given values of the latter three variables, warming increases the numerator of the Penman

  4. Norovirus in retail shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, V; Martella, V; Moschidou, P; Di Pinto, P; Tantillo, G; Buonavoglia, C

    2010-02-01

    Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections worldwide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Bivalve molluscs (mussels, clams and oysters) at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled between 2005 and 2008 in several retail points in Apulia, Italy, and screened by a semi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 12.1% of the samples, with lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8.1%) rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (17.6% and 16.2%, respectively). By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variants GII.4/2004 and GII.b/Hilversum, which were both circulating in Italy in the same time-span.

  5. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  6. Retailer buying: A paradigmatic critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The paradigmatic anchoring of research determines for the researcher the nature of reality, what can be known about it and how it can be known. Previous research on retail buying has been anchored in post-positivism. A number of shortcomings resulting from this anchoring are identified which, taken...... together, are interpreted to have let to neglecting the notion of meaning in existing research. It is argued that taking a constructivist perspective can help overcome the limitations of previous research and contribute to the development of an understanding of retailer buying as meaningful action.......retailer buying, literature review, research paradigms...

  7. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6 response to high-volume mechanically demanding exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbickas, Vaidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Brazaitis, Marius; Satkunskiene, Danguole; Unikauskas, Alvydas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in response to severe muscle-damaging exercise. Young healthy men (N = 10) performed a bout of mechanically demanding stretch-shortening cycle exercise consisting of 200 drop jumps. Voluntary and electrically induced knee extension torque, serum BDNF levels, and IL-6 levels were measured before and for up to 7 days after exercise. Muscle force decreased by up to 40% and did not recover by 24 hours after exercise. Serum BDNF was decreased 1 hour and 24 hours after exercise, whereas IL-6 increased immediately and 1 hour after but recovered to baseline by 24 hours after exercise. IL-6 and 100-Hz stimulation torque were correlated (r = -0.64, P < 0.05) 24 hours after exercise. In response to acute, severe muscle-damaging exercise, serum BDNF levels decrease, whereas IL-6 levels increase and are associated with peripheral fatigue. Muscle Nerve 57: E46-E51, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rural tourism retail : Tourism retail in the rural Westfjords (Iceland)

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsdottir, Viktoria Ran

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Rural tourism and service quality of Icelandic retailers is of focal attention in this research. The catapulting rise of the Icelandic tourism industry, is forcing rural retailers to rapidly adapt new managerial strategies. A better understanding of perceived service quality is required, and especially the differences of the two target markets, local and tourist customer. Plus, whether there is a relationship between perceived s...

  9. Strategic alignment of the South African retail sector with the national development plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of the strategy alignment of the South African retail sector with the National Development Plan (NDP governance values and objectives. The paper considers the commercial realities which form the framework for retail decision-makers when they address the challenges in aligning their business growth strategies with the regulatory framework of a capable, developmental state. Within that context, the outcomes of a retail stakeholder alignment study of the NDP strategy themes are analysed. The method involved a policy survey of a purposive sample of retail business and governance stakeholders. The survey findings reflect retailer alignment with many NDP regulatory and ‘active citizenry’ strategies, but with strong beliefs that others are not the retail business sector’s governance responsibility.

  10. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics ofCustomer-Sited PV: A Study of Commercial Installations inCalifornia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-06-01

    We analyze the impact of retail rate design on the economics of grid-connected commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems in California. The analysis is based on 15-minute interval building load and PV production data for 24 commercial PV installations in California, spanning a diverse set of building load shapes and geographic locations. We derive the annual bill savings per kWh generated for each PV system, under each of 21 distinct retail rates currently offered by the five largest utilities in California. We identify and explain variation in the value of bill savings attributable to differences in the structure of demand and energy charges across rates, as well as variation attributable to other factors, such as the size of the PV system relative to building load, the specific shape of the PV production profile, and the customer load profile. We also identify the optimal rate for each customer, among those rates offered as alternatives to one another, and show how the decision is driven in large measure by the size of the PV system relative to building load. The findings reported here may be of value to regulators and utilities responsible for designing retail rates, as well as to customers and PV retailers who have a need to estimate the prospective bill savings of PV systems.

  11. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    E.Dursun; M.O. Azabagaoglu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, ...

  12. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  13. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues.

  14. The Impact of Retail Formats on the Development of Food Retailing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sreten Cuzovic; Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic; Djordje Cuzovic

    2017-01-01

      The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of retail formats and their impact on the development of food retailing, through empirical testing of the largest food retailers within...

  15. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P effect (P fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. CHANGES IN RETAIL FOOD DELIVERY: SIGNALS FOR PRODUCERS, PROCESSORS AND DISTRIBUTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.; Senauer, Benjamin; King, Robert P.; Phumpiu, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains two chapters related to changes in retail food delivery and sales. The first discusses trends in consumer demographics and lifestyles and how these continue to drive changes in the way food is prepared and delivered to consumers. Retail stores are responding with new formats: providing more ready to eat foods; more convenient store layouts; lower prices and better service in niche markets across the country. Their demands send signals up the food chain to processors and pr...

  17. SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL CONSUMERS OF RETAIL TRADING SERVICES OF POPULATION OF IZHEVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Sokolova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social trends and preferences of potential consumer of retail services when selling food products in Izhevsk, based on the data of marketing research are being studied. Sectional analysis for the given market is held. The trend of selected market section is described. The article contains the calculation of total market demand for retail trading services in Izhevsk for a moment in 2008.

  18. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  19. An econometric analysis of electricity demand response to price changes at the intra-day horizon: The case of manufacturing industry in West Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Framroze Møller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy implies a more variable supply of power. Market efficiency may improve if demand can absorb some of this variability by being more flexible, e.g. by responding quickly to changes in the market price of power. To learn about this, in particular, whether demand responds already within the same day, we suggest an econometric model for hourly consumption- and price time series. This allows for multi-level seasonality and that information about day-ahead prices does not arrive every hour but every 24th hour (as a vector of 24 prices. We confront the model with data from the manufacturing industry of West Denmark (2007-2011. The results clearly suggest a lack of response. The policy implication is that relying exclusively on hourly price response by consumers for integrating volatile renewable electricity production is questionable. Either hourly price variation has to increase considerably or demand response technologies be installed.

  20. Two-echelon competitive integrated supply chain model with price and credit period dependent demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2016-04-01

    This study considers a two-echelon competitive supply chain consisting of two rivaling retailers and one common supplier with trade credit policy. The retailers hope that they can enhance their market demand by offering a credit period to the customers and the supplier also offers a credit period to the retailers. We assume that the market demand of the products of one retailer depends not only on their own market price and offering a credit period to the customers, but also on the market price and offering a credit period of the other retailer. The supplier supplies the product with a common wholesale price and offers the same credit period to the retailers. We study the model under a centralised (integrated) case and a decentralised (Vertical Nash) case and compare them numerically. Finally, we investigate the model by the collected numerical data.

  1. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Niamh [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    In the context of future power system requirements for additional flexibility, demand response (DR) is an attractive potential resource. Its proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency. In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models. The work described in this report focuses on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, we contribute a bottom-up methodology for modeling load-shifting DR in production cost models. The resulting model is sufficiently detailed to reflect the physical characteristics and constraints of the underlying flexible load, and includes the possibility of capturing diurnal and seasonal variations in the resource. Nonetheless, the model is of low complexity and thus suitable for inclusion in conventional unit commitment and market clearing algorithms. The ability to simulate DR as an operational resource on a power system over a year facilitates an assessment of its time-varying value to the power system.

  2. Modeling and optimization of oil refinery wastewater chemical oxygen demand removal in dissolved air flotation system by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yasser vasseghian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this present study the dissolved air flotation (DAF system was investigated for the treatment of Kermanshah Oil Refinery wastewater. The effect of three parameters on flotation efficiency including of flow rate (outflow from the flotation tank, saturation pressure and coagulant dosage on chemical oxygen demand (COD removal was examined experimentally. All the experiments were done under a certain time (in this case 3 min. After final testing maximum COD removal efficiency was obtained 67.86%. In the next step of study, response surface method (RSM was applied to model oil refinery wastewater COD removal as a function of flow rate, saturation pressure and coagulant dosage. Coefficient of determination, R2, showed that the RSM model can explain the variation with the accuracy of 0.996, indicating there was strong correlation. Moreover, process optimization were performed to predict the best operating conditions using RSM method, which resulted in the maximum COD removal of the oil refinery wastewater. The maximum COD removal of oil refinery wastewater was estimated by RSM to be 67.87% under the operational conditions of flow rate (3.76 – 3.86 L/min, saturation pressure (4.99 - 5bar and coagulant dosage (24.16 – 24.79 mg/L.

  3. A Time-Varying Potential-Based Demand Response Method for Mitigating the Impacts of Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of wind power results in wind power forecasting errors (WPFE which lead to difficulties in formulating dispatching strategies to maintain the power balance. Demand response (DR is a promising tool to balance power by alleviating the impact of WPFE. This paper offers a control method of combining DR and automatic generation control (AGC units to smooth the system’s imbalance, considering the real-time DR potential (DRP and security constraints. A schematic diagram is proposed from the perspective of a dispatching center that manages smart appliances including air conditioner (AC, water heater (WH, electric vehicle (EV loads, and AGC units to maximize the wind accommodation. The presented model schedules the AC, WH, and EV loads without compromising the consumers’ comfort preferences. Meanwhile, the ramp constraint of generators and power flow transmission constraint are considered to guarantee the safety and stability of the power system. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations are performed in an IEEE 24-node system. The results indicate that considerable benefits can be realized by coordinating the DR and AGC units to mitigate the WPFE impacts.

  4. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  5. Demand response strategy management with active and reactive power incentive in the smart grid: a two-level optimization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuto Shigenobu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of distributed generators (DGs using renewable energy sources (RESs is raising some important issues in the operation of modern po­wer system. The output power of RESs fluctuates very steeply, and that include uncertainty with weather conditions. This situation causes voltage deviation and reverse power flow. Several methods have been proposed for solving these problems. Fundamentally, these methods involve reactive power control for voltage deviation and/or the installation of large battery energy storage system (BESS at the interconnection point for reverse power flow. In order to reduce the installation cost of static var compensator (SVC, Distribution Company (DisCo gives reactive power incentive to the cooperating customers. On the other hand, photovoltaic (PV generator, energy storage and electric vehicle (EV are introduced in customer side with the aim of achieving zero net energy homes (ZEHs. This paper proposes not only reactive power control but also active power flow control using house BESS and EV. Moreover, incentive method is proposed to promote participation of customers in the control operation. Demand response (DR system is verified with several DR menu. To create profit for both side of DisCo and customer, two level optimization approach is executed in this research. Mathematical modeling of price elasticity and detailed simulations are executed by case study. The effectiveness of the proposed incentive menu is demonstrated by using heuristic optimization method.

  6. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  7. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Palomar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems’ architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS, which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT, i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  8. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan

    2016-10-28

    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems' architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  9. Fostering Residential Demand Response through Dynamic Pricing Schemes: A Behavioural Review of Smart Grid Pilots in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Kessels

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many smart grid projects make use of dynamic pricing schemes aimed to motivate consumers to shift and/or decrease energy use. Based upon existing literature and analyses of current smart grid projects, this survey paper presents key lessons on how to encourage households to adjust energy end use by means of dynamic tariffs. The paper identifies four key hypotheses related to fostering demand response through dynamic tariff schemes and examines whether these hypotheses can be accepted or rejected based on a review of published findings from a range of European pilot projects. We conclude that dynamic pricing schemes have the power to adjust energy consumption behavior within households. In order to work effectively, the dynamic tariff should be simple to understand for the end users, with timely notifications of price changes, a considerable effect on their energy bill and, if the tariff is more complex, the burden for the consumer could be eased by introducing automated control. Although sometimes the mere introduction of a dynamic tariff has proven to be effective, often the success of the pricing scheme depends also on other factors influencing the behavior of end users. An important condition to make dynamic tariffs work is that the end users should be engaged with them.

  10. Who Wants to Be an E-tailpreneur? Experiences from an Electronic Retailing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana; Mukherjee, Avinandan; McGinnis, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the experiences of developing a new hands-on marketing course. The objective of the course was to simulate the real-world scenario of starting an online retailing business and let students become entrepreneurs. Students were challenged to assimilate and apply relevant e-retailing knowledge while being responsible for designing,…

  11. Individual differences in oscillatory brain activity in response to varying attentional demands during a word recall and oculomotor dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusang eKwon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we face situations that involve multi-tasking. How our brain utilizes cortical resources during multi-tasking is one of many interesting research topics. In this study, we tested whether a dual-task can be differentiated in the neural and behavioral responses of healthy subjects with varying degree of working memory capacity (WMC. We combined word recall and oculomotor tasks because they incorporate common neural networks including the fronto-parietal (FP network. Three different types of oculomotor tasks (eye fixation; Fix-EM, predictive & random smooth pursuit eye movement; P-SPEM & R-SPEM were combined with two memory load levels (low-load: 5 words, high-load: 10 words for a word recall task. Each of those dual-task combinations was supposed to create varying cognitive loads on the FP network. We hypothesize that each dual-task requires different cognitive strategies for allocating the brain’s limited cortical resources and affects brain oscillation of the FP network. In addition, we hypothesized that groups with different WMC will show differential neural and behavioral responses. We measured oscillatory brain activity with simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings and behavioral performance by word recall. Prominent frontal midline (FM theta (4-6 Hz synchronization emerged in the EEG of the high-WMC group experiencing R-SPEM with high-load conditions during the early phase of the word maintenance period. Conversely, significant parietal upper alpha (10-12 Hz desynchronization was observed in the EEG and MEG of the low-WMC group experiencing P-SPEM under high-load conditions during the same period. Different brain oscillatory patterns seem to depend on each individual’s WMC and varying attentional demands from different dual-task combinations. These findings suggest that specific brain oscillations may reflect different strategies for allocating cortical resources during combined word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks.

  12. Identification of Value Proposition and Development of Innovative Business Models for Demand Response Products and Services Enabled by the DR-BOB Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sisinni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presented is the result of an ongoing European H2020 project entitled DR-BOB Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings (DR-BOB that seeks to integrate existing technologies to create a scalable solution for Demand Response (DR in blocks of buildings. In most EU countries, DR programs are currently limited to the industrial sector and to direct asset control. The DR-BOB solution extends applicability to the building sector, providing predictive building management in blocks of buildings, enabling facilities managers to respond to implicit and explicit DR schemes, and enabling the aggregation of the DR potential of many blocks of buildings for use in demand response markets. The solution consists of three main components: the Local Energy Manager (LEM, which adds intelligence and provides the capacity for predictive building management in blocks of buildings, a Consumer Portal (CP to enable building managers and building occupants to interact with the system and be engaged in demand response operations, and a Decentralized Energy Management System (DEMS®, Siemens plc, Nottingham, England, UK, which enables the aggregation of the DR potential of many blocks of buildings, thus allowing participation in incentive-based demand response with or without an aggregator. The paper reports the key results around Business Modelling development for demand response products and services enabled by the DR-BOB solution. The scope is threefold: (1 illustrate how the functionality of the demand response solution can provide value proposition to underpin its exploitation by four specific customer segments, namely aggregators and three types of Owners of Blocks of Buildings in different market conditions, (2 explore key aspects of the Business Model from the point of view of a demand response solution provider, in particular around most the suitable revenue stream and key partnership, and (3 assess the importance of key variables such as market maturity, user

  13. Trends in food packaging: Arising opportunities and shifting demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerding, T.K.; Rijk, M.A.H.; Jetten, J.; Berg, F. van den; Kruijf, N. de

    1996-01-01

    Packaging foodstuffs is a dynamic process which continually has to respond to the changes in supply and demand which are the result of adaptations to the varying demands of the consumer, changes in retail practices, technological innovations, new materials and developments in legislation, especially

  14. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  15. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    More and more, it is acknowledged that a company's success depends on it being capable of complying with the market's demands and wishes. It is, however, not always obvious, how the individual company will be able to meet the market's demands. A recent MAPP study has investigated this topic...... and identified a number of central market demands, which Danish food companies are faced with. Moreover, the study has identified which competencies are required to meet these demands and have also looked at howsuccessful companies structure some of these competencies. The study takes its point of departure...... in a literature review of MAPP's research. Results show that there are 27 central market demands, retail and consumer demands that Danish companies ought to be able to live up to. The study has also identified which competencies food companies must possess to be able to meet market's demands. Results from three...

  16. Determinants of retail trade in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Benazić, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that retail trade is one of the most important parts of any economy. Retail trade is also a very important component of GDP, whereby rising retail trade means a growth in consumption and a fall in unemployment. Therefore, policy makers must be able to recognise how changes in economic variables affect changes in retail trade. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effects of changes in retail prices, net wages and short-term interest rate on nominal retail trade in ...

  17. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  18. Retail shopping typology of American teens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeale, Michael; Lueg, Jason E

    2011-01-01

    .... Therefore, marketers need the ability to divide this teen market into unique segments. In this study, the authors develop a psychographic retail shopping typology of American teens' retail channel preferences depending on levels of self-esteem (SE...

  19. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  20. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-01-01

    This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers...

  1. Training in the Retail Trade in Spain. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Vigo, Marisa

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Spain. Employment, work, and training patterns in Spain's retail sector were researched, and case studies of five retail firms were conducted. Two retailers were too small to afford their own training organization but had formulated personnel policies providing for training. The third case was a…

  2. The retail store managers' role: Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zairis, A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the retail manager's role is determinant for a store's performance, and there is abundant wisdom about how to be an outstanding manager or what are the characteristics of a successful retail manager, there is no detailed description about the store managers' role or their actual work. Furthermore, the continuous developments in the retail sector have established different roles and created higher levels of responsibility for store managers. The aim of the present paper is to empirically investigate the role of retail store managers in Greece and identify any potential differences in terms of personal characteristics, tasks and various job-related factors. For the purposes of this research a survey was conducted focusing on the sectors of apparel/footwear and food, in an attempt to explore any potential differences within the two divisions. The results revealed the profile of the Greek store managers (male, over the age of 40, with a secondary level of education and more than five years of work experience and their multi-factor role. The three major roles that they perform were labeled as: sales oriented, supervisor, and customer experience oriented. The research also indicated that the two most popular sub-sectors in the Greek retail industry employ different profile managers. The issues of work experience, job satisfaction and security were also analysed.

  3. Innovation in Hospital Revenues: Developing Retail Sales Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward W; Marvel, Jon; Wright, Matthew K

    2017-12-20

    Hospitals are facing increasing cost pressures due to cutbacks by Medicare, Medicaid, and managed-care organizations. There are also rising concerns that public policy may exacerbate the problem. In lieu of these concerns, nascent innovative ways of generating increased revenues are beginning to appear. In particular, a few hospitals have adopted retail sales practices to generate significant nonmedical services revenues. The hospital retail sales opportunity has been compared with that of the airport industry where nearly 50% of revenues are generated by sales of retail products as opposed to aeronautical-related transactions. This initial investigation included a qualitative interview of a health care retail sales expert and a pilot survey of 100 hospital senior executives to gauge the current state of this phenomenon. The industry expert suggested that only 2% of US hospitals have pursued this initiative in a meaningful way. Of the 44 survey responses, only 9 institutions were engaged in e-commerce or retail sales activities. Questions remain as to why this opportunity remains unrealized, and additional research is proposed.

  4. Retailers' Multichannel and Price Advertising Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xubing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Online retailing boasts two major advantages: convenience of home shopping and easy access to information. In this paper, I argue that these two features have important implications for retailers' channel and advertising decisions. Two major questions are addressed: When should a conventional bricks-and-mortar retailer adopt a multichannel strategy? When should a multichannel retailer use its website to advertise offline prices? Analysis shows that the answers hinge on the nature of the produ...

  5. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Judith

    researcher and recipient relationship, specific to technology transfer. In this research, the evaluation criteria of several research organizations were assessed to understand the extent to which the success attributes that were identified in literature were considered when reviewing research proposals. While some of the organizations included a few of the success attributes, none of the organizations considered all of the attributes. In addition, none of the organizations quantified the value of the success attributes. The effectiveness of the model relies extensively on expert judgments to complete the model validation and quantification. Subject matter experts ranging from senior executives with extensive experience in technology transfer to principal research investigators from national labs, universities, utilities, and non-profit research organizations were used to ensure a comprehensive and cross-functional validation and quantification of the decision model. The quantified model was validated using a case study involving demand response (DR) technology proposals in the Pacific Northwest. The DR technologies were selected based on their potential to solve some of the region's most prevalent issues. In addition, several sensitivity scenarios were developed to test the model's response to extreme case scenarios, impact of perturbations in expert responses, and if it can be applied to other than demand response technologies. In other words, is the model technology agnostic? In addition, the flexibility of the model to be used as a tool for communicating which success attributes in a research proposal are deficient and need strengthening and how improvements would increase the overall technology transfer score were assessed. The low scoring success attributes in the case study proposals (e.g. project meetings, etc.) were clearly identified as the areas to be improved for increasing the technology transfer score. As a communication tool, the model could help a research

  6. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  7. RESPONSABILIDADE AMBIENTAL E LEALDADE DE CLIENTES EM BANCO DE VAREJO/Environmental responsability and customers loyalty in retail bank/Responsabilidad ambiental y lealtad de clientes en banco de comercio minorista

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Michel Finazzi Santos; Rafael Barreiros Porto

    2014-01-01

    .... An empirical study of a descriptive nature was developed. Its data was collected by means of a survey sample of 914 checking account holders from a retail bank in Brazil and analyzed by Structural Eguation Modelling technigue...

  8. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  9. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) issued a retail forex rule for persons subject to its... trading strategies; or (iii) the customer employs different trading strategies in one account and applies... transactions is trading as principal, by definition, when the retail forex customer loses money on a retail...

  10. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... of the retail forex business is consistent with the institution's overall strategy; (4) a description... customer could be liable for additional losses. Given the risks involved in the trading of retail forex... regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an...

  11. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... section is as follows: Risk Disclosure Statement Retail forex transactions involve the leveraged trading... margin for retail forex trading. You may lose more than you pledge as margin. If your margin falls below... before determining whether retail forex trading is appropriate for you. (1) Trading is not on a regulated...

  12. Advancing the retail endgame: public perceptions of retail policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Gregor; Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet

    2014-03-01

    Evidence that exposure to tobacco 'powerwalls' increases young people's susceptibility to smoking has led many countries to require the removal of these displays. Despite this important step, tobacco remains widely available and policy action appears to have stalled. We conducted an online survey of 364 smokers and 402 non-smokers aged 18 years and above, who were sampled from a commercial internet panel in January 2013. Six months after the removal of all tobacco products from open display in New Zealand retail outlets, strong support for the new law exists. Although daily smokers were less supportive than other groups, smokers intending to quit within the next 6 months were more likely than not to believe the law would facilitate quitting. Irrespective of their smoking status, respondents supported not selling tobacco products within 500 m of a school, and requiring tobacco retailers to sell nicotine replacement therapy products. Public support for more progressive 'endgame' retail measures could catalyse policy action which, in turn, could offer greater protection to young people and accelerate declines in smoking prevalence. Mandatory tobacco-free retail zones around schools, and requiring stores selling tobacco to stock cessation products received strong support, even among daily smokers; both measures would reduce youth exposure to tobacco while providing smokers with better access to cessation aids.

  13. Optimal Ordering and Pricing Policies for Seasonal Products: Impacts of Demand Uncertainty and Capital Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhao Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a stochastic price-dependent market demand, this paper investigates how demand uncertainty and capital constraint affect retailer’s integrated ordering and pricing policies towards seasonal products. The retailer with capital constraint is normalized to be with zero capital endowment while it can be financed by an external bank. The problems are studied under a low and high demand uncertainty scenario, respectively. Results show that when demand uncertainty level is relatively low, the retailer faced with demand uncertainty always sets a lower price than the riskless one, while its order quantity may be smaller or larger than the riskless retailer’s which depends on the level of market size. When adding a capital constraint, the retailer will strictly prefer a higher price but smaller quantity policy. However, in a high demand uncertainty scenario, the impacts are more intricate. The retailer faced with demand uncertainty will always order a larger quantity than the riskless one if demand uncertainty level is high enough (above a critical value, while the capital-constrained retailer is likely to set a lower price than the well-funded one when demand uncertainty level falls within a specific interval. Therefore, it can be further concluded that the impact of capital constraint on the retailer’s pricing decision can be influenced by different demand uncertainty levels.

  14. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds’ Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M.; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children’s ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children’s processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children’s processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children’s performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children’s performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character’s false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children’s performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task

  15. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds' Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children's ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children's processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children's processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children's performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children's performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character's false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children's performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task involves an elicited

  16. Stochastic Pricing and Order Model with Transportation Mode Selection for Low-Carbon Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more enterprises have begun to pay attention to their carbon footprint in the supply chain, of which transportation has become the second major source of carbon emissions. This paper aims to study both optimum pricing and order quantities, considering consumer demand and the selection of transportation modes by retailers, in terms of carbon emissions sensitivity and price sensitivity under the conditions of a cap-and-trade policy and uncertain market demand. Firstly, we analyze the effects of transportation mode (including transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions, initial emissions allowances, carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions on the optimum decisions and profits of retailers. The results demonstrate that when consumers are less sensitive to price, the optimum retail price and the optimum order quantity of products are proportional to the transportation cost and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price as well as consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. However, when consumers are highly sensitive to price, the optimum order quantity of products is inversely proportional to the transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. In addition, the optimum retail price of products is inversely proportional to consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. We also find that retailers prefer a low-carbon transportation mode when the carbon emissions trading price is high. Meanwhile, the carbon emissions trading price influences the carbon emissions trading volume of retailers. These theoretical findings are further validated by some numerical analysis.

  17. ICT in the retail in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Hes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides agricultural primary production, the food industry and all other branches of the economy /services/ it is the information and communication technology used in retail that is one of the factors that markedly influence food retail. Therefore it is necessary to analyse the effect of electronic tran­sa­ctions that are used by food retail to attract and acquire other target groups of the consumers purchasing food. Though globally the retail companies (for ex. in Great Britain invest in this technology heavily in order to increase their competitiveness on the market the food e-business in the Czech Republic has been more or less stagnating, though the recent years have been showing slight increase of interest in this form of shopping. This article identifies both the positive and the negative reasons of this situation. The technological level of computer network and its high accessibility proven by the fact that the vast majority of consumers can use internet for purchasing any kind of goods incl. food can be considered the positive reason. On the other hand the poor offer of food presented on the internet by retailers who – for fear of low demand for other kinds of food – focus mainly on be­ve­rages and dry food can be considered one of the negatives. The weakest point here is the timely delivery of goods in unchanged quality. Despite these facts the purchasing of food via internet can still serve well for busy or handicapped customers with limited mobility.

  18. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...

  19. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  20. Urban Demand Responsive Transport in the Mobility as a Service Ecosystem: Its Role and Potential Market Share

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso González, M.J.; van Oort, N.; Cats, O.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is entering the transportation market. MaaS aims at the full integration of the existing transportation services and it offers tailored mobility packages to the user. In MaaS ecosystems, on-demand services play an important role as complement to public transport due to

  1. Does Practicing CSR Makes Consumers Like Your Shop More? Consumer-Retailer Love Mediates CSR and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This research paper was designed to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations and environmental concerns on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer, as well as the subsequent effects on consumer behavioral intentions regarding the retailer, such as repeat patronage intention and willingness to pay a premium price for products offered by the retailer. In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on consumers for the purpose of investigating five proposed hypotheses. This research applied partial least squares (PLS) to exam the hypotheses and analyze the data. The findings of this research indicated that CSR association and environmental concern both have positive effects on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer. Also, the results showed that consumer-retailer love has a significantly positive effect on consumer attitude towards the retailer. This paper establishes that consumer-retailer love and attitude toward a retailer are main mediators of the relationship between CSR associations, environmental concern, and consumer behavioral intentions. PMID:29231873

  2. Does Practicing CSR Makes Consumers Like Your Shop More? Consumer-Retailer Love Mediates CSR and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Wei

    2017-12-12

    This research paper was designed to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations and environmental concerns on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer, as well as the subsequent effects on consumer behavioral intentions regarding the retailer, such as repeat patronage intention and willingness to pay a premium price for products offered by the retailer. In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on consumers for the purpose of investigating five proposed hypotheses. This research applied partial least squares (PLS) to exam the hypotheses and analyze the data. The findings of this research indicated that CSR association and environmental concern both have positive effects on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer. Also, the results showed that consumer-retailer love has a significantly positive effect on consumer attitude towards the retailer. This paper establishes that consumer-retailer love and attitude toward a retailer are main mediators of the relationship between CSR associations, environmental concern, and consumer behavioral intentions.

  3. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of pork products: The attributes, consequences and values sought by buyers of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    2001-01-01

    It is a fact that creating value for customers - in the eyes of the customers - is a very important source of competitive advantage. So far no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, we propose a definition of 'retailer value' built on a solid theoretical...... in values implies. Both issues are relevant to the development of the retail buying behaviour theory. The results also suggest ways for a manufacturer to improve his marketing and product development to accommodate the demands of the retail buyer in order to gain access to the consumer market....

  4. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... important. Product quality comes in third followed by trustworthiness of the supplier and marketing support offered. Price and quality plus marketing support offered seem to be relatively more important to wholesalers than retailers. The majority of Eastern European retailers use central buying departments....... Only a minority combine local and central buying. Apparently, buying functions are organised differently in the Baltic countries than in the Central European countries. This seems partly to be attributable to size differentials as Baltic retail chains are smaller than Central European retailers...

  5. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Restructuring Electricity Markets when Demand is Uncertain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of reorganizing electricity markets on capacity investments, retail prices and welfare when demand is uncertain. We study the following market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly with wholesale...... are such that the separated (integrated) duopoly with wholesale trade performs best (worst) in terms of welfare.Keywords: Electricity, Investments, Generating Capacities, Vertical Integration, Monopoly and Competition.JEL-Classification: D42, D43, D44, L11, L12, L13...

  7. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. Methods An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. Results How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. Conclusions The development of hospital leaders’ skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. PMID:26683885

  8. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Susan; Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-04-01

    Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. The development of hospital leaders' skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The international coffee price and its effect on the retail price\tfor\tthe\tfive\tmain\tcities\tin\tColombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Alonso Cifuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the international coffee price and retail coffee prices in the five main cities in Colombia through cointegration tests, Granger causality tests, and impulse-response functions. The evidence points to the existence of a long-term relationship between the retail prices in the five main cities and the world coffee price. This relationship has a unidirectional causality of international coffee prices to retail coffee prices.The magnitude of the transmission of the international global price remains for 36 months or more for most retail coffee prices.

  10. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  11. Analysing the effectiveness of vendor-managed inventory in a single-warehouse, multiple-retailer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Kamarul Irwan Abdul; Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Limère, Veronique; Raa, Birger

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers a two-stage supply chain, consisting of a single warehouse and multiple retailers facing deterministic demands, under a vendor-managed inventory (VMI) policy. It presents a two-phase optimisation approach for coordinating the shipments in this VMI system. The first phase uses direct shipping from the supplier to all retailers to minimise the overall inventory costs. Then, in the second phase, the retailers are clustered using a construction heuristic in order to optimise the transportation costs while satisfying some additional restrictions. The improvement of the system's performance through coordinated VMI replenishments against the system with direct shipping only is shown and discussed in the comparative analysis section.

  12. Determinants of Aggregate Employment: An Example of the Food Retail and the Hotel and Catering Sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Kleijweg; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the explanation of aggregate employment in the service industries. A theoretical labour-demand relation is discussed briefly. In this relation the effect of average production scale is included. Empirical illustrations are given using Dutch data of the food retail

  13. Where's the beef? Retail channel choice and beef preferences in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Florencia; Ortega, David L

    2017-11-01

    Argentinean beef is recognized and demanded internationally. Locally, consumers are often unable to afford certified beef products, and may rely on external cues to determine beef quality. Uncovering demand for beef attributes and marketing them accordingly, may require an understanding of consumers' product purchasing strategies, which involves retailer choice. We develop a framework utilizing latent class analysis to identify consumer groups with different retailer preferences, and separately estimate their demand for beef product attributes. This framework accounts for the interrelationship between consumers' choice of retail outlets and beef product preferences. Our analysis of data from the city of Buenos Aires identifies two groups of consumers, a convenience- (67%) and a service- (33%) oriented group. We find significant differences in demand for beef attributes across these groups, and find that the service oriented group, while not willing to pay for credence attributes, relies on a service-providing retailer-namely a butcher-as a source of product quality assurance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. EFFECT OF GENERIC PROMOTION OF FLOWERS ON THE USE OF RETAIL FLOWER OUTLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Ward, Ronald W.

    1998-01-01

    AIDs demand models are used to test if the generic promotion of fresh-cut flowers influenced the market shares for florists, supermarkets, and other retail outlets. Were the generic efforts outlet neutral? Generic promotions of fresh-cut flowers is shown to be outlet neutral while the brand advertising increased florists' market share.

  15. Retail jobs in the Netherlands: low pay in a context of long-term wage moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Salverda, W.; Tijdens, K.

    2009-01-01

    Wage moderation has been at the heart of the Netherlands' model of socio-economic governance since the 1980s. Low-paid employment has grown significantly, lower wages being constrained by declining minimum wages. Lagging incomes and consumption have depressed demand in retail, whose workforce -

  16. The Features of Formation of Supply Chains of Retail Trade Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochubei Dmytro V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the features of functioning of retail trade enterprises in supply chains; boundaries and dimensions of the supply chain of retail trade enterprise have been defined; a differentiation of methods for managing and assessing the efficiency of supply chain of retail trade enterprise has been proposed. The leading role of the logistic service of retail trade enterprises in generating service flows in terms of supply chain has been defined. The concept of supply chain driven by demand has been considered; the prospect for application of this approach in order to ensure the sustainable competitive advantages for retail trade enterprise has been identified. In order to assess the results of management of supply chain, it is proposed to combine the assessment system of the supply of enterprise and the assessment system of the logistic service provided to consumers of the retail trade enterprise. The scientific and practical usefulness of the proposed approach lies in the ability of the enterprise to better reflect the logistical partnership with the parties in the supply chain and to achieve maximum efficiency in its management.

  17. Quantifying Retail Agglomeration using Diverse Spatial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Duccio; Zachariadis, Vassilis; Batty, Michael

    2017-07-14

    Newly available data on the spatial distribution of retail activities in cities makes it possible to build models formalized at the level of the single retailer. Current models tackle consumer location choices at an aggregate level and the opportunity new data offers for modeling at the retail unit level lacks an appropriate theoretical framework. The model we present here helps to address these issues. Based on random utility theory, we have built it around the idea of quantifying the role of floor-space and agglomeration in retail location choice. We test this model on the inner area of Greater London. The results are consistent with a super linear scaling of a retailer's attractiveness with its floorspace, and with an agglomeration effect approximated as the total retail floorspace within a 300 m radius from each shop. Our model illustrates many of the issues involved in testing and validating urban simulation models involving spatial data and its aggregation to different spatial scales.

  18. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  19. Shopper marketing strategy in food retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogetić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading role of retailers in food industry marketing channels significantly contributes to shopper marketing affirmation. Shopper marketing is a new marketing paradigm which focuses on the shopper and point-of-sale. Results of thorough literature review on shopper marketing have been presented in this paper. In addition, research methodology includes surveying 1000 shoppers in food retail stores in Belgrade area. The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary. Significant research finding is that shoppers' perceptions in food retail market require a profiled approach to retail store strategy adjustments, which includes shopper marketing programs and activities. The paper opens a number of questions regarding possible approaches to shopper marketing by crisscrossing the variables of retail formats, sex, and shoppers' income categories.

  20. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyers...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. In contrast, this project views retailer...... buying behaviour as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim is to gain an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide....