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Sample records for retail chicken samples

  1. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive sampling techniques of retail chicken carcasses for enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms.

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    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; de Almeida, Michelle Vieira; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The type of sampling technique used to obtain food samples is fundamental to the success of microbiological analysis. Destructive and nondestructive techniques, such as tissue excision and rinsing, respectively, are widely employed in obtaining samples from chicken carcasses. In this study, four sampling techniques used for chicken carcasses were compared to evaluate their performances in the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms. Sixty fresh chicken carcasses were sampled by rinsing, tissue excision, superficial swabbing, and skin excision. All samples were submitted for enumeration of mesophilic aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The results were compared to determine the statistical significance of differences and correlation (P sampling techniques evaluated for most of the hygiene indicators. Despite presenting a higher recovery ability, tissue excision did not present significant differences for microorganism enumeration compared with other nondestructive techniques, such as rinsing, indicating its adequacy for microbiological analysis of chicken carcasses.

  2. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods:One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results:S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40%and 48%in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions:The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

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    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  4. Molecular characterization and antibiogram of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from chicken and mutton of retail markets

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    Vinay Kumar B. N., Nadeem Fairoze , Madhavaprasad C. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate Listeria monocytogenes from chicken and mutton meat sold at retail outlets and to characterize isolates for virulence determinants. Methods: Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from chicken and mutton meat samples using ISO: 11290 method. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of virulence associated genes. Results: Out of 198 retail meat samples (72 chicken and 126 mutton analyzed, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% (8.3% chicken and 2.3% mutton samples. All the 9 isolates (6 from chicken and 3 from mutton belonged to 1/2a servar and carried virulence genes viz. haemolysin (hlyA, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase (plcA, actin polymerization protein (actA and invasive associative protein p60 (Iap. Conclusion: L. monocytogenes is an organism of food safety and public health significance, its recovery from the meat sold at retail outlets indicated breach in the quality assurance. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 65-68

  5. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken.

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    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals is of increasing interest, raising questions about the presence of MRSA in food of animal origin and potential sources of transmission to humans via the food chain. In this study, the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA isolates from 200 retail raw chicken samples in Egypt were determined. MRSA was detected by positive amplification of the mecA gene in 38% (76 of 200) of chicken samples analyzed. This represents a potential public health threat in Egypt, as this contamination rate seems to be the highest among other studies reported worldwide. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, and sec) were detected in all of the 288 MRSA isolates. Nonetheless, none of the strains tested carried tst, the gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Antimicrobial resistance of MRSA isolates was most frequently detected against penicillin (93.4%), ampicillin (88.9%), and cloxacillin (83.3%). These results suggest that retail chicken might be a significant potential source for transmission of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt. This underlines the need for stricter hygienic measures in chicken production in Egypt to minimize the risk of transmission of these strains to consumers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the isolation and molecular characterization of MRSA in retail chicken samples in Egypt.

  6. High prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in retail chicken meat in the Netherlands in 2015.

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    Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Huizinga, Pepijn; van Spreuwel, Nick; Verhulst, Carlo; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F Q; Kluytmans, Jan A J W

    2017-01-01

    Recently, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was reported in humans, animals and food. We studied the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 in Dutch retail chicken meat. The prevalence of mcr-1 was 24,8% (53/214), whereas mcr-2 was not found. The presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae was confirmed by culture in 34/53 samples (64,2%). The prevalence depended on the supermarket chain and was lower in free-range chicken samples. The unexpected high prevalence of mcr-1 in food is cause for concern.

  7. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains.

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    Leverstein-van Hall, M A; Dierikx, C M; Cohen Stuart, J; Voets, G M; van den Munckhof, M P; van Essen-Zandbergen, A; Platteel, T; Fluit, A C; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; Scharinga, J; Bonten, M J M; Mevius, D J

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genotypes in Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and retail chicken meat in the Netherlands was determined and defined as 'poultry-associated' (PA). Subsequently, the proportion of E. coli isolates with PA ESBL genes, plasmids and strains was quantified in a representative sample of clinical isolates. The E. coli were derived from 98 retail chicken meat samples, a prevalence survey among poultry, and 516 human clinical samples from 31 laboratories collected during a 3-month period in 2009. Isolates were analysed using an ESBL-specific microarray, sequencing of ESBL genes, PCR-based replicon typing of plasmids, plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST) and strain genotyping (MLST). Six ESBL genes were defined as PA (bla(CTX-M-1) , bla(CTX-M-2) , bla(SHV-2) , bla(SHV-12) , bla(TEM-20) , bla(TEM-52) ): 35% of the human isolates contained PA ESBL genes and 19% contained PA ESBL genes located on IncI1 plasmids that were genetically indistinguishable from those obtained from poultry (meat). Of these ESBL genes, 86% were bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(TEM-52) genes, which were also the predominant genes in poultry (78%) and retail chicken meat (75%). Of the retail meat samples, 94% contained ESBL-producing isolates of which 39% belonged to E. coli genotypes also present in human samples. These findings are suggestive for transmission of ESBL genes, plasmids and E. coli isolates from poultry to humans, most likely through the food chain.

  8. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

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    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  9. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

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    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  10. Counts, serovars, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella on raw chicken meat at retail in Colombia.

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    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Arevalo, Alejandra; Castellanos, Ricardo; Bernal, Johan; Tafur, Mc Allister; Ovalle, Maria Victoria; Alali, Walid Q; Hume, Michael; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan Jose; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the

  11. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken Carcasses in Retail Markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

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    Moe, Aung Zaw; Paulsen, Peter; Pichpol, Duangporn; Fries, Reinhard; Irsigler, Herlinde; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Oo, Kyaw Naing

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was conducted concerning prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance patterns, and serovar diversity of Salmonella in chicken meat sold at retail in Yangon, Myanmar. The 141 chicken meat samples were collected at 141 retail markets in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. Information on hygienic practices (potential risk factors) was retrieved via checklists. Salmonella was isolated and identified according to International Organization for Standardization methods (ISO 6579:2002) with minor modifications. Twelve antimicrobial agents belonging to eight pharmacological groups were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method). Salmonella was recovered from 138 (97.9%) of the 141 samples. The isolates were most frequently resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.3% of isolates), tetracycline (54.3%), streptomycin (49.3%), and ampicillin (47.1%). Resistance was also found to chloramphenicol (29.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (17.4%), ciprofloxacin (9.4%), tobramycin (8.7%), gentamicin (8%), cefazolin (7.2%), lincomycin-spectinomycin (5.8%), and norfloxacin (0.7%). Among the 138 Salmonella isolates, 72 (52.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-four serovars were identified among the 138 Salmonella-positive samples; serovars Albany, Kentucky, Braenderup, and Indiana were found in 38, 11, 10, and 8% of samples, respectively. None of the potential risk factors were significantly related to Salmonella contamination of chicken carcasses. This study provides new information regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella serovar diversity in retail markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

  12. Quantification, serovars, and antibiotic resistance of salmonella isolated from retail raw chicken meat in Vietnam.

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    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Thi, Giang Nguyen; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify Salmonella counts on retail raw poultry meat in Vietnam and to phenotypically characterize (serovars and antibiotic resistance) the isolates. A total of 300 chicken carcasses were collected from two cities and two provinces in Vietnam. Salmonella counts on the samples were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). A total of 457 isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Overall, 48.7% of chicken samples were Salmonella positive with a count of 2.0 log MPN per carcass. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in log MPN per carcass by the study variables (market type, storage condition, and chicken production system). There was a significant difference (P salmonellosis). The data revealed that, whereas Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry was high (48.7%), counts were low, which suggests that the exposure risk to Salmonella is low. However, improper storage of raw chicken meat and cross-contamination may increase Salmonella cell counts and pose a greater risk for infection. These data may be helpful in developing risk assessment models and preventing the transmission of foodborne Salmonella from poultry to humans in Vietnam.

  13. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009.

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    Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F; Huizinga, Pepijn; Bonten, Marc J; Bos, Martine; De Bruyne, Katrien; Friedrich, Alexander W; Rossen, John W; Savelkoul, Paul H; Kluytmans, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised strain collections of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from retail chicken meat and hospitalised patients in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2015, for presence of colistin resistance and the mcr-1 gene. A total of 2,471 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, from surveys in retail chicken meat (196 isolates), prevalence surveys in hospitalised patients (1,247 isolates), clinical cultures (813 isolates) and outbreaks in healthcare settings (215 isolates), were analysed. The mcr-1 gene was identified in three (1.5%) of 196 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat samples in 2009 and 2014. Two isolates were obtained from the same batch of meat samples, most likely representing contamination from a common source. No mcr-1-positive isolates were identified among 2,275 human isolates tested. All mcr-1-positive isolates were colistin-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 2 mg/L). Our findings indicate that mcr-1-based colistin-resistance currently poses no threat to healthcare in the Netherlands. They indicate however that continued monitoring of colistin resistance and its underlying mechanisms in humans, livestock and food is needed.

  14. Utilization of buffered vinegar to increase the shelf life of chicken retail cuts packaged in carbon dioxide.

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    Desai, Monil A; Kurve, Vikram; Smith, Brian S; Campano, Stephen G; Soni, Kamlesh; Schilling, M Wes

    2014-07-01

    Poultry processors commonly place whole parts of broilers in plastic packages and seal them in an atmosphere of 100% carbon dioxide before shipping them to food service and retail customers. This practice extends the shelf life of retail cuts to approximately 12 d under refrigerated conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of vinegar for growth inhibition of mesophilic and lactic acid bacterial counts and enhancement of shelf life in CO2-packaged refrigerated chicken thigh samples. Meat quality, sensory differences, and microbial enumeration were evaluated for chicken thighs that were sprayed with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% vinegar. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) among treatments (control vs. 0.5 and 1.0% vinegar-treated chicken thighs) with respect to pH and Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b*for both chicken skin and the meat tissue. The difference from the control test indicated that trained panelists were not able to detect a difference (P > 0.05) in flavor between the chicken thigh treatments. The mesophilic and Lactobacillus bacterial counts were enumerated after 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage. The mesophilic bacterial load for the 1.0% vinegar treatment was less than all other treatments after 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage, whereas the 0.5% vinegar treatment had lower bacterial counts at d 12 than both controls and had an approximate shelf life of 16 d. For lactic acid bacteria, the vinegar 1.0% treatment had lower counts than the control treatments at d 12 and 16. The results from the study indicate that a combination of 1.0% vinegar with CO2 packaging can extend the shelf life from 12 to 20 d for chicken retail cuts without negatively affecting the quality and sensory properties of the broiler meat.

  15. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

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    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw chicken on retail sale in the republic of Ireland.

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    Madden, Robert H; Moran, Lynn; Scates, Pam; McBride, Jane; Kelly, Carmel

    2011-11-01

    To assess the current risks to consumers from Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw chicken products sold in the Republic of Ireland, a retail survey was undertaken to define their prevalence. Samples (n = 510) were analyzed using protocols based on ISO 10272-1:2006 and ISO 6579:2002. Processor codes on pack labels showed that 67% of samples were produced in the Republic of Ireland and 25% in the United Kingdom. Salmonella was present in 5.1% of samples, but the eight serovars found caused less than 7% of human salmonellosis reported in the Republic of Ireland. The results suggest that on-farm controls to limit Salmonella infection of broilers have been successful and that in Ireland raw chicken is not a significant cause of salmonellosis in humans. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 84.3%. Isolation by the ISO method found 52.7% of samples to be positive, but overgrowth by contaminants was frequently evident. Therefore, in addition to enrichment, an homogenized sample was plated directly onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar, and this detected a further 31.6%. Speciation of isolates (n = 426) determined that 67% were Campylobacter jejuni and 32% were Campylobacter coli. These species are the most common cause of campylobacteriosis in man. The results indicate that there is a need for poultry producers to introduce interventions to minimize the exposure of consumers in the Republic of Ireland to Campylobacter spp., as has been successfully done for Salmonella.

  17. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains

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    Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Cohen Stuart, J.; Voets, G.M.; Munckhof, Van den, M.P.; Essen-Zandbergen, van, A.; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A C; Sande-Bruinsma, Van de, N.; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genotypes in Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and retail chicken meat in the Netherlands was determined and defined as ‘poultry-associated’ (PA). Subsequently, the proportion of E. coli isolates wi...

  18. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

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    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  19. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in grilled chicken from street vendors and retail outlets in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

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    Díaz-López, A; Cantú-Ramírez, R C; Garza-González, E; Ruiz-Tolentino, L; Tellez-Luis, S J; Rivera, G; Bocanegra-García, V

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed a total of 70 grilled chicken samples bought randomly from street vendors and retail outlets in the city of Reynosa, Mexico, to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli (Shiga toxin producing and enterotoxin producing), Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria spp., and Campylobacter spp. using microbiological methods and PCR detection of bacterial sequences. Of the 70 samples, 27 (38.5%) were from retail outlets and 43 (61.4%) from street vendors. All specimens were negative by both microbiological and molecular methods for Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin 2 of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, lt of enterotoxin-producing E. coli, and st enterotoxin, and all were negative for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni by PCR. Of the samples studied, 49 (70%) had undetectable levels of the foodborne pathogens studied with the methods used. In the remaining 21 (30%) specimens, at least one pathogen was isolated or detected, with E. coli being the pathogen most frequently isolated and with two samples bearing the hlyA gene. We found no statistical difference in bacterial prevalence between retail and street vendor samples. The presence of pathogens in grilled chicken is an important public health risk because of the great demand for and daily consumption of this product in this region.

  20. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in retail chicken: comparing conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics.

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    Millman, Jack M; Waits, Kara; Grande, Heidi; Marks, Ann R; Marks, Jane C; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Retail poultry products are known sources of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, a major human health concern. Consumers have a range of choices for poultry, including conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics (RWA) - designations that are perceived to indicate differences in quality and safety. However, whether these categories vary in the frequency of contamination with antibiotic-resistant E. coli is unknown. We examined the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli on raw chicken marketed as conventional, organic, kosher and RWA. From April - June 2012, we purchased 213 samples of raw chicken from 15 locations in the New York City metropolitan area. We screened E. coli isolates from each sample for resistance to 12 common antibiotics. Although the organic and RWA labels restrict the use of antibiotics, the frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli tended to be only slightly lower for RWA, and organic chicken was statistically indistinguishable from conventional products that have no restrictions. Kosher chicken had the highest frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli, nearly twice that of conventional products, a result that belies the historical roots of kosher as a means to ensure food safety. These results indicate that production methods influence the frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli on poultry products available to consumers. Future research to identify the specific practices that cause the high frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in kosher chicken could promote efforts to reduce consumer exposure to this potential pathogen.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and Escherichia coli isolated from retail foods including chicken meat in Japan.

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    Kawamura, Kumiko; Goto, Kensuke; Nakane, Kunihiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-02-01

    Contamination of retail meat with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been reported, but only limited data have been documented in Japan. One hundred fifty-three retail foods including chicken meat, beef, pork, and vegetables were purchased from 29 supermarkets between January and October in 2010. ESBL producers were recovered from each food sample using McConkey agar plate supplemented with 1 mg/L of cefotaxime. ESBL type was identified by DNA sequencing analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Antibiogram, O serotype, plasmid replicon type, pulsotype, and multilocus sequence type were also determined. Fifty-two epidemiologically unrelated Escherichia coli isolates producing ESBL were recovered from 35 (22.9%) of 153 samples, all of which were chicken meat. ESBL types were mainly CTX-M-2 group followed by CTX-M-1 group and CTX-M-8 group. The numbers of bacterial isolates (8 of 21, 38.1%) harboring bla(CTX-M-8) recovered from imported meat samples were significantly larger than those of domestic ones (one of 31, 3.2%) (pESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meat samples in Japan are generally divergent in both genetic and serological aspects. Further comparative analyses of bla(CTX-M)-mediating genetic elements would be continued in the next step to characterize the ESBL producers from retail foods in Japan.

  2. Prevalence and Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Retail Chicken in Tianjin, China.

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    Ma, Hui; Su, Yulan; Ma, Luyao; Ma, Lina; Li, Ping; Du, Xinjun; Gölz, Greta; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide; however, there is a lack of information on the prevalence and antibiotic-resistant profile of C. jejuni in the People's Republic of China. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni on the retail level in Tianjin, one of the five national central cities in China. A total of 227 samples of chicken wings, legs, and breasts were collected from supermarkets and wet markets; 42 of these samples were confirmed to be positive for Campylobacter contamination. The contamination rates of C. jejuni and other Campylobacter species were 13.7% (31 of 227 samples) and 5.7% (13 of 227 samples), respectively. A group of 31 C. jejuni isolates was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All (100%) the selected isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid; 77.4% were resistant to tetracycline, 67.7% to doxycycline, 35.5% to gentamicin, 25.8% to clindamycin and florfenicol, 19.4% to chloramphenicol, and 12.9% to erythromycin and azithromycin. A remarkably high proportion (41.9%) of multidrug-resistant isolates was identified. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted to study the population structure of the C. jejuni strains and their relationship to human isolates. The correlation between antimicrobial resistance traits and certain sequence types (STs) or clonal complexes was determined as well. A great genetic diversity of poultry isolates was identified, with 11 STs belonging to 6 clonal complexes and 11 singleton STs. The novel STs accounted for 40.9% (n = 9) of the 22 STs. ST-21, ST-353, ST-354, ST-443, ST-607, and ST-828 complexes had been previously identified from human isolates. This study revealed an extensive level of antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity in C. jejuni isolated from chicken products in Tianjin, highlighting the necessity of performing enforced interventions to reduce Campylobacter prevalence in China.

  3. Number of Salmonella on Chicken Breast Filet at Retail Level and Its Implications for Public Health Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straver, J.M.; Janssen, A.F.W.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van T.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the number of Salmonella on chicken breast filet at the retail level and to evaluate if this number affects the risk of salmonellosis. From October to December 2005, 220 chilled raw filets (without skin) were collected from five local retail outlets in The Netherland

  4. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E. S.; Wester, A. L.; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia co...... of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult to treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota....

  5. Molecular Characterization of Plasmids Encoding CTX-M β-Lactamases and their Associated Addiction Systems Circulating Among Escherichia coli from Retail Chickens, Chicken Farms, and Slaughterhouses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su-Jin; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), particularly those of the CTX-M types, are the predominant resistance determinants of Escherichia coli that are rapidly spreading worldwide. To determine CTX-M types, E. coli isolates were collected from retail chickens (n = 390) and environmental samples from chicken farms (n = 32) and slaughterhouses (n = 67) in Korea. Fifteen strains harboring blaCTX-M genes were isolated from 358 E. coli isolates. The most common CTX-M type was eight of CTX-M-15, followed by six of CTX-M-1 and one of CTX-M- 14. The blaCTX-M genes were identified in the isolates from retail chickens (n = 9), followed by feces, water pipes, floors, and walls. Conjugations confirmed the transferability of the plasmids carrying blaCTX-M genes to the recipient E. coli J53 strain. Furthermore, eight addiction systems carried by the replicons in CTX-M types were confirmed. The dominant system was identified as ccdAB, vagCD, and pndAC in donor strains and transconjugants. The clonal relationship between the two strains carrying blaCTX-M genes indicates that E. coli may transmit from the farm to retail chickens, suggesting a possible public health risk. Our findings demonstrate that the detection of CTX-M types in E. coli isolates is important for tracking ESBL production in animals, and suggest linkage of multiple addiction systems in plasmids bearing blaCTX-M genes.

  6. Estimation of Lead and Cadmium residual levels in chicken giblets at retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd are environmental contaminants of food which have deleterious cumulative effect on human health. Using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were estimated in 60 samples of chicken giblets comprising of broiler livers, gizzards and hearts collected randomly from retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt. The greatest Pb concentrations were found in liver samples (0.8762 ± 0.2089 ppm, whereas gizzard samples contain 0.3186 ± 0.1462 ppm and lowest levels of Pb were detected in heart samples 0.1733 ± 0.06777 ppm. Cd deposited in liver samples reached 0.040714 ± 0.0290 ppm; however gizzard and heart samples contain negligible Cd concentrations (0.0041 ± 0.0028 and 0.0036 ± 0.008 ppm, respectively. These data interpreted that Pb residual concentration, particularly in chicken liver sold in Ismailia city, is more than the permissible limit (0.5 ppm in the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and thus may be hazardous to human consumption and more serious inspection procedures should be applied by the veterinary authorities therein.

  7. First detection of Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 gene from retail domestic chicken meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Yusuke; Hayashi, Wataru; Saito, Satomi; Osaka, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Yui; Koide, Shota; Kawamura, Kumiko; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Nagano, Noriyuki

    2017-07-01

    Global spread of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 poses a public health concern because colistin is the last-line-of-defense against severe infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacteria. In Japan, a few studies have reported the prevalence of mcr-1 among food animal-derived Escherichia coli isolates, but the epidemiology of mcr-1 from retail meats is not well known. We report here the first detection of mcr-1 from retail chicken meats. A total of 70 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meats collected between August 2015 and June 2016 were screened for mcr-1, which resulted in positive for one isolate of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli belonging to ST1684, phylogroup A. The mcr-1 was not located in an IncI1 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1. However, whole plasmid sequencing revealed that mcr-1 was located on an IncI2 plasmid. Sequences of nikB-mcr-1-pap2-ydfA-topB region were mostly identical to those of previously described IncI2 plasmid pECJS-61-63 harbored by E. coli from pig feces in China except for containing a synonymous mutation in mcr-1 gene of this study. The mcr-1-encoding plasmids have not yet been identified in human isolates in Japan. Thus, strict monitoring or surveillance of colistin resistance among Gram-negative bacteria recovered from retail meat, food animals under colistin pressure, and human are crucial to assess their current prevalence status.

  8. Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Molecular Characteristics of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Including Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers in Retail Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Lim, Jong-Soo; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in 100 chicken carcass samples from five integrated broiler operation brands in Korea. Serotypes, antibiotic resistance patterns, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, and clonal divergence using multilocus sequence typing of the isolated strains were analyzed. A total of 42 chicken samples were contaminated with nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates: 16 isolates (38%) were Salmonella Virchow, 9 (21%) were Salmonella Bareilly, and 8 (19%) were Salmonella Infantis. A multidrug resistance (MDR; resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics) phenotype was observed in 29% of the isolates, which were resistant to five or more classes of antibiotics. The dominant MDR type was resistance to classes of penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. All the MDR isolates were positive for ESBL producers, and all but one (with the CTX-M-1 genotype) had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed ST16 as the dominant sequence type; Salmonella Virchow, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Richmond were all ST16, indicating a close genetic relationship between these serovars. This is the first study in Korea showing the CTX-M-1 type of NTS and the prevalence of ESBL-producing strains among NTS isolated from retail chicken meat. Our findings suggest that MDR Salmonella contamination is widely prevalent in retail chicken meat, and consumption of inadequately cooked products could lead to dissemination of NTS, which is hazardous to human health.

  9. Prevalence of the Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Coagulase-Positive-and Negative-Staphylococcus in Chicken Meat Retailed to Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Badr, Jihan; Al-Maary, Khalid S.; Moussa, Ihab M. I.; Hessain, Ashgan M.; Girah, Zeinab M. S. Amin; Abo-shama, Usama H.; Orabi, Ahmed; Saad, Aalaa

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS) isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during 1 year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and vancomycin) and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14) and CNS (36), representing ten species (S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius, and S. lentus). Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mecA gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B [MLS(B)] in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone

  10. Prevalence of the antibiotic resistance genes in coagulase-positive- and negative-Staphylococcus in chicken meat retailed to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelia Mahmoud Osman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during one year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and vancomycin and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14 and CNS (36, representing ten species (S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius and S. lentus. Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mecA gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLS(B in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone

  11. Arcobacter: comparison of isolation methods, diversity, and potential pathogenic factors in commercially retailed chicken breast meat from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallas-Padilla, Karolina L; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Fernández Jaramillo, Heriberto; Arias Echandi, María Laura

    2014-06-01

    Arcobacter species have been recognized as potential food- and waterborne pathogens. The lack of standardized isolation methods and the relatively scarce knowledge about their prevalence and distribution as emerging pathogens are due to the limitations in their detection and identification. This study aimed to determine the presence and the identification of Arcobacter in chicken breast samples commercially retailed in San José, Costa Rica, as well as to describe the adherence and invasive potential of the strains to human cells (HEp-2). Fifty chicken breast samples were collected from retail markets in the metropolitan area of the country. Six different isolation methodologies were applied for the isolation of Arcobacter. Isolation strategies consisted of combinations of enrichments in de Boer or Houf selective broths and subsequent isolation in blood agar (directly or with a previous passive membrane filtration step) or Arcobacter selective agar. Suspicious colonies were identified with a genus-specific PCR, whereas species-level identification was achieved with a multiplex PCR. The overall isolation frequency of Arcobacter was 56%. From the isolation strategies, the combination of enrichment in Houf selective broth followed by filtration on blood agar showed the best performance, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 84%. A total of 46 isolates were confirmed as Arcobacter with the genus-specific PCR, from which 27 (59%) corresponded to Arcobacter butzleri, 9 (19%) to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 10 (22%) were not identified with this multiplex PCR. Regarding the potential pathogenicity, 75% of the isolates presented adherence to HEp-2 cells, while only 22% were invasive to that cell line. All invasive strains were A. butzleri or nonidentified strains. The results show the presence of potentially pathogenic Arcobacter in poultry and recognize the importance it should receive as a potential foodborne pathogen from public health authorities.

  12. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases and/or Carbapenemases-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Chicken Meat in Zagazig, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H M Abdallah

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamases- and/or carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat in Zagazig, Egypt.One hundred and six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from retail chicken meat samples purchased in Zagazig, Egypt in 2013. Species identification was done by MALDI-TOF MS. Screening for ESBL-E was performed by inoculation of isolates recovered from meat samples onto the EbSA (Cepheid Benelux, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands selective screening agar. ESBL production was confirmed by combination disc diffusion test with clavulanic acid (Rosco, Taastrup, Denmark. Carbapenemases production was confirmed with double disk synergy tests. Resistance genes were characterized by PCR with specific primers for TEM, SHV, and CTX-M and carbapenemases (KPC, NDM, OXA-48, IMP and VIM. PCR products of CTX-M genes were purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic grouping of E. coli was performed by a PCR-based method.Of these 106 isolates 69 (65.09% were ESBL producers. Twelve (11.32% of these isolates were also phenotypically class B carbapenemases producer. TEM genes were detected in 61 (57.55% isolates. 49 (46.23% isolates harbored CTX-M genes, and 25 (23.58% carried genes of the SHV family. All CPE belonged to the NDM group. The predominant CTX-M sequence type was CTX-M-15 (89.80%. The majority (80% of the ESBL-EC belonged to low virulence phylogroups A and B1.This is the first study from Egypt reporting high rates of ESBLs and carbapenemases (65.09% and 11.32%, respectively in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat. These results raise serious concerns about public health and food safety as retail meat could serve as a reservoir for these resistant bacteria which could be transferred to humans through the food chain.

  13. EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING E. COLI CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT IN THE IRISH RETAIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearbháile Morris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals represent potential reservoirs for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Twenty domestically produced chicken meat samples were collected from 19 retail outlets in Ireland, inoculated into Bolton broth and cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA and Preston agars. Selected representative coliforms included 16 E.coli and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All E.coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, 15 isolates harbored a blaCTX-M group-1 gene, and none belonged to the E.coli 025b:H4-ST131 clonal group. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis identified 13 distinct pulsed field profiles and comparison with more than 300 human clinical isolates of ESBL producing E. coli did not reveal any similarities. ESBL producing E. coli were detected on retail meats in the Irish market place. Although no similarity was apparent between poultry and human isolates this does not preclude a role for ESBL-producing E.coli in meat in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-02

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter species along a broiler production chain from farm to retail, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolates. A total of 259 Campylobacter isolates (C. jejuni n=106, C. coli n=153) were isolated from broiler ceca samples (72.5%, 103/142), broiler carcasses (34.1%, 46/135), and retail broiler meat (31.3%, 40/128) samples collected in Shanghai, China. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials were determined using the agar dilution method. High prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (C. jejuni: 99.1%;C. coli: 100%) and tetracycline (C. jejuni: 100%;C. coli: 98.7%) was detected among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to clindamycin (92.2%), gentamicin (95.4%), and erythromycin (94.1%), but only 25.5%, 53.8%, and 16.0% of C. jejuni exhibited resistance to these three antimicrobials, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of florfenicol resistance in C. jejuni (37.7%) was significantly higher than that in C. coli (7.8%) (PCampylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 71.7% of C. jejuni and 98.0% of C. coli isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Fifty-five C. jejuni and sixty C. coli isolates, selected from different production stages, species, and antimicrobial resistance patterns, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), among which 15 unique PFGE patterns (PFGE patterns represented by a single strain) and 31 clusters (PFGE patterns represented by multiple strains) were detected. Furthermore, nearly all of the PFGE patterns of the Campylobacter strains isolated from retail broiler meats overlapped with those of the strains from ceca and slaughterhouse carcasses. Together, these findings revealed the high prevalence of Campylobacter species in a broiler chicken production chain, and the concerning

  15. Isolation and Identification of Listeria monocytogenes from Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.I. Alsheikh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species are widely distributed in environment and L. monocytogenes are the causal agent of Listeriosis, the disease that can be serious and fatal to human and animals. The objectives of this study were to detect, isolate and identify Listeria monocytogenes from retail broiler chicken ready to eat meat products in restaurants-Khartoum state, Sudan. A total of 250 retail broiler chicken ready to eat meat products were collected from restaurants in Khartoum State, 50 sample from frozen chicken burger, 50 sample from frozen chicken sausages, 50 sample from frozen chicken meat balls (kofta, 50 sample from chicken shawerma and 50 sample from chicken mortedella, Listeria spp. were isolated by the conventional International Organization for Standardization method and L. monocytogenes identified by biochemical test. The results showed that out of total 250 samples, 95 (38% were found to be contaminated with Listeria spp. the isolation rate was as follows: L. monocytogenes (13.6%, L. ivanovi (20.8%, L. grayi (1.6%, L. seeligeri (0.8% and L. welshimeri (1.2%. The results presented in this study indicate the contamination of retail broiler chicken ready to eat meat products with L. monocytogenes. This study reported the occurrence and distribution of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species in retail meat products (frozen chicken burger, frozen chicken sausages, frozen chicken meat balls (kofta, chicken shawerma and chicken mortedella, purchased from restaurants in Khartoum state Sudan.

  16. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Cunningham; Nguyen, Van; Paul Adorno; Veronique Droulez

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat coo...

  17. Evaluation of the petrifilm plate method for the enumeration of aerobic microorganisms and coliforms in retailed meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Seo, K S; Ahn, J S; Yoo, H S; Kim, S P

    2001-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and applicability of the Petrifilm plate method with the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) standard aerobic count method and violet red bile agar method for meat products. The comparison was carried out using 303 meat samples collected from various retailers: 110 pork samples, 87 chicken samples, and 107 beef samples. In the comparison of the correlation coefficient (R) between the conventional method and the Petrifilm plate method by a linear regression analysis, the correlation coefficient in total microorganisms was 0.99, 0.95, and 0.94 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. The correlation coefficient in coliform count was 0.83, 0.96, and 0.81 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. Based on the high correlation in the total microorganism count, it might be possible to replace the conventional methods with the Petrifilm plate method. For coliform counts, the Petrifilm plate method also showed a generally high correlation coefficient, except for pork samples, which are more subject to contamination. The Petrifilm plate method was simpler and less time-consuming in sample preparation and, in procedures, faster than the conventional method. These results suggested that the 3M Petrifilm plate method could replace the conventional methods in the analysis of microorganism contamination measurement in meat products.

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Screening of Class I Integron in Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Retail Raw Chicken Carcasses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zengfeng; Li, Keting; Wang, Yin; Xia, Xiaodong; Wang, Xin; Xi, Meili; Meng, Jianghong; Cui, Shenghui; Yang, Baowei

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella is one of the leading causes for foodborne diseases. Foods, particularly those of animal origin, act as an important role for Salmonella transmission. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibility of 743 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail raw chicken carcasses in eight provinces was tested, and the isolates were also screened for the presence of class I integron and drug-resistant gene cassettes. One hundred thirteen (15.21%) isolates were harboring class I integron. A higher percentage of integron-positive Salmonella isolates were found in retail chicken in Sichuan Province (29.33%), followed by Beijing (22.14%), Shaanxi (19.15%), Guangxi (14.13%), Henan (12.50%), Shanghai (7.25%), Fujian (8.22%), and Guangdong (6.25%) Provinces. The respective prevalence of class I integron in Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chickens in large, free, and small markets was 16.31%, 14.04%, and 15.27%. Moreover, 20.13%, 14.02%, and 13.74% of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chickens stored in frozen, chilled, and ambient conditions, respectively, were positive for class I integron. Subsequent sequencing of class I integron revealed the presence of 10 gene cassettes harboring resistance genes (dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2, dfrA17-aadA5-aadA4, dfrA1-aadA1-aadA2, dfrA1, dfrA5, aadA2, aacA4-catB8-aadA1-dfrA1-(aac6-II)-(blaCARB-8), blaPSE-1-blaP1). The most prevalent gene cassette was dfrA17-aadA5 (59.62%). Class I integron-positive isolates were significantly more resistant to multiple antibiotics, and they commonly exhibited corresponding antibiotic resistance profiles to the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes harbored in their class I integron. The results indicated that class I integron with different antibiotic resistance gene cassettes that were prevalent in Salmonella isolates differed from provinces, marketplaces, and chicken storage conditions.

  19. Prevalence and characterization of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in retail chicken carcasses and Ground Pork, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Cui, Shenghui; Zhang, Fenglan; Luo, Yanping; Gu, Yihai; Yang, Baowei; Li, Fengqin; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Yeru; Pang, Lu; Lin, Lan

    2014-02-01

    Retail meat products could serve as an important medium for the transfer of multidrug resistant isolates from food-producing animals to the community. In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were investigated in retail chicken and ground pork samples from four provinces of China. The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic group typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the genetic relatedness. These isolates were also screened for beta-lactamase genes, quinolone resistance determinants by PCR, and followed by DNA sequence analysis. Cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E. coli isolates with diverse genetic origins were recovered in 31.9% (106/332) of retail meat samples. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (59.4%, 63/106), and all isolates showed multidrug resistant profiles. The dominant resistant profiles were AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-GEN-SXT-TET (n=43) and AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-SXT-TET (n=43). Point mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions of topoisomerases were identified in all the isolates, and most of the isolates accumulated three (n=78) or four (n=21) point mutations. Plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant determinants were identified in 68 isolates, including oqxAB (n=66), qnrS1 (n=7), qnrS2 (n=4), and aac(6')-Ib-cr (n=9). Eight subtypes of bla(CTX-M) were identified in 103 E. coli isolates, and blaCTX-M-55 (n=90) was dominant. This study highlights that retail meat could serve as an important reservoir of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E. coli isolates. It is necessary to evaluate their contribution in the community and hospital infections.

  20. ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE RETAILING SERVICES: A COMPARISON OF STUDENT AND NON-STUDENT SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siohong Tih

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the adequacy of using undergraduate student samples in research on online consumer attitudes by comparing the attitudes of students (n = 161 towards online retailing services with the attitudes of non-students (n = 252 towards such services. A structured questionnaire administered online was used to gather data on perceptions, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions with regard to online retailing services. The t-test results showed that, in general, students' attitude towards online retailing services is similar to that of non-students. Therefore, undergraduate students may be reasonable surrogates for consumers in research on online retailing.

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella from retail chicken meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimabukuro, Hirofumi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2009-09-01

    Sixty-nine Escherichia coli and 10 Salmonella isolates, recovered from retail chicken meat in Hiroshima prefecture, Japan, were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes. Twenty-eight out of 69 (40.6%) of E. coli and all 10 Salmonella isolates were exhibited multidrug resistance phenotypes. The most commonly reported resistance phenotypes were against ampicillin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PCR screening for integrons showed that 8 (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were positive for the class 1 integrons and 1 isolate (1.4%) was positive for the class 2 integrons. Among the 10 Salmonella isolates, 9 were positive for class 1 integrons and none was positive for class 2 integrons. The identified antibiotic resistance gene cassettes within the class 1 integrons were dfrA1, dfrA7, aadA1, aadB, and catB3, while dfrA1, sat2, and aadA1 were identified within class 2 integron. The beta-lactamase resistance gene bla(TEM-1) was identified in 12 (17.3%) of E. coli isolates and in only one of the Salmonella isolates. The bla(CMY-2) gene, encoding AmpC beta-lactamase, was detected in 16 (23.2%) of the E. coli isolates only. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that there was plasmid-mediated transfer of bla(CMY-2) and bla(TEM-1). These results highlighted the role of retail chicken meat as a potential source for multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli and Salmonella. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 1st report of isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli from retail chicken meat in Japan.

  2. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  3. Isolation and identification of zoonotic species of genus arcobacter from chicken viscera obtained from retail distributors of the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Edgar García; Jaramillo, Heriberto Fernández; Ulate, Carolina Chaves; Echandi, María Laura Arias

    2013-05-01

    Arcobacter is a genus of growing importance worldwide; some of its species are considered emerging enteropathogens and potential zoonotic agents. In Costa Rica, as well as in other countries, its isolation has been reported, so the objective of this project was to evaluate and identify the presence of Arcobacter in chicken viscera sold in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with it. One hundred fifty samples of chicken viscera including heart, liver, and other gastrointestinal organs were purchased from 15 supermarkets and 15 local retailers. De Boer and Houf broths were used as enrichment media; isolation was done with Arcobacter-selective medium and with membrane filtration with blood agar. Typical colonies were identified with genus-specific PCR, and species identification was made with multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline was done with the Epsilometer test. The isolation frequency of Arcobacter genus obtained in this study was of 17.3%. A total of 33 isolates were obtained from the poultry samples, and according to the multiplex PCR methodology, 22 (66.7%) isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, 8 (24.2%) as Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 1 (3.1%) as Arcobacter skirrowii. Two strains were not identified. No statistical significant difference was found when the source of samples was compared. Resistance toward chloramphenicol was 68.75%, followed by ampicillin (43.75%) and ciprofloxacin (18.75%); all strains were susceptible to tetracycline.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella and distribution of Serovars Isolated from Retail Raw Chicken Gizzards in Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Tago Karou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella, antibiotic susceptibility and distribution of serovars in retail raw chicken gizzards in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. A total of 300 samples of chicken gizzards were collected from a big central retail market in Adjamé from October to March (6 months and examined for the presence of Salmonella. For the isolation and identification of Salmonella, the technique recommended by the international organization for standardization (ISO6579, 2002 was used. Serotyping was conducted by slide agglutination test using Salmonella polyvalent O and H antisera, a French AFNOR reference method. Determination of antibiotic profiles of Salmonella strains was carried out by the CLSI method of disk dissemination in Mueller Hinton (MH agar medium. Salmonella was detected from 156 (52.00% of the 300 samples examined. No typhoidal Salmonella (0.00% was detected. Out of the 156 Salmonella isolated, 9.62% (15/156 of the strains were found lactose positive. Out of the 156 Salmonella isolates, four different serovars were identified: Salmonella Hadar the most prevalent (71.15%, Salmonella Enteritidis (3.85%, Salmonella Derby (3.20%, Salmonella Essen (3.20%, and non determined serovars (18.60%. The overall profile of antibiotic resistance of the strains showed high rates of resistance to Tetracyclin (94.08%, nalidixic acid (70.39%, ampicillin (67.76% and amoxicillin + nalidixic acid (63.09%. S. Hadar showed a high level of resistance to tetracycline (94.50%, nalidixic acid (89.91%, ampicillin (89.00% and amoxicillin + nalidixic acid (80.56%.

  5. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds.

  6. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in retail chicken: comparing conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1pu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M Millman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Retail poultry products are known sources of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, a major human health concern. Consumers have a range of choices for poultry, including conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics (RWA – designations that are perceived to indicate differences in quality and safety. However, whether these categories vary in the frequency of contamination with antibiotic-resistant E. coli is unknown. We examined the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli on raw chicken marketed as conventional, organic, kosher and RWA. From April – June 2012, we purchased 213 samples of raw chicken from 15 locations in the New York City metropolitan area. We screened E. coli isolates from each sample for resistance to 12 common antibiotics. Although the organic and RWA labels restrict the use of antibiotics, the frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli tended to be only slightly lower for RWA, and organic chicken was statistically indistinguishable from conventional products that have no restrictions. Kosher chicken had the highest frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli, nearly twice that of conventional products, a result that belies the historical roots of kosher as a means to ensure food safety. These results indicate that production methods influence the frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli on poultry products available to consumers. Future research to identify the specific practices that cause the high frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in kosher chicken could promote efforts to reduce consumer exposure to this potential pathogen.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance among Campylobacter Isolates Obtained from Retail Chicken Meat and Offal Products in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the overall trend in antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products collected from a wide geographic area throughout Japan...

  9. Extraintestinal Pathogenic and Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli, Including Sequence Type 131 (ST131), from Retail Chicken Breasts in the United States in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen B; Johnston, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Clock, Sarah; Crupain, Michael; Rangan, Urvashi

    2017-03-15

    Chicken meat products are hypothesized to be vehicles for transmitting antimicrobial-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to consumers. To reassess this hypothesis in the current era of heightened concerns about antimicrobial use in food animals, we analyzed 175 chicken-source E. coli isolates from a 2013 Consumer Reports national survey. Isolates were screened by PCR for ExPEC-defining virulence genes. The 25 ExPEC isolates (12% of 175) and a 2:1 randomly selected set of 50 non-ExPEC isolates were assessed for their phylogenetic/clonal backgrounds and virulence genotypes for comparison with their resistance profiles and the claims on the retail packaging label ("organic," "no antibiotics," and "natural"). Compared with the findings for non-ExPEC isolates, the group of ExPEC isolates had a higher prevalence of phylogroup B2 isolates (44% versus 4%; P retail chicken products in the United States, suggesting a potential public health threat.IMPORTANCE We found that among Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products purchased across the United States in 2013 (many of these isolates being extensively antibiotic resistant), a minority had genetic profiles suggesting an ability to cause extraintestinal infections in humans, such as urinary tract infection, implying a risk of foodborne disease. Although isolates from products labeled "organic" were less extensively antibiotic resistant than other isolates, they did not appear to be less virulent. These findings suggest that retail chicken products in the United States, even if they are labeled "organic," pose a potential health threat to consumers because they are contaminated with extensively antibiotic-resistant and, presumably, virulent E. coli isolates.

  10. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverstein-van Hall, M. A.; Dierikx, C. M.; Stuart, J. Cohen; Voets, G. M.; van den Munckhof, M. P.; van Essen-Zandbergen, A.; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A. C.; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N.; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Mevius, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genoty

  11. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Cohen Stuart, J.; Voets, G.M.; Munckhof, M.P. van den; Essen-Zandbergen, A. van; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A.C.; Sande-Bruinsma, N. van de; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Sturm, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genoty

  12. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Cohen Stuart, J.; Voets, G.M.; Munckhof, M.P. van den; Essen-Zandbergen, A. van; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A.C.; Sande-Bruinsma, N. van de; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Sturm, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain

  13. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Cohen Stuart, J.; Voets, G.M.; Munckhof, Van den M.P.; Essen-Zandbergen, Van A.; Platteel, T.; Fluit, A.C.; Sande-Bruinsma, Van de N.; Scharinga, J.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain

  14. Serogenotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail meat samples in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stella; Braun, Sascha; Akintimehin, Faith; Fesobi, Toun; Bamidele, Moses; Coker, Akitoye; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Microarray-based serogenotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the detection of relevant resistance genes were performed on isolates of Salmonella spp. from retail meat samples obtained in Lagos, Nigeria. Out of 151 meat samples, 33 Salmonella isolates were obtained. Nine different Salmonella serovars (S. Amoutive, S. Bargny, S. Drac, S. Ealing, S. Urbana, S. Hadar, S. Nyborg, S. Anatum and S. Havana) were identified by microarray-based serogenotyping and confirmed afterwards using classical serotyping. Antibiotic susceptibility tests with 17 antibiotics showed that almost all isolates were fully susceptible to this panel. The results of this study indicated a high prevalence of Salmonella in retail meat, the presence of some previously rather rarely described Serovars in retail meat samples from Lagos, and a need to monitor for Salmonella and their antibiotic resistance determinants. The microarray-based system used herein proved to be perfectly suited as epidemiological tool to replace classical serotyping.

  15. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan; Behnke, Jerzy M; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  16. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marawan Abu-Madi

    Full Text Available Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53% and Qatari (45.9% producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  17. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95...

  18. Comparison of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella on whole broiler carcasses purchased from retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M; Fletcher, D L; Berrang, M E; Cason, J A

    2003-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness levels of two methods in recovering Salmonella from the same carcass. One hundred fresh whole broiler chickens were purchased from retail outlets over a 5-week period (20 carcasses per week). After carcasses had been aseptically removed from the packages and giblets had been removed, the carcasses were placed in sterile bags containing 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water, the bags were shaken for 60 s, and a 30-ml aliquot was removed and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C (aliquot sample). Then, an additional 130 ml of 1% buffered peptone water was immediately added to the bag with the carcass (bringing the volume to 500 ml), the bag was reshaken, and the carcass and rinse were incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C (whole-carcass enrichment sample). Following incubation, 0.5-ml samples for the two methods were placed into 10 ml of Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and into 10 ml of tetrathionate (Hajna) broth and incubated at 42 degrees C for 24 h. Each broth was then streaked onto BG Sulfa agar and modified lysine iron agar and incubated for 24 h at 35 degrees C. Suspected Salmonella colonies were inoculated onto triple sugar iron and lysine iron agar slants and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Presumptive positive results were confirmed by Poly O and Poly H agglutination tests. Over the 5-week period, 13% of the aliquot samples tested positive for Salmonella, compared with 38% of the whole-carcass enrichment samples from the same carcasses. Recovery rates ranged from 0 of 20 samples to 4 of 20 samples for aliquot method and from 4 of 20 samples to 10 of 20 samples for the whole-carcass enrichment method over the 5-week period. These results indicate that when small numbers of Salmonella are expected, the sampling method has a major influence on the identification of Salmonella-positive carcasses.

  19. 贵阳市市售鸡肉中五种食源性致病菌污染状况调查研究%Investigation of Five Kinds of Food - borne Pathogen in Retail Chicken Meat in Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧婧; 谭艾娟; 吕世明; 金志强; 方英; 尹泽东

    2012-01-01

    The pollutions of five kinds of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in retail chicken in Guiyang city were, investigated. The results show that the total detection rates of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in 50 retail chicken samples was 48% , among which, the detection rates of Campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, Shigella in 50 retail chicken samples were 24. 0% , 22. 0% , 6. 0% , 2. 0% respectively, and no Listeria monocytogene was determined. The detection rates of frozen chicken and fresh chicken were 55% and 20% , respectively. The detection rate of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in 34 frozen chicken samples in open warket was 58. 8% , among which, the detection rates of Campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, Shigella were 32. 3% , 17. 6% , 5. 9% 2. 9% , 0 respectively. The detection rate of food - borne pathogenic bacteria in six frozen chicken samples that were sold in supermarket was 33. 3% , a-mong which, the detection rates of Campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, Shigella in six samples were 0, 16. 7% , 16. 7% , 0, 0, respectively.%对贵阳市市售鸡肉中5种食源性致病菌的污染情况进行调查,结果表明:50份样品中食源性致病菌总检出率为48%,其中空肠弯曲菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的检出率分别为24.0%、22.0%、6.0%、2.0%、0,40份冻鸡肉样品的检出率为55%,10份鲜鸡肉样品的检出率为20%.对农贸市场市售冻鸡肉样品进行抽查,34份样品中5种致病菌的检出率为58.8%,其中空肠弯曲菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的检出率分别为32.3%、17.6%、5.9%、2.9%、0;对6份超市冻鸡肉样品进行检测,食源性致病菌的检出率为33.3%,其中空肠弯曲菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌的裣出率分别为0、16

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat sold in French retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Rivoal, Katell; Houard, Emmanuelle; Rose, Valérie; Quesne, Ségolène; Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Rouxel, Sandra; Kempf, Isabelle; Guillier, Laurent; Gauchard, Françoise; Chemaly, Marianne

    2015-06-16

    Campylobacter was detected in 76% of broiler meat products collected in retail outlets during a monitoring plan carried out in France throughout 2009. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (64.7% of products being contaminated). The 175 C. jejuni isolates collected were characterized. MLST typing results confirmed substantial genetic diversity as the 175 C. jejuni isolates generated 76 sequence types (STs). The ST-21, ST-45 and ST-464 complexes predominated accounting for 43% of all isolates. A class-specific PCR to screen the sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus classes A, B and C showed that 50.3% of the C. jejuni isolates harbored sialylated LOS. The antimicrobial resistance profiles established using a subset of 97 isolates showed that resistance to tetracycline was the most common (53.6%), followed with ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (32.9%, and 32.0% respectively). All the tested isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Clear associations were demonstrated between certain clonal complexes and LOS locus classes and between certain clonal complexes and antimicrobial resistance. This work paints a representative picture of C. jejuni isolated from poultry products circulating in France, providing data on STs, LOS locus classes and antibiotic resistance profiles in isolates recovered from products directly available to the consumer.

  1. Fat Content and Composition in Retail Samples of Australian Beef Mince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient composition data, representative of the retail supply, is required to support labelling and dietetic practice. Because beef mince represents approximately 30% of all beef dishes prepared in Australian households, a national survey of the different types of mince available for purchase in representative retail outlets was conducted. Sixty-one samples of beef mince from 24 retail outlets in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia were collected in 2010 and analysed for moisture, protein, total fat and fatty acid profile. A variety of 18 different descriptors were used at point of sale with “Premium” (n = 15 and “Regular” (n = 8 the most commonly used terms. The analysed fat content of “Premium” samples varied from 2.2 g/100 g to 8.0 g/100 g. Forty-eight percent (n = 29 of the samples were categorised as low fat (<5 g/100 g; mean 4.1 g/100 g, 21% as medium fat (5–10 g/100 g; mean 8.9 g/100 g and 31% as high fat (>10 g/100 g; mean 10.4 g/100 g. There was no significant difference between the types of mince available for purchase in low versus high socio-economic suburbs (Chi-square, p > 0.05. In conclusion, the fat content of the majority of retail beef mince in Australia is <10 g/100 g and a variety of descriptors are used at point of sale, all of which do not necessarily reflect analysed fat content.

  2. Organic or antibiotic-free labeling does not impact the recovery of enteric pathogens and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from fresh retail chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Cenera, Johana K; Bryant, Erin M; King, Christy A; Kashoma, Isaac; Kumar, Anand; Funk, Julie A; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Wittum, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the implied health benefits of retail chicken breast labeled as "organic" or "antibiotic-free" when compared to conventional products based on frequency of contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and coliform bacteria resistant to fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, or carbapenems. We purchased 231 prepackaged chicken breasts from 99 grocery stores representing 17 retail chains in Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania from June to September 2012. Ninety-six (41.5%) packages were labeled "antibiotic free" and 40 (17.3%) were labeled "organic," with the remaining 95 (41.1%) making neither label claim. Salmonella were recovered from 56 (24.2%) packages, and the recovery rate was not different between product types. Five percent of packages contained Salmonella carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance gene bla(CMY-2), representing 21.4% of Salmonella isolates. Campylobacter spp. were recovered from 10.8% of packages, with observed recovery rates similar for the three product types. Using selective media, we recovered Escherichia coli harboring bla(CMY-2) from over half (53.7%) of packages, with similar recovery rates for all product types. In addition, we recovered E. coli carrying bla(CTX-M) from 6.9% of packages, and E. coli with QRDR mutations from 8.2% of packages. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli recovered using selective media were more common (porganic (0) and antibiotic-free (2.1%) packages. Our results indicate that, regardless of product type, fresh retail chicken breast is commonly contaminated with enteric pathogens associated with foodborne illness and commensal bacteria harboring genes conferring resistance to critically important antimicrobial drugs.

  3. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (Psupermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets.

  4. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Tamie; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Okamoto, Fuyuki; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Sera, Nobuyuki; Furuta, Munenori; Onozuka, Daisuke; Oda, Takahiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in

  5. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamie Noda

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC. However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6% chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY, bla(CTX-M, bla(TEM, and bla(SHV resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2, and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2 and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes, bla(TEM (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20 and three bla(TEM-52 genes, and bla(SHV (n = 1, bla(SHV-12. All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006. This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2 in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2 in chicken

  6. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  7. Occurence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in retail fish samples in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas Onmaz, Nurhan; Abay, Secil; Karadal, Fulden; Hizlisoy, Harun; Telli, Nihat; Al, Serhat

    2015-01-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins, as well as Salmonella spp. and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates from fish samples. A total of 100 fish samples were analysed consisting of 30 anchovy, 35 trout and 35 sea bream. The presence of SEs was detected using ELISA and its genes confirmed by mPCR. Also, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were detected in 9 (9%) and 5 (5%) samples, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates had SEs and SEs genes. The resistance rates of the S. aureus isolates to erythromycin, tetracycline, and penicillin G were found to be 33% while Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and neomycine in 20%, 20% and 80%, respectively of the samples. It is of utmost important for public health that retail fish markets need to use hygienic practices in handling and processing operations.

  8. Comparison of sampling strategies for tobacco retailer inspections to maximize coverage in vulnerable areas and minimize cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Shook-Sa, Bonnie E; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-06-23

    In the United States, tens of thousands of inspections of tobacco retailers are conducted each year. Various sampling choices can reduce travel costs, emphasize enforcement in areas with greater non-compliance, and allow for comparability between states and over time. We sought to develop a model sampling strategy for state tobacco retailer inspections. Using a 2014 list of 10,161 North Carolina tobacco retailers, we compared results from simple random sampling; stratified, clustered at the ZIP code sampling; and, stratified, clustered at the census tract sampling. We conducted a simulation of repeated sampling and compared approaches for their comparative level of precision, coverage, and retailer dispersion. While maintaining an adequate design effect and statistical precision appropriate for a public health enforcement program, both stratified, clustered ZIP- and tract-based approaches were feasible. Both ZIP and tract strategies yielded improvements over simple random sampling, with relative improvements, respectively, of average distance between retailers (reduced 5.0% and 1.9%), percent Black residents in sampled neighborhoods (increased 17.2% and 32.6%), percent Hispanic residents in sampled neighborhoods (reduced 2.2% and increased 18.3%), percentage of sampled retailers located near schools (increased 61.3% and 37.5%), and poverty rate in sampled neighborhoods (increased 14.0% and 38.2%). States can make retailer inspections more efficient and targeted with stratified, clustered sampling. Use of statistically appropriate sampling strategies like these should be considered by states, researchers, and the Food and Drug Administration to improve program impact and allow for comparisons over time and across states. The authors present a model tobacco retailer sampling strategy for promoting compliance and reducing costs that could be used by U.S. states and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The design is feasible to implement in North Carolina. Use of

  9. Prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from retail chicken meat in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; León, Maribel; Castellanos, Ricardo; Vanegas, Consuelo; Coral, Adriana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Clavijo, Viviana; Vargas, Mercedes; Romero Zuñiga, Juan J; Tafur, McAllister; Pérez-Gutierrez, Enrique; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS), this study aimed to establish the baseline antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. isolates in retail poultry meat from independent stores and from a main chain distributor center. MICs of the isolates were determined for antimicrobials used both in humans and animals, using an automated system. Salmonella serovars were isolated from 26% of the meat samples and E. coli from 83%, whereas Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were detected in 81 and 13% of the meat samples, respectively. A principal finding of concern in this study was that almost 98% of isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline were the antimicrobials that showed the highest frequency of resistance among Salmonella and E. coli isolates. For enterococci, 61.5% of E. faecium isolates were found to be resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin; this is significant because it is used to treat nosocomial infections when vancomycin resistance is present. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 4% of the E. faecalis isolates. The results of our study highlight the need for rapid implementation of an integrated program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by the Colombian authorities in order to monitor trends, raise awareness, and help promote practices to safeguard later generation antimicrobial agents.

  10. Detection of Escherichia albertii from chicken meat and giblets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eriko; Murakami, Koichi; Sera, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kenitiro; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia albertii occasionally causes food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans; however, little is known about the vehicle of transmission. To screen retail chicken products for the presence of E. albertii, 104 retail chicken products were investigated. Portions of enrichment cultures that were PCR-positive for E. albertii (n=3) were sub-cultured on agar medium. Only 2 strains obtained from 2 chicken giblet samples were identified as E. albertii by multi locus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 1 strain was resistant to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. Both strains harbored the virulence genes cdt and eae. This study is the first description of E. albertii isolation from retail food, suggesting that chicken products are a potential vehicle of E. albertii transmission.

  11. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  12. Methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from retail meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Larsen, Jesper; Kjeldgaard, Jette

    2017-01-01

    -MRSA lineage causing human infections, and although pigs are the major source of CC398 worldwide, poultry and other animals are also reservoirs. This raises concern for transmission of MRSA via meat. In this study, the occurrence and characteristics of S. aureus isolated from Danish retail meat were examined...... with main focus on chicken meat. A total of 145 meat samples from Danish supermarkets were examined, including chicken (Danish, n = 102), turkey (non-Danish origin; n = 23), and pork (Danish, n = 20). S. aureus was detected in 69% of the meat samples. MRSA was detected in 19 meat samples (13%), resulting...... belonged to CC398 (spa t034, t011, t2582, t108), and hereof one isolate derived from chicken (1%). Further findings were spa type t1430 (CC9) in turkey samples (16%) and the human-associated t008 (CC8) in chicken samples (16%). In conclusion, S. aureus was readily detected in Danish retail meat...

  13. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F; Huizinga, Pepijn; Bonten, Marc J; Bos, Martine; De Bruyne, Katrien; Friedrich, Alexander W; Rossen, John W; Savelkoul, Paul H; Kluytmans, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised

  14. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans-van den Bergh, M. F.; Huizinga, P.; Bonten, M. J.; Bos, M.; De Bruyne, K.; Friedrich, A. W.; Rossen, J. W.; Savelkoul, P. H.; Kluytmans, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised

  15. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Nachman, Keeve E.; Baron, Patrick A; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were colle...

  16. Soybean and lactose in meat products and preparations sampled at retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Piccolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers’ adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg–1. Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg–1. Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63. The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers’ health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food.

  17. Prevalence of Arcobacter species isolated from retail meats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hwa; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Choi, Sunkeum; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Jung, Ji-Youn; Choi, Changsun

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter species identified or isolated from retail meats in Korea. Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of Arcobacter species were performed for 360 chicken, 100 pork, and 106 beef samples. Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus were detected in 18.9 and 3.3% of chicken samples, respectively. However, Arcobacter species were not found in any of the pork and beef samples. Biochemical testing of isolates selected after enrichment revealed 38 A. butzleri isolates in chicken samples, but no A. cryaerophilus isolates were detected. In this study, A. butzleri was the most prevalent Arcobacter species in chicken meat, and contamination with Arcobacter species in pork and beef may be less prevalent in Korea.

  18. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.;

    2006-01-01

    The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat...

  19. Increase in Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Salmonella Isolated from Retail Chicken Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main ve...

  20. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lengmei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang.

  1. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibbert, Hunter B; Ku, Seockmo; Li, Xuan; Liu, Xingya; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Ladisch, Michael R; Deering, Amanda J; Gehring, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration by adding endopeptidase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to chicken extracts or chicken rinse, prior to microfiltration with fluid flow on both retentate and permeate sides of 0.2 μm cutoff polysulfone and polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. After treatment with this protease, the distribution of micron, submicron, and nanometer particles in chicken extracts changes so that the size of the remaining particles corresponds to 0.4-1 μm. Together with alteration of dissolved proteins, this change helps to explain how membrane fouling might be minimized because the potential foulants are significantly smaller or larger than the membrane pore size. At the same time, we found that the presence of protein protects Salmonella from protease action, thus maintaining cell viability. Concentration and recovery of 1-10 CFU Salmonella/mL from 400 mL chicken rinse is possible in less than 4 h, with the microfiltration step requiring less than 25 min at fluxes of 0.028-0.32 mL/cm(2) min. The entire procedure-from sample processing to detection by polymerase chain reaction-is completed in 8 h.

  2. Whole genome sequencing and analysis of Campylobacter coli YH502 from retail chicken reveals a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Ghatak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS is a powerful technology that provides comprehensive genetic information about bacteria and is increasingly being applied to study foodborne pathogens: e.g., evolution, epidemiology/outbreak investigation, and detection. Herein we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter coli strain YH502 isolated from retail chicken in the United States. WGS, de novo assembly, and annotation of the genome revealed a chromosome of 1,718,974 bp and a mega-plasmid (pCOS502 of 125,964 bp. GC content of the genome was 31.2% with 1931 coding sequences and 53 non-coding RNAs. Multiple virulence factors including a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system and antimicrobial resistance genes (beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycoside were found. The presence of T6SS in a mobile genetic element (plasmid suggests plausible horizontal transfer of these virulence genes to other organisms. The C. coli YH502 genome also harbors CRISPR sequences and associated proteins. Phylogenetic analysis based on average nucleotide identity and single nucleotide polymorphisms identified closely related C. coli genomes available in the NCBI database. Taken together, the analyzed genomic data of this potentially virulent strain of C. coli will facilitate further understanding of this important foodborne pathogen most likely leading to better control strategies. The chromosome and plasmid sequences of C. coli YH502 have been deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers CP018900.1 and CP018901.1, respectively.

  3. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.;

    2004-01-01

    As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse...... and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method...... specificity was 80.1% (with 85.7% accordance and 67.5% concordance) for chicken rinse, and 91.7% (with 100% accordance and 83.3% concordance) for pig swab. Thus, the interlaboratory variation due to personnel, reagents, thermal cyclers, etc., did not affect the performance of the method, which...

  4. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick A.; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were collected from grocery stores in 10 U.S. metropolitan areas from December 2010 through June 2011. We tested 116 raw and 142 cooked chicken samples for total arsenic, and we determined arsenic species in 65 raw and 78 cooked samples that contained total arsenic at ≥ 10 µg/kg dry weight. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of total arsenic in cooked chicken meat samples was 3.0 µg/kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.6). Among the 78 cooked samples that were speciated, iAs concentrations were higher in conventional samples (GM = 1.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) than in antibiotic-free (GM = 0.7 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) or organic (GM = 0.6 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) samples. Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. iAs concentrations in roxarsone-positive samples (GM = 2.3 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.1) were significantly higher than those in roxarsone-negative samples (GM = 0.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0). Cooking increased iAs and decreased roxarsone concentrations. We estimated that consumers of conventional chicken would ingest an additional 0.11 µg/day iAs (in an 82-g serving) compared with consumers of organic chicken. Assuming lifetime exposure and a proposed cancer slope factor of 25.7 per milligram per kilogram of body weight per day, this increase in arsenic exposure could result in 3.7 additional lifetime bladder and lung cancer cases per 100,000 exposed persons. Conclusions: Conventional chicken meat had higher i

  5. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Santillan, Carlo J

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almonds, pistachios, and walnuts were collected from small and large supermarkets in seven areas of the United States between 2012 and 2014. Of the 665 samples analyzed, OTA was detected in 48 raisin samples, 4 fig samples, 4 pistachio samples, and 1 date sample. OTA contamination levels ranged from 0.28 to 15.34 ng/g in dried fruits and 1.87 to 890 ng/g in pistachios; two raisin samples and one pistachio sample exceeded the European Union regulatory limit of 10 ng/g. PCR detection of potential OTA-producing Aspergillus species revealed the presence of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius in 20, 7, and 7 of the 57 OTA-contaminated samples, respectively. However, OTA-producing A. carbonarius was isolated from only one raisin sample, and no other OTA-producing Aspergillus species were found. These results suggest that raisins are more frequently contaminated with low levels of OTA than are other dried fruits and nuts and that Aspergillus species are the likely source of that contamination.

  6. Antibacterial Susceptibility and Subtypes of Salmonella Isolates from Retail Chicken in Xi,an in 2007-2008%2007—2008年西安地区鸡肉源沙门氏菌相关特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保伟; 申进玲; 席美丽; 张秀丽; 崔生辉; 王新; 孟江洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The antibacterial susceptibility,and serotype and genotype of 260 Salmonella isolates from retail chicken in Xi,an district of Shaanxi province were determined to explore the microbial safety of retail chicken.Methods: The antibacterial susceptibility was tested using agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Serotyping was performed using slide agglutination method according to WHO guidelines.DNA fingerprinting profiles of Salmonella were determined using pulse field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,and analyzed using the BioNumerics Software.Results: The drug resistance rates of 260 Salmonella isolates to nalidixic acid,ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,gatifloxacin,ampicillin,amoxicillin-clavulanic acid,cefoperazone,ceftriaxone and cefoxitin were 81.4%,29.2%,22.4%,21.8%,34.6%,37.7%,32.6%,23.1% and 1.9%,respectively.Twenty-one serotypes were identified in the Salmonella isolates,and the common serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis,Salmonella Shubra,Salmonella Indiana,Salmonella Typhimurium,Salmonella Djugu,Salmonella Derby,Salmonella Virchow,Salmonella Othmarschen and Salmonella II,respectively.The isolates of serotypes Salmonella Indiana(22.6%) and Salmonella Shubra(6.1%) were resistant to at least 15 antibiotics,which were the most resistant ones.PFGE profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis,Salmonella Shubra,Salmonella Indiana and Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were genetically diverse.The epidemiological regularity of the different serotypes of Salmonella Exhibited differences along with sampling time and places.Conclusion: Salmonella isolates from retail chicken in Xi,an are diverse in serotypic and genotypic characteristics and many of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of humans and animals.%目的:研究260株2007—2008年分离于西安市零售鸡肉中沙门氏菌的药敏性、血清型和基

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  8. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl

    2004-01-01

    in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 CFU/ml, in a fecal suspension. A bacterial internal control was added before DNA extraction to control both DNA isolation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The assay was performed on 111 swab samples from a Danish surveillance program......A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected...

  9. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  10. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...

  11. Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S; Stanley, Adriana; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2015-05-29

    Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is

  12. Molecular detection of toxigenic potential of fungi in peanut samples collected in retail shops in Maringá/PR, Brazil

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    Alessandra Valéria de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many foods are susceptible to fungal contamination. Grains, such as peanuts, are commonly affected, with consequences including compromised integrity and infeasibility for human and animal consumption. Furthermore, some fungi may pose a health risk, largely due the production of mycotoxins. Among these, aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus produce various carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Molecular techniques have been used to identify and distinguish fungal species in foods. The objective of this study was molecular detection of Aspergillus species in peanut samples collected in stores in Maringá-PR, by amplification of fungal genetic material with specific primers for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ and later cutting with restriction enzymes. Of the 50 peanut samples analyzed, 27 were positive for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ, seven of which were identified as Aspergillus flavus. Our results demonstrate that peanuts sold in retail stores in this region have potential for contamination with toxigenic fungi.

  13. Fluoroscence in situ hybridization of chicken intestinal samples with bacterial rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Francesch, M.; Christensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to develop a fast and accurate molecular method for the quantification of the intestinal flora in chickens by rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seven weeks old conventionally reared Lohmann hens were used to set up the method. To sample ileal intestinal content......, the distal part from Meckels diverticulum to the ileo-caecal junction was removed. Fixation was performed in ethanol and phosphate buffered saline. After washing by centrifugation, the sample was resuspended in pre-heated hybridization buffer with oligonucleotide probe labelled with Cy3 (10ng/µl). The cells...... were hybridized for 24-72h, centrifuged, washed with pre-heated hybridization buffer, centrifuged and resuspended in Millipore quality water before filtration onto a 0.22 µm black polycarbonate filter. The probes used in this study were, LGC354A, LGC354B, LGC354C, Strc493, Bacto1080, Sal3, Chis150, EUB...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat at retail level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. R.; Saadbye, P.; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat collected at retail shops in Denmark in the period 1996-2003 were tested for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. The food samples consisted of raw chicken meat and other raw poultry meat of domestic or imported origin. The highest levels...... of resistance among C. jejuni were observed for tetracycline, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, whereas macrolide resistance was rarely detected. C. jejuni originating from other poultry meat (mainly duck and turkey meat) exhibited the highest occurrences of antimicrobial resistance monitored; approximately one...... third of the isolates were tetracycline resistant (N=100). Among chicken meat isolates, the occurrence of tetracycline resistance was significantly higher (P jejuni isolated from imported chicken meat (N=88) than in C. jejuni from Danish chicken meat (N=367). The same tendency was observed...

  15. Assessment of hygienic quality of some types of cheese sampled from retail outlets

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    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus enterotoxin, in 2 132 samples selected from six types of cheese on the basis of recorded consumption in Italy in 2004. In L. monocytogenes-positive samples the precise level of contamination was determined. To define the physical-chemical characteristics of the selected natural cheeses, the pH values, water activity and sodium chloride content were determined. The results suggest that blue and soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola and Taleggio are more likely to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the six types of cheese was 2.4% (from 0.2% in Asiago and Crescenza to 6.5% in Taleggio, with contamination levels of up to 460 MPN/g. No presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157 was found in any sample. Staphylococcus enterotoxin was found in 0.6% of the samples examined. Physical and chemical parameter values confirmed that all types of cheese are considered capable of supporting the growth of L. monocytogenes. The study confirmed the need to apply effective control at production and sales levels to reduce the probability of contamination by L. monocytogenes. This micro-organism can attain high levels of contamination in food products, such as cheeses that have a long shelf-life when associated with difficulties of maintaining appropriate storage temperatures in both sales points and in the home.

  16. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  17. Determination of naturally occurring oestrogens and androgens in retail samples of milk and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, F; Antignac, J P; Maume, D; Monteau, F; Andre, F; Le Bizec, B

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of the main steroid hormones (oestrone, 17alpha-oestradiol, 17beta-oestradiol, 17alpha-testosterone, 17beta-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 4-androstenedione), especially in milk and eggs, was investigated. An analytical method based on GC-MS/MS was developed for steroid measurement at an ultra-trace level in food products. The limits of detection for oestrogens were about 5 and 30 ng kg(-1) in milk and eggs, respectively. For androgens, the limits of detection were around 10 and 50 ng kg(-1) in milk and eggs, respectively. The method was applied to milk and egg samples collected in a French supermarket. In milk, oestrone was found at levels between 100 and 300 ng l(-1), while 17beta-oestradiol levels were estimated to be near 20 ng l(-1). 17alpha-testosterone was found to be from 50 ng l(-1) in skimmed milk to 85 ng l(-1) in whole milk. In egg samples, oestrone and 17beta-oestradiol were found at 1.5 and 0.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, while 17alpha-oestradiol was found to be in lower concentrations (i.e. around 0.55 microg kg(-1)). Regarding androgens, 17alpha- and 17beta-testosterone were estimated at 1.9 and 1.3 microg kg(-1), respectively. These results represent a first attempt to estimate the food exposure to steroid hormones. In the future, the collection of additional data should permit the comparison between this exogenous dietary intake and the daily endogenous production in pre-pubertal children as a basis of risk assessment regarding endocrine disruption linked to these molecules for this critical population.

  18. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  19. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken meat samples by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with molecular beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, E; Girbau, C; Martínez, I; Mateo, E; Alonso, R; Fernández-Astorga, A

    2007-06-10

    A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay based on molecular beacons was used for real-time detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of chicken meat. A set of specific primers and beacon probe were designed to target the 16S rRNA of both species. The real-time NASBA protocol including the RNA isolation was valid for both of the cell suspensions in buffered saline and the artificially contaminated chicken meat samples. The presence of rRNA could be correlated with cellular viability, following inactivation of the bacteria by heating, in inoculated chicken meat samples but not in RNase-free cell suspensions.

  20. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test...... in detecting S. enterica as the 60 faecal samples. In broiler flocks, 5 pairs of socks were used both in the routine samples taken at about 3 weeks of age for the establishment of infection of the flock, and as one of the follow-up samples taken shortly before slaughter age, which means that the only notable...

  1. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xiaojuan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF, a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several differentially expressed protein spots selected were cut from 2-DE gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results An extraction buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% (w/v 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT, 0.2% Bio-Lyte 3/10, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 20 U/ml Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I, and 0.25 mg/ml Ribonuclease A (RNase A, combined with sonication and vortex, yielded the best 2-DE data. Relative to non-frozen immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips, frozen IPG strips did not result in significant changes in the 2-DE patterns after isoelectric focusing (IEF. When the optimized protocol was used to analyze the spleen and thymus, as well as avibirnavirus-infected bursa, high quality 2-DE protein expression profiles were obtained. 2-DE maps of BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus were visibly different and many differentially expressed proteins were found. Conclusion These results showed that method C, in concert extraction buffer IV, was the most favorable for preparing samples for IEF and subsequent protein separation and yielded the best quality 2-DE patterns. The optimized protocol is a useful sample preparation method for comparative proteomics analysis of chicken BF tissues.

  2. Detection and identification of Salmonella species in minced beef and chicken meats by using Multiplex PCR in Assiut city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Hassanein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and distribution of Salmonella species in selected meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut, Egypt. A total of 75 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and examined for the presence of Salmonella species. In addition, 28 children stool cultures were collected from hospitalized children resident in Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 75 meat samples examined, Salmonella was detected in 5 (20% of minced frozen beef, 9 (36% of frozen chicken leg and 13 (52% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed. Regarding the examined 28 children stool cultures, 3 (10.71 % were found Salmonella positive. Of the total 30 Salmonella positive samples from all examined samples, five selected Salmonella isolates were further identified using multiplex PCR (m-PCR. Two serovars were the dominant serovar identified was Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Enteritidis (2 chicken leg isolates and 2 chicken breast fillets followed by Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Kentucky (one minced beef isolate. The public health hazards of Salmonella were discussed and the suggestive measures to protect the consumers and improve the quality of meat and chicken products were given. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 5-11

  3. PCR detection and serotyping of enterotoxigenic and shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates obtained from chicken meat in Mumbai, India

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    R. J. Zende,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was undertaken to find out the frequency of few virulent genes and prevalence of related strains of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat obtained from chicken retail shops by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Materials and Methods: 66 samples of freshly slaughtered chicken meat were collected from 22 identified retail shops located at Mumbai city, randomly. Processed meat samples were cultured in EMB agar and presumptive colonies were confirmed by various biochemical tests. PCR method was accustomed for identification of the genes coding for heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat labile enterotoxin (LT, shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT1 and SLT2. E. coli isolates were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, CRI, Kasauli, HP, India for serotyping.Results: 11 (16.67% E. coli strains were isolated from 66 chicken meat samples. 3 (27.27% out of 11 harbored the gene for SLT2, and 2 (18.18% for STa. None of the strain contains SLT1 and LT genes. Serotypes detected were rough, O2, O20, O22, O102 each for one isolate and 6 isolates were untypable (UT.Conclusion: The results concluded that chicken meat samples analysed harbored genes for shiga like toxins and enterotoxins and different serotypes of E. coli. These findings indicating that regular monitoring of chicken meat is essential for this pathogen to prevent potential public health problems.

  4. Prevalence and quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Italian retail poultry meat: Analysis of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Simone; Soncini, Gabriella; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Colavita, Giampaolo; Alberghini, Leonardo; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Retail poultry meat is a crucial vehicle for consumers' exposure to Campylobacters, but no official controls are currently applied in Italy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of a wide range of poultry meats marketed in Italy. N. 472 chicken and turkey meat samples (sectioned meats, offal, meat preparations and products) were taken from slaughterhouses, deboning plants and different retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and biomolecular techniques. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 34.1% of the samples, with general low counts. Higher values were observed in offal (especially liver) and sectioned meats, with significantly higher rates in skin-on samples (86.8% vs 32.7%). Minced meat preparations showed lower prevalence (22.4% vs 58.3%) and counts than whole pieces. Decreasing rates were observed among slaughterhouses (80%), deboning plants (49%), butcher's shops (37%) and large scale retailers (25%). Sectioned chicken meats were significantly more contaminated than turkey meats. Almost all the isolates were identified as C. jejuni or C. coli, with similar prevalences (18.4% and 20.5%, respectively); C. jejuni was predominant only in samples from slaughterhouses/deboning plants. For setting future control programs, meat typology should be considered the main critical factor.

  5. Optimization of the RNA extraction method for transcriptome studies of Salmonella inoculated on commercial raw chicken breast samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthaiyan Arunachalam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased interest in the study of molecular survival mechanisms expressed by foodborne pathogens present on food surfaces. Determining genomic responses of these pathogens to antimicrobials is of particular interest since this helps to understand antimicrobial effects at the molecular level. Assessment of bacterial gene expression by transcriptomic analysis in response to these antimicrobials would aid prediction of the phenotypic behavior of the bacteria in the presence of antimicrobials. However, before transcriptional profiling approaches can be implemented routinely, it is important to develop an optimal method to consistently recover pathogens from the food surface and ensure optimal quality RNA so that the corresponding gene expression analysis represents the current response of the organism. Another consideration is to confirm that there is no interference from the "background" food or meat matrix that could mask the bacterial response. Findings Our study involved developing a food model system using chicken breast meat inoculated with mid-log Salmonella cells. First, we tested the optimum number of Salmonella cells required on the poultry meat in order to extract high quality RNA. This was analyzed by inoculating 10-fold dilutions of Salmonella on the chicken samples followed by RNA extraction. Secondly, we tested the effect of two different bacterial cell recovery solutions namely 0.1% peptone water and RNAprotect (Qiagen Inc. on the RNA yield and purity. In addition, we compared the efficiency of sonication and bead beater methods to break the cells for RNA extraction. To check chicken nucleic acid interference on downstream Salmonella microarray experiments both chicken and Salmonella cDNA labeled with different fluorescent dyes were mixed together and hybridized on a single Salmonella array. Results of this experiment did not show any cross-hybridization signal from the chicken nucleic acids. In

  6. Salmonella in chicken meat, eggs and humans; Adelaide, South Australia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily; Raupach, Jane; Lagala, Fil; Cameron, Scott

    2011-04-29

    Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these have led to subsequent decreases in notification rates in humans. A descriptive case-series of human Salmonella infections notified in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was conducted in 2008. Human Salmonella serotypes identified were then compared to serotypes identified from a retail chicken and egg survey conducted over the same time period in Adelaide. Ninety-four human cases of salmonellosis were included in the study. Thirty-one serotypes were identified and 61.7% of these were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the week prior to illness, 62.8% of participants reported eating chicken and 47.9% reported eating eggs. Salmonella was identified in 38.8% of retail chicken samples; S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium phage type 135a were most commonly identified. No egg contents were found to contain Salmonella, but the pathogen was isolated on 3.5% of egg external surface samples. Eleven serotypes were common to both chicken and human samples, two serotypes were common to eggs and humans, and one serotype (S. Infantis) was common to all three sources. Serotypes of Salmonella isolated from chicken and egg samples included serotypes that were also isolated from humans, in cases included in this study, and in outbreaks previously investigated within Australia. Poultry meat and eggs are potential sources of introducing a defined range of human pathogens into South Australian kitchens. Ongoing systematic surveillance of animals and their food products, at farm and retail level for Salmonella could provide more definitive evidence of links between food sources and human infections; and also

  7. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.

    2004-01-01

    specificity was 80.1% (with 85.7% accordance and 67.5% concordance) for chicken rinse, and 91.7% (with 100% accordance and 83.3% concordance) for pig swab. Thus, the interlaboratory variation due to personnel, reagents, thermal cyclers, etc., did not affect the performance of the method, which...

  8. Risk of Salmonellosis from Chicken Parts Prepared from Whole Chickens Sold in Flow Pack Wrappers and Subjected to Temperature Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2017-09-01

    The flow pack wrapper is a popular packaging choice for retail sale of whole chickens. However, it may provide a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package, leading to an outbreak of salmonellosis. To investigate this possibility, a process risk model was developed that predicted the risk of salmonellosis from chicken parts prepared from whole chickens sold in flow pack wrappers and subjected to proper storage (6 h at 4°C) or improper storage (72 h at 15°C) before preparation. The model had four unit operations (pathogen events): (i) preparation (contamination), (ii) cooking (death), (iii) serving (cross-contamination), and (iv) consumption (dose-response). Data for prevalence, number, and serotype of Salmonella on chicken parts were obtained by whole sample enrichment, real-time PCR. Improper storage increased (P chicken parts from 10.6% (17 of 160) to 41.2% (66 of 160) and incidence of cross-contamination of cooked chicken from 10% (4 of 40) to 52.2% (24 of 46). Improper storage also increased (P chicken part and from 0.048 ± 0.089 to 3.08 ± 1.50 log per cooked chicken part. The predominant serotypes isolated (n = 111) were Typhimurium (34.2%), Typhimurium var 5- (20.7%), Kentucky (12.6%), Enteritidis (11.7%), and Heidelberg (8.1%). When chicken was properly stored before preparation, the model predicted that risk of salmonellosis was low and sporadic with only six cases per 100 simulations of 10(5) chicken parts. However, when 0.1 to 1% of chickens were improperly stored before preparation, the model predicted that salmonellosis would increase (P chicken parts. These results indicated that the flow pack wrapper provided a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package and that even when only a small percentage of packages were subjected to improper storage before preparation, the risk and size of an outbreak of salmonellosis from chicken parts increased significantly.

  9. Molecular Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats by MLST and PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-08

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species of concern to human health and cause approximately 95% of human infections. Molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are often used to source track foodborne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to compare PFGE and MLST in typing strains of C. jejuni and C. coli that were isolated from different Oklahoma retail meat sources. A total of 47 Campylobacter isolates (28 C. jejuni and 19 C. coli) isolated from various retail meat samples (beef, beef livers, pork, chicken, turkey, chicken livers, and chicken gizzards) were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PFGE was able to group the 47 Campylobacter isolates into two major clusters (one for C. jejuni and one for C. coli) but failed to differentiate the isolates according to their source. MLST revealed 21 different sequence types (STs) that belonged to eight different clonal complexes. Twelve of the screened Campylobacter isolates (8 C. jejuni and 4 C. coli) did not show any defined STs. All the defined STs of C. coli isolates belonged to ST-828 complex. The majority of C. jejuni isolates belonged to ST-353, ST-607, ST-52, ST-61, and ST-21 complexes. It is worthy to mention that, while the majority of Campylobacter isolates in this study showed STs that are commonly associated with human infections along with other sources, most of the STs from chicken livers were solely reported in human cases. In conclusion, retail meat Campylobacter isolates tested in this study particularly those from chicken livers showed relatedness to STs commonly associated with humans. Molecular typing, particularly MLST, proved to be a helpful tool in suggesting this relatedness to Campylobacter human isolates.

  10. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 X 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture...... enrichment and amounts as low as 2.6 X 10(3) CFU/ml could be quantified. Furthermore, subjecting viable cells and dead cells to flotation showed that viable cells were recovered after flotation treatment but that dead cells and/or their DNA was not detected. Also, when samples containing VNC cells mixed......, real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed...

  11. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

    2013-01-01

    The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections.

  12. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  13. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates. PMID:12760899

  14. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens from retail raw meats and food-producing animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Midori; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Harada, Tetsuya; Sano, Yono; Miwa, Norinaga; Sugiyama, Kanji; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in food-producing animals and retail raw meats in Japan, raw meat samples as well as food-producing animal feces, cutaneous swabs, and nasal swabs collected from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed. Isolation rates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus were 34.6% (363 of 1,050), 2.7% (28 of 1,050), and 32.8% (238 of 725), respectively. MRSA was isolated from 3% (9 of 300) of meat samples. No VRE were isolated in this study. Antibiotic resistance in C. coli was higher than that in C. jejuni. Three C. jejuni isolates from a patient with diarrhea in a hospital of Shizuoka Prefecture and two chicken samples that exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, suggesting that ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni could have been distributed in meat. S. aureus isolates showed the highest level of resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. Resistance to tetracycline in S. aureus isolates from beef was lower than that seen in isolates from chicken and pork (P food-producing animals and retail domestic meats in Japan, although Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone and erythromycin were detected. The occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens should be monitored continuously to improve the management of the risks associated with antimicrobial drug resistance transferred from food-producing animals to humans.

  16. The relationship between blood and muscle samples to monitor for residues of the antibiotic enrofloxacin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, I; Schneider, M J; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2011-02-01

    In 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration withdrew approval for use of enrofloxacin in poultry, thus effectively imposing zero tolerance for residues of this antibiotic in poultry. Conventional residue monitoring for most antibiotics, including enrofloxacin, involves removing poultry carcasses from the processing line and collecting muscle tissues for analysis. Because of the loss of valuable edible products and the difficulties and expense of sampling all the carcasses, only a small portion of carcasses are tested for violative residues. Unlike muscle tissue, blood is readily available from all birds at the beginning of processing and may be used to screen for illegal residues in all poultry carcasses. It is unknown, however, if enrofloxacin concentrations in blood are predictive of muscle concentrations. In an effort to evaluate this relationship, 156 broiler chickens, 5 wk of age, were dosed with either 25 or 50 µg/mL of enrofloxacin for 3 or 7 d, respectively, in the drinking water. Blood and muscle samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h (n = 6 birds/group) during the first dosing day, every 48 h during the dosing period, and every 12 h during the withdrawal period for up to 60 h after withdrawal. Enrofloxacin residues were determined in all blood and tissue samples during the dosing periods and in most of the withdrawal period for both doses. These results support the potential to use blood to screen for illegal enrofloxacin residues in edible poultry tissues in an effort to protect the human food supply.

  17. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species.

  18. Rapid and accurate detection of Arcobacter contamination in commercial chicken products and wastewater samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana; Suski, Jan; Ferrús, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    An SYBR Green real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for Arcobacter detection in food and wastewater samples. The assay was applied to 36 chicken and 33 wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained for conventional PCR, multiplex PCR, and culture isolation. Isolates were identified by multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragment, and typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Arcobacter sp. was detected in 25 of the 26 chicken carcasses (96%) and in 4 of the 10 liver samples (40%) by real-time PCR. Twenty-five chicken samples were positive also by conventional PCR, but in most of them the detection was only possible after 48-h enrichment. Arcobacter butzleri was the most frequently detected species. Twenty-four Arcobacter isolates were obtained from chicken samples, where A. butzleri is the only identified species. All the wastewater samples (100%) were positive for Arcobacter sp. by real-time PCR without enrichment. A. butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus were detected by multiplex PCR. Fifteen samples were found to be positive by culture. Thirty-six isolates were obtained; all of them were identified as A. butzleri by multiplex PCR. However, by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 34 were identified as A. butzleri, 1 as A. cryaerophilus, and another 1 as Arcobacter skirrowii. A great genetic heterogeneity was observed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiling. The real-time PCR assay developed in this work showed better detection levels than conventional PCR, together with shorter times of testing samples. Therefore, it could be used as a rapid and accurate instrument for monitoring Arcobacter contamination levels in food and water samples.

  19. Epidemic condition and molecular subtyping of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella Indiana isolated from retail chicken carcasses in six provinces, China%中国六省份零售整鸡中环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药印第安纳沙门菌流行状况及分子分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡豫杰; 黄金林; 于红霞; 李凤琴; 赫英英; 王晔茹; 崔生辉; 陈秋霞; 刘桂华; 陈倩; 周刚; 杨保伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对中国6个省份零售整鸡中对环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药的沙门菌流行状况及分子分型进行研究。方法对我国6个省份市售整鸡样品中分离的2629株沙门菌进行耐药性实验,筛选出对环丙沙星和头孢噻肟双重耐药的菌株,进行血清分型、超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)表型确证和PFGE遗传特性研究。结果对环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药的沙门菌共计227株(8.52%,227/2629),北京、吉林、广东、江苏、陕西、内蒙的检出率分别为11.67%(99/874)、8.20%(60/726)、1.39%(7/502)、15.61%(42/260)、8.56%(16/186)、0(0/81);224株为印第安纳沙门菌,其中213株(95.10%)为ESBLs阳性。所有双耐印第安纳沙门菌均耐5种以上的抗生素,17.86%的菌株(40/224)对除碳青霉烯类外的10种抗生素均耐药;50.89%的菌株(114/224)对9种抗生素耐药,25.45%的菌株(57/224)对8种抗生素耐药。224株双耐印第安纳沙门菌划分为32个基因簇和150种PFGE带型,双耐印第安纳沙门菌带型既具有地域差异,相同或不同的省份及采样时间均发现相同带型菌株。结论中国零售整鸡中环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药沙门菌污染严重,是双耐药沙门菌的重要储存库,分子分型结果提示沙门菌存在交叉污染或共同污染来源。%Objective To elucidate the epidemic condition and molecular subtyping of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella Indiana(S. Indiana)isolated from retail chicken carcasses in six provinces of China. Methods A total of 2 647 Salmonella strains isolated from retail chicken carcasses collected from six provinces of China were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All Salmonella isolates co-resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were further characterized by serotyping, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains screening and pulsed field

  20. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  1. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Food storage temperatures monitored at retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Sarno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work is to report data concerning the maintenance of the cold chain by retail food business operators. A total of 401 refrigerators and 105 freezers from 112 retails (big, medium, small size were monitored for display temperatures. In addition, the surface temperature of 341 stored food products was recorded. Storage temperatures were respected in the majority of retail markets, with the exception of small retails, where cold chain was not respected. Among all food samples, yogurt was stored at temperature higher than law limits. Our findings show that retailers, in particular those from small markets, are not always familiar with cold chain maintenance. In our opinion, much more attention should be paid in keeping food at cold temperature in order to ensure food safety.

  3. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Dursun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, increasing women workforce and income growth. In this research, original data collected through face-to-face interview from 385 respondents which are located in Istanbul. Different Socio-Economic Status (SES groups‟ ratio for Istanbul was forming sampling distribution. Consumers prefer closest food retailers which are mainly purchasing food products. Consumers purchase more than their planned what their needs; especially C SES group average comes first for the spending money for unplanned shopping. Chain stores and hypermarkets are the most preferred retailers in food purchasing. Moreover, consumer responses to judgments related to retailing are being investigating with factor analysis.

  4. Differentiation in online retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are of importance for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and to achieve a unique positioning in the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...

  5. Differentiation in online retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan;

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are of importance for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and to achieve a unique positioning in the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...... on online store formats....

  6. The Impact of Modern Retail Minimarket towards the Continuity of Traditional Retail Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masruroh, R.

    2017-03-01

    Today the business is growing rapidly minimarket with the development of socioeconomic conditions of society, and changes in value systems that result in changes to the pattern of life and needs of the community. In meeting the needs and desires, people tend to prefer a wide range of modern facilities expenditures. Thus increasing the number of modern minimarket store increasingly cornered the existence of traditional retail stores are stand-alone and based on social economy. This study aimed to analyze the changes in turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern mini-market retail in the vicinity. To achieve these objectives, conducted survey research approach, this study uses primary and secondary data by distributing interviews and questionnaires to 40 respondents traditional retail store owners in the district of Kuningan which is selected by probability sampling. Descriptive qualitative were used to analyse this study. Based on the survey results revealed that there are significant differences between turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern minimarket in the vicinity. This shows that the presence of modern retail stores provide a decrease in turnover and customers impact for traditional retail stores. But the research also shows that traditional retail stores that improve the quality of services and facilities are not affected by the presence of modern retail stores in the vicinity.

  7. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Advancing the retail endgame: public perceptions of retail policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Gregor; Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet

    2014-03-01

    Evidence that exposure to tobacco 'powerwalls' increases young people's susceptibility to smoking has led many countries to require the removal of these displays. Despite this important step, tobacco remains widely available and policy action appears to have stalled. We conducted an online survey of 364 smokers and 402 non-smokers aged 18 years and above, who were sampled from a commercial internet panel in January 2013. Six months after the removal of all tobacco products from open display in New Zealand retail outlets, strong support for the new law exists. Although daily smokers were less supportive than other groups, smokers intending to quit within the next 6 months were more likely than not to believe the law would facilitate quitting. Irrespective of their smoking status, respondents supported not selling tobacco products within 500 m of a school, and requiring tobacco retailers to sell nicotine replacement therapy products. Public support for more progressive 'endgame' retail measures could catalyse policy action which, in turn, could offer greater protection to young people and accelerate declines in smoking prevalence. Mandatory tobacco-free retail zones around schools, and requiring stores selling tobacco to stock cessation products received strong support, even among daily smokers; both measures would reduce youth exposure to tobacco while providing smokers with better access to cessation aids.

  9. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  10. Evaluation of meat, fruit and vegetables from retail stores in five United Kingdom regions as sources of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L P; Lodge, M P; Elviss, N C; Lemma, F L; Hopkins, K L; Teale, C J; Woodford, N

    2017-01-16

    We determined the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in raw retail beef, chicken, pork, fruit and vegetables in five UK regions in 2013-14. Raw meat (n=397), and fruit and vegetable samples (n=400) were purchased from retail stores in London, East Anglia, North West England, Scotland and Wales. Samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli by plating enriched samples on CHROMagar CTX and CHROMagar ESBL, for AmpC-type E. coli by plating on "CHROMagar FOX" (CHROMagar ECC+16mg/L cefoxitin), and for carbapenem-resistant E. coli by plating on CHROMagar KPC. Additionally, pre-enrichment counts were performed on the above agars, and on CHROMagar ECC. Isolates of interest were characterised by MALDI-ToF to confirm identification, by PCR for blaCIT,blaCTX-M,blaOXA, blaSHV and blaTEM genes; ESBL or blaCIT genes were sequenced. Only 1.9% and 2.5% of beef and pork samples, respectively were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli after enrichment compared with 65.4% of chicken samples. 85.6% positive samples from chicken meat carried blaCTX-M-1; blaCTX-M-15 was not detected. None of the fruits or vegetables yielded ESBL-producing E. coli and none of the meat, fruit or vegetable samples yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Retail chicken was more frequently a source of ESBL-producing E. coli than were beef, pork, fruit or vegetables. None of the foodstuffs yielded E. coli with CTX-M-15 ESBL, which dominates in human clinical isolates in the UK, and none yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  12. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues.......This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...

  13. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  14. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  15. Electricity Retailing in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    von der Fehr, Nils-Henrik M.; Vegard Hansen, Petter

    2008-01-01

    We analyse retailer and household behaviour on the Norwegian electricity market, based on detailed information on prices and other market characteristics. We find that there exists a competitive market segment where a number of retailers compete fiercely for customers, with small margins on all products. However, we also find evidence of monopolistic behaviour, whereby retailers exploit the passivity of some of their customers. We discuss explanations for these results, as well as means to im...

  16. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in traceability of retail beef samples Marcadores de DNA nuclear e mitocondrial para rastreabilidade da carne bovina comercializada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S.M. Cesar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristics are important in a traceability system of animal products, such as age at slaughter, breed composition, besides information of the productive chain. In general, the certification agent records information about the animals and the system which it came from, although cannot guarantee that the slaughtering, meat processing and distribution are error proof. Besides, there is a differential price, at least at the international market, based on sex and breed composition of the animals. Genetic markers allow identification of characteristics controlled in the beef cattle traceability program, as sex and breed composition, in order to correctly identify and appraise the final product for the consumer. The hypothesis of this study was that the majority beef samples retailed in the local market originate from female with a great participation of zebu breeds. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize retail beef samples with DNA markers that identify cattle sex and breed composition. Within 10 beef shops localized in Pirassununga, SP, Brazil, 61 samples were collected, all were genotyped as harboring Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA and 18 were positive for the Y chromosome amplification (male. For the marker sat1711b-Msp I the frequency of the allele A was 0.278 and for the marker Lhr-Hha I the frequency of the allele T was 0.417. The results of sat1711b-Msp I and Lhr-Hha I allelic frequencies are suggestive that the proportion of indicus genome compared with the taurine genome in the market meat is smaller than the observed in the Nellore breed. The procedure described in this study identified sex and subspecies characteristics of beef meat samples, with potential application in meat products certification in special as an auxiliary tool in beef cattle traceability programs.Várias características são importantes no sistema de rastreabilidade, como o sexo, a idade, a raça e/ou a composição racial dos animais, al

  17. Strategies for the inclusion of an internal amplification control in conventional and real time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    To illustrate important issues in optimization of a PCR assay with an internal control four different primer combinations for conventional PCR, two non-competitive and two competitive set-ups for real time PCR were used for detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken faecal samples....... In the conventional PCR assays the internal control was genomic DNA from Yersinia ruckeri, which is not found in chicken faeces. This internal control was also used in one of the set LIPS in real time PCR. In the three other set-ups different DNA fragments of 109 bp length prepared from two oligos of each 66 bp...... by a simple extension reaction was used. All assays were optimized to avoid loss of target sensitivity due to the presence of the internal control by adjusting the amount of internal control primers in the duplex assays and the amount of internal control in all assays. Furthermore. the assays were tested...

  18. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  19. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Campylobacter jejuni Strains OD267 and WP2202 Isolated from Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards Reveal the Presence of Novel 116-Kilobase and 119-Kilobase Megaplasmids with Type VI Secretion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasini, Daya

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequences of Campylobacter jejuni strains OD267 and WP2202, isolated from chicken livers and gizzards, showed the presence of novel 116-kb and 119-kb megaplasmids, respectively. The two megaplasmids carry a type VI secretion system and tetracycline resistance genes. These are the largest sequenced Campylobacter plasmids to date. PMID:27688318

  1. Assessment of the Microbial Level for Livestock Products in Retail Meat Shops Implementing HACCP System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2016-10-31

    This study aimed to examine the microbial contamination levels in livestock products at retail stores. Beef, pork, and chicken samples from raw materials and final products were obtained between January and December 2015. All homogenized meat samples (25 g) were tested for the aerobic plate count (APC), coliform count (CC), and Escherichia coli count (E. coli). The highest APCs in meat samples, by month, at retail shops were obtained in September, followed by July, May, and October (pmeat samples ranged from 0 to 1.13 CFU/g, and the highest CC was obtained in August (pmeat samples were negative for E. coli. The average log10APC and CC for all samples was 3.10 and 0.37 Log CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between the season and coliform presence (p<0.001). There was also a positive correlation between the APC and CC (r = 0.517, p<0.001). The microbiological APCs for livestock products were in most cases below 10(6) CFU/g.

  2. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  3. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  4. Analysis of transcriptional responses of chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using paraffin embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcriptional response of several cytokines in the spleen of chicken naturally infected by Newcastle Disease velogenic viscerotropic viruses was compared to the responses of atypical velogenic, velogenic neurotropic, and mesogenic strains during the first five days after infection. The ribonuc...

  5. 2006 China Retail Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO LIU; JIANG TAO

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rankings of China's leading retailers for fastmoving consumer goods,a collaboration between Beijingbased CTR Market Research and CIB, comes into its third term. According to our findings,with the competitive advantages such as better shopping environments and cheaper prices,the large-scale retailers, or hypermarkets, are continuing to increase their market shares.

  6. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...

  7. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  8. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries....... Finally, we present the state-of-the-art of retail logistics in Denmark and analyse the impact on retailing of law on planning and law on opening hours....

  9. Toxin genes detection and antimicrobial susceptibility test of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province%陕西省市售鸡肉中金黄色葡萄球菌的毒力基因及其药敏检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐本锦; 张伟松; 王新; 杨保伟; 席美丽; 夏效东; 孟江洪; 李新平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of toxin genes and antimicrobial profiles of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains isolated from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province , a total of 122 S . aureus isolates from retail chicken were tested for the prevalence of nine enterotoxin genes and four exotoxin genes by polymerase chain reaction , and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with 14 antibiotics by the agar dilution method . In the 122 strains of S. aureus, 59 .84% were positive for one or more toxin genes . The 25 .41% of the isolates harbored pvl gene, 51 .64% harbored one or more ses genes, sej (37 .70% ) was the most common pattern , and 4 .92% were positive for mecA gene. None of the isolates harbored see, seg, sei, ets or tsst-1 genes . A total of 20 toxin gene profiles were obtained , and sej (21 .31% ) was the most common profile , following by pvl (8 .20% ) , sej+pvl (4 .92% ), seh+sej+pvl (3 .28% ) and seh+pvl (3 .28% ) . Of these S. aureus isolates , 100 .0% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial , and 88.52% to three or more antimicrobials . Resistance was most frequently observed on erythromycin (87. 70% ), following by trimethoprim/siilfamethoxazole (81.97%), tetracycline (67.21% ), amikacin (59.02%), ciprofloxacin(53 .28% ), oxacillin (52.46% ) and amoxicil-lin/clavulanic acid (40 .16% ) . While significantly fewer isolates were resistant to ampicillin (32 .79% ), chlorampheni-col (27 .05% ) , gentamicin (20 .49% ), cefoxitin (13 .11% ) and cefoperazone (2 .46%). None of the; isolates was resistant to vancomycin . These findings indicated that many S. aureus i-solates from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province harbored multiple toxin genes and exhibited multiple antimicrobial resistances . The presence of S. aureus strains and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail chicken poses a potential threat to consumer health , so relevant regulation should be established to strengthen hygiene management of the chicken products .%目的

  10. Occurrence, Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Chicken Products and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bayomi, Rasha M; Ahmed, Heba A; Awadallah, Maysa A I; Mohsen, Rasha A; Abd El-Ghafar, Abeer E; Abdelrahman, Mahmoud A

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus in food is a consequence of inadequate hygienic handling and processing, posing a potential risk to public health. The current study aimed to characterize virulence factors, as well as antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from retail chicken products and hand swabs from vendors in Egypt. In addition, genetic relatedness of the isolates from chicken and humans was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using protein A as a target. A total of 110 samples were collected from chicken products (n = 80) and vendors (n = 30). Overall, 30 (37.5%) chicken products samples were positive for S. aureus, whereas hand swabs from meat handlers revealed that 18 (60%) were positive. Ten MRSA strains were characterized by the presence of the mecA gene, comprising seven isolates from chicken and three from humans. Virulence-associated factors were evaluated by PCR, revealing that 31.3% of S. aureus isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, whereas 10.4% were positive for the sea and sed genes each, and only two isolates were positive for γ-hemolysin-associated gene. Genotyping using spa PCR-RFLP showed identical restriction banding patterns of MRSA isolates of human and chicken meat origin, indicating the genetic relatedness of the isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize PVL-positive MRSA from chicken products and to utilize spa-RFLP for evaluating the genetic relatedness between MRSA of human and chicken origin in Egypt.

  11. CHANGES IN THE QUALITY OF DRESSED CHICKEN OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar HT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study examines the preservation quality of dressed chicken procured from different sources of processing during storage at –18±1ºC. Breast portion of the dressed birds obtained from three different sources, viz. market/road side slaughtered chicken (MSC, retail slaughtered chicken (RSC, and scientifically slaughtered chicken (SSC, were cut into chunks, divided into 250 g portions, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at –18±1ºC and evaluated at 30 days intervals for changes in quality attributes. Frozen storage had no marked influence on pH change of the samples. SSC samples had higher extract release volume (15.34±0.08 to 13.45±0.93 ml than MSC (13.00±0.19 to 9.91±0.97 ml and RSC samples (13.65±0.24 to 11.70±1.21ml. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in thiobarbituric acid of all three sample types during storage but values were well below the threshold level of spoilage. SSC samples showed lower tyrosine content throughout frozen storage compared to MSC and RSC samples. A significant decline in microbial load, viz. total viable count, coliform count, psychrophilic count and yeast and moulds count were noticed during frozen storage. Organoleptic attributes, viz. appearance, flavour, texture and overall palatability were not affected due to frozen storage except juiciness in MSC samples which decreased (P<0.05 from 6.53±0.13 to 5.96±0.11 on 90 days of storage. Although the scientifically slaughtered chicken had better quality, all the sample types could be stored at –18±1ºC till 90 days without much deterioration in their quality.

  12. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  13. Sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of ethopabate and amprolium hydrochloride in chicken plasma and their residues in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Magdy, N; Abbas, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric methods are proposed to determine ethopabate (ETH) and amprolium hydrochloride (AMP). First derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry determines the natively fluorescent ethopabate at 288 nm in presence of amprolium hydrochloride which is a non fluorescent quaternary compound with average recovery 100.54±0.721 over a concentration range of 0.01-0.8 μg/mL. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.007 μg/mL, respectively. The second method is direct synchronous spectrofluorimetry for determining amprolium hydrochloride at 362 nm after a reaction with 5% NaOH and 0.08% potassium ferricyanide that is optimized by a two-level factorial design. This method is linear over a concentration range of 0.01-0.65 μg/mL with average recovery 99.4±1.28. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.006 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed methods are found to be valid and applicable for the analysis of ETH and AMP in their veterinary formulation. They are successfully applied to determine the studied drugs in chicken plasma and their residues in chicken muscle, liver, egg and chicken-based baby food product with recoveries in the ranges of 95.71-108.73% and 97.36-111.89% and for ETH and AMP, respectively.

  14. OUTSOURCING IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko Lukić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern strategic techniques have been increasingly applied in recent years, both in manufacture and retail, individually or concurrently. The main goal of their application in the retail business is continuous improvement, in particular by reducing costs of competitiveness and (business and financial performance, while increasing customer satisfaction and meeting the needs of customers/consumers. One of the most important strategic techniques increasingly used not only in manufacturing but also in modern retail is outsourcing, which basically involves purchasing goods and/or services from independent external suppliers. The research in contemporary practice of the retail business has revealed that the application of outsourcing technique contributes to stronger commitment of management towards the activities that are the core of competitiveness, reducing costs, improving competitiveness and creating added value. All this has a long-term impact on improving performance in the retail sector. Starting from the developed theory and conducted practical research, this paper emphasizes the importance and specific problems of application of outsourcing the strategic technique in the modern retail. Their knowledge is very important for an effective implementation of outsourcing as a function of improving overall performance in retail. This is especially true for retailers in developing and transition countries, as it is the case, for example, with Serbia, where the use of outsourcing is at a very low level compared to developed countries. In the future, because of its economic importance, outsourcing will certainly be more applied in the retail sector of respective countries, with the expectation of a growing trend at approximately the same level as it is in developed countries in Europe and America.

  15. INTENSIVE PROCESSES OF RETAIL INTERNATIONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2010-01-01

    Integration and globalization of world market have resulted in trade internationalization, especially in the sector of retailing. Global trade, and in particular global retail, has become more intensive. Free European market has speeded up cross border retail expansion within European Union. Retail internationalization, with increased tempo, has redefined relationships in distribution channels on a global scale. Even though the speed of retail internationalization is, without a doubt, increas...

  16. Heterogeneous Genetic Location of mcr-1 in Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Humans and Retail Chicken Meat in Switzerland: Emergence of mcr-1-Carrying IncK2 Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Valentina; Bernasconi, Odette J; Pires, João; Collaud, Alexandra; Overesch, Gudrun; Ramette, Alban; Perreten, Vincent; Endimiani, Andrea

    2017-08-28

    We characterized the genetic environment of mcr-1 in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated in Switzerland during 2014-2016 from humans (n=3) and chicken meat (n=6). Whole genome and plasmid sequencing identified mcr-1 integrated in IncX4 (of which, one carrying the mcr-1.2 variant), IncI2, IncHI2 and novel IncK2 plasmids (overall, n=7), as well as in the bacterial chromosome (n=2) in single or duplicate copies. Our study supports the easy mobilization of mcr-1 across diverse genetic locations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  18. Retail Employment Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Robert Walters, one of the world’s leading professional specialist recruitment consultancies, has recently released a report on employment opportunities in China’s consumer goods retail industry in the first half of this year. Excerpts follow:

  19. Retail food wastage

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Food wastage is a problem along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. In order to introduce efficient waste reduction measures, the wastage problem must first be properly described. Causes of wastage need to be identified before potential measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. This thesis quantifies retail food wastage and analyse its causes wi...

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2014-01-01

    Integration and globalization of world market have resulted in retail trade internationalization. In many developed countries, the retail trade is faced with the problem of limited sales growth for the sake of saturation on the domestic market, and the enter on overseas markets is seen as a sustainable growth strategy. Therefore,this study was initiated by the basic research problem: increasing growth through internationalization of business.This paper aims to investigate and present the inte...

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolates from retail meat in Lower Silesia region, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharow, I; Bystroń, J; Wałecka-Zacharska, E; Podkowik, M; Bania, J

    2015-01-01

    Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus are considered potential foodborne pathogens. Consumption of Arcobacter-contaminated food is regarded the most likely source of human poisoning. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter isolates in 210 retail meat samples. Seventy-nine A. butzleri and 6 A. cryaerophilus were isolated from pork, beef and chicken meat. Incidence ofA. butzleri was found to be the highest in chicken meat (83%). Less of A. butzleri was isolated from beef (16%) and pork (14%). Most of the A. butzleri isolates were resistant to β-lactams, like ampicillin (85%), amoxicillin with clavulonic acid (63%), cefotaxime (66%) and mac- rolides, i.e., erythromycin (62%). In contrast, all except one A. cryaerophilus isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. Tetracycline and aminoglycosides showed the highest efficacy against A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus since almost 80% of their population was susceptible to these agents. All, except one A. cryaerophilus and the majority ofA. butzleri isolates (70%) were susceptible to fluoroquinolones. The incidence of multiresistant isolates was found in forty two (53%) A. butzleri, and one (16%) A. cryaerophilus isolates Eight A. butzleri isolates were resistant to all antimicrobials tested. These results indicate significant incidence of potential foodborne zoonotic agents, i.e. A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus including multiresistant isolates in retail meat in Poland.

  2. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  3. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat at retail and processing plants’ levels in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Mezher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis remains the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in Europe and Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli are the two species most frequently involved in such foodborne disease. Based on the sampling plan established in the region of Lazio (Central Italy the aim of our work was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations collected by the local veterinary authority at retail shops and processing plants. We also observed whether various factors such as animal species or type of product affected the isolation rate. Occurrence was significantly lower than previous surveys (12/209, 5.7% and chicken meat was more contaminated than turkey meat.

  4. Occurrence of Listeria species in meat, chicken products and human stools in Assiut city, Egypt with PCR use for rapid identification of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Abd El-Malek

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to check the presence of Listeria spp. in some meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut (Egypt. A total of 100 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, luncheon, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken breast fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. In addition, 28 stool cultures examined for Listeria spp. from hospitalized children resident in Assiut Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 100 meat samples examined, Listeria spp. were detected in 8 (32% of minced frozen beef, 8 (32% of luncheon, 13 (52% of frozen chicken leg and 14 (56% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed, respectively. Regarding the examined 28 stool cultures from hospitalized children with underlying disease in Assiut Univ. hospital, 2 (7.14% were found positive for Listeria spp. For identification of L. monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, two primers were selected to detect 217-pb fragment ofthe prfA (transcriptional activator of the virulence factor gene for L. monocytogenes. 13 selected Listeria isolates displayed beta-haemolysis on sheep blood agar and positive CAMP test were further identified using PCR. PCR results showed that L. monocytogenes were confirmed in one of minced imported frozen meat examined, two of luncheon samples and two of frozen chicken legs with the total incidence of 5 isolates (5% from the total 100 examined food samples. This suggests the presence of a significant public health hazard linked to the consumption of these meat and chicken products sold in Assiut city contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The public health significance of these pathogens as well as recommended sanitary measures was discussed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 353-359

  5. Multi-Channel Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morschett, Dr.,

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel retailing entails the parallel use by retailing enterprises of several sales channels. The results of an online buyer survey which has been conducted to investigate the impact of multi-channel retailing (i.e. the use of several retail channels by one retail company on consumer behaviour show that the frequently expressed concern that the application of multi-channel systems in retailing would be associated with cannibalization effects, has proven unfounded. Indeed, the appropriate degree of similarity, consistency, integration and agreement achieves the exact opposite. Different channels create different advantages for consumers. Therefore the total benefit an enterprise which has a multi-channel system can offer to its consumers is larger, the greater the number of available channels. The use of multi-channel systems is associated with additional purchases in the different channels. Such systems are thus superior to those offering only one sales channel to their customers. Furthermore, multi-channel systems with integrated channels are superior to those in which the channels are essentially autonomous and independent of one another. In integrated systems, consumers can achieve synergy effects in the use of sales-channel systems. Accordingly, when appropriately formulated, multi-channel systems in retailing impact positively on consumers. They use the channels more frequently, buy more from them and there is a positive customer-loyalty impact. Multi-channel systems are strategic options for achieving customer loyalty, exploiting customer potential and for winning new customers. They are thus well suited for approaching differing and varied target groups.

  6. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  7. The measurement of retail output and the retail revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been o...

  8. Measurement of retail output and the retail revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been o...

  9. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  10. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  11. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  13. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  14. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  15. Innovative Approaches in Fashion Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Köse, Şirin Gizem; Arzu KARAMAN AKGÜL

    2017-01-01

    Intense competition in retailing industry forces retailers to nd new ways to attract consumers. Innovation stands out as a way to dierentiate a company and gain a competitive advantage in this competitive environment. Like almost all industries, innovation appears to be one of the most crucial success factors in the retail industry. This paper aims to provide insights about the innovative practices of fashion retailers in order to explain the technologies that can b...

  16. Internationalization and Performance of Retail Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; T. Ratchford, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a fresh approach to the literature examining the effect of internationalization on retail-firm performance. We draw on the organizational learning theory to test the moderating effect of four variables which are hypothesized to affect the performance of internationalizing...... retailers through facilitating the transfer of learning in international markets. The study innovates by introducing a new performance metric, and an advanced methodology to account for the dynamic aspects of organizational learning. Testing our hypotheses on a sample of international retailers, we find...... that the relationship between internationalization and performance is U-shaped, and moderated by mergers and acquisitions, age at entry to international markets and country of origin. The findings extend prior research by providing more comprehensive evidence regarding the conditions under which internationalization...

  17. Retail design: a new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  18. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  19. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  20. Retail design: a new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design discip

  1. Retailer brand architectures: Consumer perceptions of five Danish food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In this paper we adapt the concept of brand architecture to food retailing. We present initial findings of a study investigating how consumer perceive and evaluate the brand architectures of five different Danish food retailers. Our findings show that consumers perceive differences in the brand...... architecture of food retailers and that it is an important factor in relation to evaluations of food retailers. We also find that consumers have considerable difficulties distinguishing between retailer brands and manufacturer brands, which has potentially disconcerting implications for branded food...

  2. Retailer brand architectures: Consumer perceptions of five Danish food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In this paper we adapt the concept of brand architecture to food retailing. We present initial findings of a study investigating how consumer perceive and evaluate the brand architectures of five different Danish food retailers. Our findings show that consumers perceive differences in the brand...... architecture of food retailers and that it is an important factor in relation to evaluations of food retailers. We also find that consumers have considerable difficulties distinguishing between retailer brands and manufacturer brands, which has potentially disconcerting implications for branded food...

  3. Direct Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Fecal Samples Using Real-Time PCR: Evaluation of Six Rapid DNA Extraction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Kamara, Judy N.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Direct and accurate quantification of Campylobacter in poultry is crucial for the assessment of public health risks and the evaluation of the effectiveness of control measures against Campylobacter in poultry. The aim of this study was to assess several rapid DNA extraction methods...... DNA extraction methods were compared based on their limit of detection, efficiency, reproducibility, and precision. Standard curves were designed for all the methods tested in order to assess their performance on the direct quantification of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. As a result...... efficiency was not optimal (AE = 139.5 %). DNA extraction methods Easy-DNA Invitrogen, MiniMAG® and NucleoSpin® Tissue produced good real-time PCR reproducibility generating standard deviations from 0.3 to 0.8 between replicates....

  4. Validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter Method for Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Carcass Rinse and Turkey Sponge Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Ryan; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Hosking, Edan; Biswas, Preetha; Zhang, Lei; Tolan, Jerry; Meister, Evan; Tovar, Eric; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Odumeru, Joseph; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-11-01

    A performance validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter method was conducted in selected matrixes. This assay used selective nicking enzyme amplification technology to amplify target genes. Samples were enriched for 20 to 24 h and then lysed. The assay was completed within 50 min using real-time detection in a combination incubator/fluorescence detector and software. When 50 distinct strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. lari, or C. coli were tested for inclusivity, all 50 strains produced positive results. In exclusivity testing, 31 strains of related organisms, including seven nontarget Campylobacter strains and other common species, were evaluated. All 31 species generated negative ANSR assay results, including the nontarget Campylobacter strains. The ANSR for Campylobacter method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method using naturally contaminated chicken carcass rinse or turkey carcass sponge samples. ANSR method performance was not statistically different from the reference method using two different enrichment options. Equivalent results were observed at both time points (20 and 24 h) and in both atmospheres (microaerobic and aerobic) to reference methods. Method performance with chicken carcass rinse was confirmed in an independent laboratory study. Additionally, in robustness testing, small, deliberate changes to the assay parameters minimally affected ANSR method performance. Finally, accelerated stability results from three independently manufactured lots supported a shelf life of 6 months when stored at 4°C. The ANSR assay offered greater efficiency and flexibility when compared to the reference method with a 20-24 h single-step enrichment in a microaerobic or an aerobic atmosphere.

  5. Optimizing Retail Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number. of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKIT sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  6. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  7. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Rooderkerk (Robert); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be

  8. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  9. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product....... The paper ends with a discussion and with suggestions for future research....

  10. Optimizing Retail Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number. of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKIT sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the asso

  11. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  12. Honolulu Retail Monitoring Price Data Collection (2007-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains a time series of consumer-level prices for a sample of retail markets in Honolulu between 2007-2011. Data include weekly prices for fish...

  13. Benzo(a)pyrene residue surveillance in retail food, in the city of Xiamen, China :report from 121 samples%厦门市121份市售食品中苯并(a)芘污染状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆和东; 周娜; 李呐; 贾玉珠; 李耀群

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解厦门市市售食品中苯并(a)芘(BaP)的污染状况.方法 采用导数-恒能量同步荧光光谱技术,以自行研制的BaP快速检测仪对厦门市流通市场上采集的121份食品中BaP的含量进行检测.结果 检测发现在121份样品中有84.3%检出BaP,含量为0.17~59.00μg/kg,其中含量超过5.00μg/kg的食品有60份,占49.6%,主要集中在烧烤小食品、加工的肉制品和水产品,含量范围分别是1.44μ54.10μg/kg、0.17~59.00μg/kg、2.79~36.80μg/kg.在34份采自路边流动摊点的食品中,BaP含量为1.78~49.60μg/kg,其中超过5.00 μg/kg有30份,达88.2%.结论所采集121份厦门市售食品中BaP的污染较为严重.%Objective To investigate Benzo (a)pyrene (BaP) residue in retail food of Xiamen. Methods BaP residue in 121 retail food samples collected from Xiamen were determined by a rapid BaP detector based on derivative constant-energy synchronous fluorescence technique. Results BaP was detected in 84.3% samples and the concentration were ranged from 0.17 to 59.0 μg/kg. There were 49.6% samples exceeding 5.00 μg/kg, and most of them were roasting food (1.44 - 54.10 μg/kg), processed meat products (0.17 - 59.00 μg/kg) and aquatic products (2.79 - 36.80 μg/kg). The BaP concentration in 34 samples collected from roadside stands were 1.78 - 49.60 μg/kg, of which the rate of the samples exceeding 5.00 μg/kg was 88.2%. Conclusion The BaP contamination in retail food samples from Xiamen is serious.

  14. Campylobacters and their bacteriophages from chicken liver: The prospect for phage biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlieyanti, Antung S; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2016-11-21

    Consumption of foods containing chicken liver has been associated with Campylobacter enteritis. Campylobacters can contaminate the surface of livers post-mortem but can also arise through systemic infection of colonising bacteria in live birds. The use of bacteriophage to reduce levels of Campylobacter entering the food chain is a promising intervention approach but most phages have been isolated from chicken excreta. This study examined the incidence and contamination levels of Campylobacter and their bacteriophage in UK retail chicken liver. Using enrichment procedures, 87% of 109 chicken livers were surface contaminated with Campylobacter and 83% contaminated within internal tissues. Direct plating on selective agar allowed enumeration of viable bacteria from 43% of liver samples with counts ranging from 1.8->3.8log10CFU/cm(2) for surface samples, and 3.0->3.8log10CFU/g for internal tissue samples. Three C. jejuni isolates recovered from internal liver tissues were assessed for their ability to colonise the intestines and extra-intestinal organs of broiler chickens following oral infection. All isolates efficiently colonised the chicken intestines but were variable in their abilities to colonise extra-intestinal organs. One isolate, CLB104, could be recovered by enrichment from the livers and kidneys of three of seven chickens. Campylobacter isolates remained viable within fresh livers stored at 4°C over 72h and frozen livers stored at -20°C over 7days in atmospheric oxygen, and therefore constitute a risk to human health. Only three Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated, and these exhibited a limited host range against the Camplylobacter chicken liver isolates. All were identified as group III virulent bacteriophage based on their genome size of 140kb. The application of broad host range group II virulent phages (8log10PFU/g) to liver homogenates containing C. jejuni strains of diverse origin at 4°C resulted in modest but significant reductions

  15. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  16. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... and find that research findings appear scattered and unrelated. Most of the previous research has been concerning with generating lists of criteria used by retailers when deciding whether or not t accept a new product. Other areas that have caught the interest of researcher are: the role of buying...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  17. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  18. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  20. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  1. New approaches towards discrimination of fresh/chilled and frozen/thawed chicken breasts by HADH activity determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Alewijn, Martin; Weesepoel, Yannick; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Fresh/chilled chicken breasts retail at a higher price than their frozen/thawed counterparts. Verification of the fresh/thawed status of chicken meat is determined by measuring β-hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A-hydrogenase (HADH) activity present in meat intra-cellular liquids spectrophotometrically. Howe

  2. 北京市九城区超市及农贸市场零售整鸡中弯曲菌含量与耐药性分析%Enumeration and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species from retail chicken carcasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兰; 白瑶; 徐潇; 崔生辉

    2014-01-01

    determine Campylobacter contamination level and antimicrobial resistance patterns from chicken carcasses in supermarkets and farmer's markets of 9 districts in Beijing.Methods From August 2012 to July 2013,whole chicken carcasses (n =240) were collected from 27 supermarkets and 18 farmer's markets of nine districts in Beijing.The level of Campylobacter contamination was enumerated by plate counting method using the modified Karmali and modified Preston agar.Presumptive Campylobacter isolates were identified and characterized by gram stain,agglumination test and a multiplex PCR method.The level of Campylobacter contamination was calculated following the USDA/FSIS Campylobacter enumeration method.Selected 151 Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eight antimicrobials.Results A total of 26.3% (63/240) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Campylobacter and 151 Campylobacter isolates were recovered,including 85 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 66 Campylobacter coli isolates.The P25,P5o,P75 of Campylobacter contamination concentration were 7.5,45.0 and 350.0 CFU/g,respectively.The antimicrobial resistance rate of C.jejuni and C.coli were as the following:azithromycin (AZI,13% (11/85),82% (54/85)),chloramphenicol (CHL,33% (28/85),42% (28/85)),ciprofloxacin (CIP,95% (81/85),100% (85/85)),doxycycline(DOX,38% (32/85),80% (53/85)),erythromycin (ERY,12% (10/85),82% (54/85)),gentamicin (GEN,25% (21/85),68% (45/85)),tetracycline (TET,67% (57/85),73% (62/85)),all isolates were susceptible to meropenem (MEP).The multi-drug resistance ratio of C.jejuni (55 % (47/85)) was significantly lower than that (86% (57/66)) of C.coli (x2 =16.70,P < 0.01).Among 151 Campylobacter isolates,21 antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified,including 20 patterns among C.jejuni isolates and 10 patterns among C.coli isolates.Among C.jejuni isolates,CIP-DOX-TET was dominant (22% (19

  3. Retail supply chains and efficiency of retail trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since in today's supply chains in particular areas (for example in the grocery sector most power is in the hands of retail chains on which manufacturers depend, this paper analyzes the retail supply chains. The aim of this paper is to propose a new indicator of retail trade efficiency for an individual national economy. This indicator would then be used to complement the usual analyses. As large marketing systems, retail supply chains present new competition for production companies in particular states, because they can get around them or replace them with other production companies. Methods: Concepts relating to retail supply chains are analyzed on the basis of accessible literature, and available data sources are used as the basis for a table presentation of 10 world's largest retail chains in the grocery sector, with basic remarks about their logistics and about the development of the their supply chains (basic models are described. Efficiency of the total retail trade in the selected countries is analyzed on the basis of the following indicators (a turnover per unit of selling surface; (b turnover per 1 employee in the retail trade. These indicators are presented in tables and graphically for the selected European countries. Results: The performed analysis leads to the conclusion that retail trade efficiency, as measured by the realized turnover per 1 employee in the retail trade and by the realized turnover per unit of selling surface in the retail trade, is realized diversely in individual observed countries; yet there are no differences in the results between transitional and market-developed countries. However, the analysis of retail trade efficiency of entire economies of the observed states shows that there are differences between transitional and market-developed countries. Conclusions: Thus, in order to evaluate the retail trade efficiency for the total economy in a particular country it would be necessary to also take

  4. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  5. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus in chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic capture reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes great economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide and threatens the human population with a pandemic. The conventional detection method for AIV involves sample preparation of viral RNA extraction and purification from raw sample such as bird droppings. In...

  6. 长春市市售猪肉鸡肉中金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌分离及耐药性分析%Isolation and Drug Resistance Analysis of S. aureus and Salmonella spp. from Retail Chicken and Pork in Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 陈萍; 王佳男; 冯书章; 郭学军

    2014-01-01

    对肉品中金黄色葡萄球菌及沙门氏菌进行耐药分析,以期为其风险评估提供依据。采集吉林省长春市市售猪肉、鸡肉样品,按照国标方法分离金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌,利用K-B法药敏试验检测金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌对头孢噻肟钠、左旋氧氟沙星、庆大霉素、四环素4种抗生素的耐药性。结果显示:共分离出金黄色葡萄球菌46株,检出率为46%;沙门氏菌48株,检出率为16.84%。金黄色葡萄球菌对4种抗生素的耐药率在0~56.52%之间,共产生6种耐药谱。沙门氏菌对4种抗生素的耐药率在16.67%~87.5%之间,共产生9种耐药谱。长春市肉品中金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌耐药现象普遍。%This study aimed at updating knowledge on the antimicrobial resistance characteristics of S.aureus and Salmonella spp. from chicken and pork in Changchun. The results collected during this study provided the first baseline data for risk assessment. Chicken and pork samples were collected in Changchun. S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were isolated according to National Food Safety Standard. The susceptibility to CEX,GEN,LVX and TET was performed according to the disk diffusion testing. Results showed that 46 S.aureus and 48 Salmonella spp. were separated from fresh chicken and pork. The resistance frequency of S. aureus to all antibiotics was 0~56.52%. 6 resistance profiles of S.aureus were found in this study. The resistance frequency of Salmonella spp. to all antibiotics was 16. 67%~87. 5%. There were 9 resistance profiles. Antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and Salmonella spp. was common in the isolates from chicken and pork in Changchun.

  7. Determining the Managerial Skills’ Training Needs of Retail and Wholesale Industry in Tshwane Area of Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    Van Scheers, Louise; Adesoga, Adefulu; Johan, Botha

    2015-01-01

    The paper determines the managerial skills training needs of Retail and Wholesale industry in Tshwane area of Gauteng. Several researches identified range of problem with retail and wholesale businesses emanating from lack of managerial skills without identifying the lacking skills. Survey research method was adopted. The population of study was the retail and wholesale businesses in Tshwane area of Gauteng from which sample were selected using multistage and convenience sampling technique. Q...

  8. Online retailing: open all hours?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Globally, online retailing has become increasingly important to retailers and consumers. In the UK, the online shopping spend has increased from 0.07% to 7% of the annual retail sales and the consumers' appetite for buying online continues to grow as the internet becomes increasingly accessible, convenient and secure. However, does the internet provide a truly comprehensive shopping experience or are there limitations? A visit to eBay can enable bargain hunters to find almost any product, but...

  9. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in chicken meat and other food animal products: a market-basket pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick A; Love, David C; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical drugs are extensively used in industrial food animal production. We examined whether residues of veterinary antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were detectable in a small market-basket sample of retail chicken (n=39), ground beef (n=3) and milk (n=3) samples. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to assess the concentration of 59 PPCPs and their residues in animal products. All samples of ground beef, milk, and 14 chickens were analyzed individually, while an additional 25 chicken samples were pooled and analyzed in groups of five. The majority of PPCPs were not detected in meat and milk samples. Caffeine was detected in two of three milk samples (0.4 ng/mL, 2.0 ng/mL) and in 10 of 19 individual and pooled chicken samples (median: 18.6 ng/g, range: 6.1-28.8 ng/g). Acetaminophen was detected in three of three milk samples (median: 1.5 ng/mL, range: 1.4-2.1 ng/mL). Antibiotics in the tetracycline class were detected in two of three milk samples (median: 1.0 ng/mL, range: 0.1-2.0 ng/mL) and did not exceed regulatory residue tolerances of 300 ng/mL. There are no regulatory residue tolerances for caffeine or acetaminophen in animal products. The acetaminophen detections in milk, however, raise questions about extra-label and unapproved use of pharmaceutical drugs in food animal production, as this drug is not approved for use in lactating dairy cattle or any other type of food animal production. Additional studies are needed to confirm our finding of PPCPs in meat and dairy products.

  10. Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens in Retail Prepacked Ready-to-Eat Mixed Ingredient Salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Karin; Thisted Lambertz, Susanne; Vågsholm, Ivar; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    Prepacked ready-to-eat mixed ingredient salads (RTE salads) are readily available whole meals that include a variety of ingredients such as raw vegetables, cooked meat, and pasta. As part of a trend toward healthy convenience foods, RTE salads have become an increasingly popular product among consumers. However, data on the incidence of foodborne pathogens in RTE salads are scarce. In this study, the microbiological safety of 141 RTE salads containing chicken, ham, or smoked salmon was investigated. Salad samples were collected at retail and analyzed using standard methods for Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella, and Campylobacter spp.L. monocytogenes was isolated from two (1.4%) of the RTE salad samples. Seven (5.0%) of the samples were positive for the ail gene (present in all human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates) and three (2.1%) of the samples were positive for the Shiga toxin genes stx1 and/or stx2. However, no strains of pathogenic Y.enterocolitica or STEC were isolated. Thus, pathogens were found or suspected in almost 1 of 10 RTE salads investigated, and pathogenic bacteria probably are present in various RTE salads from retail premises in Sweden. Because RTE salads are intended to be consumed without heat treatment, control of the ingredients and production hygiene is essential to maintain consumer safety. The recommended maximum storage temperature for RTE salads varies among countries but can be up to 8°C (e.g., in Sweden). Even during a short shelf life (3 to 5 days), storage at 8°C can enable growth of psychrotrophs such as L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. The maximum storage temperature should therefore be reduced.

  11. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  12. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...... and find that research findings appear scattered and unrelated. Most of the previous research has been concerning with generating lists of criteria used by retailers when deciding whether or not t accept a new product. Other areas that have caught the interest of researcher are: the role of buying...

  13. Pricing Objectives and Strategies Retail Price: An Empirical Analysis São Paulo Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In retail, managers have a delicate and complex task in formulating their pricing strategies considering the multiple products and services available. While the price targets provide an overall direction for action, the pricing strategies are the steps or procedures by which organizations achieve their pricing decisions. The scope of this paper is to explore the goals of prices that retailers are seeking along with the strategies they adopt to price their products and services and investigate whether price targets are associated with the pricing strategies adopted. To meet the objectives of this study, we chose to conduct a search using a quantitative-descriptive survey. The sample is not probabilistic and to the advantage of the researchers. It consists of 300 retail companies of all sizes located in São Paulo city. As a result it was found that the sample companies are pursuing goals primarily quantitative rather than qualitative, with a strong emphasis on making sales and profits followed by the market development for the organization. Another important point in the discussion of strategies within retail firms in the sample seems to give less attention to a customer-oriented method. These companies most often employ the traditional costs, probably due to the simplicity of this method.

  14. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  15. Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Hiduddify from Chickens and Poultry Meat in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Ameh, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    and local chickens in Maiduguri main markets, chickens from farms, and free-range local chickens. A total of 865 samples were collected from feces, kidney, lungs, cecum, intestine, liver, heart, gizzard, and cloacal swabs from 525 different chickens. Salmonella was isolated from 130 of the samples...

  16. Retailer buying: A paradigmatic critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The paradigmatic anchoring of research determines for the researcher the nature of reality, what can be known about it and how it can be known. Previous research on retail buying has been anchored in post-positivism. A number of shortcomings resulting from this anchoring are identified which, tak.......retailer buying, literature review, research paradigms...

  17. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  18. Expectations and retail profit margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.J. den Hertog; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this study expectations and prediction errors are introduced in the context of retail price setting. A new model and a new data set are used to examine whether prediction errors influence retail price setting, whether prediction errors cause only limited price changes to maintain pric

  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  20. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  1. Survey of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) in retail samples of flavoured and bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, M F; Ramos, S; Oliva-Teles, M T; Delerue-Matos, C; Sales, M G F; Oliveira, M B P P

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of eleven trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) were measured in 39 (natural and flavoured) water samples. Determinations were performed using graphite furnace electrothermetry for almost all elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Si). For Se determination hydride generation was used, and cold vapour generation for Hg. These techniques were coupled to atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trace element content of still or sparkling natural waters changed from brand to brand. Significant differences between natural still and natural sparkling waters (p differences between flavoured and natural waters. The concentration of each element was compared with the presence of flavours, preservatives, acidifying agents, fruit juice and/or sweeteners, according to the labelled composition. It was shown that flavoured waters generally increase the trace element content. The addition of preservatives and acidifying regulators had a significant influence on Mn, Co, As and Si contents (p difference in Mn, Co, Se and Si content.

  2. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  3. Microbiological quality of fresh chicken breast meat after rosemary essential oil treatment and vacuum packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to develop vacuum packaging incorporated with Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil treatment of fresh chicken breast meat. For this purpose, fresh chicken’s meat breast samples were divided into three groups. First group was kept as a control group with air packaging, others one was with vacuum packaging of samples and last one group was treated with rosemary essential oil. All fresh chickens’ breast meat samples were stored at 4°C and microbiological evaluation was conducted at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days post-storage for lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas aeroginosa counts. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil 2%, significantly reduced lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas aeroginosa counts in the fresh chickens breast meat samples. The results indicated that 2% essential oil improved the microbiological quality and prolonged the shelf-life of the fresh chicken’s breast meat to sixteen days of retail displayed at 4°C. The results obtained in this study point to the necessity of continuing investigations to determine the dose of rosemary preparations that would inhibit the growth of microflora being the most frequent cause of raw materials and products spoilage.

  4. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  5. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Naik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw chevon and chicken meat sold in the retail meat shops situated in and around Durg, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. Studies were also conducted to find out the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising of 200 chevon meat and 200 chicken meat samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and all isolates were further confirmed on the basis of cultural and biochemical characters and by targeting invA gene of Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were also examined for their antimicrobial drug susceptibility/resistance pattern against commonly used antibiotics. Results: Out of 400 samples, the prevalence of Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat was found 9% and 7% respectively, with an overall prevalence of 8%. Polymerase chain reaction targeting invA gene of Salmonella showed positive result with 31 isolates. All 32 Salmonella isolates were found to be highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 96.87%, 96.87% and 93.75% were sensitive to gentamicin, imipenem, and ceftazidime, respectively. 93.75% and 59.37% isolates were resistant to erythromycin and oxytetracycline, respectively. Out of 32, 14 isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index equal to or more than 0.2. Conclusion: Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat samples is prevailing in the areas of sampling due to poor hygienic conditions and also demonstrated the varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance, including several multiple drug resistance phenotypes. Therefore, the present study emphasizes the need for continued surveillance of zoonotic foodborne pathogens including antimicrobial-resistant variants throughout the food production chain.

  6. Consumer preferences for retailer brand architectures: Results from a conjoint study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Esbjerg, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how three dimensions of retailer brand architecture - share or retailer brands, quality of retailer brands and visibility of retailer brands - affect consumer intention to shop at stores Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis...... is conducted with a sample of 599 Danish consumers, which rated intention to shop at hypothetical new shops based on profiles derived from an orthogonal design Findings: Two segments of consumers emerge, one price conscious and one more differentiated. Consumers prefer shops with lower price levels......, with dominantly manufacturer brands, with quality of retailer brands at the same level as manufacturer brands, and with good visibility of retailer brands. Research limitations/implications: The results are based on the evaluation of hypothetical stores, and many additional factors affect store choice in the real...

  7. TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION IN RETAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies took advantage of internationalization as early as in the seventies and eighties of the last century, whereas retail companies have used these chances not before the last few years in order to improve access to resources, to increase sales and to extend activities to external markets. Once a retail company has decided to penetrate a foreign market they must be aware of the unfamiliar working of external environment that they cannot control. Even the world’s leading retailers make mistakes when approaching markets they do not understand properly.

  8. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... negative consequences of customer dissatisfaction leads to a more negative view on interacting with complaining customers....

  9. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  10. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  11. The Impact of Retail Formats on the Development of Food Retailing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sreten Cuzovic; Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic; Djordje Cuzovic

    2017-01-01

      The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of retail formats and their impact on the development of food retailing, through empirical testing of the largest food retailers within...

  12. Acquisition of data by whole sample enrichment, real-time polymerase chain reaction for development of a process risk model for Salmonella and chicken parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process risk models predict consumer exposure and response to pathogens in food produced by specific scenarios. A process risk model for Salmonella and chicken parts was developed that consisted of four unit operations (pathogen events): 1) meal preparation (contamination); 2) cooking (death); 3) s...

  13. Neural network model for thermal inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium to elimination in ground chicken: Acquisition of data by whole sample enrichment, miniature most-probable-number method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models are valuable tools for assessing food safety. Existing thermal inactivation models for Salmonella and ground chicken do not provide predictions above 71 degrees C, which is below the recommended final cooked temperature of 73.9 degrees C. They also do not predict when all Salmone...

  14. Making JIT retail a success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Johansen, John

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Just-in-time (JIT) retailers replenish continuously according to the consumer demand. Under unpredictable and seasonal consumer demand, it is essential to coordinate planning and responsiveness with the manufacturers. The purpose of this paper is to study the coordination journey between...... realized several effective coordination strategies – accurate response, differentiated responsive, and coordinated responsive. Moreover, the responsiveness of the manufacturer was actually affected by the order behaviours of all other retailers. Research limitations/implications – There is generalizable...... a toy manufacturer and a JIT retailer, and generates several theoretical propositions on coordination process, behaviours and strategies. Design/methodology/approach – A one-year case study to describe the unfolding coordination process between the toy manufacturer and JIT retailer. Rich case data...

  15. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  16. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  17. A multi-jurisdiction outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 associated with purchasing chicken meat from a supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle E; Fielding, James E; Telfer, Barbara; Stephens, Nicola; Combs, Barry G; Rice, Belinda A; Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Gregory, Joy E

    2006-01-01

    A multi-jurisdiction case control study was conducted after an increase of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 notifications (a local designated subgroup) was observed throughout Australia. Hypothesis generating interviews conducted in three jurisdictions identified consumption of chicken, eggs, beef and bagged carrots as common among cases and that a high proportion of cases (> 80%) reported purchasing their groceries from a particular supermarket chain (Supermarket A). We conducted a case control study to test whether S. Typhimurium 135 infections were associated with these food items and the purchasing of these products from Supermarket A. The study comprised 61 cases and 173 controls. Cases were younger than controls (p = 0.003) and their distribution by jurisdiction was also significantly different (p Supermarket A (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.2,9.0) or having eaten chicken from a fast food outlet (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.0,7.7) compared to controls. Two positive S. Typhimurium 135 results were obtained through a chicken sampling survey conducted at four Supermarket A stores in Victoria. The results of this study were presented to industry and retail representatives, which facilitated better communication between these groups.

  18. Evaluation of Tazobactam-Supplemented, Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar for Qualitative Detection of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dong Kwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is the most common confounding factor for the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. mCCDA modified by supplementation with tazobactam, an ESBL inhibitor, was evaluated for Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcass rinse with regard to isolation rate and selectivity. In total, 120 whole chicken carcasses purchased from retail stores were rinsed with buffered peptone water enriched with 2× blood-free Bolton broth at 42°C for 48 h and then inoculated onto mCCDA with and without tazobactam supplementation (mCCDA or T-mCCDA) at 42°C for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were subcultured and confirmed by colony PCR. Plates with tazobactam exhibited a higher Campylobacter isolation rate (56.7% vs. 30.8%, p < 0.05) and selectivity (0.8 vs. 83.3% plates contaminated with non-Campylobacter, p < 0.05) than mCCDA. Thus, tazobactam-supplemented mCCDA would be a useful option for qualitative detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse.

  19. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  20. Using bio-impedance for rapid screening of water injection into chicken filets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeone, F.C.; Brouwer, S.E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Injecting chicken products with water has emerged as a considerably spread method for increasing the weights of the product in order to increase profits. Due to the huge number of products that are retailed daily, it is out of reach to test them with conventional methods for water injection. Here we

  1. Using bio-impedance for rapid screening of water injection into chicken filets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeone, F.C.; Brouwer, S.E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Injecting chicken products with water has emerged as a considerably spread method for increasing the weights of the product in order to increase profits. Due to the huge number of products that are retailed daily, it is out of reach to test them with conventional methods for water injection. Here we

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of avian hepatitis E virus samples from European and Australian chicken flocks supports the existence of a different genus within the Hepeviridae comprising at least three different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, A; Bilic, I; Prokofieva, I; Hess, M

    2010-09-28

    Using PCRs that amplify regions of helicase and capsid genes, the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was determined in samples from European and Australian chicken flocks (collected from 2005 to 2007 and 1986 to 1995, respectively). A total of 27 virus samples from 9 countries were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship following PCRs and nucleic acid sequencing of the helicase and capsid regions of 18 avian HEV samples. For comparison, helicase and capsid sequences of completely sequenced avian HEVs from Europe, Australia and the USA were used. In addition, available helicase and capsid sequences of other avian HEVs and four mammalian HEVs were included. At least three genotypes within the avian HEV were revealed. These genotypes tend to be differentiated geographically. Altogether, the present investigation is of importance to understand the epidemiology of avian HEV infections in chickens and gives new insight into the phylogenetic relationships between isolates. Furthermore, we would like to propose that avian HEV represent a separate genus within the Hepeviridae consisting of different genotypes.

  3. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  4. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  5. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  6. Distribution systems in omni-channel retailing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hübner, Alexander; Holzapfel, Andreas; Kuhn, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    .... Answering these questions retail research and practice require an overall view of the distribution concepts for direct-to-customer and store deliveries in OC retailing, including the associated return processes...

  7. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...

  8. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  9. Quality of fresh retail pork cuts stored in modified atmosphere under temperature conditions simulating export to distant markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L M; Stiles, M E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of storage temperature on microbial and sensory quality of retail cuts of pork was determined on samples stored under temperature regimens designed to simulate conditions that could be encountered in accessing distant markets with retail-ready product. Samples were packaged in modified atmosphere with 100% CO(2) and export of retail-ready pork cuts to distant markets with a three-week time for delivery to market at -1·5°C can be achieved with one to two weeks of marketing time at retail market at 4 to 7°C.

  10. The use of reverse logistics for waste management in a Brazilian grocery retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karina T S; Braga Junior, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Retail growth is a result of the diversification of departments with the intention to look to consumer's needs and level of demand. Pressed by consumers and by the law, the adoption of environmental preservation practices is becoming stronger among grocery retailers. The objective of this research was to analyse the practices of reverse logistics performed by a retailer and measure the amount of waste generated by each department. To reach the proposed goal, a field research study was conducted to directly observe a grocery retailer in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for a period of 6 months and monitor the amounts of cardboard and plastic discarded by each department. Using the Wuppertal method, the first result observed was that the retailer stopped its monthly production of approximately 20 tonne of biotic and abiotic material, which influence global warming and degradation of the ozone layer. Another result observed with the implementation of reverse logistics, was that the general grocery department mostly used cardboard and plastic. This sector includes products such as food cupboard, drinks, household, health and beauty, and pet articles. The fresh fruit and vegetable department and the meat, chicken and frozen department were increasingly using less plastic and cardboard packaging, increasing the use of returnable and durable packaging and thus promoting sustainability.

  11. Retail applications of signature verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  12. Retailers' choice of suppliers and products

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Executive summary 1. Across Europe retailers have grown in size and turnover. Centralised buying organisations have enabled retailers to act as gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers when developing their marketing strategies. 2. The purpose of this paper is to review previous research on retailer buying behaviour in order to establish a state-of-the-art knowledge before launching an Europ...

  13. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  14. Retailer verkiest app boven mobiele site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Gerritsen, O.

    2012-01-01

    Door de snelle groei van mobiel internet in Nederland wordt de smartphone een onmisbaar medium voor retailers om (potentiële) klanten te bereiken. Van de grote retailers in Nederland maakte medio 2012 ongeveer een kwart gebruik van ‘mobile commerce’. Retailers verkiezen daarbij mobiele applicaties (

  15. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of soci

  16. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of socia

  17. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  18. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... exposure to retail forex transactions or any other foreign exchange risk. Section 48.12--Authorization to... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 48 RIN 1557-AD42 Retail Foreign Exchange... engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The proposed rule also...

  19. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... and conditions as the Federal regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section... retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts, or... this preamble, citations to the retail forex statutory provisions are to the sections in which the...

  20. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... and conditions as the Federal regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section... retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts, or... this preamble, citations to the retail forex statutory provisions will be to the section where the...

  1. Retailer brand architecture and consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Which assortment of products and services should retailers offer consumers? Which foods can be deleted from the present assortment? Which brands do retailers have to have in their assortment to satisfy consumer demands? These are a few of the questions food retailers continuously strive to answer...

  2. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  3. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  4. Retail structural dynamics and the forces behind big-box retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Munroe

    2001-01-01

    Recent change on the American retail landscape warrants a revisit to the catastrophe framework originated by Harris and Wilson (1978). A retail revolution, centered around the growth of big-box retailing, is recreating metropolitan retail structure. Alterations to both the sizes and spatial distributions of retailers in nearly every sector have resulted. This research presents a theoretical inquiry into the forces behind this change through an adoption and extension of the catastrophe theory ...

  5. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  6. A factor analysis to find critical success factors in retail brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present exploratory study aims to find critical components of retail brand among some retail stores. The study seeks to build a brand name in retail level and looks to find important factors affecting it. Customer behavior is largely influenced when the first retail customer experience is formed. These factors have direct impacts on customer experience and satisfaction in retail industry. The proposed study performs an empirical investigation on two well-known retain stores located in city of Tehran, Iran. Using a sample of 265 people from regular customers, the study uses factor analysis and extracts four main factors including related brand, product benefits, customer welfare strategy and corporate profits using the existing 31 factors in the literature.

  7. Reflection of Bratislava Retail Network in Selected Aspects of Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Kita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the retail network of the capital city of Slovakia Bratislava affecting buying behavior and lifestyle of its consumers. From the marketing point of view, it characterizes the current retail network in Bratislava and presents the main trends in the development of retail stores in Bratislava. It shows, on the one hand, how the importance of consumer behaviour rise in the decline economic prosperity during last years, while on the other hand, how the concentration in retail declines the chances for success of small independant food retail stores during last recent years. The authors used methodes, e. g. multidimentional scaling, GIS, for testing assesses the significance of these changes on the sample involving 11.389 repondents interviewed. The paper presents the results of research project VEGA No. 1/0039/11 Geographical Information System as a Source of Strategic Innovation of Enterprise from the Point of View of Strengthening its Competitiveness.

  8. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  9. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  10. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  11. Oracle retail strategic store solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, André Manuel Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Estágio realizado na Wipro Retail e orientado pelo Eng.ª Cláudia Bartolo Araújo Tese de mestrado integrado. Engenharia Informática e Computação. Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Porto. 2009

  12. The Case of Small Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; World Economic Forum

    2016-01-01

    This report aims to deepen the understanding of barriers to and incentives for the acceptance and use of electronic payments, from the perspective of micro, small and medium retailers (merchants). Developing and accelerating acceptance of electronic payments by these merchants is essential to expanding financial access. A basic transaction account for payments and deposits is considered an...

  13. Occurrence of Zoonotic Bacteria in Retail Game Meat in Japan with Special Reference to Erysipelothrix

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanai, Yoko; Hayashidani, Hideki; Kaneko, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masuo; Takahashi, Toshio; Nakamurat, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    From December 1993 to March 1994, a total of 93 wild boar and 30 deer meat samples were purchased from 13 retail shops and examined for the presence of species of Erysipelothrix, Yersinia, Listeria...

  14. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze An; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat...

  15. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk...... samples (n = 101) were kindly provided by the Milk Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Presumptive arcobacters were identified by previously described genus-specific and species-specific PCR assays. Arcobacter spp. were found to be common...... contaminants of retail raw meats and raw milk in Northern Ireland. Poultry meat (62%) had the highest prevalence, but frequent isolations were made from pork (35%), beef (34%), and raw milk (46%). Arcobacter butzleri was the predominant species isolated from retail raw meats and was the only species isolated...

  16. Manufacturer and retailer brands in food retail assortments: Notes from a shopping trip across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    in the area of retail brands and even less about the interaction between retailer brands and manufacturer brands. In contrast, this paper develops a concept of retailer brand architecture, which captures that retailers typically offer an assortment of manu-facturer brands, retailer brands and generic products...... depends on the context; for instance, what other products are offered in the product category and in the retail outlet, previous experiences with the product or other products from the same manufacturer, as well as previous experiences with the retailer in question. In this paper, we take the concept...... of 'retailer brand archi-tecture', we use this concept to investigate the brand architecture of a number of European food retailers in order to determine similarities and differences in brand architecture strategies. The paper is structured as follows: firstly, the concept of brand archi-tecture is presented...

  17. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  18. Sustainable Supply Chain Engagement in a Retail Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Berning

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key requirement for business success and is often regarded a competitive advantage if strategically managed. Sustainability-mature organisations look to their value chains where the retailer-supplier collaboration becomes critical in embedding sustainability. With this in mind, it is important to monitor retailer-supplier collaboration to determine whether it is effective. To facilitate this monitoring, the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement was consulted. The research question aimed to determine the progress of a prominent South African retailer regarding their sustainable supply chain management (SSCM and collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, this study attempts to apply the Supplier Engagement Continuum, extracted from the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement, in order to determine how the retailer is progressing in sustainable supply chain management. The qualitative and exploratory nature of the study necessitated a case study research design, while the technique of purposive sampling was used to select the sample of three suppliers. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews facilitated by an interview guide, and data analysis was conducted with Atlas.ti software. It was found that the retailer’s sustainable supply chain management can only be located on level one of the continuum. Supply chain sustainability in organisations lack the theoretical foundation of what sustainability really is. Therefore, the model was amended and an additional level was added to incorporate the education of sustainability.

  19. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  20. The factors of retail brand positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the basic characteristics of a retail process as a function of the development of a successful brand. The retail network is continuously progressing, developing its abilities, successfully adjusting to its environment, and which is the most important it is persistently following wishes and needs of its consumers, and is satisfying them through high-quality offers. The retail network is relatively a new business structure, which has a great potential for competitive advantage. Once, prestigious partners to retailers, which have represented successful brands, they are often perceived to be stripped of rank and to come back at the level of common suppliers. Also, the suppliers' brands have no longer the position as they had, their status has decreased and their former power is gone, as a more superior, compared to the retailers. The inertia, enjoying 'the old glory', thinking in the manner of the same well-established formula as well as the inability to adjust themselves to the changes occurring among consumers have led the majority of the brands to be stuck in the past. The companies have to stop this increasing phenomenon, if they do not want to face in the near future, even more dramatic and more harmful consequences. Since the main aim of the research, performed in this work, was to determine the importance of retail brand positioning, the retail environment was analyzed, with special emphases on the consumer role in retail, and factors of successful retail activities. As a special aspect of successful retail, the environment of retail place was determined and within this, the effects of the retail places' atmosphere. For setting the retail strategy framework, the following basic entities are observed: product, price, exclusivity, quick response, information technology, price strategy, logistics and competitiveness. .

  1. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 μg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers.

  2. Japanese domesticated chickens have been derived from Shamo traditional fighting cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2004-10-01

    With the aim of elucidating the evolutionary origin of Japanese domesticated chickens, this study evolutionarily analyzed 85 chicken mtDNA sequences. Thirty-four various ornamental chickens, 42 fighting cocks (Shamo), and nine long-crowing chickens (Naganakidori) were included. Of the Shamo, 18 were sampled from Okinawa, while the remaining 24 were collected in other islands around Japan. In addition, three Southeast Asian Junglefowls were used as a reference to determine the common ancestor of Japanese domesticated chickens. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the 88 mtDNA sequences revealing that the Shamo group from Okinawa clearly diverged from the other Japanese domesticated chickens studied. This strongly suggests that all Japanese domesticated chickens, including the ornamental varieties and Naganakidori, derived from the ancestors of the Shamo in Okinawa. To create novel varieties of ornamental chickens, intensive artificial selection is imposed on ancestral Shamo populations, resulting in profoundly differentiated Japanese domesticated chickens.

  3. Retail Brand in China Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayamon Worawutkhunchai

    2011-01-01

    @@ The purpose of this paper is to discuss why and how brand reputation influence customer in Chinese retail market.Brand reputation can be looked upon as a favorable and publicly recognized estimation of a product or a service.The paper is not specifically interested in the success of marketing itself,but more on whether brand reputation impacts brand loyalty which forms the bases of brand equity.

  4. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.

  5. Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

    2014-10-01

    Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores.

  6. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and sales areas as main retail channels. In order to comprehend the retail network as an important organisational innovation system in relation to brand owners, the aim of this paper is to characterise key elements of innovation in retail networks. The approach of this work is a set of qualitative in......While product marketers and brand owners struggle to make new products, manufacturing processes and inbound logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains and departments stores......, technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using the fashion industry as a case because this industry better than other industries maintain branded stores...

  7. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  8. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  9. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most....... In comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own...

  10. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  11. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retail store image in emerging markets: An initial study among Chinese retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    This study explores the dimensions of store images and retailer's positioning in emerging markets. First, the store images of a retail segment will be assessed from the consumer's perspective. Second, store image clusters will be profiled based on a survey of the retailers; how they position...

  13. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  14. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  15. Retail beer market. Opportunities for beer category

    OpenAIRE

    Caldová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    My bachelors thesis deals with design of better utilization of sales space in traditional retail formats. I focus on the beer category . I describe the basic principles of retailing. I imagine the food retailing division according to the company Pilsner Urquell. I mention all the legal requirements for the labeling of beer products. I mention the beer category share in total sales in the retail market . I describe the main beer producers who are active on the Czech market. The main topic is t...

  16. Potentials of RFID Application in Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foscht, Thomas; Kotzab, Herbert; Maloles III, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The willingness of retailers to adopt RFID systems, as well as finding optimal RFID applications has yet not been investigated. This paper examines the issues associated with the RFID adoption based on the results of a conjoint analysis. The conjoint measurement looked at the trade-off decisions...... among different possible set-ups of RFID applications in retailing companies. Considerable willingness to adopt, but low diffusion and a structure of preferences with respect to RFID features was shown throughout the examined retailing companies. Furthermore, differences were shown among different types...... of retailers in their preferences for RFID system features and clusters were implied....

  17. Price Competition Among Retailers Of Coca Cola Products In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agboje Ifeoma Anestina; Awoyomi Femi; Yusuf Sulaiman Adeshina

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out on price competition among retail marketers of Coca-Cola products in Ibadan metropolis. A total of one hundred and ten retailers’ was randomly sampled from three Local Government Areas in Ibadan. Ordinary Least Square regression model was used for the analysis of the study. The findings of the study were that there were price variation in the Coca-Cola retail market that is monopolistically competitive in nature, and that these price variations were influenced by mun...

  18. Characteristics of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from Swiss and imported raw poultry meat collected at retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogg, A L; Zurfluh, K; Nüesch-Inderbinen, M; Stephan, R

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and genetic characteristics of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 80 samples of Swiss (n=36) and imported (n=44) raw chicken meat collected at retail level. In addition, ESBL-producers were screened for the presence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1. Countries of import included Argentina (n=2), Austria (n=1), Brazil (n=3), Denmark (n=5), France (n=1), Germany (n=13), Hungary (n=5), Italy (n=8), and Slovenia (n=6). Forty ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from 33 (41.3%) of the 80 samples, comprising seven (19.4%) of the Swiss and 26 (59%) of the imported samples. The most common blaESBL among the isolates were blaCTX-M-1 (n=14) and blaSHV-12 (n=16). Other genes comprised blaTEM-52 (n=4), blaCTX-M-2 (n=3), blaCTX-M-8 (n=1), blaCTX-M-14 (n=1) and a novel blaCTX-M-14-like variant (n=1). Two ESBL-producers isolated from samples from Germany (n=1) and Italy (n=1) tested additionally positive for the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1. Six (7.5%) samples, all imported from Germany, were found to contain MRSA. Three isolates belonged to the livestock-associated CC398-MRSA-V-t034, and 3 to CC9-MRSA-IV-t13177, described here for the first time in chicken meat.

  19. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  20. New approaches towards discrimination of fresh/chilled and frozen/thawed chicken breasts by HADH activity determination: Customized slope fitting and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Alewijn, Martin; Weesepoel, Yannick; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Fresh/chilled chicken breasts retail at a higher price than their frozen/thawed counterparts. Verification of the fresh/thawed status of chicken meat is determined by measuring β-hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A-hydrogenase (HADH) activity present in meat intra-cellular liquids spectrophotometrically. However, considerable numbers of reference samples are required for the current arithmetic method, adding to laboratory costs. Therefore, two alternative mathematical approaches which do not require such reference samples were developed and evaluated: curve fitting and multivariate classification. The approaches were developed using 55 fresh/thawed fillet samples. The performance of the methods was examined by an independent validation set which consisted of 16 samples. Finally, the approach was tested in practice in a market study. With the exception of two minor false classifications, both newly proposed methods performed equally well as the classical method. All three methods were able to identify two apparent fraudulent cases in the market study. Therefore, the experiments showed that the costs of HADH measurements can be reduced by adapting alternative mathematics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Retail Formats on the Development of Food Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten Ćuzović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of retail formats and their impact on the development of food retailing, through empirical testing of the largest food retailers within the timeframe 2009-2014. Research Design & Methods: This paper shall, in addition to the review of literature on the development of retail formats, focus on the analysis of the Global Power of Retailing report 2011-2016. Statistical material consists of the available data on the ranking of the largest retail companies, viewed by sales volume, in the period from 2009 to 2014, published annually by the consulting firm, Deloitte Touche. Findings: The research results show the dominant share of food retailers in the total number of retailers in the list of Top 250 retailers. In addition, the results point to a different structure of food retail formats in the period from 2009 to 2014. The position of individual food retailers in the list of the most successful ones changes over time and standard multiple regression results show that this is due to the introduction of new retail formats. Implications & Recommendations: Continuing innovation in the field of retail formats is very important to food retailers. Decision makers need to pay special attention and focus on increasing the sales volume and better ranking of companies in the list of most successful ones, where one of the factors is the introduction of new retail formats. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of the FDI inflow into the group of both similar and different countries in terms of economy.

  2. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  3. Tailoring online retail strategies to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Souitaris, V.; Balabanis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how online retailers can combine their strategies on differentiation and market scope (segmentation) to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Drawing on a sample of UK grocery e-buyers, the authors classified e-shoppers as either goal-oriented or experiential, and empirically assessed the impact of a number of possible differentiation strategies on the satisfaction and loyalty of each shopper segment. The results show that differentiation based on customisation, prod...

  4. Supply chain integration in the retail sector in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.Comm. A positive relationship exists between supply chain integration and the creation of customer value. With globalization increasing, companies need to explore this as a way to stay competitive and deliver exceptional value in an environment where the customer is more informed and more demanding. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of supply chain integration in the selected sample of retailers in South Africa. The findings indicated that high levels of supply ...

  5. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  6. Executing the Perfect Retail Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Rygaard Jonas, Louise

    focus has been on using corporate communication to align employees around the corporate brand to achieve this. Through in-depth, longitudinal, ethnographic research this paper suggests that coherence can only be achieved by understanding the complex interplay of identities between occupational groups......The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally...

  7. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  8. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-ANALOG CONVERTER BOX COUPON PROGRAM § 301.6 Retailer participation. Retailer participation is voluntary... procedures that can be easily audited as well as systems that can provide adequate data to minimize fraud and... information and payment receipts related to coupons used in the purchase of converter boxes,...

  9. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...

  10. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  11. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  12. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...-3(e) (75 FR 78944), the amount of an allowance, discount, or price rebate a taxpayer earns by... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ64 Retail Inventory Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue... regulations relating to the retail inventory method of accounting. The regulations restate and clarify...

  13. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  14. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  15. Social media: a new frontier for retailers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Gomez Boria, Miguel A.; Swoboda, B.; Morschett, D; Rudolph, T.; Schnedlitz, P.; Schramm-Klein, H

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades the retailing industry is finding itself in a state of constant evolution and transformation. Globalization, mergers and acquisitions, and technological developments have drastically changed the retailing landscape. The explosive growth of the Internet has been one of the

  16. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ``retail forex transactions,'' and as further defined below) with a registered broker or dealer (``broker... forex business until July 16, 2012, provided that the broker-dealer complies with the Securities... applicable to retail forex transactions. DATES: Effective Date: Rule 15b12-1T is effective on July 15, 2011...

  17. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...'s retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts... forex rules must prescribe appropriate requirements with respect to disclosure, recordkeeping, capital...

  18. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The rule implements the provision of the Dodd-Frank... forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or... institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules, ``Federal regulatory agency...

  19. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  20. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an... of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f(a)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such... forex statutory provisions will be to the section where the provisions will be codified in the CEA....

  1. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2011-01-01

    in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from...

  2. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  3. Social media: a new frontier for retailers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Gomez Boria, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades the retailing industry is finding itself in a state of constant evolution and transformation. Globalization, mergers and acquisitions, and technological developments have drastically changed the retailing landscape. The explosive growth of the Internet has been one of the

  4. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. In contrast, this project views retailer...

  5. Social media in retail in kinderschoenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.; De Berg, E.; Boels, D.H.H.; De Boer, R.; Adelaar, T.; Krawczyk, A.

    2011-01-01

    Het ontwikkelen van een goede multichannel strategie is één van de belangrijkste uitdagingen waar retailers vandaag de dag voor staan. Een toenemend aantal ‘traditionele’ retailers ziet het opzetten van een webshop als een belangrijke aanvulling op hun fysieke winkels en probeert te profiteren van d

  6. Research on Development Rule of Retail Store in China's Fashion Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yan-min; JIANG Zhi-wei

    2002-01-01

    Retail store is one of key contents of fashion marketing management. From the point of theory of three spaces in store, Shanghai - China's most important fashion retailing market, is taken as a research sample. Store types, transform rule and relative factors of China's fashion retailing market are discussed. Some problems,such as agreement of store quality and brand target, are analyzed. Finally, five basic conclusions are drawn:first, development of store has been simultaneous with the development of fashion retailing market; second,development speed of store is restrained by region economy objectively; third, the effective means of upgrading marketing level of fashion brand presupposes improving the whole quality of store; fourth, the model of store is index reflecting competitive ability of fashion brand; fifth, there is obvious difference between domestic fashion store and that of international important area.

  7. Price Competition Among Retailers Of Coca Cola Products In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboje Ifeoma Anestina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on price competition among retail marketers of Coca-Cola products in Ibadan metropolis. A total of one hundred and ten retailers’ was randomly sampled from three Local Government Areas in Ibadan. Ordinary Least Square regression model was used for the analysis of the study. The findings of the study were that there were price variation in the Coca-Cola retail market that is monopolistically competitive in nature, and that these price variations were influenced by municipality characteristics, market conditions and store characteristics. It is therefore, recommended that more entries of retail marketers should be encouraged to reduce the monopolistic powers of the few retail marketers in the business.

  8. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  9. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  10. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  11. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  12. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  13. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  14. Retail Executives’ Professional Learning Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aquino Lucena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research question that is addressed in this article is the following: what do the executives from small retailing firms learn in their work environment? The theoretical framework of the study is based on texts from the field of learning. This is a qualitative investigation. Ten interviews with clothing retail executives were carried out. Later, these interviews were transcribed and analyzed. In the data analysis stage, two categories were established in response to the research question. Regarding the first, respondents perceived difficulties (problems in their work environments and obtained specific information and knowledge in order to deal with these situations. So as to overcome different professional difficulties, respondents learned about colors and types of fabric and about certain manufacturing process aspects referring to the clothing sold by their companies. They also declared to have learned about their companies’ suppliers and about certain issues referring to sales, and to the accounting and the financial management of their companies. The second category refers to a change in some of the respondents’ habits. This learning content refers to predispositions to respond and/ or act in situations at their work environments. Respondents reported having changed the way they related to other people. They emphasized that they had learned how to interact with the employees at their stores and how to carry out supervision. Differently from other studies, we found that the retailers’ learning (individual learning affected their companies’ learning (organizational learning through changes in certain aspects of the analyzed companies’ organizational structures.

  15. Towards Corporate Shared Value in Retail Sector: A Comparative Study over Grocery and Banking Between Italy and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Candelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research investigates the extent to which Banking and Grocery retailers use Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in accordance to evolving consumers’ expectations and build a strategic model of Corporate Shared Value (CSV to strive for economic and social returns simultaneously. The paper adopts a qualitative approach, based on the comparative case study methodology by investigating a sample of twelve Banking and Grocery retailers in Italy and the UK. Differences and similarities in CSR as new strategic model among countries and retail sectors emerge, with UK companies from both the sectors showing the most formalized integration of CSR within their business strategy. The chance for both Italian and UK retail companies is to adopt the best practices emerging from the case studies to turn their CSR programs into a strategic business model of CSV that will allow a stronger retailer-consumer relationship based on social improvements and a reinforcement of their brand image.

  16. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  17. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value < 1.3 mEq O2/kg of lipid and TBA reactive substances < 0.2 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample) was found in breast and legs, regardless of the commercial category. However, the C system significantly increased peroxide value in rotisserie thigh meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat

  18. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  19. Regulator of complement activation (RCA) locus in chicken: identification of chicken RCA gene cluster and functional RCA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Shida, Kyoko; Goitsuka, Ryo; Kimura, Yuko; Katoh, Jun; Ohba, Shinya; Tamaki, Yuichiroh; Hattori, Takashi; Yamada, Nozomi; Inoue, Norimitsu; Matsumoto, Misako; Mizuno, Shigeki; Seya, Tsukasa

    2005-08-01

    A 150-kb DNA fragment, which contains the gene of the chicken complement regulatory protein CREM (formerly named Cremp), was isolated from a microchromosome by screening bacterial artificial chromosome library. Within 100 kb of the cloned region, three complete genes encoding short consensus repeats (SCRs, motifs with tandemly arranged 60 aa) were identified by exon-trap method and 3'- or 5'-RACE. A chicken orthologue of the human gene 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2, which exists in close proximity to the regulator of complement activation genes in humans and mice, was located near this chicken SCR gene cluster. Moreover, additional genes encoding SCR proteins appeared to be present in this region. Three distinct transcripts were detected in RNA samples from a variety of chicken organs and cell lines. Two novel genes named complement regulatory secretory protein of chicken (CRES) and complement regulatory GPI-anchored protein of chicken (CREG) besides CREM were identified by cloning corresponding cDNA. Based on the predicted primary structures and properties of the expressed molecules, CRES is a secretory protein, whereas CREG is a GPI-anchored membrane protein. CREG and CREM were protected host cells from chicken complement-mediated cytolysis. Likewise, a membrane-bound form of CRES, which was artificially generated, also protected host cells from chicken complement. Taken together, the chicken possesses an regulator of complement activation locus similar to those of the mammals, and the gene products function as complement regulators.

  20. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  1. The value of non monetary-based retail promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Armando Maria; Mueller Loose, Simone; Lockshin, Larry

    Purpose: Price discounts in the retail sector are the norm rather than an exception. However, price promotions have several negative impacts on brands. Less attention has been devoted to non-monetary promotions (e.g. shelf talkers, in-store displays). The aim of this work is to fill this gap......, by showing the effects of non-monetary promotions in store and the relationship with the way consumers react to analogous non-monetary promotions on-line. Design: The study comprised three main stages: a) the selection and pre-test of the promotional material with a representative sample of the Australian...... wine drinking population; b) an in-store experiment with an Australian wine retailer across 62 stores located in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria, and c) an online discrete choice experiment to test the effects of the same stimuli used in the in-store experiment on consumers’ simulated...

  2. Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne illnesses in human, and multidrugresistance of Salmonella spp. has increased in developing countries with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the poultry production system. A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected retail markets of Chittagong City Corporation to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from commercial layer eggs, eggshell surface, and egg-storing trays. Materials and Methods: Chicken eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples from the retail markets were collected for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method against Salmonella isolates during the period from July to December 2013. Results: Out of the 310 layer eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples, the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was found in eggs trays (57.15% and the lowest (13.33% in eggs and the prevalence differed significantly (p0.05. Isolated Salmonella was tested for resistance to eight different antimicrobial agents, using disc diffusion method. Among eight antimicrobial tested (n=111, 100% resistance were found to ampicillin and amoxicillin followed by erythromycin (60-100%, tetracycline (72-93%, ciprofloxacin (22-66%, colistin (27-66%, enrofloxacin (42-54%, and pefloxacin 23.07% across the study sites. Ciprofloxacin remained sensitive in 40.9% cases and, pefloxacin and colistin appeared to be almost sensitive (61-72% against Salmonella isolates at studied areas. Salmonella isolates showed multidrug-resistance pattern up to five of the eight antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antibiotics needs to be adopted in commercial poultry farming system of Bangladesh to prevent the emergence of drug-resistance Salmonella to protect the public health consequences.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  4. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing

  5. Winning in retail market games: relative profit and logit demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hoogland (Jasper); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe examine retailers that maximize their relative profit, which is the (absolute) profit relative to the average profit of the other retailers. Customer behavior is modelled by a multinomial logit (MNL) demand model. Although retailers with low retail prices attract more customers than

  6. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing se

  7. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  8. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns upon...

  9. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  10. 29 CFR 779.24 - Retail or service establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail or service establishment. 779.24 Section 779.24... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.24 Retail or service establishment. In the 1949 amendments to the Act, the term “retail or service...

  11. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  12. Characterizing genetic diversity of contemporary pacific chickens using mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Needham Dancause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region (HVR sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary

  13. Indian Organized Retail Sector: Impediments and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The winds of globalization have yielded rich dividends to the social and economic growth of India. The boom in Indian market has widened the horizons for the customers to be selective while purchasing any product. On the other hand, the sellers are more proactive in facilitating their customers’ quality services and cater to their growing demands. There is a paradigm shift in the customer’s perception and purchasing tendencies. The traditional shops and shopkeepers are now being slowly but gradually replaced by big/mini retail stores (shopping malls and retailers (top corporate houses. Indian consumers are evolving and accepting modern retail formats. In the context of Indian retail sectors, Big Bazaar, More, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, ITC's e-choupal Reliance Retail Ltd, Vishal Mega Mart, Titan Industries, Archies, Bata India Ltd etc. are dominating the scene and have a wide spread network to execute their operation. The present paper is an attempt to study impediment and opportunities related to organized retailing in India.

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin PRADA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The past years have brought important changes into the Romanian retailsector. The changes started to rush after the moment when Romania wasbecoming a member of the European Union, was a fact. The variousresearches which have been made in the retail domain reveal thedevelopment of the new ways of trading, leaving the traditional trading onestep behind. Through this debate I intend to bring out a picture concerningthe evolution of “retail“ in the last years in Romania, to outline the retail sectorat this moment and eventually to anticipate the tendencies which will bepresent in the Romanian retail sector in perspective. The last years havebrought especially important changes in the retail sector in Romania. Thechanges began to more obviously manifest after Romania’s adhesionbecame a certainty. The results from numerous researches in retail revealthe evolution of new types of commerce in the detriment of those representedby traditional commerce and implicitly the change in the structure of the localretail. Trough this paper I seek to portray an x-ray of the evolution of retail inRomania of the last years, to underline the retails’ sector actual state, also toanticipate the tendencies that will manifest in the Romanian retail sector inthe near future.

  15. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where t....../value – This is the first academic study of the criteria used by modern food retailers in the selection of local food suppliers in Tanzania. Keywords Tanzania, Suppliers selection, Modern food retailers Paper type Research paper......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where...... the buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent government regulations that shape food business in the region. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was used for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interviews with retailers...

  16. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  17. Array based detection of antibiotic resistance genes in Gram negative bacteria isolated from retail poultry meat in the UK and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Grainne; Naughton, Violetta; Woodward, Martin J; Dooley, James S G; Naughton, Patrick J

    2014-06-02

    The use of antibiotics in birds and animals intended for human consumption within the European Union (EU) and elsewhere has been subject to regulation prohibiting the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and the use of last resort antibiotics in an attempt to reduce the spread of multi-resistant Gram negative bacteria. Given the inexorable spread of antibiotic resistance there is an increasing need for improved monitoring of our food. Using selective media, Gram negative bacteria were isolated from retail chicken of UK-Intensively reared (n=27), Irish-Intensively reared (n=19) and UK-Free range (n=30) origin and subjected to an oligonucleotide based array system for the detection of 47 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrase genes. High incidences of β-lactamase genes were noted in all sample types, acc (67%), cmy (80%), fox (55%) and tem (40%) while chloramphenicol resistant determinants were detected in bacteria from the UK poultry portions and were absent in bacteria from the Irish samples. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to qualitatively analyse the Gram negative population in the samples and showed the expected diversity based on band stabbing and DNA sequencing. The array system proved to be a quick method for the detection of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) burden within a mixed Gram negative bacterial population.

  18. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using the fashion industry as a case because this industry better than other industries maintain branded stores......-depth studies of the biggest Danish fashion brand owners and their respective retail networks. The study shows how brand owners can emphasise change by shifting from a passive and narrow observation of its downstream retail network to an active and broad observation, or at least develop a conscious approach...

  19. Marketing solutions for Romanian retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the consumer goods market raises important and complex issues for all retail companies. Under increasingly strong competition, Romanian retail businesses need to solve outstanding issues regarding the integration in market mechanisms, the diagnose of problems faced in the competitive environment, the initiation and development of business or the determination of any activity’s feasibility. Furthermore, being employed in a direct relationship with market demand, retailers must permanently know and follow its requirements and demands, phenomenon requiring multiple researches, studies and analysis.

  20. Strategi Periklanan pada Bisnis Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veny Ari Sejati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the benefits of advertising strategy of Poundland. The method used is a qualitative approach because its ability to produce an in-depth description to obtain an authentic understanding of the experience of the people concerned. The study found that Poundland conducted intensive advertising by utilizing important moments such as Halloween, Christmas, Mother Day, etc using Internet media, social media, and e-mail sent 1-2 times per week. Poundland also employs other media such as word of mouth spread among students. Catalog is also used as the print media to reach the consumers. Poundland uses communication technology and take advantage of important moments for advertising strategy. This description can be a reference for retail businesses in Indonesia to pay attention to important events in Indonesia such as national moments and utilizing non-traditional communication technologies as an advertising strategy.

  1. Small Producers and Retailers Network Supply Chains Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Davidovic

    2010-01-01

    The retailers network with e-supplying system can be main sales channel for small local and regional producers and their supply chain. Small producers and retailers network supply chains integration based on modern supply chain management systems (SCM) reduce cost of coordination, increase efficiency and effectiveness of logistics and retail, and create long-term mutual benefit relationship between small producers and retailers in logistics and retailing, branding and their impact on sustain ...

  2. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  3. Small Producers and Retailers Network Supply Chains Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Davidovic

    2010-01-01

    The retailers network with e-supplying system can be main sales channel for small local and regional producers and their supply chain. Small producers and retailers network supply chains integration based on modern supply chain management systems (SCM) reduce cost of coordination, increase efficiency and effectiveness of logistics and retail, and create long-term mutual benefit relationship between small producers and retailers in logistics and retailing, branding and their impact on sustain ...

  4. China March Apparel Retail Sales Report Retail Sales Vaule + 21.8% Y/Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Total retail sales value in major department stores picked up sharply in Mar. 2011, rising by about 25.6 percent y/y to CNY 46.63 billion, according to Na-tion Commercial Information Center of China. Of which, retail sales value of apparel products in major department stores increased 21.8 per cent y/y to CNY 11.89 billion, 3.8% lower than national average. For volume, retail sales volum

  5. Campylobacter jejuni occurrence in chicken fecal samples from small properties in Pelotas, southern of Brazil Ocorrência de Campylobacter jejuni em amostras fecais de galinhas em pequenas propriedades de Pelotas, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane R. Gomes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in broiler flocks from 26 small properties located near the campus of Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. A total of 404 chicken fecal samples were analyzed and after isolation, identification and biotyping was performed according to Lior´s scheme. Twenty one strains (5.2% of Campylobacter jejuni biotype II were isolated from animals from seven properties (26.9%, with a variation from 3% to 34.6% among the positive properties. We also analyzed twelve C. jejuni isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using specific primers that generate a fragment of 402 pb. Our study allowed us to observe that chickens raised in non-industrial establishments without sanitary attention can harbour C. jejuni in their intestinal tract, and by doing so, they could be a serious health risk to humans.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de espécies termofílicas de Campylobacter em galinhas de 26 pequenas propriedades localizadas próximo ao campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. Um total de 404 amostras fecais de galinhas foram analisadas e após o isolamento, a identificação e a biotipificação foram realizadas de acordo com o esquema de Lior. Vinte e uma amostras (5,2% de Campylobacter jejuni biotipo II foram isoladas de animais de sete propriedades (26,9%, com uma variação de 3,3% a 34,6% entre as propriedades positivas. Primers específicos, que geram um fragmento de 402pb, foram usados em PCR para analisar 12 isolados de C. jejuni. Concluímos que galinhas criadas em estabelecimentos não industriais e sem atenção sanitária, são portadoras de C. jejuni e, desta forma, podem ser consideradas um fator de risco para infecção humana.

  6. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Demirhan, Burak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan; Abbasoglu, Ufuk

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in chicken and beef used in Ankara, Turkey. Total number of 127 chicken and 104 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local markets for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. One hundred eighteen of 231 (51.1%) examined chicken meat and beef samples were found to contain quinolone antibiotic residue. Among the chicken meat and beef samples, 58 (45.7%) of chicken meat samples and 60 (57.7%) of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones, respectively. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were found to be 30.81 ± 0.45 µg/kg and 6.64 ± 1.11 µg/kg in chicken and beef samples, respectively. This study indicated that some chicken and beef meat sold in Ankara contains residues of quinolone antibiotics.

  7. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mueen; Diarra, Moussa S; Checkley, Sylvia; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Masson, Luke

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genotypes of Enterococcus spp. particularly Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail meats purchased (2007-2008) in Alberta, Canada. Unconditional statistical associations between AMR pheno- and genotypes and virulence genotypes were determined. A total of 532 enterococci comprising one isolate from each positive sample were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility. A customized enterococcal microarray was used for species identification and the detection of AMR and virulence genes. E. faecalis was found in >94% of poultry samples and in about 73% of beef and 86% of pork samples. Enterococcus faecium was not found in turkey meat and its prevalence was 2% in beef and pork and 4% in chicken samples. None of the enterococci isolates were resistant to the clinically important drugs ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin. Multiresistance (≥3 antimicrobials) was more common in E. faecalis (91%) isolated from chicken and turkey (91%) than those isolated from beef (14%) or pork (45%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was also noted at varying degrees. The most common resistance genes found in E. faecalis were aminoglycosides (aac, aphA3, aadE, sat4, aadA), macrolides (ermB, ermA), tetracyclines (tetM, tetL, tetO), streptogramin (vatE), bacitracin (bcrR) and lincosamide (linB). Virulence genes expressing aggregation substances (agg) and cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylL, cylM) were found more frequently in poultry E. faecalis and were unconditionally associated with tetM, linB and bcrR resistance genes. Other virulence genes coding for adhesion (ace, efaAfs), gelatinase (gelE) were also found in the majority of E. faecalis. Significant statistical associations were found between resistance and virulence genotypes, suggesting their possible physical link on a common genetic element. This study underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of resistance and

  8. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power.

  9. Towards a sustainable development of retailing in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Coca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development becomes increasingly important in the design of development policies. The economic field, due to the businesses it involves, is regarded as a tool capable of generating social well-being by caring for resource conservation. The retailing is part of this process, playing an important role due to the connection it provides between producers and consumers. The objectives of this study were to highlight the extent to which retailing developed in Romania, to measure the efficiency of firms in the industry and to identify sustainable development practices these firms used. In developing our approach a sample of 12 firms were selected, which were defined as constituting a reference framework based on their size and turnover. Further on, the descriptive research method was used, based on secondary sources of data investigation. After analyzing the data, it was concluded that the retailing sector in Romania is a powerful one, with a market slightly increasing, dominated by trends of concentration and with efficiency in line with the European average. The use of the principles of sustainable development into trade business companies in Romania is low. There is no urge to see these principles as business opportunities and sources of competitiveness.

  10. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  11. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  13. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  14. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  15. A survey for selected avian viral pathogens in backyard chicken farms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A

    2017-04-01

    Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.

  16. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  17. Exploring retailers' sensitivity to local sustainability policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Quak (Hans); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLocal governments in Western Europe increasingly use city time-access regulations to improve social sustainibility. These regulations significantly influence the distribution process of retail chain organizations. This paper studies the impact of governmental timewindow pressure on reta

  18. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompassed...... the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  19. Exploring retailers' sensitivity to local sustainability policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Quak (Hans); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLocal governments in Western Europe increasingly use city time-access regulations to improve social sustainibility. These regulations significantly influence the distribution process of retail chain organizations. This paper studies the impact of governmental timewindow pressure on

  20. Retail Market of Oil Products Reshuffled Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to its commitments to the World Trade Organization, the Chinese government opened up China's oil products retail market fully on December 11, 2004. Centering on this important transition, a market pattern of multi-major-body will be appeared.

  1. Retailers' choice of suppliers and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    developing their marketing strategies. 2. The purpose of this paper is to review previous research on retailer buying behaviour in order to establish a state-of-the-art knowledge before launching an Europe-wide empirical study. 3. We reviewed the volumes from 1975 to 1996 of the Journal of Marketing...... references being reviewed in this paper. 4. No conceptual model of retailer buying behaviour has gained wide acceptance and this might be the reason that the research findings appear scattered and unrelated. We try to overcome this by organising the findings along the lines of a conceptual model by Sheth. 5......, the Journal of Marketing Research, the Journal of Retailing, the European Journal of Marketing, the International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research and the Journal of Marketing Channels. The reference lists of all articles were scrutinised for further references. This search resulted in 69...

  2. SHOPPER MARKETING STRATEGY IN FOOD RETAILING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoran Bogetic; Dragan Stojkovic; Sinisa Milosevic

    2016-01-01

    .... The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary...

  3. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  4. Mass Retailers' Advertising Strategies Against Commodity Stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Bergès; Sylvette Monier-Dilhan

    2013-01-01

    A retailer has different opportunities to advertise in the media: emphasizing the store image or promoting specifically its private label (PL). In the first option, advertising benefits all products sold, whereas in the alternative, only store brands are concerned by image improvement. We analyze the retailer's advertising campaign strategies when its competitor's format is a small commodity store. PL quality is endogenous and chosen according to the competitor's product range. We show the re...

  5. Indian Retail Boom : The Human Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maan, Mahima

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The dissertation aims to study the Indian retail boom from the perspective of its people. The people of India have reacted in a negative way by protesting against the recent developments, especially the entry of big foreign (Wal-Mart) and domestic companies. So, it becomes interesting to know the opinion of its different sections of people. The various sections views were studied with respect to the advent of foreign companies, consumer ethnocentrism, the impact of retail boom a...

  6. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  7. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  8. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers. Reverse logistics, indicating the process of this return flow, encompasses such activities as the movement of returned products, facilities to accommodate returned items, and overall remedy process for returned items. The retail industry, under great competitive pressure, has used return policies as a competitive weapon. Grocery retailers were the first to begin to focus serious attention on the problem of returns and to develop reverse logistics innovations. Grocery retailers first developed innovations such as reclamation centers. Reclamation centers, in turn, led to the establishment of centralized return centers. Centralizing returns has led to significant benefits for most firms that have implemented them. Over the last several years, retailers have consolidated. Now, more than ever, reverse logistics is seen as being important. This reverse distribution activity can be crucial to the survival of companies, because the permanent goodwill of the company is at stake. Businesses succeed because they respond to both external and internal changes and adjust in an effective manner to remain competitive.

  9. Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.

  10. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  11. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Vicki A; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J; Hunt, Terry L; Burney, David A; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wood, Jamie R; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken.

  12. Molecular detection of adulteration in chicken products based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzinadah, Osama H A; Yacoub, Haitham Ahmed; El Ashmaoui, Hassan M; Ramadan, Hassan A I

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the fraudulent in chicken products constitutes in order to protect consumers in Saudi Arabia from illegal substitutions. Two different approaches were used in this study, direct sequencing of specific fragments of amplified mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in addition to species-specific PCR primers for confirmation of the obtained Blast search results. The results showed that all processed chicken products were identified as chicken (Gallus gallus) by 90-98% homology depending on obtained sequence quality. Samples labeled with chicken luncheon (samples tested in this study) were identified as turkey meat (Meleagris gallopavo) by 98% homology, suggesting adulteration with inedible parts of turkey in chicken luncheon ingredients. The results showed also that not only chicken luncheon was mixed with inedible parts of turkey but also all chicken products tested in this study (chicken balls, chicken burger, chicken sausage and chicken mined meat) contained this turkey meat. Applying methods used in this study could be useful for accurate and rapid identification of commercial processed meat.

  13. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is

  14. Impact of rearing conditions on the microbiological quality of raw retail poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bridgshe; Crilly, Nate; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Wallis, Audra; Zhang, Nan; Hanning, Irene

    2013-08-01

    There is a gap in knowledge of microbiological quality in raw chicken products produced by nonconventional methods and no studies have reported the microbiological quality of turkeys produced under different rearing environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of conventionally and organically reared whole chicken and turkey carcasses purchased from 3 retail outlets in Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.A. A total of 100 raw broiler chickens organically (n = 50) and 50 raw turkey carcasses consisting of 3 brands reared either conventionally (n = 25) or organically (n = 25) were evaluated. The FDA BAM protocol for rinsing poultry carcasses was used to enumerate of aerobic bacteria, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus spp., and for qualitative analysis of Salmonella. Organic chickens from one brand had the highest average counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. and Campylobacter (4.8, 4.8, and 4.7 Log10 CFU/mL rinsate, respectively) while the other organic brand had the lowest average counts (3.4, 3.3, and 3.1, respectively) of all 4 brands evaluated. The organic turkeys had the highest average counts of these same bacteria (4, 3.9, and 3.8, respectively) compared to the 2 brands of conventional turkeys evaluated. Salmonella (5% prevalence) was isolated only from organic chickens and turkeys. From these data, it appears that the microbiological quality of the raw product was not dependent on rearing conditions and, thus, it cannot be assumed that organic raw poultry is safer than conventionally raised poultry in terms of microbiological quality.

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 °C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences ( p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.

  16. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  17. A total integrated Lab-on-a-chip-system for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken feaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Høgberg, Jonas; Agirregabiria, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a pre-validation of a portable LOC based system for real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from packed chicken at supermarkets, Chicken fecal sample at slaughters and chicken farms. The LOC system performs DNA purification and real-time PCR detection within 30...

  18. Influence of Retail Store Design on the Performance of Retail Store Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olimpia SUSANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of retail store design on the performance and job satisfaction of retail store managers. A structural equations model is tested with 200 managers of a large supermarket chain. Moderating effects of crowding and perceived control on design satisfaction are examined. Managerial implications for strategy and theoretical contributions are discussed.

  19. Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Hudson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases (n = 1248 revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution.

  20. A Bayesian Combination Forecasting Model for Retail Supply Chain Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailing plays an important part in modern economic development, and supply chain coordination is the research focus in retail operations management. This paper reviews the collaborative forecasting process within the framework of the collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment of retail supply chain. A Bayesian combination forecasting model is proposed to integrate multiple forecasting resources and coordinate forecasting processes among partners in the retail supply chain. Based on simulation results for retail sales, the effectiveness of this combination forecasting model is demonstrated for coordinating the collaborative forecasting processes, resulting in an improvement of demand forecasting accuracy in the retail supply chain.

  1. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  2. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  3. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  4. The Importance of Store Image and Retail Service Quality in Private Brand Image-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Alić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research is to highlight the role which store image and retail service quality can play in private brand image-building in the context of an emerging market in South-Eastern Europe (i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina. We propose to address this issue by seeking answers to the following questions: (1 Does a ‘halo effect’ take place between the store image and the private brand image? (2 How does consumer’s evaluation of the quality of the service delivered by a retailer affect the image of its private brand? Research Design & Methods: Data were collected through a field survey via the store-intercept method. The sample consisted of 699 customers of two large retail chains. The data were analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings: The findings of the present study suggest that store image and retail service quality are important factors in the formation of the image of product-branded products. Implications & Recommendations: This study offers some important insights for retailers who intend to develop their private brand. First, the image transfer from store brand to private brand suggests that retailers should consider the introduction of a private brand as a brand extension, with their stores as the parent brand. Second, we recommend that retailers put more emphasis on quality improvement initiatives related to the store environment attributes. Contribution & Value Added: This study enhances the discussion on the phenomenon of private branding by analysing the store-level factors which underpin the formation of private brand image in the context of less developed European markets.

  5. Brands, costs and registration status of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an important source of treatment for fevers, little is known about the structure of the retail sector in Africa with regard to antimalarial drugs. This study aimed to assess the range, costs, sources and registration of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector. Methods In 2002, antimalarial drug registration and trade prices were established by triangulating national registration lists, government gazettes and trade price indices. Data on registration status and trade prices were compared with similar data generated through a retail audit undertaken among 880 randomly sampled retailers in four districts of Kenya. Results Two hundred and eighteen antimalarial drugs were in circulation in Kenya in 2002. These included 65 "sulfur"-pyrimethamine (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and sulfalene-pyrimethamine (SP, the first-line recommended drug in 2002 and 33 amodiaquine (AQ, the second-line recommended drug preparations. Only half of SP and AQ products were registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board. Of SP and AQ brands at district level, 40% and 44% were officially within legal registration requirements. 29% of retailers at district level stocked SP and 95% stocked AQ. The retail price of adult doses of SP and AQ were on average 0.38 and 0.76 US dollars, 100% and 347% higher than trade prices from manufacturers and importers. Artemether-lumefantrine, the newly announced first-line recommended antimalarial drug in 2004, was found in less than 1% of all retail outlets at a median cost of 7.6 US dollars. Conclusion There is a need to ensure that all antimalarial drugs are registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board to facilitate a more stringent post-marketing surveillance system to ensure drugs are safe and of good quality post-registration.

  6. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  7. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  8. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  9. Employability Skills in Chennai Retail Market, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Paulrajan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the finding from study to outline the underlying skill set required in getting and sustaining employment in the organised grocery and vegetable retail industry. The focus was ‘Employability’ which is neither one time attainable nor marketable vocational and academic skills just to create opportunity to get employment. An exploratory study has been carried out to understand the requirement of skill set in organised grocery and vegetable retailing for entry level jobs. Personal interview and questionnaire were the instruments used. Scope of the study to understand and identify required skills for entry level job in the organised grocery and vegetable retailing. Skill Matrix and employability skill set are formulated based on the study for entry level jobs in organised grocery and vegetable retailing sector.This study presents a comprehensive framework for selecting stores level managerial jobs by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. AHP method, expresses to determine the attributes in a multiple criteria decision-making problem in selection of personnel. Further scope for future research is enormous; study in the area of different or entire profile of retail jobs and geographical employability which is an influencing and deciding factor in organised grocery and vegetable employment.

  10. Myostatin mRNA expression and its association with body weight and carcass traits in Yunnan Wuding chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-12-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P chicken than in broilers (P chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.

  11. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Application of Lean Concept in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and techniques can be successfully applied in the retail sector. In the retail sector, lean approach improves operational flows. Lean retail encourages manufacturers to produce standard products in accordance with the created (placed orders from retailers pursuant to the demand of their consumers. Characteristics of the retail market are: strong competition, shorter product life cycle, longer product development time and high sensitivity of demand. In order to be more competitive and profitable today's retailers operate strategically oriented to lower prices and gain exemption from holding unnecessary stocks. Lean retail is an example of best practices of successful operational strategies which management need to accept - to maximize the operating efficiency of the retail process.

  13. Customer satisfaction with retail banking services in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narteh, Bedman; Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of customer satisfaction of retail banking services in Ghana and discusses the strategic implications of the findings for the retail banks. We reviewed the extant literature to identify theoretical determinants of customer satisfaction in retail ba......, core and tangible dimensions of service to be the major determinants of customer satisfaction in retail banking in Ghana. Technology also loaded onto the core and tangible dimensions of service quality......This article reports a study of the determinants of customer satisfaction of retail banking services in Ghana and discusses the strategic implications of the findings for the retail banks. We reviewed the extant literature to identify theoretical determinants of customer satisfaction in retail...... banking and their measurement scales. These were adapted to build a conceptual framework for the empirical investigation conducted. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered through personal interviews to 650 customers of retail banks and the results were factor analysed. We found relational...

  14. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, supermarkets, ...

  15. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  16. Rebalancing the Market Power. Manufacturer and Retailer Brands in the German Food Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielig Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The German food retail market is considered to be one of the most competitive markets worldwide. A narrow oligopoly of domestic retail chains dominates competition at the national and regional levels, driven mostly by price competition and extensive market coverage. As a result, market entrance for potential newcomers is highly restricted, even for such global players like Wal-Mart, which retreated in 2006 after nine years of substantial financial losses in Germany. There have been discernable attempts by the domestic incumbents to rebalance the traditional “task division”, affecting the range of customers choices as well as retail brands. However, within ten years the share of large retailers brands earnings in the total food retail market increased from 21.8 percent to 38.8 percent in 2012, as “house brands” optimized their assortment, increased their independence from main suppliers and squeezed out competitors. The empirical analysis presented below describes the role played by different retail brands in German food retail market as measured by their market power, and considers its political implications.

  17. Sustaining the challenge from the outskirts: city centre retail viability in Ljubljana, Slovenia

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    Marko Pahor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Like many other cities, Ljubljana is no exception to changes in its retail landscape. With retail suburbanisation, the city centre's monopoly as a shopping district has been lost. Our paper studies customer-perceived shopping area attributes and their impacts on patronage. The conceptual framework is set up to investigate factors that draw consumers to different shopping areas. The model was tested on a sample of consumers to evaluate the importance of various shopping area attributes and their performance in two decentralised shopping areas and the downtown shopping area in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

  18. Survey of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate plasticiser contamination of retail Danish milks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of residues of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in retail whole milk in samples from one German and 14 Danish dairies is reported. The investigation was performed about six months after the use of DEHP-plasticized milk tubing was banned in Denmark. The results indicate a mean...... concentration of DEHP lower than 50-mu-g/litre in retail whole milk. Based on these data and the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for DEHP of 25-mu-g/kg body weight laid down by the EEC Scientific Committee for Food, it is concluded that the intake of DEHP from milk and milk products does not, even through a whole...

  19. Creating student sleuths: how a team of graduate students helped solve an outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with kosher broiled chicken livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heather; Hancock, W Thane; Harrison, Cassandra; Kornstein, Laura; Waechter, HaeNa; Reddy, Vasudha; Luker, John; Malavet, Michelle; Huth, Paula; Gieraltowski, Laura; Balter, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Since 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) has received FoodCORE funding to hire graduate students to conduct in-depth food exposure interviews of salmonellosis case patients. In 2011, an increase in the number of Salmonella Heidelberg infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Xba I pattern JF6X01.0022 among observant Jewish communities in New York and New Jersey was investigated. As this pattern is common nationwide, some cases identified were not associated with the outbreak. To reduce the number of background cases, DOHMH focused on the community initially identified in the outbreak and defined a case as a person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with illness onset from 1 April to 17 November 2011 and who consumed a kosher diet, spoke Yiddish, or self-identified as Jewish. Nationally, 190 individuals were infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg; 63 New York City residents met the DOHMH case definition. In October 2011, the graduate students (Team Salmonella) interviewed three case patients who reported eating broiled chicken livers. Laboratory testing of chicken liver samples revealed the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg. Although they were only partially cooked, the livers appeared fully cooked, and consumers and retail establishment food handlers did not cook them thoroughly before eating or using them in a ready-to-eat spread. This investigation highlighted the need to prevent further illnesses from partially cooked chicken products. Removing background cases helped to focus the investigation. Training graduate students to collect exposure information can be a highly effective model for conducting foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigations for local and state departments of public health.

  20. Omni-channel Retail Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    and definition of omni-channel retail information systems (OCRIS) by using the information systems research tradition as a distinctive starting point (Treiblmaier and Strebinger, 2008; Avgerou, 2001; Parboteah et al., 2009). Omni-channel retailing has evolved since 2010 with the ultimate aim of aligning physical...... and digital sales channels by the use of technology, thus providing uniform customer experience and operational effectiveness across the channels (Hansen and Tambo, 2011). The vision of OCRIS remains largely at a conceptual level. Selected point-of-sale (“cash registers”) products and retail management...... systems have been introduced to be able to cope with the challenges of OCRIS. However, as a business strategy, it is still evolving and not many of the actual implementations have been able to fully realise the vision....

  1. How retailer coupons increase attitudinal loyalty –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...... that personalization offers opportunities for increasing loyalty without the necessity of large investments. As these effects can occur without redemption, coupon promotions should not be evaluated based on redemption rates only. Originality/value – The study extends existing research by focusing on retailer coupons...... and the minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline...

  2. Antecedents of loyalty in an online retailing business

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Retailing industry is challenged by empowered customers, scattered markets and intensified competition. Online retailing has a unique opportunity to take a leading role in the global marketplace by providing location free, customer controlled, and information rich retail service. Customer experience with an online retailer includes multiple factors. It is crucial to determine what website functions and features should be emphasized to create a satisfactory experience. Understanding an effecti...

  3. Retailing & design: combining the best of both worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, Katelijn; Lommelen, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In today’s knowledge economies, the importance of lifelong learning for active professionals grows tremendously (Vanweddingen, 2009). Also in a traditional sector like retailing. Because of evolutions in the interplay between on- and offline stores and omni-channel retail, retailers need to follow up on these developments to remain competitive (Van Ossel, 2014). Looking at the current educational offer in Europe to professionals in the domain of retail, two perspectives are possible, i.e. the...

  4. From Beijing to Bentonville: Do Multinational Retailers Link Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Each of the world's largest retailers---Walmart, Carrefour, Tesco, and Metro---entered China after 1995. Their subsequent expansion in China may have influenced Chinese exports through two channels. First, they may have enhanced bilateral exports between the retailers' Chinese operations and destination countries also served by stores in the retailers' networks. Second, Chinese city-level exports to all destinations may have grown if multinational retailer presence enhanced the general export...

  5. RETAIL READY PACKAGING – WHAT'S IN IT FOR FOOD MANUFACTURERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Dujak; Martina Ferencic; Jelena Franjkovic

    2014-01-01

    Process of concentration in retail market, as well in Croatia as in other European countries, has insured for retailers stronger negotiating position in fast moving consumer goods supply chain, especially in food chain. Retailers have initiated retail supply chain management - a lot of different cost efficiency processes in food supply chain which they were able to force with their suppliers, usually with the absence of an equitable distribution of savings that this collaboration enables. One...

  6. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu; Shuyun Ren; Tsan-Ming Choi; Chi-Leung Hui; Sau-Fun Ng

    2013-01-01

    Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective f...

  7. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  8. In vivo transcriptional cytokine responses and association with clinical and pathological outcomes in chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the host response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) infection in chickens and the relationship between the innate immune response and the severity of clinical disease. Innate responses are considered important during the earliest phases of microbial invasion because they can lim...

  9. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  10. Is retailing really unique? Insights into retail internationalization using business theories

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon Henrich; Pall, Zsombor

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization is one of the most important trends in retailing today. This process is not new, however has accelerated in the last two decades. It was less than 30 years ago that almost all of the world’s retail firms were pure national firms with a negligible share in foreign markets. That scenario has changed dramatically. Taking a look at the top 200 global retailers, almost all players except those in the US operate in numerous countries, having established a noteworthy business ca...

  11. Consumer influence on retail prices of rice in Imo state of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 90 retailers and 81 ... However, consumers indicating a weak level of consumers bargaining power ... of rice revealed that quantity demanded (Qty) has negative relationship with ... of consumers bargaining power helps consumers‟ understanding of marketing ...

  12. Prevalence, numbers and characteristics of Salmonella spp. on Irish retail pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, D M; Duggan, S J; Gonzales-Barron, U; Fanning, S; Butler, F; Cormican, M; Duffy, G

    2009-05-31

    Salmonella is a common contaminant of raw pork and represents a public health risk. Both qualitative and quantitative data on Salmonella in pork at retail are required for assessment of consumer exposure to the pathogen. Pork samples (n=500) were collected at random from butchers' shops and supermarkets in the Republic of Ireland between January and November, 2007 and examined for prevalence and numbers of Salmonella using a PCR screen followed by cultural examination of positive samples. Salmonella numbers were assessed using a three tube most probable number (MPN) technique. Any Salmonella recovered were characterised by serotype, phage type and antibiogram, and subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Enterobacteriaceae were also enumerated to see if there was a correlation between the Salmonella status of the pork and hygiene levels at retail outlets. Salmonella spp. were detected on 13/500 (2.6%) pork cuts at numbers between Salmonella Typhimurium was the most common serotype and the majority of isolates were multi antibiotic resistant. PFGE analysis showed evidence of persistence of some strains, with an S. Typhimurium U310 recovered from a pork abattoir being identical (100%) to a strain found a year later in a sample from a retail outlet. There was also evidence of cross contamination of Salmonella isolates between samples. There was a direct association between Salmonella contamination of pork and Enterobacteriaceae numbers, which indicates the need for good hygiene practices at retail for control of this pathogen.

  13. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  14. 76 FR 1131 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Monthly Retail Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...-month merchandise inventories, and quarterly e- commerce sales of retailers in the United States by... are requested to report sales, e-commerce sales, and/or inventories each month. The sample, consisting...-44(06)S Non Department Store/Sales Only/WO E-Commerce. SM-44(06)SE Non Department Store/Sales Only W...

  15. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-04-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools," by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1]). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers), present descriptive retailer data including school proximity, and provide data from multi-level regressions predicting individual-level student use of e-cigarettes based on presence of an e-cigarette specialty retailer in proximity to schools.

  16. Factory Gate Pricing : An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Factory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution.Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers.Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks (the supplier

  17. Factory Gate Pricing: An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. le Blanc; F. Cruijssen (Frans); H.A. Fleuren; M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFactory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution. Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers. Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks

  18. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...... of the study and segmentations of the retailers....

  19. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for...

  20. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for...

  1. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  2. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  3. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials and... for retail sale, if classified with the good for which preferential tariff treatment under the...

  4. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  5. Omni-channel Retail Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    key players in the industry of retailing (Wilson, 2012; Verizon, 2012) and covers the idea that anything can be sold anywhere with consistent marketing, reasonable efficiency of the supply chain channels and responsible customer service. This article aims at contributing to a characterisation...... and digital sales channels by the use of technology, thus providing uniform customer experience and operational effectiveness across the channels (Hansen and Tambo, 2011). The vision of OCRIS remains largely at a conceptual level. Selected point-of-sale (“cash registers”) products and retail management...

  6. Issues of innovations in large retailers marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the way distribution systems evolved in various countries it can be seen that, in all areas of the globe, the distribution has become progressively dynamic, suffering mutations on all levels, changing constantly the methods of marketing and sale, distribution forms, geographic distribution, etc. Retail sector has become a dynamic sector, with a rapid evolution and various forms of organization, mainly due to economic development and technological progress we have witnessed in recent years. To the rapid development of retail contributed the innovation, allowing it to adapt rapidly to market conditions, to continuous growth in consumer demands and requirements and the need for traders to streamline their business activities.

  7. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  8. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found.

  9. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  10. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  11. Immunomodulating Lactobacilli in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Koenen (Marjorie)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of a chicken starts with the beak, followed by the esophagus and crop, proventriculus (glandular stomach), gizzard (muscular stomach), duodenum, ileum, a pair of blind elongated caeca, colon and ending in the cloaca. The GI-tract

  12. Modification of Karmali agar by supplementation with potassium clavulanate for the isolation of Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Choi, In-Soo; Oh, Deog-Hwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2014-07-01

    The detection ability and selectivity of Karmali agar was improved by supplementation of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor, potassium clavulanate. The optimum concentration of potassium clavulanate (0.5 μg/ml) in Karmali agar was determined by inoculation of 50 Campylobacter and 30 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli strains onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing various concentrations of the agent. Eighty retail carcasses were rinsed with 400 ml of buffered peptone water. The rinse samples were enriched in 2 × blood-free Bolton enrichment broth at 42°C for 48 h and then were streaked onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing 0.5 μg/ml potassium clavulanate. The suspicious colonies were subcultured on Columbia blood agar and confirmed by colony PCR. In chicken carcass samples, the modified Karmali agar showed a significantly greater isolation rate than normal Karmali agar (42.5 versus 21.3%; P agar was also significantly higher (P agar, as seen by comparison of the number of contaminated agar plates (83.8 versus 97.5%) and the growth index (1.67 versus 2.91) of the non-Campylobacter colonies.

  13. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens.

  14. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (pdietary fiber (pdietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  15. An alternative procedure for ESR identification of irradiated chicken drumsticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. (Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Medicina Interna); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy))

    The ESR spectroscopy is, at present, the most established technique for quantitative analysis of irradiated chicken bone using the additive dose method. In this paper we tried a different approach to the problem analyzing the ESR behavior of a batch of chicken bone samples coming randomly from the market. Using a suitable and standardized sample preparation technique and sample positioning in the microwave cavity, we obtained a coefficient of variation of about 30% for the batch response. The calibration curve, obtained using the batch behavior up to 10 kGy, was used for a quantitative test on unknown samples. (author).

  16. Organic food category research among leading food retailers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the interest in organic agriculture has grown both within the scientific community and among general public. Organic agriculture is a new agricultural production system that tries to fully utilize farming potential and to satisfy all the social and economic needs while preserving the natural ecosystem and ensuring environmental protection. This paper gives a short overview of organic agriculture and organic food market development as well as an overview of the distribution channels for organic food in specific countries. The second part of the paper describes the research of the organic food category that was conducted on a sample of leading food retailers in the Republic of Croatia. Based on the methodology applied, it is determined that organic food is sold in Croatian supermarkets and hypermarkets. However, leading food retailers keep mostly imported organic food products. The results of the research imply that both the organic food sales volume and sales income grew in 2008 in respect to the previous year. Despite its limitations (primarily the small sample, the research is the first of its kind to have been conducted in Croatia and lays the groundwork for future research of the organic food and for a possible deeper analysis of this market.

  17. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  18. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  19. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  20. Cost reduction analysis in the online retail as compared to the classic retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Camelia BABA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The industry of retail was segmented by new technologies, but the financial performance of every segment is far to explain the market share. An exploratory study is necessary in order to explain the appeal for entrepreneurs. A comparison between two new forms of retail is used to understand the business models in this industry. Due to the fact that the maturity of the new segment of retail are different in various countries, the study cases focused on the some leaders firms from USA, China and Romania are important to design a probable trend the online commerce. General theoretical benchmarks, validated by current practice are used in case studies, as well as innovative approaches and well-known examples of successful retail companies.

  1. Characterizing the bacterial communities in retail stores in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisington, A; Maestre, J P; Kinney, K A; Siegel, J A

    2016-12-01

    The microorganisms present in retail environments have not been studied in detail despite the fact that these environments represent a potentially important location for exposure. In this study, HVAC filter dust samples in 13 US retail stores were collected and analyzed via pyrosequencing to characterize the indoor bacterial communities and to explore potential relationships between these communities and building and environmental parameters. Although retail stores contained a diverse bacterial community of 788 unique genera, over half of the nearly 118K sequences were attributed to the Proteobacteria phylum. Streptophyta, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter were the most prevalent genera detected. The recovered indoor airborne microbial community was statistically associated with both human oral and skin microbiota, indicating occupants are important contributors, despite a relatively low occupant density per unit volume in retail stores. Bacteria generally associated with outdoor environments were present in the indoor communities with no obvious association with air exchange rate, even when considering relative abundance. No significant association was observed between the indoor bacterial community recovered and store location, store type, or season. However, predictive functional gene profiling showed significant associations between the indoor community and season. The microbiome recovered from multiple samples collected months apart from the same building varied significantly indicating that caution is warranted when trying to characterize the bacterial community with a single sampling event.

  2. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective forecasting methods over the past 15 years is revealed. Issues related to real-world applications of the fashion retail sales forecasting models and important future research directions are discussed.

  3. Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rebecca; Finley, Rita; Ng, Lai King; Avery, Brent; Boerlin, Patrick; Bourgault, Anne-Marie; Cole, Linda; Daignault, Danielle; Desruisseau, Andrea; Demczuk, Walter; Hoang, Linda; Horsman, Greg B.; Ismail, Johanne; Jamieson, Frances; Maki, Anne; Pacagnella, Ana; Pillai, Dylan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance describes a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p<0.0001) between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada. In Québec, changes of ceftiofur resistance in chicken Salmonella Heidelberg and Escherichia coli isolates appear related to changing levels of ceftiofur use in hatcheries during the study period, from highest to lowest levels before and after a voluntary withdrawal, to increasing levels after reintroduction of use (62% to 7% to 20%, and 34% to 6% to 19%, respectively). These events provide evidence that ceftiofur use in chickens results in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in bacteria from chicken and humans. To ensure the continued effectiveness of extended-spectrum cephalosporins for treating serious infections in humans, multidisciplinary efforts are needed to scrutinize and, where appropriate, limit use of ceftiofur in chicken production in Canada. PMID:20031042

  4. Exploring retailers' sensitivity to local sustainability policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Koster, M.B.M. de

    2007-01-01

    Local governments in Western Europe increasingly use city time-access regulations to improve social sustainability. These regulations significantly influence the distribution process of retail chain organizations. This paper studies the impact of governmental time-window pressure on retailers’ logis

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF STRATEGIC PLANNING IN COMMERCE RETAILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we have proved the control mechanism to implement the strategic plan for the development of retail trade. Designed to study the methodological approach to the rational allocation of effort managers, it can reduce the degree of conflict between them, and thus more effectively use their personal intellectual resources

  6. Uniformity Analysis for Index of Retail Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘竞红; 曾庆洪; 刘梅英

    2002-01-01

    Using the Hodges-Ajne testing method, the uniformity of China retail price index was tested. The result, that population is submitting to uniform dist ribution, was obtained. The uniformity of CRPI indicates that the general price level is stable in the Ninth Five-Year Plan. Finally, the reasons causing the uniformity was analyzed.

  7. THE ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET - PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA BUZILĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Romanian retail market are facing with several problems which players must find solutions. It comes to maintaining a financial balance in terms of accelerated development and consumption has declined in recent years, finding and recruiting specialized personnel and the development of alternative sales channels.

  8. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON RETAILING IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mrvica MAĐARAC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade is one of the leading sectors of the Croatian economy, which has undergone significant changes under the influence of globalization over the last decade. According to Central Bureau of Statistics in Croatia about 16 % of all employees work in trade business, and more than a quarter of business entities are registered in this sector. Therefore the trade has a significant share in Croatian GDP creation. Globalization is considered an important factor of economic development around the world. Through development of communication technology the world has become integrated into the "global village" and a business contact itself can be accomplished in a matter of minutes. The effects of globalization on retailing in Croatia are mostly reflected in the introduction of new retailing forms, development of e-commerce, consumer protection, the introduction of space management, changes in consumer habits and the arrival of multinational trading companies on the market of Croatia. In this way, the Croatian market has become a part of a single system. Globalization has a negative effect on trade in the Republic of Croatia too, because the domestic production and retail sales of small neighborhood stores are threatened in this way. Retailing in Croatia should make an attempt to adapt to the global trends in the world and to new changes taking into account the domestic production by the principle of comparative advantage.

  9. Evolution of EU retail payments law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with

  10. Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with

  11. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...

  12. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online

  13. Management economics in a large retail company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. Siebert (W. Stanley); N.V. Zubanov (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe use unique data from 245 stores of a UK retailer to study links among middle (store) manager skills, sales, and manager pay. We find that, of the six management practice areas surveyed, the most important is "commercial awareness," where abler managers achieve up to 13.9% higher sales

  14. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online re

  15. Management economics in a large retail company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. Siebert (W. Stanley); N.V. Zubanov (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe use unique data from 245 stores of a UK retailer to study links among middle (store) manager skills, sales, and manager pay. We find that, of the six management practice areas surveyed, the most important is "commercial awareness," where abler managers achieve up to 13.9% higher sales

  16. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  17. Modern elements of retail enterprise image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagina Julia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases of forming the image of enterprises of retail enterprises are considered in the article. On the example of “Silpo” supermarket network the analysis of basic instruments of modern trade organization image building was executed.

  18. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  19. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  20. Towards a (new) theory of the retailer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new 'theory of the retailer'. The theory is built on the constructivist paradigm, and the research strategy applied is the constructivist approach to grounded theory. A conceptual framework is employed for the analysis of a number of companies. The main result of the study...

  1. Shanghai Nov.Apparel Retail Sales Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shanghai Nov. -According to Shanghai Apparel Association, retail sales of apparel products in Shanghai top 10 department stores fell by 24.1% year-on-year in Nov. to CNY440 million. Economists hope that the shoppers’ spend- ing is beginning to increase after the holiday season.

  2. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  3. Business's Best Seller--It's Called Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Louise

    This address, given at a workshop on distributive education, dealt primarily with the coordination of classroom theories of retail selling with their application in the store. The teacher-coordinator, who is responsible for this step, often has such a full program that he tends to overlook it. The teacher must work with the merchant for an…

  4. The World of Retailing. Publication No. 0011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondras, Robert

    Designed to introduce the world of retailing to junior high school students, the course encompasses three different activities: consumer knowledge, selling, and establishing a school store. Many of the ideas have been used with students in grades 7 and 8. The section on consumer education includes consumer influence and problems, consumer law, and…

  5. Web services in the retail industry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeep Mallick; Anuj Sharma; B V Kumar; S V Subrahmanya

    2005-04-01

    It is a well-known fact that the retail industry always works on razorthin margins and the key to survival lies in optimization of resources both in space and time dimensions as well as maximization of customer satisfaction. Access to timely and even real-time information to a wide variety of channel and trading partners, sales personnel, line managers, store managers etc. is the key to achieving this. Web services technology holds out a lot of promise for the retail industry in this respect. It is a platform-neutral, easy to deploy set of standards for achieving business data and process integration, without going for proprietary point to point connections. It promises to connect the information providers and information consumers across a wide variety of platforms, devices and on an on-demand basis. Being based on service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles it can also form the enabling service interface layer for other emerging technologies like BAM, BPM, mobile and RFID. In this paper, we attempt to understand information-flow needs in the retail industry and also suggest a roadmap approach by which the retail enterprise could exploit the potential of web services at minimal risk.

  6. Effect of probiotics on the meat flavour and gut microbiota of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing; Zhong, Hang; Li, Nianzhen; Xu, Hengyong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yiping

    2017-07-25

    To date, no report has demonstrated the use of beneficial microbes for contributing to the flavour characteristics and gut microbiota diversity of chicken. Here, we selected six probiotics obtained from our laboratory and supplemented them in six different combinations to 420 newborn male Qingjiaoma chickens under the same controlled living environment (60 birds, no probiotic supplements). The results showed that chicken supplemented with Bacillus species showed beneficial effects in body weight. Acetate is the major fermentation production in the chicken caecum, and chicken supplemented with Pediococcus pentosaceus had the average higher short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents. In chicken caecal microflora, the abundance of Bacteroidetes bacteria was positively correlated with the content of propionate, butyrate, and isobutyrate, whereas an increase in acetate content was positively correlated to the abundance of Firmicutes. Compared to chickens without probiotic supplement, chickens supplemented with P. pentosaceus had more characteristic flavour compounds in the sampled breast meat, especially higher concentrations of (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, and certain C6-C9 unsaturated fatty acids. This resulted in a stronger chicken-fatty or fatty odour which directly improved the flavour. These findings suggest that probiotics can improve chicken meat flavour and increase gut microbiota diversity.

  7. Drug retailer training: experiences from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Gartoulla, R P; Pradhan, Y M; Shrestha, A D; Karkee, S B; Quick, J D

    1992-10-01

    Sale of modern medicines by untrained peddlers, general merchants, and other drug sellers is common throughout the developing world. Drug sellers operating in the 'informal sector' are often the first source of health care outside the home. Reasons given by patients for using private drug sellers include expediency, convenience, efficacy of the medicines, dependability of supply, and reasonable cost. At the same time, self-medication through private drug sellers can be ineffective, wasteful, and at times distinctly harmful. Regulatory approaches to controlling drug selling in the informal sector, widely endorsed on paper through national drug control legislation, require a cadre of professional regulatory staff and enforcement mechanisms which are too often beyond the current economic and political reach of countries. In Nepal, where rugged terrain has limited infrastructure development, the doctor to population ratio is 1:23,000, utilization of government health services averages only 0.2 visits per person per year. Retail drug outlets outnumber health posts and health centers by a ratio of 4:1 and private drug sellers often offer the only access to modern medicine for much of the population. Community surveys have found that drug retailers are very often the first and only source of health care outside the home. Given the importance of retail drug outlets and the lack of trained pharmacists, the Department of Drug Administration in 1981 established a 45-hr course for drug retailers which emphasized practical training as well as formal teaching on pharmacology, ethics, storage of drugs, and legal issues. By the end of 1989, 4096 drug retailers had graduated from the course. Still run by the Ministry of Health Department of Drug Administration, the course has proven to be administratively feasible and has been quite popular with drug retailers. Initial reservations expressed by doctors and some pharmacists were soon overcome, and the course is now well accepted by

  8. Performance of a commercial Chicken-Ovo-transferrin-ELISA on the serum of brown layer chickens infected with Gallibacterium anatis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Krisna; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Christensen, Jens Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic biomarker of selected bacterial infections we checked the performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) by analytical and overlap performances using two groups of serum samples obtained from 26 Gallibacterium anatis-infected and 20 Streptococcus zooepidemicus-infected brown layer chickens. In addition, sera from 14 apparently healthy and 19 negative control chickens were analysed in the Gallibacterium group whereas sera from 20 healthy and 11 negative control chickens from the Streptococcus group were analysed. All calibration curves revealed high coefficients of determination (≥ 0.97) between optical density (OD 450nm) and concentrations of OTF (mg/ml). OTF concentrations in high, medium and low pools (made of sera from a combination of infected and/or non-infected birds) were >6.4, >3.8 to 6.7, >3.5 to chickens (Gallibacterium, 4.4 ± 0.3 mg/ml; Streptococcus, 3.2 ± 0.4 mg/ml) compared with negative controls (1.7 ± 0.1 mg/ml) (P Chicken-OTF-ELISA can be used to measure reproducible serum OTF concentrations in brown layer chickens as a response to G. anatis infections, whereas an adjustment of dilution process is proposed to optimize to use in S. zooepidemicus-infected chickens.

  9. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  10. Nontyphoidal Salmonella from human clinical cases, asymptomatic children, and raw retail meats in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; McDermott, Patrick F; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Leon, Verónica; Canche, Claudia; Hubert, Susannah K; Abbott, Jason; León, Magda; Zhao, Shaohua; Headrick, Marcia; Tollefson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of a 3-year Salmonella surveillance study of persons with diarrhea; asymptomatic children; and retail pork, poultry, and beef in Yucatan, Mexico. Isolates were characterized according to serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most common serotype found in ill humans (21.8% of isolates), followed by Salmonella Agona (21% of isolates). Salmonella Enteritidis was a minor serotype (4.2% of isolates). Asymptomatic children carried S. Agona (12.1% of isolates), Salmonella Meleagridis (11.6% of isolates), Salmonella Anatum (8% of isolates) and S. Enteritidis (5.8% of isolates). A high percentage of retail meat samples contained Salmonella; it was most commonly found in pork (58.1% of samples), followed by beef (54% of samples) and poultry (39.7% of samples). Resistance to oral drugs used for the treatment of salmonellosis was observed for ampicillin (14.6% of isolates were resistant), chloramphenicol (14.0% of isolates), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (19.7% of isolates). Resistance to ceftriaxone emerged in 2002 and was limited to the serotype S. Typhimurium. Twenty-seven percent of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, and none were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Multidrug resistance was most common among isolates of serotypes S. Typhimurium and S. Anatum. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that strains found in retail meats were genetically identical to strains found in both asymptomatic children and ill patients. Our study found a high prevalence of Salmonella in retail meats and persons with enteric infection; many of these isolates were resistant to clinically important antimicrobials. A random selection of isolates from people and retail meat showed genetic relatedness, which suggests that, in Yucatan, considerable transfer of Salmonella occurs through the food chain.

  11. The contribution of sampling uncertainty to total measurement uncertainty in the enumeration of microorganisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Basil; Hedges, Alan J; Corry, Janet E L

    2012-06-01

    Random samples of each of several food products were obtained from defined lots during processing or from retail outlets. The foods included raw milk (sampled on farm and from a bulk-milk tanker), sprouted seeds, raw minced meat, frozen de-shelled raw prawns, neck-flaps from raw chicken carcasses and ready-to-eat sandwiches. Duplicate sub-samples, generally of 100 g, were examined for aerobic colony counts; some were examined also for counts of presumptive Enterobacteriaceae and campylobacters. After log(10)-transformation, all sets of colony count data were evaluated for conformity with the normal distribution (ND) and analysed by standard ANOVA and a robust ANOVA to determine the relative contributions of the variance between and within samples to the overall variance. Sampling variance accounted for >50% of the reproducibility variance for the majority of foods examined; in many cases it exceeded 85%. We also used an iterative procedure of re-sampling without replacement to determine the effects of sample size (i.e. the number of samples) on the precision of the estimate of variance for one of the larger data sets. The variance of the repeatability and reproducibility variances depended on the number of replicate samples tested (n) in a manner that was characteristic of the underlying distribution. The results are discussed in relation to the use of measurement uncertainty in assessing compliance of results with microbiological criteria for foods.

  12. Monitoring the microbial populations and temperatures of fresh broccoli from harvest to retail display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, R; LeBlanc, D I; Tranchant, C C; Vasseur, L; Delaquis, P; Beaulieu, C

    2006-05-01

    Microbial populations and the temperature of fresh broccoli were monitored at several steps of a supply chain by sampling 33 distinct lots of locally grown produce over two seasons during harvest, storage, wholesale handling, and retail display. Imported broccoli was also sampled, but only at retail display. Microbiological analyses were conducted on the florets of 201 local and 60 imported broccoli samples to determine populations of total aerobic bacteria (aerobic colony count), fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. All the samples had mean aerobic colony counts ranging between 4 and 6 log CFU/g, but L. monocytogenes was not detected (limit of detection =100 CFU/g). Fecal coliforms and E. coli (limit of detection =20 most probable number per 100 g) were found in 22 of 126 samples of local broccoli collected at various steps of the production and distribution system during the first season. None was found in 75 samples collected in the second season. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were found in 2 of 60 imported broccoli samples. Broccoli temperatures were relatively well controlled throughout the production and distribution system. No clear change in produce microbial populations was evident between harvest and retail display, during both sampling seasons. However, a large experimental variability was found, possibly associated with the high variability of the initial levels of microbial populations on broccoli at harvest.

  13. Perkembangan Embrio dan Penentuan Jenis Kelamin DOC (Day-Old Chicken Ayam Jawa Super

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarani Kusumawati

    2017-02-01

    Super Javanese chicken embryonic development. This study attempts to provide information about embryonic development and sexing on Super Javanese chicken. This study used Super Javanese chicken fertile eggs from Java Farm, Maguwoharjo, Depok, Sleman. These eggs were incubated at temperature of 37o-38oC. Samples were observed with Neutral Red and Hematoxilin Eosine (HE staining. The measurement of the Super Javanese chicken embryo were about length of the third finger, beak, and the length of the embryo's body. This observation obtained embryonic development of the super Javanese chicken spesifically. This concluded that Super Javanese chicken as a first generation from cross breeding has slower growth in embryonic development

  14. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  15. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  16. True or False: Consumer Perception to Green Consumer Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.

  17. MRSA and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. retail meats, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Davis, Johnnie A; Tran, Thu Thuy T; Yang, Qianru; Abbott, Jason W; Ayers, Sherry L; Young, Shenia R; Crarey, Emily T; Womack, Niketta A; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3.5%), followed by pork (1.9%), beef (1.7%), and chicken (0.3%). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for all 66 non-redundant MRSA. Among five multilocus sequence types identified, ST8 (72.7%) and ST5 (22.7%) were most common and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was assigned to one pork isolate. Eleven spa types were represented, predominately t008 (43.9%) and t2031 (22.7%). All four types of meats harbored t008, whereas t2031 was recovered from turkey only. The majority of MRSA (84.8%) possessed SCCmec IV and 62.1% harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all ST8 MRSA belonged to the predominant human epidemic clone USA300, and others included USA100 and USA200. We conclude that a diverse MRSA population was present in U.S. retail meats, albeit at low prevalence.

  18. 鸡肉中弯曲杆菌属的分离与鉴定%ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES ON FROZEN CHICKEN MEAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振国; 刘和平; 吴剑; 秦学; 郑希铭

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter was surveyed in 152 frozen chicken meat samplessampled from a poultry processing plant in Changchun over a nine-month sampling period.38.2%(58/152) of samples was found to be positive for cam pylobacter species,of the 38.2% of positive samples, 32.9% ( 50/152 ) was identified as positive for C.jejuni/C.coli by using the API campy identification system for campylobacter.These results support the assertion that retail chicken meats is commonly contaminated with Campylobacter spp.,and pose a potential risk to consumer if hygiene and cooking practices are not adequate.%对从长春地区某一肉鸡屠宰加工厂在9个月期间内抽取的冻鸡肉样品进行弯曲杆菌检查,发现38.2%(58/152)的样品为弯曲杆菌属阳性。经APICampy鉴定系统鉴定,其中32.9%(50/152)为空肠弯曲杆菌(C.jejuni)和大肠弯曲杆菌(C.coli)阳性。本次调查结果证实在我国市场上销售的鸡肉中存在弯曲杆菌属的污染,如果加工不当或加工卫生不良,会对消费者的健康构成潜在的威胁。

  19. Assessing Chicken Meat Freshness through Measurement of Radio-Frequency Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Change in freshness of chicken meat was assessed through measurement of the dielectric properties with a vector network analyzer and an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at 23 oC. Chicken meat samples were stored in a refrigerator for 8 days at 4 oC. Changes in dielectric cons...

  20. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...