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Sample records for resuscitation cpr knowledge

  1. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near ...

  2. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-06-05

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P=0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P=0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, PCPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%. Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85% and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to

  4. Anaesthetists' knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation | Ogboli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is an integral part of an anaesthetist's knowledge and practice. In Nigeria, these skills are taught mainly during medical school and postgraduate training. Objectives: The study sought to assess the knowledge of anaesthetists about CPR. Methodology: A structured ...

  5. [CPR--guidelines 2000. New international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, H W

    2001-03-01

    The "Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. An International Consensus an Science" are the first true international CPR guidelines in the history of resuscitation medicine. Experts from major international resuscitation organizations (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, ILCOR) achieved a consensus of recommendations which had to pass a rigorous review procedure applying the tools of evidence-based medicine: all proposed guidelines or guideline changes had to be based on critically appraised pieces of evidence which had to be integrated into a final class of recommendations. The most important changes compared to previous recommendations from either the European Resuscitation Council or the American Heart Association are presented and commented upon.

  6. Model based optimization of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nataraj, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimization of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure, which plays a critical rule in saving the life of patients suffering from cardiac arrest. In this paper, we define the performance index for optimization using the oxygen delivery. A model developed earlier is used to calculate the oxygen delivery through CPR. The free parameters of this model which depend on the rescuer performance are ventilation time, compression speed, tidal volume, and fraction of oxygen in the inspired air. Two different optimization problems are carried out. First, a global optimization is implemented to discover the best values of the free parameters which maximize the oxygen delivery. In addition to this, a sequential optimization scheme is explored which uses a two step optimization in each CPR sequence to maximize the oxygen delivery. Results show that the sequential optimization procedure will enhance the performance of the CPR significantly.

  7. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  8. Are Canadians more willing to provide chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)?-a nation-wide public survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskes, Lindsay; Morrison, Laurie J; Beaton, Dorcas; Parsons, Janet; Dainty, Katie N

    2016-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet it is performed in only 30% of cases. The 2010 guidelines promote chest-compression-only bystander CPR-a change intended to increase willingness to provide CPR. 1) To determine whether the Canadian general public is more willing to perform chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR; 2) to characterize public knowledge of OHCA; and 3) to identify barriers and facilitators to bystander CPR. A 32-item survey assessing resuscitation knowledge, and willingness to provide CPR were disseminated in five Canadian regions. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize response distribution. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess shifts in intention to provide CPR. A total of 428 completed surveys were analysed. When presented with a scenario of being a bystander in an OHCA, a greater proportion of respondents were willing to provide chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR for all victims (61.5% v. 39.7%, pCPR, but this was mediated by victim characteristics, skill confidence, and recognition of a cardiac arrest.

  9. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Janet E.; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. Methods and Results We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystand...

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and attitude among general dentists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkandari, Sarah A; Alyahya, Lolwa; Abdulwahab, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Dentists as health care providers should maintain a competence in resuscitation. This cannot be overemphasized by the fact that the population in our country is living longer with an increasing proportion of medically compromised persons in the general population. This preliminary study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of general dentists towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 licensed general dental practitioners working in ministry of health. Data were obtained through electronic self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data of general dentists, and their experience, attitude and knowledge about CPR based on the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines update for CPR. Totally 208 general dentists took part in the present study giving a response rate of 83.2%. Only 36% of the participants demonstrated high knowledge on CPR, while 64% demonstrated low knowledge. Participants' age, gender, nationality, years of experience, career hierarchy, and formal CPR training were associated significantly with CPR knowledge. Almost all the participants (99%) felt that dentists needed to be competent in basic resuscitation skills and showed a positive attitude towards attending continuing dental educational programs on CPR. This study showed that majority of general dental practitioners in Kuwait had inadequate knowledge on CPR. It was also found that CPR training significantly influenced the CPR knowledge of the participants. Therefore, training courses on CPR should be regularly provided to general dentists in the country.

  11. Undergraduate nursing students' acquisition and retention of CPR knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Irish nursing students acquire and retain CPR cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills following CPR training. A quasi-experimental time series design was used. A pre-test, CPR training programme, post-test, and re-test were conducted. CPR knowledge was assessed by a multiple-choice assessment and psychomotor skills were assessed by observing CPR performance on a Resusci-Anne skill-meter manikin. The findings showed an acquisition in nurses' CPR knowledge and psychomotor performance following a 4h CPR training programme. Despite this, at no point in this study, did any nurse pass the CPR skills assessment. A deterioration in both CPR knowledge and skills was found 10 weeks following CPR training. However, students' knowledge and skills were improved over their pre-training scores, which clearly indicated a positive retention in CPR cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. The study findings present strong evidence to support the critical role of CPR training in ensuring that nursing students progress to competent and confident responders in the event of a cardiac related emergency.

  12. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  13. Knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), first described in 1960, is observed to be poorly applied in quality and quantum, hence, the need to ascertain its correct knowledge and practice among Nigerian doctors. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed randomly to doctors in a Nigerian University Teaching ...

  14. The Level of Awareness of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resuscitation is one of the most evolving areas of modern medicine. For the past forty years newer techniques are developed in order to improve the outcome of resuscitation. The study is aimed at finding the level of knowledge amongst radiographers practising in Nigeria because radiographers use materials that ...

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Neighborhoods with Low Bystander CPR Prevalence and High Rates of Cardiac Arrest in Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bond, Cindy; Rabe, Marilyn; Colbert, Susan H.; King, Renee; Sayre, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background Residents who live in neighborhoods that are primarily African-American, Latino, or poor are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and less likely to survive. No prior studies have been conducted to understand the contributing factors that may decrease the likelihood of residents learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR in three low-income, “high-risk” predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio. Methods and Results Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to develop and conduct six focus groups in conjunction with community partners in three target high-risk neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio in January-February 2011. Snowball and purposeful sampling, done by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Three reviewers analyzed the data in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes. Three major barriers to learning CPR were identified and included financial, informational, and motivational factors. Four major barriers were identified for performing CPR and included fear of legal consequences, emotional issues, knowledge, and situational concerns. Participants suggested that family/self-preservation, emotional, and economic factors may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion The financial cost of CPR training, lack of information, and the fear of risking one's own life must be addressed when designing a community-based CPR educational program. Using data from the community can facilitate improved design and implementation of CPR programs. PMID:24021699

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of CPR and AED training on healthcare professionals' self-perceived attitudes to performing resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källestedt Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals have shown concern about performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation due to the risks to themselves with the procedure. However, little is known about healthcare professionals' fears and attitudes to start CPR and the impact of training. Objective To examine whether there were any changes in the attitudes among healthcare professionals to performing CPR from before to after training. Methods Healthcare professionals from two Swedish hospitals were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after training. The questions were relating to physical and mental discomfort and attitudes to CPR. Statistical analysis used was generalized McNemar's test. Results Overall, there was significant improvement in 10 of 11 items, reflecting various aspects of attitudes to CPR. All groups of health care professionals (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses, and "others" = physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social welfare officers, psychologists, biomedical analysts felt more secure in CPR knowledge after education. In other aspects, such as anxiety prior to a possible cardiac arrest, only nurses and assistant nurses improved. The concern about being infected, when performing mouth to mouth ventilation, was reduced with the most marked reduction in physicians (75%; P Conclusion In this hospital-based setting, we found a positive outcome of education and training in CPR concerning healthcare professionals' attitudes to perform CPR. They felt more secure in their knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In some aspects of attitudes to resuscitation nurses and assistant nurses appeared to be the groups that were most markedly influenced. The concern of being infected by a disease was low.

  18. Knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of clinicians at a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess clinicians' knowledge about evaluating possible cardiac arrest patients and recognising cardiac arrest, to assess clinicians' knowledge about appropriate decisions and actions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and to determine which advanced life support ...

  19. Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a CPR feedback device and refresher simulations (CPR CARES Study): a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Brown, Linda L; Duff, Jonathan P; Davidson, Jennifer; Overly, Frank; Tofil, Nancy M; Peterson, Dawn T; White, Marjorie L; Bhanji, Farhan; Bank, Ilana; Gottesman, Ronald; Adler, Mark; Zhong, John; Grant, Vincent; Grant, David J; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Marohn, Kimberly; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Kessler, David O; Wong, Hubert; Robertson, Nicola; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duval-Arnould, Jordan M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2015-02-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) affects hemodynamics, survival, and neurological outcomes following pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Most health care professionals fail to perform CPR within established American Heart Association guidelines. To determine whether "just-in-time" (JIT) CPR training with visual feedback (VisF) before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA improves the quality of chest compressions (CCs) during simulated CPA. Prospective, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial-design trial with explicit methods (July 1, 2012, to April 15, 2014) at 10 International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research, & Education (INSPIRE) institutions running a standardized simulated CPA scenario, including 324 CPR-certified health care professionals assigned to 3-person resuscitation teams (108 teams). Each team was randomized to 1 of 4 permutations, including JIT training vs no JIT training before CPA and real-time VisF vs no real-time VisF during simulated CPA. The proportion of CCs with depth exceeding 50 mm, the proportion of CPR time with a CC rate of 100 to 120 per minute, and CC fraction (percentage CPR time) during simulated CPA. The quality of CPR was poor in the control group, with 12.7% (95% CI, 5.2%-20.1%) mean depth compliance and 27.1% (95% CI, 14.2%-40.1%) mean rate compliance. JIT training compared with no JIT training improved depth compliance by 19.9% (95% CI, 11.1%-28.7%; P 89.0%) in all groups. Combining both interventions showed the highest compliance with American Heart Association guidelines but was not significantly better than either intervention in isolation. The quality of CPR provided by health care professionals is poor. Using novel and practical technology, JIT training before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA, alone or in combination, improves compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for CPR that are associated with better outcomes. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02075450.

  20. Grade of a doctor does not influence acquisition of knowledge and skill during CPR training in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole, Olufemi B.; Ibironke Desalu; Olatosi, John O.; Babawale T Bello; Olanrewaju N Akanmu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basi...

  1. A hemodynamic-directed approach to pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HD-CPR) improves survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ryan W; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Shoap, Wesley; Bratinov, George; Lin, Yuxi; Hsieh, Ting-Chang; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Sutton, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Most pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) occur in ICUs where invasive hemodynamic monitoring is frequently available. Titrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to the hemodynamic response of the individual improves survival in preclinical models of adult cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to determine if titrating CPR to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CoPP) in a pediatric porcine model of asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation (VF) IHCA would improve survival as compared to traditional CPR. After 7min of asphyxia followed by VF, 4-week-old piglets received either hemodynamic-directed CPR (HD-CPR; compression depth titrated to SBP of 90mmHg and vasopressor administration to maintain CoPP ≥20mmHg); or Standard Care (compression depth 1/3 of the anterior-posterior chest diameter and epinephrine every 4min). All animals received CPR for 10min prior to the first defibrillation attempt. CPR was continued for a maximum of 20min. Protocolized intensive care was provided to all surviving animals for 4h. The primary outcome was 4-h survival. Survival rate was greater with HD-CPR (12/12) than Standard Care (6/10; p=0.03). CoPP during HD-CPR was higher compared to Standard Care (point estimate +8.1mmHg, CI95: 0.5-15.8mmHg; p=0.04). Chest compression depth was lower with HD-CPR than Standard Care (point estimate -14.0mm, CI95: -9.6 to -18.4mm; pCPR vs. Standard Care (median 5 vs. 2; pCPR improves short-term survival compared to standard depth-targeted CPR in a porcine model of pediatric asphyxia-associated VF IHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge and preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation : A survey among older patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Trudy J.; Leenman-Dekker, Sonja J.; Oldenhuis, Hilbrand K. E.; Bosveld, Henk E. P.; Berendsen, Annette J.

    Objective: Survival rates following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are low for older people, and are associated with a high risk of neurological damage. This study investigated the relationship between the preferences, knowledge of survival chances, and characteristics among older people

  3. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  4. Rescuer fatigue under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and its effect on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine H; Heggie, James; Jones, Christopher M; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Updated life-support guidelines were published by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2010, increasing the required depth and rate of chest compression delivery. This study sought to determine the impact of these guidelines on rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. 62 Health science students performed 5 min of conventional CPR in accordance with the 2010 ERC guidelines. A SkillReporter manikin was used to objectively assess temporal change in determinants of CPR quality. Participants subjectively reported their end-fatigue levels, using a visual analogue scale, and the point at which they believed fatigue was affecting CPR delivery. 49 (79%) participants reported that fatigue affected their CPR performance, at an average of 167 s. End fatigue averaged 49.5/100 (range 0-95). The proportion of chest compressions delivered correctly decreased from 52% in min 1 to 39% in min 5, approaching significance (p=0.071). A significant decline in chest compressions reaching the recommended depth occurred between the first (53%) and fifth (38%) min (p=0.012). Almost half this decline (6%) was between the first and second minutes of CPR. Neither chest compression rate, nor rescue breath volume, were affected by rescuer fatigue. Fatigue affects chest compression delivery within the second minute of CPR under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and is poorly judged by rescuers. Rescuers should, therefore, be encouraged to interchange after 2 min of CPR delivery. Team leaders should be advised to not rely on rescuers to self-report fatigue, and should, instead, monitor for its effects.

  5. Communication and protocol compliance and their relation to the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): A mixed-methods study of simulated telephone-assisted CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord-Ljungquist, Helena; Brännström, Margareta; Bohm, Katarina

    2015-07-01

    In the event of a cardiac arrest, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) play a critical role by providing telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (T-CPR) to laypersons. The aim of our investigation was to describe compliance with the T-CPR protocol, the performance of the laypersons in a simulated T-CPR situation, and the communication between laypersons and EMDs during these actions. We conducted a retrospective observational study by analysing 20 recorded video and audio files. In a simulation, EMDs provided laypersons with instructions following T-CPR protocols. These were then analysed using a mixed method with convergent parallel design. If the EMDs complied with the T-CPR protocol, the laypersons performed the correct procedures in 71% of the actions. The single most challenging instruction of the T-CPR protocol, for both EMDs and laypersons, was airway control. Mean values for compression depth and frequency did not reach established guideline goals for CPR. Proper application of T-CPR protocols by EMDs resulted in better performance by laypersons in CPR. The most problematic task for EMDs as well for laypersons was airway management. The study results did not establish that the quality of communication between EMDs and laypersons performing CPR in a cardiac arrest situation led to statistically different outcomes, as measured by the quality and effectiveness of the CPR delivered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--controversies in emergency medicine: lay-rescuer CPR with or without mouth-to-mouth ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcke, Benno

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of literature results reveals differences concerning the need for rescue breathing in lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR). Observational studies on large registries have shown improved survival rates with standard CPR (chest compressions and rescue breathing) compared to continuous chest compressions (CCC). This applies especially for cardiac arrests of non-cardiac origin or prolonged EMS-arrival times. In contrast a public program for lay-rescuers focusing on CCC lead to improved success rates of bystander-CPR, followed by improved survival rates. The 2010 ERC guidelines have resolved this controversy by integrating both aspects. CCC is recommended for everyone. Trained bystanders should use standard-CPR as method of choice. For dispatcher-assisted CPR the results are clear. Giving instructions for mouth-to-mouth ventilation is too complicated and time consuming, thus impairing survival rates. Therefore CCC is recommended for dispatcher-assisted CPR. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Gregory K; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H

    2016-11-29

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, reproduced by viewers with commonly available items (towel, toilet paper roll, t-shirt). Participants viewed the training video and practiced with the homemade mannequin. This was a parallel-design study with pre and post training evaluations of CPR skills (compression rate, depth, hand position, release), and hands-off time (time without compressions). CPR skills were evaluated using a sensor-equipped mannequin and two blinded CPR experts observed testing of participants. Twenty-four participants were included: 12 never-trained and 12 currently certified in CPR. Comparing pre and post training, the never-trained group had improvements in average compression rate per minute (64.3 to 103.9, p = 0.006), compressions with correct hand position in 1 min (8.3 to 54.3, p = 0.002), and correct compression release in 1 min (21.2 to 76.3, p CPR-certified group had adequate pre and post-test compression rates (>100/min), but an improved number of compressions with correct release (53.5 to 94.7, p 50 mm) remained problematic in both groups. Comparisons made between groups indicated significant improvements in compression depth, hand position, and hands-off time in never-trained compared to CPR-certified participants. Inter-rater agreement values were also calculated between the CPR experts and sensor-equipped mannequin. A brief internet-based video coupled with skill practice on a homemade mannequin improved compression-only CPR skills, especially in the previously untrained

  8. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) plus delayed defibrillation versus immediate defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; He, Qing; Yang, Li J; Liu, Guan J; Jones, Alexander

    2014-09-12

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a common health problem associated with high levels of mortality. Cardiac arrest is caused by three groups of dysrhythmias: ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), pulseless electric activity (PEA) and asystole. The most common dysrhythmia found in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is VF. During VF or VT, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provides perfusion and oxygenation to the tissues, whilst defibrillation restores a viable cardiac rhythm. Early successful defibrillation is known to improve outcomes in VF/VT. However, it has been hypothesized that a period of CPR before defibrillation creates a more conducive physiological environment, increasing the likelihood of successful defibrillation. The order of priority of CPR versus defibrillation therefore remains in contention. As previous studies have remained inconclusive, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence in an attempt to draw conclusions on whether CPR plus delayed defibrillation or immediate defibrillation resulted in better outcomes in OHCA. To examine whether an initial one and one-half to three minutes of CPR administered by paramedics before defibrillation versus immediate defibrillation on arrival influenced survival rates, neurological outcomes or rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in OHCA. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 6); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to May 2013); EMBASE (1980 to May 2013); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1980 to May 2013) and the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), 1980 to May 2013). We included studies published in all languages. We also searched the Current Controlled Trials and Clinical Trials databases for ongoing trials. We screened the references lists of studies included in our review against the reference

  9. Manual and automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): a comparison of associated injury patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Love, Jennifer C

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare patterns of trauma associated with AutoPulse(®) CPR and manual CPR. Finalized autopsy records from 175 decedents brought to the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences were reviewed, 87 received manual-only CPR, and 88 received AutoPulse(®) CPR (in combination with manual CPR as per standard protocol). The characteristic pattern observed in manual-only CPR use included a high frequency of anterior rib fractures, sternal fractures, and midline chest abrasions along the sternum. The characteristic pattern observed in AutoPulse(®) CPR use included a high frequency of posterior rib fractures, skin abrasions located along the anterolateral chest and shoulder, vertebral fractures, and a few cases of visceral injuries including liver lacerations, splenic lacerations, and hemoperitoneum. Knowledge of the AutoPulse(®) CPR injury pattern can help forensic pathologists differentiate therapeutic from inflicted injuries and therefore avoid an erroneous assessment of cause and manner of death. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-12-01

    Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills are essential for better patient survival, but whether these skills are associated with knowledge of and self-efficacy in CPR is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of CPR skills and identify the association of the psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy at the time of CPR skills training. A convenience sample of 124 nursing students participated in a one-group posttest-only study. The quality of CPR psychomotor skills, as assessed by structured observation using a manikin, was suboptimal. Nursing students who performed correct chest compression skills reported higher self-efficacy, but there was no association between CPR psychomotor skills and total knowledge. Rigorous skills training sessions with more objective feedback on performance and individual coaching are warranted to enable mastery learning and self-efficacy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-07-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills checklist of CPR were applied. Results : Eighty three third year students of nursing participated in the study. While the average CPR knowledge score of these students was 9.3 ± 2.9 out of 23 before the lecture, this average increased to 17.0 ± 1.8 one month after the CPR lecture and decreased by two points back to 14.9 ± 3.8 after six months. Skill score of the students one month after the CPR skills training was 18.4 out of 21, and that this average decreased to 13.8 after six months (p<0.05). Nursing students tend to forget theoretical and applied CPR training after couple of months. Hence there is a need for continuous CPR training and education and repeating the skills at regular intervals even after they have graduated to ensure sustainability in the CPR skills.

  12. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    OpenAIRE

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in morta...

  13. Knowledge and Practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the knowledge and practice of the 2000 CPR guidelines of doctors and nurses in Benin City, Nigeria was evaluated. This cross sectional study was conducted in six health facilities in Benin City. A structured self administered questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and practice of CPR of 145 doctors and ...

  14. Education and age affect skill acquisition and retention in lay rescuers after a European Resuscitation Council CPR/AED course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexopoulou, Konstantina; Chalkias, Athanasios; Dontas, Ioannis; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Giannakakos, Charalampos; Papapanagiotou, Panagiotis; Aggelina, Afroditi; Moumouris, Theodoros; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether education and age affect skill acquisition and retention in lay rescuers after a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) CPR/AED course. Because of the importance of bystander CPR/AED skills in the setting of cardiac arrest, acquisition and retention of resuscitation skills has gained a great amount of interest. The ERC CPR/AED course format for written and practical evaluation was used. Eighty lay people were trained and evaluated at the end of the course, as well as at one, three, and six months. Retention of CPR/AED skills improved over time, recording the lowest practical scores at one month after initial training and the lowest written scores at initial training. In practical evaluation scores, when examined longitudinally, age presented a significant adverse effect and higher background education presented a non-significant positive effect. Moreover, regarding written evaluation scores, when examined longitudinally, education presented a significant positive effect while age did not significantly correlate with written scores. Education and age affected retention of CPR/AED skills in lay rescuers. Also, our results suggest that the ERC CPR/AED course format may be poorly designed to discriminate between participants with different levels of practical and written resuscitation skills and merit a thorough investigation in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practice otv CPR. problems encountered and doctors" perception ol' each other's knowledge of resuscitation. The returned terms were analysed. ... tirst. respiration or heartbeat. (respiration). Normal heart rate (6090/ min). Normal respiratory rate (1220/ min). lHow do you recognise a patient needing CPR? 2'; to methods of ...

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations.Objective: The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses’ CPR knowledge and skills.Method: A pre-test, intervention and re-test time-series research design was adopted, and data were collected from 102 nurses from the 2 referral hospitals in Botswana. A multiple choice questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data.Results: All nurses failed the pre-test. Their knowledge and skills improved after training, but deteriorated over the three months until the post-test was conducted.Conclusion: The significantly low levels of registered nurses’ CPR skills in Botswana should be addressed by instituting country-wide CPR training and regular refresher courses.

  17. ROSC rates and live discharge rates after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by different CPR teams - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Park, Young Mi; Do, Sang-Hwan; Hwang, Jung-Won; Song, In-Ae

    2017-12-04

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is closely associated with patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare patient CPR outcomes across resident, emergency medicine, and rapid response teams. The records of patients who underwent CPR at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Return of spontaneous circulation, 10- and 30-day survival, and live discharge after return of spontaneous circulation were compared across patients treated by the three CPR teams. Of the 1145 CPR cases, 444 (39%) were conducted by the resident team, 431 (38%) by the rapid response team, and 270 (23%) by the emergency medicine team. The adjusted odds ratios for the return of spontaneous circulation and subsequent 10-day survival among patients who received CPR from the resident team compared to the rapid response team were 0.59 (P = 0.001) and 0.71 (P = 0.037), respectively. There were no significant differences in the 30-day survival and rate of live discharge between patients who received CPR from the rapid response and resident teams; likewise, no significant differences were observed between patients who received CPR from the emergency medicine and rapid response teams. Patients receiving CPR from the rapid response team may have higher 10-day survival and return of spontaneous circulation rates than those who receive CPR from the resident team. However, our results are limited by the differences in approach, time of CPR, and room settings between teams.

  18. Assessment of Iranian Nurses and Emergency Medical Personnel in Terms of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge Based on the 2010 Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Jalali, Amir; Naderipour, Arsalan; Almasi, Afshin; Khavasi, Mohammad; Rezaei, Masoud; Abbasi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge of hospital nurses and emergency medical personnel in Kermanshah, Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 330 hospital nurses and 159 emergency medical personnel working in educational hospitals and emergency medical centers in Kermanshah. Data were collected using a validated and reliable (r = 0.74) researcher-made questionnaire consisting of a demographic characteristics questionnaire and the 2010 CPR knowledge questionnaire. Based on the most recent CPR guidelines, the knowledge of 19.5%, 78.6%, and 1.9% of the emergency medical staff was excellent, good, and moderate, respectively. None of the participants had poor knowledge. In addition, the knowledge of 20.2%, 65.4%, 14%, and 0.4% of the nurses in this study was excellent, good, moderate, and poor, respectively. There was no significant difference in CPR knowledge between hospital nurses and emergency medical staff. Moreover, no significant association was found between CPR knowledge and gender, age, work experience, field of study, previous occupation, and advanced resuscitation courses. However, CPR knowledge of individuals with training in basic CPR courses was higher than participants without training in these courses (P nurses and emergency medical personnel was in an acceptable range. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended that nurses and emergency staff receive training according to the most recent CPR guidelines.

  19. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation using a load-distributing band external cardiac support device for in-hospital cardiac arrest: a single centre experience of AutoPulse-CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, J R; White, S; Quinn, N; Gubran, C J; Ludman, P F; Townend, J N; Doshi, S N

    2015-02-01

    Poor quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) predicts adverse outcome. During invasive cardiac procedures automated-CPR (A-CPR) may help maintain effective resuscitation. The use of A-CPR following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remains poorly described. Firstly, we aimed to assess the efficiency of healthcare staff using A-CPR in a cardiac arrest scenario at baseline, following re-training and over time (Scenario-based training). Secondly, we studied our clinical experience of A-CPR at our institution over a 2-year period, with particular emphasis on the details of invasive cardiac procedures performed, problems encountered, resuscitation rates and in-hospital outcome (AutoPulse-CPR Registry). Scenario-based training: Forty healthcare professionals were assessed. At baseline, time-to-position device was slow (mean 59 (±24) s (range 15-96s)), with the majority (57%) unable to mode-switch. Following re-training time-to-position reduced (28 (±9) s, p<0.01 vs baseline) with 95% able to mode-switch. This improvement was maintained over time. AutoPulse-CPR Registry: 285 patients suffered IHCA, 25 received A-CPR. Survival to hospital discharge following conventional CPR was 28/260 (11%) and 7/25 (28%) following A-CPR. A-CPR supported invasive procedures in 9 patients, 2 of whom had A-CPR dependant circulation during transfer to the catheter lab. A-CPR may provide excellent haemodynamic support and facilitate simultaneous invasive cardiac procedures. A significant learning curve exists when integrating A-CPR into clinical practice. Further studies are required to better define the role and effectiveness of A-CPR following IHCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in mortality both at the hospital and pre-hospital levels. Key words: children, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, development stages, training of pediatricians. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:25-27

  1. CPR PRO® device reduces rescuer fatigue during continuous chest compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized crossover trial using a manikin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovic, Ivor; Lulic, Dinka; Lulic, Ileana

    2013-10-01

    The performance of high-quality chest compressions with minimal interruptions is one of the most important elements of the "Chain of Survival." To evaluate the impact of a novel CPR PRO(®) (CPRO) device for manual chest compression on rescuer fatigue, pain, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality. Randomized crossover trial of 24 health care professionals performing continuous chest compression CPR for 10 min with a CPRO device and conventional manual CPR (MCPR). Data about chest compressions were recorded using a manikin. Rescuers' physiologic signs were recorded before and after each session, and heart rate (HR) data were tracked continuously. Fatigue was assessed with ratings of perceived exertion, and pain questionnaire. All subjects completed 10 min of CPR with both methods. Significantly more rest breaks were taken during MCPR sessions (1.7 ± 2 vs. 0.21 ± 0.72). Subjects' perceived exertion was higher after MCPR, as well as the average (120.7 ± 16.8 vs. 110.8 ± 17.6) and maximal HR (134.3 ± 18.5 vs. 123.42 ± 16.5) during testing. Subjects reported more pain in the hands, especially the wrist, after performing MCPR. Average depth of compressions was higher with the CPRO device (4.6 ± 7.0 vs. 4.3 ± 7.9) and declined more slowly over time. Other CPR quality parameters, such as the correct position and complete release of pressure, were also better for CPRO CPR. CPRO device reduces rescuer fatigue and pain during continuous chest compression CPR, which results in a higher quality of CPR in a simulation setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aortic intimal separation resulting from manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation-completing the spectrum of blunt thoracic aortic injury complicating CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew S; Castonguay, Mathieu; Murray, Shawn K

    2016-11-01

    Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is rarely reported and most reports are of aortic rupture. Clinical reports have also documented aortic dissection and intramural hematomas with sequential imaging showing the development of these aortic injuries after the administration of CPR, suggesting that non-transmural aortic injury may also result from CPR. We report partial separation of an aortic intimal atheromatous plaque as a component injury in a case with multiple complications of manual CPR. A 74-year-old male presented to the emergency room (ER) with a 2-day history of chest pain. While in the ER, he suffered witnessed cardiac arrest and resuscitative attempts were pursued for 60 min prior to declaring death. At autopsy, there were numerous injuries attributable to CPR, including bilateral rib fractures, sternal fracture, retrosternal and mediastinal hemorrhage, epicardial ecchymoses, and ruptured pericardium. There was a perforated inferior wall myocardial infarct with a large left hemothorax. There was partial separation/laceration of an intimal atheromatous plaque on the anterior wall of the ascending aorta proximal to the origin of the brachiocephalic artery, forming a triangular flap, without associated intramedial dissection or hematoma. There was no thrombus formation, effectively excluding existence of the laceration prior to circulatory arrest. This aortic injury provides pathologic confirmation of non-transmural BTAI definitively sustained during manual CPR. Pathologists and clinicians alike should be cognizant of the possibility of BTAI resulting from CPR, which may manifest the full range of severity from intimal tear through aortic rupture.

  3. Manual Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Versus CPR Including a Mechanical Chest Compression Device in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis From Randomized and Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnes, J.L.; Brouwer, M.A.; Navarese, E.P.; Verhaert, D.V.; Verheugt, F.W.; Smeets, J.L.; Boer, M.J. de

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mechanical chest compression devices have been developed to facilitate continuous delivery of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Despite promising hemodynamic data, evidence on clinical outcomes remains inconclusive. With the completion of 3 randomized controlled

  4. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghaghi A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  5. Conditions and procedures for in-hospital extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swol, Justyna; Belohlávek, Jan; Haft, Jonathan W; Ichiba, Shingo; Lorusso, Roberto; Peek, Giles J

    2016-04-01

    The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; ECPR) has been repeatedly published as non-randomized studies, mainly case series and case reports. The aim of this article is to support physicians, perfusionists, nurses and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) specialists who regularly perform ECPR or are willing to start an ECPR program by establishing standards for safe and efficient ECPR procedures. This article represents the experience and recommendations of physicians who provide ECPR routinely. Based on its survival and outcome rates, ECPR can be considered when determining the optimal treatment of patients who require CPR. The successful performance of ECLS cannulation during CPR is a life-saving measure and has been associated with improved outcome (including neurological outcome) after CPR. We summarize the general structure of an ECLS team and describe the cannulation procedure and the approaches for post-resuscitation care. The differences in hospital organizations and their regulations may result in variations of this model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. CPR Drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark

    1980-01-01

    Problems encountered by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instructors are discussed and some possible solutions to these problems are suggested. Management techniques for effective use of class size, time, and instructional materials are described. (JN)

  7. CPR: Key to Cardiac Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyner, Gerald C.; Box, Colin E.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendations are made for improving certification standards for programs providing training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Training techniques, cost effectiveness, and teachers for CPR programs are discussed. (JD)

  8. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (E-CPR) During Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest Is Associated With Improved Survival to Discharge: A Report from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Javier J; Rogers, Rachel S; Localio, Russell; Shults, Justine; Raymond, Tia; Gaies, Michael; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Laussen, Peter C; Kilbaugh, Todd; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Topjian, Alexis

    2016-01-12

    Although extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) can result in survival after failed conventional CPR (C-CPR), no large, systematic comparison of pediatric E-CPR and continued C-CPR has been reported. Consecutive patients CPR events ≥10 minutes in duration reported to the Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation registry between January 2000 and December 2011 were identified. Hospitals were grouped by teaching status and location. Primary outcome was survival to discharge. Regression modeling was performed, conditioning on hospital groups. A secondary analysis was performed with the use of propensity score matching. Of 3756 evaluable patients, 591 (16%) received E-CPR and 3165 (84%) received C-CPR only. Survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 1-3 or unchanged from admission) were greater for E-CPR (40% [237 of 591] and 27% [133 of 496]) versus C-CPR patients (27% [862 of 3165] and 18% [512 of 2840]). Odds ratios (ORs) for survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome were greater for E-CPR versus C-CPR. After adjustment for covariates, patients receiving E-CPR had higher odds of survival to discharge (OR, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-3.69; PCPR. This association persisted when analyzed by propensity score-matched cohorts (OR, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.18; PCPR of ≥10 minutes duration, E-CPR was associated with improved survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome compared with C-CPR. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Review of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR). Analysis of iatrogenic complications and their biomechanical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, W; Baubin, M; Haid, C; Pfeiffer, K P; Scheithauer, R

    1997-10-06

    Our review takes a critical look at the active compression-decompression technique (ACD) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). ACD-CPR was developed following a report of successful resuscitation performed by a medical amateur using a household plunger. The efficacy of the principle of active decompression has been demonstrated by animal and human studies. Potential iatrogenic complications from the CardioPump were evaluated only when large clinical trials were already underway. Our prospective analysis of autopsy patients and systematic randomised studies in corpses prove that ACD-CPR using the CardioPump considerably increases the rate of iatrogenic complications and especially of sternum fractures. The experimental use of the CardioPump in corpses and the analysis of a variety of different parameters, especially of the rubber cushion pads mounted in the silicone cup to prevent skin abrasions, revealed a statistically significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex (P Sex differences in the shape of the sternum and especially the thickness may account for the significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex.

  10. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Joshua N.; Glick, Joshua E.; Terndrup, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (μ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001). Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (μ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01). No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:25035744

  11. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Burkhardt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results: Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (µ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001. Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (µ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01. No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion: Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest.

  12. Rescuer-limited cardiopulmonary resuscitation as an alternative to 2-min switched CPR in the setting of inhospital cardiac arrest: a randomised cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Choong Hyun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Park, Yoo Seok; Lee, Chang Hee

    2015-07-01

    The 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) recommend that chest compression be rotated every 2 min to prevent rescuer fatigue. However, the quality of chest compression using 2-min switched CPR tends to decrease rapidly due to rescuer fatigue. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of use of 2-min switched CPR and rescuer-limited CPR (the person performing compressions is allowed to switch with another rescuer prior to 2 min if feeling fatigued) in the setting of inhospital cardiac arrest. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, 90 medical students were grouped into pairs to perform four cycles of 2-min switched CPR and rescuer-limited CPR (495 s per technique). During each trial, the total number of compressions performed, mean depth of compression and proportion of effective compressions performed (compression depth >5 mm) were recorded for identification of significant differences and changes in pulse rate and RR were measured to determine the extent of exhaustion. Compared with 2-min switched CPR, the mean compression was deeper (51 vs 47 mm, pCPR. Subgroup analysis by 30-s unit showed more consistent compression quality during rescuer-limited CPR. No significant differences in change in pulse rate and RR were found between the two techniques. Rescuer-limited CPR yields a greater number of effective compressions and more consistent quality of CPR than 2-min switched CPR. Rescuer-limited CPR might be a suitable alternative for treating inhospital cardiac arrest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Introducing systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR) in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS): implementation process and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, Fabrice; Fuchs, Vincent; Praz, Laurent; Vader, John-Paul

    2010-07-01

    In order to improve the quality of our Emergency Medical Services (EMS), to raise bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates and thereby meet what is becoming a universal standard in terms of quality of emergency services, we decided to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted or telephone-CPR (T-CPR) in our medical dispatch center, a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System. The aim of this article is to describe the implementation process, costs and results following the introduction of this new "quality" procedure. This was a prospective study. Over an 8-week period, our EMS dispatchers were given new procedures to provide T-CPR. We then collected data on all non-traumatic cardiac arrests within our state (Vaud, Switzerland) for the following 12 months. For each event, the dispatchers had to record in writing the reason they either ruled out cardiac arrest (CA) or did not propose T-CPR in the event they did suspect CA. All emergency call recordings were reviewed by the medical director of the EMS. The analysis of the recordings and the dispatchers' written explanations were then compared. During the 12-month study period, a total of 497 patients (both adults and children) were identified as having a non-traumatic cardiac arrest. Out of this total, 203 cases were excluded and 294 cases were eligible for T-CPR. Out of these eligible cases, dispatchers proposed T-CPR on 202 occasions (or 69% of eligible cases). They also erroneously proposed T-CPR on 17 occasions when a CA was wrongly identified (false positive). This represents 7.8% of all T-CPR. No costs were incurred to implement our study protocol and procedures. This study demonstrates it is possible, using a brief campaign of sensitization but without any specific training, to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System such as our EMS that had no prior experience with systematic T-CPR. The results in terms of T-CPR delivery

  14. Awareness and knowledge of pediatric cardio- pulmonary resuscitation in the community of Al-Khobar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim K. Al-Turkistani

    2014-01-01

    of the unavailability of such courses, 41.4% said because of time constraints, and 10% gave financial reasons. Finally, the study showed that 365 females (84.3% and 247 males (91.2% did not know when to perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and/or chest compression, and would do it for the wrong reasons. Conclusion: Public awareness and knowledge on CPR was inadequate even among the younger population, and among parents with disabled children. The general public were willing to improve their knowledge and skills of CPR. We recommend that CPR courses/campaigns should be provided to the public and be included in high school curricula.

  15. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with pulmonary embolism in surgical patients - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swol, J; Buchwald, D; Strauch, J; Schildhauer, T A

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) devices maintain the circulation and oxygenation of organs during acute right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock, bypassing the lungs. A pulmonary embolism can cause this life-threatening condition. ECLS is a considerably less invasive treatment than surgical embolectomy. Whether to bridge embolectomy or for a therapeutic purpose, ECLS is used almost exclusively following failure of all other therapeutic options. From January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014, five patients in cardiac arrest and with diagnosed pulmonary embolism (PE) were cannulated with the ECLS system. PE was diagnosed using computer tomography scanning or echocardiography. Cardiac arrest was witnessed in the hospital in all cases and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) was initiated immediately. Cannulation of the femoral vein and femoral artery was always performed under CPR conditions. Right heart failure regressed during the ECLS therapy, usually under a blood flow of 4-5 L/min after 48 hours. Three patients were weaned from ECLS and one patient became an organ donor. Finally, two of the five PE patients treated with ECLS were discharged from inpatient treatment without neurological dysfunction. The duration of ECLS therapy depends on the patient's condition. Irreversible damage to the organs after hypoxemia limits ECLS treatment and leads to futile multiorgan failure. Hemorrhages after thrombolysis and cerebral dysfunction were further complications. Veno-arterial cannulation for ECLS can be feasibly achieved and should be established during active CPR for cardiac arrest. In the case of PE, the immediate diagnosis and rapid implantation of the system are decisive for therapeutic success. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: impact on the theoretical knowledge of nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    Morlin Bertoglio, Vanderléia; Azzolin,Karina; Nogueira De Souza, Emiliane; Rejane Rabelo, Eneida

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the knowledge of nurses on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as a function of the time elapsed since training was concluded. The study was performed in a general hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, during July and August, 2005. Nurses were assigned to groups 1 (33 nurses, in units equipped with a heart monitor and a cardiac defibrillator) and 2 (23 nurses, in units without this equipment). Nurses in group 1 showed better knowledge on t...

  17. Grade of a doctor does not influence acquisition of knowledge and skill during CPR training in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi B Bankole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basic Life Support, Advanced Life Support, and performance at five skill stations. A pass mark was awarded for a post-test score ≥ 75% and a pass in all skill stations. Results: A total of 130 doctors were studied with a mean of 10.99 ± 6.51 years since medical qualification (range, 2-28 years. The mean pre-test score was 54.43 ± 16.10% (range 30.5-91.8% while the mean post-test score was 88.48 ± 6.8% (range, 54.6-94%, (P < 0.001. Mean post-test scores were not significantly different between grades. Mean scores for questions on Basic Life Support, defibrillator use, and drug therapy and in performance at skill stations were not significantly different between grades. A significant difference however existed in questions on cardiac arrest rhythms (P = 0.031. Sixty-five participants (50% passed the post-test at first attempt. Consultants, senior registrars, and registrars had pass rates of 59.2%, 53.6%, and 43.5% respectively (P = 0.336. After re-training at performance stations, 124 doctors (95.4% passed the test with no significant difference in overall pass in the various grades (P = 0.605. Conclusion : Grade of doctor did not affect the acquisition of knowledge and skill during resuscitation training.

  18. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  19. Standard versus Abdominal Lifting and Compression CPR

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sisen; Liu, Qing; Han, Shupeng; Zhang, Ziran; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing; Wang, Lixiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and...

  20. The study of knowledge and attitude of new coming residents in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1377-78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haj Zeinali AM

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is one of the most important skills that every body must know it in medical services. In educational hospitals, the (Newly-arrived residents are in first cell for management of victims, specially in emergency rooms and at nights. Their knowledge and ability for successful CPR have a direct relation with prevalence of total mortality and morbidity. This research has assessed the knowledge and attitude of the new residents about CPR, and for answering to this question: "Is the CPR workshops necessary for all of the new residents in the beginning of their courses". All of the 506 new residents were examined simultaneously in 2 separate years with a questionnaire consist of 50 questions about their CPR secence and skills and 8 questions about their attitude in CPR. These informations were analyzed by SPSS and EPI6 softwares. The mean correct answers were 55%±11.8. The best results were about arrythmias (68.6% and airway management (63.6% and the worst were about IV access (43.1% and pediatric CPR (31.5%. These findings were similar in 2 sequential years. Their knowledge had significant relation with sex (P=0.002, their original university (P=0.031, their residency course (P=0.024 and their residency reception scores (P<0.001. Males and knowledge more than females. The max scores were from Kerman (62% and Beheshti universities (60.5% and the min score were from Hamadan (48% and Kashan universities (37%. The orthopedic (62.5% and urologic residents (61.6% had the most knowledge and the gynecology residents (53.8% had the least. The knowledge had no relation with the time of graduation. About their attitude in CPR: Their knowledge was moderate (65.8%, their abilities was moderate (58% and their education about CPR in MD course had been low (51.5%. Their references for education had been individual studies (74.6%, CPR workshop had not been condected in the most universities (92.7%. knowledge about CPR is low (55

  1. Neonatal resuscitationknowledge and practice of nurses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-04

    Nov 4, 2008 ... special care baby unit within the last 5 years while only 14.0% had attended neonatal resuscitation training course within the last 5 years. Similarly ... Frequent and intensive courses on neonatal resuscitation are highly desired. SAJCH MARCH .... knowledge, experience and comfort level. Appl Nurs Res ...

  2. Neonatal Resuscitation: Knowledge And Practice Of Nurses In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Appropriate resuscitation techniques are crucial to the survival of newborn infants. Objective. To assess knowledge of nurses in western Nigeria about neonatal resuscitation. Method. A cross-sectional survey of the nurses attached to secondary health facilities in western Nigeria was done using a ...

  3. resuscitation among Nigerian doctors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), first described in 1960, is observed to be poorly applied in quality and quantum, hence, the need to ascertain its correct knowledge and practice among Nigerian doctors. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed randomly to doctors in a Nigerian University.

  4. Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance--an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creutzfeldt, Johan; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2012-01-01

    .... This study aims to explore medical students' retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team training...

  5. The continuous quality improvement project for telephone-assisted instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Junro; Wato, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, the Ishikawa Medical Control Council initiated the continuous quality improvement (CQI) project for telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR), which included instruction on chest-compression-only CPR, education on how to recognise out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with agonal breathing, emesis and convulsion, recommendations for on-line or redialling instructions and feedback from emergency physicians. This study aimed to investigate the effect of this project on the incidence of bystander CPR and the outcomes of OHCAs. The baseline data were prospectively collected on 4995 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs, which were recognised or witnessed by citizens rather than emergency medical technicians during the period of February 2004 to March 2010. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR, as well as the outcomes of the OHCAs, was compared before and after the project. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR significantly increased after the project (from 42% to 62% and from 41% to 56%, respectively). The incidence of failed telephone-CPR due to human factors significantly decreased from 30% to 16%. The outcomes of OHCAs significantly improved after the projects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the CQI project is one of the independent factors associated with one-year (1-Y) survival with favourable neurological outcomes (odds ratio=1.81, 95% confidence interval=1.20-2.76). The CQI project for telephone-CPR increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcome of OHCAs. A CQI project appeared to be essential to augment the effects of telephone-CPR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Level Of Knowlege Guidelines Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation For Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Lukešová, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to determine the level of theoretical knowledge of the procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of selected non-medical staff members in VFN in Prague. The work is subdivided into a theoretical and a practical part. In the first part I comment on the history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the basic and widespread vital support to adults and children and the didactics of CPR. In the second- practical part I compare the theoretical knowledge of CPR of selected n...

  7. Compression-only CPR training in elementary schools and student attitude toward CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Murakami, Yukiko; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Nakai, Shohei; Hamanishi, Masayoshi; Marukawa, Seishiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Iwami, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of systematic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for elementary school children. We introduced systematic training of chest compression-only CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use to elementary school students aged 10-12 years at 17 schools. The questionnaire compared student attitudes towards CPR and their knowledge about it before and after CPR training. We also evaluated parent and teacher views about CPR training in school education. The primary outcome was positive attitude, defined as "yes" and "maybe yes" on a 5 point Likert-type scale of student attitudes towards CPR.1 RESULTS: A total of 2047 elementary school students received CPR training. Of them, 1899 (92.8%) responded to the questionnaire regarding their attitude towards CPR before and after the training. Before training, 50.2% answered "yes" and 30.3% answered "maybe yes", to the question: "If someone suddenly collapses in front of you, can you do something such as check response or call emergency?" After training, their answers changed to 75.6% and 18.3% for "yes" and "maybe yes", respectively. Many of the students (72.3%, 271/370) who did not have a positive attitude before CPR training had a positive attitude after the training (P students understood how to perform CPR (97.7%) and use an AED (98.5%). Parents (96.2%, 1173/1220) and teachers (98.3%, 56/57) answered that it was "good" and "maybe good" for children to receive the training at elementary schools. Systematic chest compression-only CPR training helped elementary school students to improve their attitude towards CPR. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Emergency Medical Technicians Are Often Consulted on Termination of Resuscitation, and Will Terminate Resuscitation Based on Controversial Single Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind-Klausen, Troels; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Bødtker, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts have to be terminated. Previous studies have investigated knowledge on abandoning resuscitation among physicians. In the prehospital setting emergency medical technicians (EMTs) may be involved in the decision...... on abandoning CPR but this is sparsely investigated. Aim: To investigate if EMTs are involved in termination of CPR, their self-assessed competence and knowledge of guidelines on termination of CPR according to European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2015. In addition, to evaluate single factors...... that according to an EMT should lead to termination of CPR. Methods: This was a pilot-study including EMTs from a Danish Emergency Medical Service. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. All responses were collected anonymously. Results: In total, 50 EMTs (male: 88%, median age: 38, response rate...

  9. Early detection of brain death using the Bispectral Index (BIS) in patients treated by extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for refractory cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Romain; Lamhaut, Lionel; Guyard, Alexandra; Philippe, Pascal; An, Kim; Spaulding, Christian; Baud, Frédéric; Carli, Pierre; Vivien, Benoît

    2017-11-01

    Despite increasing use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for treatment of refractory cardiac arrest patients, prognosis remains dismal, often resulting in brain-death. However, clinical assessment of brain-death occurence is difficult in post-cardiac arrest patients, sedated, paralyzed, under mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH). Our objective was to assess the usefulness of Bispectral-Index (BIS) monitoring at bedside for an early detection of brain-death occurrence in refractory cardiac arrest patients treated by E-CPR. This prospective study was performed in an intensive care unit of an university hospital. Forty-six patients suffering from refractory cardiac arrest treated by E-CPR were included. BIS was continuously recorded during ICU hospitalization. Clinical brain-death was confirmed when appropriate by EEG and/or cerebral CT angiography. Twenty-nine patients evolved into brain-death and had average BIS values under MTH and after rewarming (temperature ≥35°C) of 4 (0-47) and 0 (0-82), respectively. Among these, 11 (38%) entered into a procedure of organs donation. Among the 17 non-brain-dead patients, the average BIS values at admission and after rewarming were 39 (0-65) and 59 (22-82), respectively. Two patients had on admission a BIS value equal to zero and evolved to a poor prognostic (CPC 4) and died after care limitations. BIS values were significantly different between patients who developed brain death and those who did not. In both groups, no differences were observed between the AUCs of ROC curves for BIS values under MTH and after rewarming (respectively 0.86 vs 0.83, NS). Initial values of BIS could be used as an assessment tool for early detection of brain-death in refractory cardiac arrest patients treated by mild therapeutic hypothermia and E-CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-confidence and level of knowledge after cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in 14 to 18-year-old schoolchildren: A randomised-interventional controlled prospective study in secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Sabine; Schroeder, Daniel C; Ecker, Hannes; Steinhauser, Susanne; Altin, Sibel; Stock, Stephanie; Lechleuthner, Alex; Hohn, Andreas; Böttiger, Bernd W

    2018-01-02

    Education of schoolchildren in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a strategic goal for improvement of bystander CPR in society. The primary objective was to analyse the impact of CPR training on the resuscitation knowledge and self-confidence of secondary schoolchildren. In addition, independent predictors of improved CPR knowledge and self-confidence were investigated. Prospective, randomised-interventional controlled study. Four secondary schools in Germany. Four hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren aged from 14 to 18 years were included into the study. Fifty-one percent were female, and 33% had an immigrant background. The intervention group received a 90-min CPR training session, whereas controls had no intervention. Levels of knowledge and self-confidence in initiating CPR were analysed by a study questionnaire before (t0), 90 min after (t1) and 6 months after training (t2). Based on the evaluation of study questionnaires, the primary endpoint was to determine the development of resuscitation knowledge and self-confidence in initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation at survey time-points t0, t1 and t2. Schoolchildren in the intervention group (n=207) showed a significantly higher level of knowledge (P The long-term benefit in the level of knowledge and self-confidence were significantly higher in native compared with immigrant schoolchildren: (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.82; P = 0.011) and (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.60; P = 0.024), respectively. Guideline compliant (90 min) theoretical and practical CPR training improves the level of knowledge and self-confidence in 14 to 18-year-old schoolchildren. Older schoolchildren are more likely to have increased self-confidence with respect to initiating CPR. Schoolchildren with an immigrant background showed a significantly lower increase in their level of knowledge and self-confidence compared with native children. Adaptation and simplification of teaching materials and further research on

  11. Alyce Annie: A New CPR Home Practice Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Alyce; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Alyce Annie, a lightweight, portable manikin, was designed to economize classroom time and to provide a method for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) independently. A study with high school students determined that the students trained in this method could attain the necessary psychomotor skills and knowledge level required for CPR…

  12. Manual Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Versus CPR Including a Mechanical Chest Compression Device in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis From Randomized and Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnes, Judith L; Brouwer, Marc A; Navarese, Eliano P; Verhaert, Dominique V M; Verheugt, Freek W A; Smeets, Joep L R M; de Boer, Menko-Jan

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical chest compression devices have been developed to facilitate continuous delivery of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Despite promising hemodynamic data, evidence on clinical outcomes remains inconclusive. With the completion of 3 randomized controlled trials, we conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of in-field mechanical versus manual CPR on clinical outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. With a systematic search (PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Libraries), we identified all eligible studies (randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies) that compared a CPR strategy including an automated mechanical chest compression device with a strategy of manual CPR only. Outcome variables were survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge, and favorable neurologic outcome. Twenty studies (n=21,363) were analyzed: 5 randomized controlled trials and 15 nonrandomized studies, pooled separately. For survival to admission, the pooled estimate of the randomized controlled trials did not indicate a difference (odds ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.05; P=.24) between mechanical and manual CPR. In contrast, meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies demonstrated a benefit in favor of mechanical CPR (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.67; PCPR guidelines (2000 versus 2005) and the CPR strategy (P=.27). Survival to discharge and neurologic outcome did not differ between strategies. Although there are lower-quality, observational data that suggest that mechanical CPR used at the rescuer's discretion could improve survival to hospital admission, the cumulative high-quality randomized evidence does not support a routine strategy of mechanical CPR to improve survival or neurologic outcome. These findings are irrespective of the endorsed CPR guidelines during the study periods. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they have not already. See www. ...

  14. Assessment of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Health providers, as the key personnel in the management of neonatal resuscitation, in this survey seem to have inadequate training and knowledge on this subject. Increasing the duration and quality of formal training should be considered during the pre-service medical education to ensure acceptable ...

  15. Teaching CPR to Florida's Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Jill W.; Crone, Ernest G.

    1980-01-01

    A program in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction for Florida's school children is described. Program guidelines and support services are detailed for other schools wishing to implement such a program. (JN)

  16. Chest Compression Fraction between Mechanical Compressions on a Reducible Stretcher and Manual Compressions on a Standard Stretcher during Transport in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: The Ambulance Stretcher Innovation of Asian Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ASIA-CPR) Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Han; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Sung Wook; Kim, Chu Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the use of mechanical devices is recommended during ambulance transport. However, the CPR quality en route and while in transfer to the emergency department (ED) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains uncertain. We developed a mechanical CPR device outfitted on a reducible stretcher (M-CPR) and compared with standard manual CPR on a standard stretcher (S-CPR) to evaluate CPR quality. Adult OHCAs transported by five ambulances in a metropolitan area with a population of 3.5 million (many of whom lived in high-rise buildings) from September to October (before-phase) and November to December (after-phase) in 2015 were collected. The reducible stretcher was developed for use in a small elevator during the transfer from scene to ambulance, and the AutoPulse® (ZOLL Medical, Chelmsford, MA, USA) was used for M-CPR. Chest compression fraction (CCF) was measured by transthoracic impedance data using an X-series® cardiac monitor (ZOLL Medical) during time from attachment to patient to arrival to the ED. A comparison of CCF using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test evaluated the difference between the before- and after-phases. Of the eligible 49 OHCAs, 31 (21 in the before-phase and 10 in the after-phase) were analyzed, excluding patients for whom CCF was not measured, for whom M-CPR was not used, who had a return of spontaneous circulation in the field before transport, or who collapsed during transport. There were no differences in demographic data. Median total CCF (median, q1-q3) was significantly higher in the after-phase M-CPR group (85.2, 83.4-86.3) than in the before-phase S-CPR group (80.1, 68.0-85.2) (p = 0.03). Mechanical CPR on the reducible stretcher during the transport of OHCAs to the ED showed a much higher chest compression fraction than standard manual CPR.

  17. Comparison of CPR quality and rescuer fatigue between standard 30:2 CPR and chest compression-only CPR: a randomized crossover manikin trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jonghwan; Hwang, Seong Youn; Lee, Hui Jai; Park, Chang Je; Kim, Yong Joon; Son, Yeong Ju; Seo, Ji Seon; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, In Mo; Koh, Bong Yeun; Hong, Sung Gi

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality between standard 30:2 CPR (ST-CPR) and chest compression only CPR (CO-CPR) performed for 8 minutes on a realistic manikin by following the 2010 CPR guidelines. Methods All 36 volunteers (laypersons; 18 men and 18 women) were randomized to ST-CPR or CO-CPR at first, and then each CPR technique was performed for 8 minutes with a 3-hour rest interval. We measured the mean blood pressure (MBP) of the vol...

  18. Assessment of Knowledge of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstetricians are usually well prepared for and knowledgeable about the challenges of the birthing process. Cardiac arrest during pregnancy is uncommon, and many never encounter it throughout their practice. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of maternal cardiopulmonary ...

  19. CPR Education before Internship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ashoorion

    2009-02-01

    in CPR at the beginning of internship.Keywords: CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION/EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENTSCHOOLS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, MEDICAL

  20. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR with functional equipment and adequate resources.The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to recommend more effective CPR strategies for Botswana’s hospitals. Interviews, comprising two quantitative sections with closed ended questions and one qualitative section with semi-structured questions, were conducted with 22 unit managers. The quantitative data indicated that all unit managers had at least eight years’ nursing experience, and could identify CPR shortcomings in their hospitals. Only one interviewee had never performed CPR. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the hospital units sometimes had too few staff members and did not have fully equipped emergency trolleys and/or equipment. No CPR teams and no CPR policies and guidelines existed. Nurses and doctors reportedly lacked CPR knowledge and skills. No debriefing services were provided after CPR encounters. The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and nurses and the lack of debriefing sessions after CPR attempts.

  1. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Knowledge of Medical and Paramedical Intern about of CPR, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastoor Bekhradian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day a number of people from the heart stops beating for most of them that this early cessation of heartbeat. With operations of CPR in 4 to 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest and before the onset of brain death can be established circulation and survival for patients with the death of 2 to 4 folds. The aim of this study was to Comparison of knowledge of medical and paramedical intern about of CPCR, 2015. This descriptive analytical and sampling method was census. Restore their data using a standard questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82 .Spss20 data using statistical software analysis and descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used. The mean score of 3/6 students that showed poor knowledge of students participating in the study. The lowest score of zero and the highest score was 12. Was found between gender and level of knowledge (p=0/05. Between education and the knowledge of the relationship was not statistically significant (p=0/764. The knowledge of medical and paramedical students groups scheduled for next semester as part of the treatment system personnel are working poor and require special attention in order to provide guidelines for planning authorities to increase the awareness of students.

  3. High-fidelity simulation effects on CPR knowledge, skills, acquisition, and retention in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Ahmad A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-12-01

    There is a gap in the literature regarding learning outcomes linked to the use of high-fidelity simulators compared to that of traditional teaching methods. To examine the effect of using high-fidelity simulators on knowledge and skills acquisition and retention with university students. A randomized two-arm trial using two different educational approaches on 90 nursing students assigned randomly to two groups was used at two points of time. The results showed significant differences in favor of the participants in the high-fidelity simulator group on both the acquisition and retention of knowledge and skills over time. However, a significant loss of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills occurred at 3 months after training in both groups. The findings of this study may assist educators in integrating high-fidelity simulators in education and training. In addition, the findings may help nursing educators to arrange additional cardiopulmonary resuscitation training sessions in order to improve cardiac arrested patients' outcomes. High-fidelity simulation (HFS) provides students with interactive learning experiences in a safe controlled environment. HFS enables teachers to implement critical clinical scenarios, such as cardiac arrest, without risk to patients. Integrating the simulation training into nursing curricula will help to overcome the challenges that face many courses, specifically the shortage of clinical areas for training and the increase in numbers of nursing students. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Can tablets be used as a simulator for automated external defibrillation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovic, Ivor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A novel, tablet-based automated external defibrillator (AED) simulator has been developed to facilitate AED training. Objective. To evaluate if the tablet AED simulator (an AED simulator based on mobile technology (M-AED)) can be successfully used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) courses. To test medical and dental students’ CPR attitudes, knowledge and skills, and evaluate the impact of a one day CPR course. Methods. One hundred and twenty-four medical and denta...

  5. Training and Confidence Level of Junior Anaesthetists in CPR- Experience in A Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalu Ibironke

    2008-01-01

    There is low confidence among junior anaesthetists in Nigeria in performance of CPR, poor knowledge of ECG interpretation of cardiac arrest rhythm and little practice in defibrillation. The establishment of a Resuscitation council would ensure adequate and frequent training which would improve knowledge, boost confidence and result in better patient care.

  6. Knowledge and skill retention of in-service versus preservice nursing professionals following an informal training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a repeated-measures quasiexperimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Jhuma; Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants-28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals-were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

  7. Interposed Abdominal Compression CPR for an Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Victim Failing Traditional CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. McClung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interposed abdominal compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (IAC-CPR is an alternative technique to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR that can improve perfusion and lead to restoration of circulation in patients with chest wall deformity either acquired through vigorous CPR or co-morbidity such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We report a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest where IAC-CPR allowed for restoration of spontaneous circulation and eventual full neurologic recovery when traditional CPR was failing to generate adequate pulses with chest compression alone.

  8. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and ...

  9. Knowledge Representation and Communication: Imparting Current State Information Flow to CPR Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Spiece, Leslie J.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding and communicating the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the clinics and services for which the computerized patient record (CPR) will be built is an integral part of the implementation process. Formal methodologies have been developed to diagram information flow -- flow charts, state-transition diagram (STDs), data flow diagrams (DFDs). For documentation of the processes at our ambulatory CPR pilot site, flowcharting was selected as the preferred method based upon its vers...

  10. Knowledge Representation and Communication: Imparting Current State Information Flow to CPR Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Spiece, Leslie J.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding and communicating the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the clinics and services for which the computerized patient record (CPR) will be built is an integral part of the implementation process. Formal methodologies have been developed to diagram information flow -- flow charts, state-transition diagram (STDs), data flow diagrams (DFDs). For documentation of the processes at our ambulatory CPR pilot site, flowcharting was selected as the preferred method based upon its versatility and understandability.

  11. Practice characteristics of Emergency Department extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) programs in the United States: The current state of the art of Emergency Department extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ED ECMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Joseph E; Johnson, Nicholas J; Greenwood, John; Gaieski, David F; Shinar, Zachary; Bellezo, Joseph M; Becker, Lance; Shah, Atman P; Youngquist, Scott T; Mallin, Michael P; Fair, James Franklin; Gunnerson, Kyle J; Weng, Cindy; McKellar, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    To characterize the current scope and practices of centers performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) on the undifferentiated patient with cardiac arrest in the emergency department. We contacted all US centers in January 2016 that had submitted adult eCPR cases to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry and surveyed them, querying for programs that had performed eCPR in the Emergency Department (ED ECMO). Our objective was to characterize the following domains of ED ECMO practice: program characteristics, patient selection, devices and techniques, and personnel. Among 99 centers queried, 70 responded. Among these, 36 centers performed ED ECMO. Nearly 93% of programs are based at academic/teaching hospitals. 65% of programs are less than 5 years old, and 60% of programs perform ≤3 cases per year. Most programs (90%) had inpatient eCPR or salvage ECMO programs prior to starting ED ECMO programs. The majority of programs do not have formal inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most programs preferentially obtain vascular access via the percutaneous route (70%) and many (40%) use mechanical CPR during cannulation. The most commonly used console is the Maquet Rotaflow(®). Cannulation is most often performed by cardiothoracic (CT) surgery, and nearly all programs (>85%) involve CT surgeons, perfusionists, and pharmacists. Over a third of centers that submitted adult eCPR cases to ELSO have performed ED ECMO. These programs are largely based at academic hospitals, new, and have low volumes. They do not have many formal inclusion or exclusion criteria, and devices and techniques are variable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-hua LIU; Xiu-man LI; Li-xiang WANG

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR), compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR), abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR), and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR). Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of s...

  13. RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 6: Post-cardiac arrest care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarick, Sean D; Haskins, Steve C; Boller, Manuel; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    To systematically examine the evidence for interventions after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) on outcomes from veterinary cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to determine important knowledge gaps. Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality, and development of consensus on conclusions for application of the concepts to clinical post-cardiac arrest care. Academia, referral practice, and general practice. Fifteen standardized clinical questions important for post-cardiac arrest care were asked and research articles relevant to answering these questions were identified through structured, explicit literature database searches. The majority of these articles report research in species other than dogs or cats or consisted of experimental work in canine cardiac arrest models. Outcome metrics reported in these studies widely varied and ranged from quantification of mechanistic endpoints, such as elaboration of reactive oxygen species, to survival, and functional neurologic outcome. Despite the near complete absence of clinical veterinary studies, the process allowed the formulation of statements for several postcardiac arrest treatments that were either supportive, such as mild therapeutic hypothermia or controlled reoxygenation, or neutral, such as for mannitol administration or seizure prophylaxis. Evidence grading allowed transparency in regards to the strength of these recommendations. Moreover, numerous knowledge gaps emerged that will allow generation of a road map for progress in veterinary post-cardiac arrest care. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  14. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  15. Evaluation of knowledge and experience among oral and maxillofacial surgeons about cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Suprakash; Prathigudupu, Raja Satish; Somuri, Anand Vijay; Lingamaneni, Krishna Prasad; Rao, Prashant; Kuchimanchi, Phani Kumar

    2012-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the level knowledge and experience about CPR among oral and maxillofacial surgeons. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 96 professionals (31-PGs, 65-MDS staff) were surveyed using a self-administered structured questionnaire pretested through a pilot survey. The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0. The Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used as test of significance. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the present study, 78% of oral surgeons had received training about CPR but only 52.0% have proper practical knowledge of performing it. As there were some cases due to CPA in dental practice even then half of the participants take history of patients regarding this. A significant difference was found according to designation with PGs having lower mean scores. A positive linear correlation was found between years of experience and knowledge about CPR (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.613, p = 0.00). The present findings showed that practical knowledge of performing CPR is still low and half of them still do not take history regarding this. So there is need for more knowledge about CPR through CDE programs.

  16. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  17. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  18. Chest compression-only CPR Is it the better choice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The literature related to the rationale of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) including chest compressions combined with ventilations or compression-only CPR without ventilations is reviewed. The conclusion is that the evidence in favor of compression-only CPR is of limited level of evidence and

  19. Lay Bystanders' Perspectives on What Facilitates Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Use of Automated External Defibrillators in Real Cardiac Arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate what...... factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders......, until data saturation. We used cross-sectional indexing (using software), and inductive in-depth thematic analyses, to identify those factors that facilitated CPR and AED use. In addition to prior hands-on CPR training, the following were described as facilitators: prior knowledge that intervention...

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-from the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, S; Chang, Z Y; Lau, Y H; Wong, Yky; Ong, Cym

    2017-05-01

    With increasing emphasis on patient autonomy, patients are encouraged to be more involved in end-of-life issues, including the use of extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Being able to make anticipatory decisions is seen to promote autonomy, empower patients and optimise patient care. To facilitate shared decision-making, patients need to have a clear and accurate understanding of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study aims to understand the knowledge and perspectives of the local community regarding resuscitation options and end-of-life decision-making and to explore ways to improve the quality of end-of-life discussions. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with a prospectively recruited group of surgical patients admitted postoperatively to the day surgery ward of a single tertiary institution in Singapore from April to May 2015. The survey, modelled after two validated questionnaires, measured patients' knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding CPR in a series of 18 questions. Fifty-one out of 67 (76.1%) patients completed the survey. Results indicated that 80.4% (n=41) of participants correctly understood the purpose of CPR, but 64.7% (n=33) did not know of any possible complications of CPR. Less than half (n=21, 41.2%) of participants had thought about life support measures they wanted for themselves. Most of the participants agreed that they should personally be involved in making end-of-life decisions (n=44, 86.3%). Many patients had a poor knowledge of CPR and other resuscitation measures and the majority overestimated the success rate of CPR. However, a majority were receptive to improving their knowledge and keen to discuss end-of-life issues with physicians.

  1. Effect of an interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation assist device with an automated external defibrillator synchronised with a ventilator on the CPR performance of emergency medical service staff: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Rainer; Doehn, Christoph; Kersten, Jan F; Blanz, Julian; Kalwa, Tobias J; Scotti, Norman A; Kubitz, Jens C

    2017-04-04

    The present study evaluates whether the quality of advanced cardiac life support (ALS) is improved with an interactive prototype assist device. This device consists of an automated external defibrillator linked to a ventilator and provides synchronised visual and acoustic instructions for guidance through the ALS algorithm and assistance for face-mask ventilations. We compared the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality of emergency medical system (EMS) staff members using the study device or standard equipment in a mannequin simulation study with a prospective, controlled, randomised cross-over study design. Main outcome was the effect of the study device compared to the standard equipment and the effect of the number of prior ALS trainings of the EMS staff on the CPR quality. Data were analysed using analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and binary logistic regression, accounting for the study design. In 106 simulations of 56 two-person rescuer teams, the mean hands-off time was 24.5% with study equipment and 23.5% with standard equipment (Difference 1.0% (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.5%); p = 0.156). With both types of equipment, the hands-off time decreased with an increasing cumulative number of previous CPR trainings (p = 0.042). The study equipment reduced the mean time until administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by 23 s (p = 0.003) and that of amiodarone by 17 s (p = 0.016). It also increased the mean number of changes in the person doing chest compressions (0.6 per simulation; p CPR.com compared to the standard equipment (p = 0.004). With an increasing number of prior CPR trainings, the time intervals in the ALS algorithm until the defibrillations decreased with standard equipment but increased with the study device. EMS staff with limited training in CPR profit from guidance through the ALS algorithm by the study device. However, the study device somehow reduced the ALS quality of well-trained rescuers and thus can only be recommended for

  2. Teamwork and Leadership in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunziker, Sabina; Johansson, Anna C; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Rock, Laura; Howell, Michael D; Marsch, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    .... Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR...

  3. CPR - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartbeat has stopped. This may happen after an electric shock , drowning, or heart attack. CPR involves: Rescue ... to swim. Teach your child to watch for cars and ride bikes safely. Teach your child firearm ...

  4. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course ...

  5. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course ...

  6. Resuscitation, prolonged cardiac arrest, and an automated chest compression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Martin; Jørgensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest.......The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest....

  7. History of the evolution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    George Karlis; Marianna Korre

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is as old as humankind. The evolution of CPR represents a combination of human errors and discoveries. Aim: The present study reviews the most important moments in the history of resuscitation, from the first attempts of CPR until now. Methods: The methodology followed included bibliography research from review literature, through databases PubMed, Medline, Scopus, with the use of keywords, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hist...

  8. Adequacy of Physicians Knowledge Level of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmu Kocalar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to test the level of information on CPR and suitability to current application of the phsicians practicing in hospital ANEAH. Material and Method: The form of a test of 20 questions fort his purpose has been prepared in accordance with the 2010 AHA-ERC CPR guidelines. This form distributed to volunteer physicians to fill in. A total of 173 physicians agreed to participate in he study. The results were analyzed statistically and tried to determine the factors affecting the level of information. Results:According to the results of the study physicians gender, age and the total duration of physicians and medical asistance doesn%u2019t affect the level of information. The number of CPR within 1 month positively affect the level of knowledge. The number of theoretical and practical training in medical school, have taken the positive impact the level of knowledge of physicians. The training period after graduation, significantly increased the level of physicians information. The order of these training sessions with the asistant courses, congress, seminars and lessions on the sempozims are effective. Discussion: CPR trainig programs for physicians should be standardized, updated and expanded. Recurent in-service trainig should be provided to increase phsicians knowledge on skills.

  9. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magura Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two did not have a significant effect

  10. Advanced Life Support Providers Have Poor Knowledge of When to Administer Resuscitation Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Josephine; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advanced life support (ALS) including resuscitation drugs improves return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation drugs are recommended to be administered at predefined time-points depending on whether the cardiac rhythm is shockable or non-shockable. Timing...... to administer drugs during shockable rhythm only. Similar, only one third knew when to administer drugs during non-shockable rhythm only. Knowledge on when to administer drugs in case of rhythm transition was poor (Figure 1).Conclusion: Advanced life support providers have poor knowledge of when to administer...... resuscitation drugs. Future studies should address methods to improve learning and skill retention of resuscitation drug administration.Author Disclosures: J. Johnsen: None. K.G. Lauridsen: None. B. Løfgren: None....

  11. Interruptions in Chest Compressions by Surf Lifeguards: A Comparison of Face-mask Ventilation in Over-the-head CPR vs Standard CPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørkjær, Louise; Bomholt, Katrine Bjørnshave; Krogh, Kristian

    Introduction: Ventilation is a priority in drowning resuscitation. Over-the-head CPR (OH-CPR), i.e. with the rescuer located at the top of the victim’s head instead of alongside the victim’s torso, has been demonstrated to be superior when doing bag-valve-mask ventilation compared to standard CPR....... The International Life Saving Federation recommends CPR using face-mask ventilation. It is currently unknown if OH-CPR using face-mask ventilation improves CPR quality. We hypothesized that OH-CPR is superior to standard CPR with face-mask ventilation among surf lifeguards. Methods: Surf lifeguards were trained...... in OH-CPR and standard CPR with face-mask ventilation and randomized to a crossover comparison on a manikin. CPR quality data were obtained from the manikin and video recordings. Interruptions in chest compressions were used as a primary measure of CPR quality. A sample size of 14 participants...

  12. Innovative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator programs in schools: Results from the Student Program for Olympic Resuscitation Training in Schools (SPORTS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Victoria L; Haley, Danielle M; Dugan, Noreen P; Iyer, V Ramesh; Shults, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are low. Our study objective was to encourage Philadelphia high school students to develop CPR/AED (automated external defibrillator) training programs and to assess their efficacy. The focus was on developing innovative ways to learn the skills of CPR/AED use, increasing willingness to respond in an emergency, and retention of effective psychomotor resuscitation skills. Health education classes in 15 Philadelphia School District high schools were selected, with one Control and one Study Class per school. Both completed CPR/AED pre- and post-tests to assess cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. After pre-tests, both were taught CPR skills and AED use by their health teacher. Study Classes developed innovative programs to learn, teach, and retain CPR/AED skills. The study culminated with Study Classes competing in multiple CPR/AED skills events at the CPR/AED Olympic event. Outcomes included post-tests, Mock Code, and presentation scores. All students' cognitive and psychomotor skills improved with standard classroom education (pschools at the CPR/AED Olympics and the development of their own student-directed education programs resulted in remarkable retention of psychomotor skill scores in the Study Class (88%) vs the Control Class (79%) (pschools ≥94%. Students who developed creative and novel methods of teaching and learning resuscitation skills showed outstanding application of these skills in a Mock Code with remarkable psychomotor skill retention, potentially empowering a new generation of effectively trained CPR bystanders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pPerception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    M Adib Hajbaghery; Akbari, H.; GA Mousavi

    2005-01-01

    Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and unt...

  15. Exploring How Lay Rescuers Overcome Barriers to Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Wenche Torunn; Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Høyland, Sindre; Braut, Geir Sverre; Søreide, Eldar

    2017-02-01

    Survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) vary considerably among regions. The chance of survival is increased significantly by lay rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival. It is well known that for bystanders, reasons for not providing CPR when witnessing an OHCA incident may be fear and the feeling of being exposed to risk. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of why barriers to providing CPR are overcome. Using a semi-structured interview guide, 10 lay rescuers were interviewed after participating in eight OHCA incidents. Qualitative content analysis was used. The lay rescuers were questioned about their CPR-knowledge, expectations, and reactions to the EMS and from others involved in the OHCA incident. They also were questioned about attitudes towards providing CPR in an OHCA incident in different contexts. The lay rescuers reported that they were prepared to provide CPR to anybody, anywhere. Comprehending the severity in the OHCA incident, both trained and untrained lay rescuers provided CPR. They considered CPR provision to be the expected behavior of any community citizen and the EMS to act professionally and urgently. However, when asked to imagine an OHCA in an unclear setting, they revealed hesitation about providing CPR because of risk to their own safety. Mutual trust between community citizens and towards social institutions may be reasons for overcoming barriers in providing CPR by lay rescuers. A normative obligation to act, regardless of CPR training and, importantly, without facing any adverse legal reactions, also seems to be an important factor behind CPR provision. Mathiesen WT , Bjørshol CA , Høyland S , Braut GS , Søreide E . Exploring how lay rescuers overcome barriers to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a qualitative study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):27-32.

  16. A national survey of prevalence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and knowledge of the emergency number in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    2009-07-06

    AIM: The aim of this survey was to establish prevalence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within the last 5 years and reasons preventing training and initiation of CPR in Ireland as well as awareness of the emergency numbers. METHODS: An in-home omnibus survey was undertaken in 2008 with quota sampling reflecting the age, gender, social class and geography of Ireland. RESULTS: Of the 974 respondents, 23.5% had undergone CPR training in the previous 5 years with lower social class and age 65 years and older significantly less likely to be trained. The workplace was both a major source of awareness as well as training for those trained. In the untrained group lack of awareness of the need for CPR training was the most significant reason for non-training. Cost was not cited as a barrier. 88.9% of people gave a correct emergency number with geographical variation. Notably, the European emergency number 112 was not well known. CONCLUSION: Previous Irish and American population targets for CPR training have been surpassed in Ireland in 2008. New internationally agreed targets are now required. Meanwhile older people and those in lower socio-economic groups should be targeted for training. Awareness of at least one emergency number is very high in Ireland. Some geographical variation was found and this should be studied further.

  17. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  18. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  19. Time matters--realism in resuscitation training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Høyer, Christian; Ostergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The advanced life support guidelines recommend 2min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and minimal hands-off time to ensure sufficient cardiac and cerebral perfusion. We have observed doctors who shorten the CPR intervals during resuscitation attempts. During simulation......-based resuscitation training, the recommended 2-min CPR cycles are often deliberately decreased in order to increase the number of scenarios. The aim of this study was to test if keeping 2-min CPR cycles during resuscitation training ensures better adherence to time during resuscitation in a simulated setting......s) or shortened CPR cycles (30-45s instead of 120s) in the scenarios. Adherence to time was measured using the European Resuscitation Council's Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest) in retention tests conducted one and 12 weeks after the course. RESULTS: The real-time group adhered significantly...

  20. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and strollers. Never leave an infant in a mesh playpen with one side down. Follow the guidelines ... S875. PMID: 20956229 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956229 . Easter JS, Scott HF. Pediatric resuscitation. In: ...

  1. [Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Ana Paula; Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue

    2012-03-01

    Early defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) receives increasing emphasis on its priority and rapidity. This is an experience report about the implementation of a training program in CPR using a defibrillator in a private university. The training program in basic CPR maneuvers was based on global guidelines, including a theorical course with practical demonstration of CPR maneuvers with the defibrillator, individual practical training and theoretical and practical assessments. About the performance of students in the practical assessment the mean scores obtained by students in the first stage of the course was 26.4 points, while in the second stage the mean was 252.8 points, in the theoretical assessment the mean in the first stage was 3.06 points and in the second 9.0 points. The implementation of programs like this contribute to the effective acquisition of knowledge (theory) and skill (pratice) for the care of CPR victims.

  2. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  3. Pericardial tear as a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) involving chest compression: a report of two postmortem cases of acute type A aortic dissection with hemopericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Takahisa; Takanari, Hiroki; Shiotani, Seiji; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Ohno, Youkichi; Fowler, David R

    2015-05-01

    We present two cases of a pericardial tear as a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation involving chest compressions in fatal acute type A aortic dissection (AoD) with hemopericardium. For each case, postmortem computed tomography revealed a hematoma in the false lumen of the ascending aorta with a slight hemopericardium and a large left hemothorax, as well as focal pericardial dimpling and discontinuity around the left ventricle. At autopsy, we confirmed a convex lens-shape gaping pericardial tear at the left posterolateral site of the pericardium and a massive volume of bloody fluid in the left thoracic cavity. It has been hypothesized that the pericardium ruptured due to chest compressions during resuscitation in these cases of acute type A AoD with hemopericardium and that intrapericardial blood leakage through the pericardial tear resulted in a hemothorax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.

    1988-01-01

    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  5. Do our newly graduated medical doctors have adequate knowledge about neonatal resuscitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Carvalho Panzeri Carlotti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neonatal resuscitation should be part of medical school curriculums. We aimed to evaluate medical school graduates' knowledge of neonatal resuscitation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on the performance of candidates sitting a medical residency exam at Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, in 2004. METHODS: There were two questions on neonatal resuscitation. One question in the theory test aimed at evaluating basic knowledge on the initial approach towards newly born infants. The question in the practical exam was designed to evaluate the candidate's ability to perform the initial steps of resuscitation and to establish bag-mask ventilation. RESULTS: Out of 642 candidates from 74 medical schools, 151 (23.5% answered the theory question correctly. Significantly more physicians from public medical schools in the State of São Paulo answered correctly than did those from other schools in Brazil (52.5% versus 9.2%; p < 0.05. A total of 436 candidates did the practical exam. The grades among graduates from medical schools belonging to the State of São Paulo were significantly higher than among those from other schools (5.9 ± 2.6 versus 4.1 ± 2.1; p < 0.001. The grades for the practical question among candidates who had answered the theory question correctly were significantly higher than those obtained by candidates who had given wrong answers (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Medical school graduates' knowledge of neonate resuscitation in the delivery room is quite precarious. Emphasis on neonatal resuscitation training is urgently needed in medical schools.

  6. In-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: prearrest morbidity and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, R.; Koster, R. W.; de Haan, R. J.; Oosting, H.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Lampe-Schoenmaeckers, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerations about the application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should include the expected probability of survival. The survival probability after CPR may be more accurately estimated by the occurrence in time of the prearrest morbidity of patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify

  7. CPR in the nursing home: fool's errand or looming dilemma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, D

    2011-09-01

    The indications for CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) have expanded greatly since the technique was introduced and theoretically it can be attempted on all prior to death. Policy initiatives (such as the British Medical Association\\/Royal College of Nursing guidelines) have attempted to provide a clinical rationale for the withholding of inappropriate CPR. Traditionally a care home was felt to be an inappropriate environment to attempt CPR but increased use of advance directives may bring the issue to the fore in this setting.

  8. Instituting the Updated CPR Protocol: The Team Physician's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, David

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes recommendations from the 1992 National Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiac Care. Because team physicians may have to provide basic life support for athletes or spectators, knowing current (CPR) protocol is essential in developing emergency response plans and training personnel. Practice removing…

  9. Guidelines for CPR Training in Louisiana Schools. Bulletin No. 1638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Completion of a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is required for graduation from high school in Louisiana. This bulletin presents the guidelines for a course in CPR and was prepared with the cooperation of the American Red Cross (ARC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). At the conclusion of the course, students will be prepared…

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: how far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John J; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2007-01-01

    In the 43 years since it was first described, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has grown from an obscure medical theory to a basic first aid skill taught to adults and is now the near-universal technique used in CPR instruction. This article provides insight into the history of CPR. We explore the phenomenon of sudden cardiac arrest, the historical roots of CPR, current practice data and recommendations, and the society's role in the development of this life-saving technique. We conclude with a review of CPR's economic impact on the healthcare system and the ethical and policy issues surrounding CPR.

  11. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hua LIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR, compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR, abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR, and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR. Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of suxamethonium. Instantly after respiratory arrest, one of the 4 CPR methods was performed immediately on the groups of pigs respectively. After 2min of CPR, compression was stopped. The experimental pigs were given assisted respiration using a ventilator until autonomous respiration recovered. The tidal volume (VT in basic status and that during resuscitation by the four respective resuscitation methods was determined, and minute ventilation (MV was calculated. Furthermore, heart rate (HR, mean arterial blood pressure, and recovery time of autonomous respiration were compared between all the groups. Results In basic status, there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05 in VT and MV between the four groups. Approximately 2min after resuscitation, the VT and MV of D-CPR were higher than that of C-CPR; that of A-CPR was higher than that of D-CPR; and that of L-CPR was higher than that of A-CPR. The differences were statistically significant (P 0.05. HR in C-CPR and D-CPR were notably lower than the basic value (P < 0.01. Two minutes after resuscitation, mechanical ventilation was given, and HR in all the groups was close to the basic value 5 min after resuscitation. In the respiratory arrest pig model, L-CPR could provide more effective VT and MV than the other methods. Conclusion For the porcine respiratory arrest model, L-CPR can provide more effective lung ventilation than the other methods.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for Medical Students in Anesthesiology Rotation in Ardabil Medical University (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Isazadehfar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training for undergraduate medical students has been noted to be poor in the past. Attempts have been made The aim of this study is to determine effect of CPR training in the anesthetic ward to improve knowledge and practice undergraduate medical student of CPR.Methods: A 12 month Educational experimental study with self control was done on all undergraduate medical student (n=30 at the medical university of Ardabil in 2006-2007. During I month of program allthis students have undergone CPR training including basic life support (BLS , advanced cardiac life support (ACLS and practical skills. Data were collected via questionnaire, demographic, pre/post knowledge and practice.Results: After training the acceptable score (good and very good about knowledge of BLS, ACLS and practical skill significantly increased %6.7 to %50 (p=0.0001 , %13.3 to %53.4 (p=0.001 and %3.3 to %100 (p=0.001 respectively. A significant relationship between knowledge of ACLS and practical skills was shown (p=0.005.Conclusion: The CPR training course in anesthetic ward leads to a significant increased in skills and knowledge. Adding this course to undergraduate curriculum of medical students especially in operaticallywards (e.g. Anesthetic ward is essential.Keywords: CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION; TRAINING; BASIC LIFE SUPPORT; ADVANCED CARDIAC LIFE SUPPORT

  13. [Knowledge of BLS and AED resuscitation algorithm amongst medical students--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Piotr; Ilieva, Rada; Kołodziej, Anna; Królikowska, Agata; Lipka, Jarosław; Ruta, Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of cardiac arrest (CA) and immediate commencement of resuscitation, may increase the survival rate among CA victims. We therefore conducted a survey among medical students to assess their knowledge of BLS and AED. The audit was performed among students, most of whom had completed at least one first aid course and those who had not done a first-aid course at all. The ERC-recommended questionnaire 2005 was used for the survey. One hundred and sixty five students completed the survey. Most of them recognized the usefulness of basic resuscitation algorithms and the use of AEDs. 88% of students recognized the importance offirst aid courses, and 91.6% would undertake them again. Despite obvious enthusiasm and self-declared adequate knowledge, 45.7% of the audited students were not familiar with the guidelines and answered wrongly to more than 6 of 12 questions in the questionnaire. The vast majority of the first year medical students were not familiar with the algorithms. We conclude that general knowledge of resuscitation algorithms among medical students is inadequate, and regular refresher courses are essential.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE OF THE PEDIATRIC RESIDENT ABOUT NEONATAL & PEDIATRIC CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KADIAVAR

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high leve of skill & knowledge is required in circumstances of cardiopulmonary resucitation which represents the most urgent clinical situations. The difficulties for pediatric residents who are fronted with the most cases of pediatric & neonatal resucitation are due to different causes of cardiorespiratory arrest in camparison to adults. This study aimed to assess the knowledge & their personal attitude toward the neonatal & pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitatin. Methods: By cross - sectional multicenter study between the pediatric residents who were studied in the teaching hospitals in Tehran (1378-90. Data were gathered among 140 residents by self-completed questionnaires which were included three parts as. demographic information assessment of their attitude by summation of score via ranking list questions and total score from assessment to their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Results: 35.7% of the residents studied in the first year of residency 35.0% in the second year and the remainder (29/3% in the third year More than 90% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation low & less than average. Net only 80% of the residents self - assessed their actual ability about this issue low but also declaired the insufficient education during the medical training. The total score of knowledge assessment was 14.7 + 1_0.54 from 30 without any significant relations among the residents in different hospitals or various levels of pediatric residency. (P value= 0.1 , 0.7 There was not significant correlation between the total score from their attitude & their knowledge. Conclusion: Pediatric residents as the key personnel in the management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the neonates and children should have enough knowledge and skills about this topic. This survey demonstrates a low level of the pediatric & neonatal

  15. An “Intention-Focused” paradigm for improving bystander CPR performance□

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Ashish R.; Fishman, Jessica; Camp-Rogers, Teresa; Starodub, Roksolana; Merchant, Raina M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite public education campaigns and a chest compression-only initiative, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is provided in approximately 30–40% of out of hospital cardiac arrests in the United States. Bystander CPR rates may not improve without addressing factors influencing bystanders’ probability of performing CPR. We propose an “intention-focused” model for the bystander CPR performance utilizing validated behavioral theory. This model describes a framework that may predict CPR performance, with intention as the key determinant of this behavior. This model may provide specific targets for strengthening the intention to perform CPR, which could lead to increased bystander rates. PMID:25534077

  16. Bridging the knowledge-resuscitation gap for children: Still a long way to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D; Ho, Kendall; Peterson, Robert; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2007-01-01

    The American Heart Association, along with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, recently made changes to the paediatric resuscitation guidelines. Knowledge translation (KT) is imperative, but there is a lack of sufficient evidence for appropriate methodologies for implementation of these guidelines. Paediatric resuscitation presents many challenges; cases happen infrequently, affording few opportunities for implementation of the new guidelines, and are highly stressful and filled with uncertainty. Some KT strategies have shown some success in causing a notable degree of change in behaviour, but none have shown a striking difference when used alone. Previous efforts to disseminate current guidelines centred on development of courses for health care providers and preparing paediatric residents and paediatricians for circumstances they could encounter with paediatric acute illness. None of the studies assessing these techniques measured direct patient outcomes, and only a few demonstrated some long-term knowledge acquisition among trainees. The purpose of the present review was to illuminate the challenges, offer future directions for KT and outline potentially more effective methodologies and strategies to overcome current barriers. PMID:19030414

  17. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions in the emergency department: An ethnography of tacit knowledge in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummell, Stephen P; Seymour, Jane; Higginbottom, Gina

    2016-05-01

    Despite media images to the contrary, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in emergency departments is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore how health care professionals working in two emergency departments in the UK, make decisions to commence, continue or stop resuscitation. Data collection involved participant observation of resuscitation attempts and in-depth interviews with nurses, medical staff and paramedics who had taken part in the attempts. Detailed case examples were constructed for comparative analysis. Findings show that emergency department staff use experience and acquired tacit knowledge to construct a typology of cardiac arrest categories that help them navigate decision making. Categorisation is based on 'less is more' heuristics which combine explicit and tacit knowledge to facilitate rapid decisions. Staff then work as a team to rapidly assimilate and interpret information drawn from observations of the patient's body and from technical, biomedical monitoring data. The meaning of technical data is negotiated during staff interaction. This analysis was informed by a theory of 'bodily' and 'technical' trajectory alignment that was first developed from an ethnography of death and dying in intensive care units. The categorisation of cardiac arrest situations and trajectory alignment are the means by which staff achieve consensus decisions and determine the point at which an attempt should be withdrawn. This enables them to construct an acceptable death in highly challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation during real-life out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, Tore; Granfeldt, Asger; Lippert, Freddy

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, little is known about bystander CPR quality in real-life OHCA. AIM: To describe bystander CPR quality based on automated external defibrillator (AED) CPR process data during OHCA...

  19. Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Mary E; Cazzell, Mary; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Cason, Carolyn L

    2009-04-01

    Adequate training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is an important component of a workplace safety training program. Barriers to traditional in-classroom CPR-AED training programs include time away from work to complete training, logistics, learner discomfort over being in a classroom setting, and instructors who include information irrelevant to CPR. This study evaluated differences in CPR skills performance between employees who learned CPR using a self-directed learning (SDL) kit and employees who attended a traditional instructor-led course. The results suggest that the SDL kit yields learning outcomes comparable to those obtained with traditional instructor-led courses and is a more time-efficient tool for CPR-AED training. Furthermore, the SDL kit overcomes many of the barriers that keep individuals from learning CPR and appears to contribute to bystanders' confidently attempting resuscitation.

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: state of the art in 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... The science of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is dynamic and ever changing as new evidence continuously comes to light. Modern CPR dates back to 1966, when the first consensus statement was released. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. (ILCOR) was founded in 1992.

  1. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib Hajbaghery

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran

  2. CPR - adult - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100219.htm CPR - adult - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics CPR A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  4. Hands-Only CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ...

  5. CPR Facts and Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ...

  6. CPR in medical schools: learning by teaching BLS to sudden cardiac death survivors – a promising strategy for medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herkner Harald

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training is gaining more importance for medical students. There were many attempts to improve the basic life support (BLS skills in medical students, some being rather successful, some less. We developed a new problem based learning curriculum, where students had to teach CPR to cardiac arrest survivors in order to improve the knowledge about life support skills of trainers and trainees. Methods Medical students who enrolled in our curriculum had to pass a 2 semester problem based learning session about the principles of cardiac arrest, CPR, BLS and defibrillation (CPR-D. Then the students taught cardiac arrest survivors who were randomly chosen out of a cardiac arrest database of our emergency department. Both, the student and the Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD survivor were asked about their skills and knowledge via questionnaires immediately after the course. The questionnaires were then used to evaluate if this new teaching strategy is useful for learning CPR via a problem-based-learning course. The survey was grouped into three categories, namely "Use of AED", "CPR-D" and "Training". In addition, there was space for free answers where the participants could state their opinion in their own words, which provided some useful hints for upcoming programs. Results This new learning-by-teaching strategy was highly accepted by all participants, the students and the SCD survivors. Most SCD survivors would use their skills in case one of their relatives goes into cardiac arrest (96%. Furthermore, 86% of the trainees were able to deal with failures and/or disturbances by themselves. On the trainer's side, 96% of the students felt to be well prepared for the course and were considered to be competent by 96% of their trainees. Conclusion We could prove that learning by teaching CPR is possible and is highly accepted by the students. By offering a compelling appreciation of what CPR can achieve in using

  7. Barriers to the success of cardiopulmonary resuscitation teams from the perspective of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Despite the long history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, there are still major concerns about poor CPR team performance in hospitals. While only 10-15 percent of those undergoing CPR leave the hospitals alive, the statistics vary in different countries. Since addressing the barriers to successful CPR may help prevent the potential risks to future patients, the present study aimed to identify such barriers from the perspective of nurses.Methods: In a descriptive-analytic study in 2011, 200 nurses, including 68 men (34 percent and 132 women (66 percent, employed at four teaching hospitals affiliated to Golestan University of Medical Sciences (Iran were randomly selected. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive (frequency, mean, and standard deviation and inferential statistics were applied for data analysis. All analyses were performed with SPSS version 16 .Results: The majority of nurses (83 percent had an experience of working with a CPR team. The participating nurses suggested absence of timely clinical CPR (98 percent, lack of regular standard in-service training (98 percent, lack of CPR equipment and supplies in the wards (92 percent, lack of efficient communication among team members (90 percent, and underlying diseases of the patients (88 percent as the most important barriers to successful CPR. Conclusion: Considering the poor performance of CPR teams in hospitals, management of this challenge requires more attention of planners and hospital authorities. Holding standard retraining programs to update the staff’s knowledge and improve their skills would be essential to forming a competent and cohesive CPR team.

  8. "Please. Don't. Die.": A Grounded Theory Study of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Justin; Snobelen, Paul; Tavares, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important determinant of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are highly variable. In an effort to promote bystander CPR, the procedure has been streamlined, and ultrashort teaching modalities have been introduced. CPR has been increasingly reconceptualized as simple, safe, and easy to perform; however, current methods of CPR instruction may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the various logistical, conceptual, and emotional challenges of resuscitating a victim of cardiac arrest. We adopted a constructivist grounded theory methodology to qualitatively explore bystander CPR and invited lay rescuers who had recently (ie, within 1 week) intervened in an OHCA to participate in semistructured interviews and focus groups. We used constant comparative analysis until theoretical saturation to derive a midrange explanatory theory of bystander CPR. We constructed a 3-stage theoretical model describing a common experiential process for lay rescuer intervention in OHCA: Being called to act is disturbing, causing panic, shock, and disbelief that must ultimately be overcome. Taking action to save the victim is complicated by several misconceptions about cardiac arrest, where victims are mistakenly believed to be choking, and agonal respirations are misinterpreted to mean the victim is alive. Making sense of the experience is challenging, at least in the short term, where lay rescuers have to contend with self-doubt, unanswered questions, and uncomfortable emotional reactions to a traumatic event. Our study suggests that current CPR training programs may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the reality of an OHCA and identifies several key knowledge gaps that should be addressed. The long-term psychological consequences of bystander intervention in OHCA remain poorly understood and warrant further study. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Which Form of Medical Training is the Best in Improving Interns' knowledge Related to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Drugs Pharmacology? An Educational Analytical Intervention Study Between Electronic Learning and Lecture-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ala, Alireza; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ebrahimian, Kimia; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad Ej; Salek Ranjbarzadeh, Fariba; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-02-01

    Conventional educational systems seem to be improper throughout the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching process. The most common causes of failed resuscitation are unfamiliarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms, poor performance of leader of the CPR team and lack of skilled personnel, coordination among members during resuscitation, and responsibility of staff. Electronic learning, as a new educational method is controversial issue in medical education for improving physicians' practical knowledge and it is inevitable that further research on its effectiveness should be done. The present study is a prospective, pre- and post-educational, cross-sectional research, in which 84 interns were randomly divided into two groups. pre- and post- educational interventions that took place in the Department of Emergency Medicine, interns were evaluated by 21 multiple choice questions related to American Heart Association guidelineson cardiopulmonary resuscitation drugs. Questions were assessed in terms of routes for CPR drugs administration, CPR drug dosage forms, clinical judgment and appropriate CPR drug administration, and the alternative drugs in emergency situations. Data were analyzed by generalized estimating equations regression models and P learning method was not associated with considerable increase in the knowledge of interns in this group compared with the lecture-based group (P = 0.49). No significant differences were observed between electronic learning and lecture-based education in improving interns' knowledge of CPR drugs.

  10. Quality of survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, R.; de Haes, H. C.; Koster, R. W.; de Haan, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be poor, in terms of life expectancy and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of patient characteristics before, during, and after CPR on these outcomes, and to compare results of the quality-of-life assessment with

  11. The effect of a national web course "Help-Brain-Heart" as a supplemental learning tool before CPR training: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Claesson, Andreas; Herlitz, Johan; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart

    2017-09-12

    The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) learning methods is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate whether a web course before CPR training, teaching the importance of recognition of symptoms of stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and a healthy lifestyle, could influence not only theoretical knowledge but also practical CPR skills or willingness to act in a cardiac arrest situation. Classes with 13-year-old students were randomised to CPR training only (control) or a web course plus CPR training (intervention). Data were collected (practical test and a questionnaire) directly after training and at 6 months. CPR skills were evaluated using a modified Cardiff test (12-48 points). Knowledge on stroke symptoms (0-7 points), AMI symptoms (0-9 points) and lifestyle factors (0-6 points), and willingness to act were assessed by the questionnaire. The primary endpoint was CPR skills at 6 months. CPR skills directly after training, willingness to act and theoretical knowledge were secondary endpoints. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. Four hundred and thirty-two students were included in the analysis of practical skills and self-reported confidence. The mean score for CPR skills was 34 points after training (control, standard deviation [SD] 4.4; intervention, SD 4.0; not significant [NS]); and 32 points at 6 months for controls (SD 3.9) and 33 points for intervention (SD 4.2; NS). At 6 months, 73% (control) versus 80% (intervention; P = 0.05) stated they would do compressions and ventilation if a friend had a cardiac arrest, whereas 31% versus 34% (NS) would perform both if the victim was a stranger. One thousand, two hundred and thirty-two students were included in the analysis of theoretical knowledge; the mean scores at 6 months for the control and intervention groups were 2.8 (SD 1.6) and 3.2 (SD 1.4) points (P 1.0) points (P web course before CPR training did not influence practical CPR skills or

  12. Lay bystanders' perspectives on what facilitates cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of automated external defibrillators in real cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate wh...

  13. Utstein-style guidelines on uniform reporting of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs and cats. A RECOVER statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boller, Manuel; Fletcher, Dan J; Brainard, Benjamin M; Haskins, Steve; Hopper, Kate; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Morley, Peter T; McMichael, Maureen; Nishimura, Ryohei; Robben, Joris H; Rozanski, Elizabeth; Rudloff, Elke; Rush, John; Shih, Andre; Smarick, Sean; Tello, Luis H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for reviewing and reporting clinical in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events in dogs and cats and to establish nonambiguous operational definitions for CPR terminology. DESIGN: Consensus guidelines. SETTING: International, academia, referral

  14. Decision to resuscitate or not in patients with chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltbæk, Lena; Tvedegaard, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decisions are frequently made without informing the patients. We attempt to determine whether patients and physicians wish to discuss the DNR decision, who they think, should be the final decision maker and whether they agree on the indication for cardiopulmonary resuscit...... resuscitation (CPR) in case of cardiac arrest....

  15. Effectiveness of Interactive Video to Teach CPR Theory and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Ann L.

    This study investigated whether an interactive video system of instruction taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as effectively as traditional instruction. Using standards of the American Heart Association, the study was designed with two randomized groups to be taught either by live instruction or by interactive video. Subjects were 100…

  16. Ethical issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, S; Jørgensen, E O

    2001-08-01

    If patients are to benefit from resuscitation, they must regain consciousness and their full faculties. In recent years, we have acquired important information about the natural history of neurological recovery from circulatory arrest. There are clinical tests that predict the outcome, both during ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and in the period after restoration of spontaneous circulation. The ability to predict neurological outcome at this stage offers a basis for certain ethical considerations, which are not exclusively centered on "do-not-attempt-resuscitation" (DNAR)- orders. Instead of being forced to make the decision that "I do not want CPR", the patient should be able to decide that "I want resuscitation to be discontinued, if you predict that I will not recover to a level of neurological function that is acceptable to me". Ideally, no competent patient should be given a DNAR-status without his or her consent. No CPR-attempt should be stopped, and no treatment decision for a patient recovering after CPR should be taken without knowing and assessing the available information. Good ethical decision-making requires reliable facts, which we now know are available.

  17. Do resuscitation-related injuries kill infants and children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshes, Evan W; Lew, Emma O

    2010-06-01

    Occasionally, individuals accused of inflicting fatal injuries on infants and young children will claim some variant of the "CPR defense," that is, they attribute the cause of injuries found at autopsy to their "untrained" resuscitative efforts. A 10-year (1994-2003) historical fixed cohort study of all pediatric forensic autopsies at the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department was undertaken. To be eligible for inclusion in the study, children had to have died of atraumatic causes, with or without resuscitative efforts (N(atraumatic) = 546). Of these, 382 had a history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; average age of 4.17 years); 248 had CPR provided by trained individuals only; 133 had CPR provided by both trained and untrained individuals; 1 had CPR provided by untrained individuals only. There was no overlap between these 3 distinct groups. Twenty-two findings potentially attributable to CPR were identified in 19:15 cases of orofacial injuries compatible with attempted endotracheal intubation; 4 cases with focal pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage; 1 case with prominent anterior mediastinal emphysema; and 2 cases with anterior chest abrasions. There were no significant hollow or solid thoracoabdominal organ injuries. There were no rib fractures. The estimated relative risk of injury subsequent to resuscitation was not statistically different between the subset of decedents whose resuscitative attempts were made by trained individuals only, and the subset who received CPR from both trained and untrained individuals. In the single case of CPR application by an untrained individual only, no injuries resulted. The remaining 164 children dying from nontraumatic causes and who did not undergo resuscitative efforts served as a control group; no injuries were identified. This study indicates that in the pediatric population, injuries secondary to resuscitative efforts are infrequent or rare, pathophysiologically inconsequential, and predominantly orofacial in

  18. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  19. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automatic external defibrillator training in schools: "is anyone learning how to save a life?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Devin; Flores-Medrano, Oscar; Brooks, Steve; Buick, Jason E; Morrison, Laurie J

    2013-09-01

    Bystander resuscitation efforts, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED), save lives in cardiac arrest cases. School training in CPR and AED use may increase the currently low community rates of bystander resuscitation. The study objective was to determine the rates of CPR and AED training in Toronto secondary schools and to identify barriers to training and training techniques. This prospective study consisted of telephone interviews conducted with key school staff knowledgeable about CPR and AED teaching. An encrypted Web-based tool with prespecified variables and built-in logic was employed to standardize data collection. Of 268 schools contacted, 93% were available for interview and 83% consented to participate. Students and staff were trained in CPR in 51% and 80% of schools, respectively. Private schools had the lowest training rate (39%). Six percent of schools provided AED training to students and 47% provided AED training to staff. Forty-eight percent of schools had at least one AED installed, but 25% were unaware if their AED was registered with emergency services dispatch. Cost (17%), perceived need (11%), and school population size (10%) were common barriers to student training. Frequently employed training techniques were interactive (32%), didactic instruction (30%) and printed material (16%). CPR training rates for staff and students were moderate overall and lowest in private schools, whereas training rates in AED use were poor in all schools. Identified barriers to training include cost and student population size (perceived to be too small to be cost-effective or too large to be implemented). Future studies should assess the application of convenient and cost-effective teaching alternatives not presently in use.

  20. Even Four Minutes of Poor Quality of CPR Compromises Outcome in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhengfei; Huang, Zitong; Chen, Bihua; Li, Yongqin; Yu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Untrained bystanders usually delivered suboptimal chest compression to victims who suffered from cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital settings. We therefore investigated the hemodynamics and resuscitation outcome of initial suboptimal quality of chest compressions compared to the optimal ones in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Methods. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs weighted 30 ± 2 kg were randomized into good and poor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) groups. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 6 mins. In good CPR group, animals received high quality manual chest compressions according to the Guidelines (25% of animal's anterior-posterior thoracic diameter) during first two minutes of CPR compared with poor (70% of the optimal depth) compressions. After that, a 120-J biphasic shock was delivered. If the animal did not acquire return of spontaneous circulation, another 2 mins of CPR and shock followed. Four minutes later, both groups received optimal CPR until total 10 mins of CPR has been finished. Results. All seven animals in good CPR group were resuscitated compared with only two in poor CPR group (P CPR group. Conclusions. In a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest, even four minutes of initial poor quality of CPR compromises the hemodynamics and survival outcome. PMID:24364028

  1. CPR (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injuries, and suspected sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) . Reading about CPR and learning when it's needed will give you a basic understanding of the concept and procedure, but it's strongly recommended that you ...

  2. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Dianne L; de Caen, Allan R; Berger, Stuart; Samson, Ricardo A; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Joyner, Benny L; Bigham, Blair L; Niles, Dana E; Duff, Jonathan P; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Meaney, Peter A

    2018-01-02

    This focused update to the American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care follows the Pediatric Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation evidence review. It aligns with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's continuous evidence review process, and updates are published when the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation completes a literature review based on new science. This update provides the evidence review and treatment recommendation for chest compression-only CPR versus CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths for children American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care." Two demonstrated worse 30-day outcomes with chest compression-only CPR for children 1 through 18 years of age, whereas 2 studies documented no difference between chest compression-only CPR and CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths. When the results were analyzed for infants American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Assessment Of Nurses Performance During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation In Intensive Care Unit And Cardiac Care Unit At The Alexandria Main University Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nagla Hamdi Kamal Khalil El- Meanawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation one of the most emergency management the nurse has a pivotal role and should be highly qualified in performing these procedures. The aim of the study is to assess performance of nurses during Cardio pulmonary resuscitation for patient with cardiac arrest In Intensive Care Unit and Cardiac Care Unit at the Alexandria main university hospital. To answer the question what are the most common area of satisfactory and area of neglection in nurses performance during Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation. The sample consists of 53 staff nurses working in Intensive care unit amp cardiac care unit at Alexandria main university hospital. The tools of data collection were structured of questionnaire sheet and observational cheek list. The results showed that unsatisfactory performance between nurses in both units. The study concluded that all nurses need to improve their performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patient with cardiac arrest it is crucial for nursing staff to participate in CPR courses in order to refresh and update their theoretical knowledge and performance skills and consequently to improve the safety and effectiveness of care. The study recommended that continuous evaluation of nurses knowledge and performance is essential the optimal frequency with which CPR training should be implemented at least every 6 months in order to avoid deterioration in nurses CPR knowledge and skills.

  4. A pilot program of knowledge translation and implementation for newborn resuscitation using US Peace Corps Volunteers in rural Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristin; Karel, Michele; White, Michelle

    2016-11-16

    Prevention of adverse perinatal outcome using the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) neonatal resuscitation algorithm can reduce perinatal mortality in low income settings. Mercy Ships is a non-governmental organisation providing free healthcare education in sub-Saharan Africa and in an attempt to reach more rural areas of Madagascar with our neonatal resuscitation training we designed a novel approach in collaboration with US Peace Corps Volunteers (PCV). PCVs work in rural areas and contribute to locally determined public health initiatives. We used a model of knowledge translation and implementation to train non-medical PCVs in HBB who would then train rural healthcare workers. Bulb suction and a self-inflating bag were donated to each health centre. We evaluated knowledge translation and behaviour change at 4 months using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation. Ten PCVs received training and then trained 42 healthcare workers in 10 rural health centres serving a combined population of over 1 million. Both PCVs and rural healthcare workers showed significant increases in knowledge and skills (p rural healthcare workers in newborn resuscitation using the HBB algorithm and this results in improvements in personal and organizational practice at 4 months, including anecdotal evidence of improved patient outcome. Our novel method of training, including the provision of essential equipment, may be another tool in the armamentarium of those seeking to disseminate good practice to the most rural areas.

  5. Decoding twitter: Surveillance and trends for cardiac arrest and resuscitation communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Justin C; Zhao, Nina W; Hill, Shawndra; Shofer, Frances S; Asch, David A; Becker, Lance B; Merchant, Raina M

    2013-02-01

    Twitter has over 500 million subscribers but little is known about how it is used to communicate health information. We sought to characterize how Twitter users seek and share information related to cardiac arrest, a time-sensitive cardiovascular condition where initial treatment often relies on public knowledge and response. Tweets published April-May 2011 with keywords cardiac arrest, CPR, AED, resuscitation, heart arrest, sudden death and defib were identified. Tweets were characterized by content, dissemination, and temporal trends. Tweet authors were further characterized by: self-identified background, tweet volume, and followers. Of 62,163 tweets (15,324, 25%) included resuscitation/cardiac arrest-specific information. These tweets referenced specific cardiac arrest events (1130, 7%), CPR performance or AED use (6896, 44%), resuscitation-related education, research, or news media (7449, 48%), or specific questions about cardiac arrest/resuscitation (270, 2%). Regarding dissemination (1980, 13%) of messages were retweeted. Resuscitation specific tweets primarily occurred on weekdays. Most users (10,282, 93%) contributed three or fewer tweets during the study time frame. Users with more than 15 resuscitation-specific tweets in the study time frame had a mean 1787 followers and most self-identified as having a healthcare affiliation. Despite a large volume of tweets, Twitter can be filtered to identify public knowledge and information seeking and sharing about cardiac arrest. To better engage via social media, healthcare providers can distil tweets by user, content, temporal trends, and message dissemination. Further understanding of information shared by the public in this forum could suggest new approaches for improving resuscitation related education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decoding twitter: Surveillance and trends for cardiac arrest and resuscitation communication✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Justin C.; Zhao, Nina W.; Hill, Shawndra; Shofer, Frances S.; Asch, David A.; Becker, Lance B.; Merchant, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Twitter has over 500 million subscribers but little is known about how it is used to communicate health information. We sought to characterize how Twitter users seek and share information related to cardiac arrest, a time-sensitive cardiovascular condition where initial treatment often relies on public knowledge and response. Methods Tweets published April–May 2011 with keywords cardiac arrest, CPR, AED, resuscitation, heart arrest, sudden death and defib were identified. Tweets were characterized by content, dissemination, and temporal trends. Tweet authors were further characterized by: self-identified background, tweet volume, and followers. Results Of 62,163 tweets (15,324, 25%) included resuscitation/cardiac arrest-specific information. These tweets referenced specific cardiac arrest events (1130, 7%), CPR performance or AED use (6896, 44%), resuscitation-related education, research, or news media (7449, 48%), or specific questions about cardiac arrest/resuscitation (270, 2%). Regarding dissemination (1980, 13%) of messages were retweeted. Resuscitation specific tweets primarily occurred on weekdays. Most users (10,282, 93%) contributed three or fewer tweets during the study time frame. Users with more than 15 resuscitation-specific tweets in the study time frame had a mean 1787 followers and most self-identified as having a healthcare affiliation. Conclusion Despite a large volume of tweets, Twitter can be filtered to identify public knowledge and information seeking and sharing about cardiac arrest. To better engage via social media, healthcare providers can distil tweets by user, content, temporal trends, and message dissemination. Further understanding of information shared by the public in this forum could suggest new approaches for improving resuscitation related education. PMID:23108239

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, Frederic; Triba, Mohamed N; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frederic; Hubert, Hervé; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Escutnaire, Josephine; Guenin, Aurelien; Hoogvorst, Astrid; Marbeuf-Gueye, Carol; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Javaud, Nicolas; Vicaut, Eric; Chevret, Sylvie

    2017-02-01

    Relationship between cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation (CPR) durations and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain unclear. Our primary aim was to determine the association between survival without neurologic sequelae and cardiac arrest intervals in the setting of witnessed OHCA. We analyzed 27,301 non-traumatic, witnessed OHCA patients in France included in the national registry from June 1, 2011 through December 1, 2015. We analyzed cardiac arrest intervals, designated as no-flow (NF; from collapse to start of CPR) and low-flow (LF; from start of CPR to cessation of resuscitation) in relation to 30-day survival without sequelae. We determined the influence of recognized prognostic factors (age, gender, initial rhythm, location of cardiac arrest) on this relation. For the entire cohort, the area delimited by a value of NF greater than 12min (95% confidence interval: 11-13min) and LF greater than 33min (95% confidence interval: 29-45min), yielded a probability of 30-day survival of less than 1%. These sets of values were greatly influenced by initial cardiac arrest rhythm, age, sex and location of cardiac arrest. Extended CPR duration (greater than 40min) in the setting of initial shockable cardiac rhythm is associated with greater than 1% survival with NF less than 18min. The NF interval was highly influential on the LF interval regardless of outcome, whether return of spontaneous circulation (pCPR duration in OHCA patients. The knowledge of (NF, LF) curves as function of age, initial rhythm, location of cardiac arrest or gender may aid in decision-making vis-à-vis the termination of CPR or employment of advanced techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Knowledge and attitudes of citizens in the Basque Country (Spain) towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Peña, S; Fernández-Aedo, I; Pérez-Urdiales, I; García-Azpiazu, Z; Unanue-Arza, S

    2016-03-01

    To explore the training, ability and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automatic defibrillators among the population of the Basque Country (Spain). A face-to-face survey. Capital cities of the Basque Country. A total of 605 people between 15-64 years of age were randomly selected. Information about the knowledge, perceptions and self-perceived ability to identify and assist cardiopulmonary arrest was requested. A total of 56.4% of the responders were women, 61.8% were occupationally active, and 48.3% had higher education. Thirty-seven percent of the responders claimed to be trained in resuscitation techniques, but only 20.2% considered themselves able to apply such techniques. Public servants were almost 4 times more likely of being trained in defibrillation compared to the rest of workers (OR 3.7; Pdefibrillator. Citizens of the Basque Country consider the early identification and treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest victims to be important, though their knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation is limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Abstract 20854: A Tale of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Emergency Medical Technicians Deliberately Perform Substandard CPR When Anticipating Poor Prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtker, Henrik; Klausen, Troels M; Lauridsen, Kasper G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) play a crucial role in resuscitating patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Perception of prognosis may affect level and quality of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate if EMTs delay start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR......) if they believe resuscitation to be futile. Furthermore, to investigate if different patient and resuscitation attempt characteristics result in EMTs deliberately performing substandard CPR.Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey study conducted in 2016 through 2017 including EMTs from a Danish...... and compressions). Overall, 22% and 51% would perform substandard CPR if the patient were 80 or 90 years old respectively, 46% if the patient was living in a nursing home and up to 31% due to comorbidity such as cancer. EMTs (51%) would deliberately perform substandard CPR in case of on-going bystander CPR >20...

  10. Liver laceration related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Beydilli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is recognized as a medical procedure performed to maintain vital functions of a person whose cardiac and respiratory functions have stopped. Chest compression is the most essential component of CPR and it is performed on the lower half of the sternum. During CPR, many complications may occur because of chest compressions, especially chest injuries including sternum and rib fractures. Rarely tracheal injury, rupture of the stomach, or liver or spleen injury may also occur as complications.In this study, we present two cases of liver injury caused by resuscitation. With this article, we want to emphasize the importance of making correct chest compressions. Keywords: Resuscitation complications, Emergency service, Liver laceration, Autopsy

  11. Coach, Are You Ready to Save a Life? Injury and Care Knowledge Check for Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plos, Jennifer M.; Polubinsky, Renee L.

    2014-01-01

    Coaches need to become familiar with foundational knowledge on sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), while becoming confident, competent, and proficient in their emergency action plans for using CPR [cardiopulmonary resuscitation] and an AED [automated external defibrillators] to provide immediate and appropriate care to athletes. This article refers to a…

  12. [Study of knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation in sports instructors of public sport centers in Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cuervo, Coral; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (AED) in sport instructors working in public sport centers in Asturias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on sports instructors in May 2014, by completing a self-administered questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AED, with 25 items and four possible answers, only one valid, divided into five categories (emergency medical system in Asturias, initial assessment, circulation,airway and use of AED). Age, gender, work experience as sports instructor, previous training courses, education and training and employment contract were studied as epidemiological variables. A total 26 questionnaires (52%) were collected in public sports centers, and 84% of total responses were correct. It should be emphasized that among the wrong answers, 42.30% did not know what was the first action in a cardiac arrest, and 36.62% did not know how to perform a complete cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the person affected had a perioral injury, with 46.15% not knowing how to respond to a cardiac arrest due to drowning. It is recommended to include the management of cardiac arrest in their workplace in the training plans and the continuing education of sports instructors, at least every two years, according to national laws and laws from Asturias, including also training on the use and management of AED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  14. Paediatric out-of-hospital resuscitation in an area with scattered population (Galicia-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pilar Blanco-Ons; Sánchez-Santos, Luis; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Cegarra-García, María; Barreiro-Díaz, Maria Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) is a rare event in childhood. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of paediatric CRA and the immediate results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Galicia, a community with a very scattered population. Methods All children (aged from newborn to 16 years old) who suffered an out-of-hospital CRA in Galicia and were assisted by the Public Foundation Medical Emergencies of Galicia-061 staff, from June 2002 to February 2005, were included in the study. Data were prospectively recorded following the Utstein's style guidelines. Results Thirty-one cases were analyzed (3.4 CRA annual cases per 100.000 paediatric population). The arrest was respiratory in 16.1% and cardiac in 83.9% of cases. CRA occurred at home in 58.1% of instances. Time CRA to initiation of CPR was shorter than 10 minutes in 32.2% and longer than 20 minutes in 29.0% of cases. 22.6% of children received bystander CPR. The first recorded rhythm was asystole in 67.7% of cases. Bag-mask ventilation was used in 67.7% and in 83.8% oro-tracheal intubation was done. A peripheral venous access was achieved in 67.7% and intraosseous access was used in 16.1% of patients. 93.5% of children were treated with adrenaline. After initial CPR, sustained restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 38.7% of cases. Six children (19.4%) survived until hospital discharge. Four of 5 children with respiratory arrest survived, whereas only 2 of 26 children with cardiac arrest survived until hospital discharge. Conclusion Despite the handicap of a highly disseminated population, paediatric CRA characteristics and CPR results in Galicia are comparable to references from other communities. Programs to increase bystander CPR, equip laypeople with basic CPR skills and to update life support knowledge of health staff are needed to improve outcomes. PMID:17501988

  15. Immediate defibrillation or defibrillation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Soichi; Tanabe, Seizan; Ogawa, Toshio; Akahane, Manabu; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsumoto, Shinya; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether short cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services before defibrillation (CPR first) has a better outcome than immediate defibrillation followed by CPR (shock first) in patients with ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pulseless VT) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed a national database between 2006 and 2008, and included patients aged 18 years or more who had witnessed cardiac arrests and whose first recorded rhythm was VF/pulseless VT. Those study subjects were divided into five groups in accordance with the CPR/defibrillation intervention sequence. Each group was subdivided into call-to-response intervals of attempted defibrillation did not present a better outcome compared with shock first as measured by either one-month survival or neurologically favorable one-month survival, after adjusting for potential confounders. Further studies are required to determine whether CPR first has an advantage over shock first.

  16. Resuscitation on television: realistic or ridiculous? A quantitative observational analysis of the portrayal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in television medical drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dylan; Willoughby, Hannah

    2009-11-01

    Patients' preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) relate to their perception about the likelihood of success of the procedure. There is evidence that the lay public largely base their perceptions about CPR on their experience of the portrayal of CPR in the media. The medical profession has generally been critical of the portrayal of CPR on medical drama programmes although there is no recent evidence to support such views. To compare the patient characteristics, cause and success rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on medical television drama with published resuscitation statistics. Observational study. 88 episodes of television medical drama were reviewed (26 episodes of Casualty, Casualty, 25 episodes of Holby City, 23 episodes of Grey's Anatomy and 14 episodes of ER) screened between July 2008 and April 2009. The patient's age and sex, medical history, presumed cause of arrest, use of CPR and immediate and long term survival rate were recorded. Immediate survival and survival to discharge following CPR. There were a total of 76 cardio-respiratory arrests and 70 resuscitation attempts in the episodes reviewed. The immediate success rate (46%) did not differ significantly from published real life figures (p=0.48). The resuscitation process appeared to follow current guidelines. Survival (or not) to discharge was rarely shown. The average age of patients was 36 years and contrary to reality there was not an age related difference in likely success of CPR in patients less than 65 compared with those 65 and over (p=0.72). The most common cause of cardiac arrest was trauma with only a minor proportion of arrests due to cardio-respiratory causes such as myocardial infarction. Whilst the immediate success rate of CPR in medical television drama does not significantly differ from reality the lack of depiction of poorer medium to long term outcomes may give a falsely high expectation to the lay public. Equally the lay public may perceive that the

  17. A tourniquet assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation augments myocardial perfusion in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengfei; Tang, David; Wu, Xiaobo; Hu, Xianwen; Xu, Jiefeng; Qian, Jie; Yang, Min; Tang, Wanchun

    2015-01-01

    During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), myocardial blood flow generated by chest compression rarely exceeds 35% of its normal level. Cardiac output generated by chest compression decreases gradually with the prolongation of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Early studies have demonstrated that myocardial blood flow during CPR is largely dependent on peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of chest compression in combination with physical control of peripheral vascular resistance assisted by tourniquets on myocardial blood flow during CPR. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for 7 min in ten male domestic pigs weighing between 33 and 37 kg. The animals were then randomized to receive CPR alone or a tourniquet assisted CPR (T-CPR). In the CPR alone group, chest compression was performed by a miniaturized mechanical chest compressor. In the T-CPR group, coincident with the start of resuscitation, the thin elastic tourniquets were wrapped around the four limbs from the distal end to the proximal part. After 2 min of CPR, epinephrine (20 μg/kg) was administered via the femoral vein. After 5 min of CPR, defibrillation was attempted by a single 150 J shock. If resuscitation was not successful, CPR was resumed for 2 min before the next defibrillation. The protocol was continued until successful resuscitation or for a total of 15 min. Five minutes after resuscitation, the elastic tourniquets were removed. The resuscitated animals were observed for 2h. T-CPR generated significantly greater coronary perfusion pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide and carotid blood flow. There was no difference in both intrathoracic positive and negative pressures between the two groups. All animals were successfully resuscitated with a single shock in both groups. There were no significant changes in hemodynamics observed in the animals treated in the T-CPR group before-and-after the release of tourniquets at post-resuscitation 5 min. T-CPR

  18. High-fidelity medical simulation training improves medical students' knowledge and confidence levels in septic shock resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vattanavanit V

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Veerapong Vattanavanit, Jarernporn Kawla-ied, Rungsun Bhurayanontachai Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Septic shock resuscitation bundles have poor compliance worldwide partly due to a lack of knowledge and clinical skills. High-fidelity simulation-based training is a new teaching technology in our faculty which may improve the performance of medical students in the resuscitation process. However, since the efficacy of this training method in our institute is limited, we organized an extra class for this evaluation.Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the effect on medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels after the high-fidelity medical simulation training in septic shock management.Methods: A retrospective study was performed in sixth year medical students during an internal medicine rotation between November 2015 and March 2016. The simulation class was a 2-hour session of a septic shock management scenario and post-training debriefing. Knowledge assessment was determined by a five-question pre-test and post-test examination. At the end of the class, the students completed their confidence evaluation questionnaire.Results: Of the 79 medical students, the mean percentage score ± standard deviation (SD of the post-test examination was statistically significantly higher than the pre-test (66.83%±19.7% vs 47.59%±19.7%, p<0.001. In addition, the student mean percentage confidence level ± SD in management of septic shock was significantly better after the simulation class (68.10%±12.2% vs 51.64%±13.1%, p<0.001. They also strongly suggested applying this simulation class to the current curriculum.Conclusion: High-fidelity medical simulation improved the students’ knowledge and confidence in septic shock resuscitation. This simulation class should be included in the curriculum of the sixth year medical students

  19. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with semi-automated external defibrillator: assessment of the teaching-learning process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue; Quilici, Ana Paula; Martins, Carmem da Costa; de Araújo, Giane Leandro; Pelliciotti, Josikélem da Silva Sodré

    2008-09-01

    Studies demonstrate that, for every minute delayed on defibrillating a heart arrest patient, survival chances decrease by 10%, and that the same chances of survival are 98% effective when it is employed within 30 seconds. While attending a heart arrest patient, it is crucial that the use of external semi-automated defibrillator (AED) is included in the training. The purpose of the present study is to compare Psychomotor Ability and the Theoretical Knowledge of lay people on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using AED, before and after training. This sample was composed of 40 administrative workers of a public institution that were trained on CPR technique using EAD, as an experiment. The significantly higher scores in the assessment instrument items of Psychomotor Ability and Theoretical Knowledge, after training, indicates that the participants have presented improvements in their performances.

  20. A Comparison of Internet-Based Learning and Traditional Classroom Lecture to Learn CPR for Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nima; Omrani, Soghra; Hemmati, Naser

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training…

  1. Old age and poor prognosis increase the likelihood of disagreement between cancer patients and their oncologists on the indication for resuscitation attempt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltbaek, Lena; Michelsen, Hanne M; Nelausen, Knud M

    2013-01-01

    The do-not-resuscitate decision is a common ethical problem. However, the concordance between patients' preferences and physicians' assessments of the indication for cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempt (CPR) has only been modestly investigated.......The do-not-resuscitate decision is a common ethical problem. However, the concordance between patients' preferences and physicians' assessments of the indication for cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempt (CPR) has only been modestly investigated....

  2. Factors Influencing the Success Rate of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Amanda Hanif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is a series of actions performed on cardiac arrest patients. Not all patients receiving CPR can survive. The outcome of CPR is influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to determine the success rate of CPR and the factors influencing it in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2013. Methods: This study was conducted by using 168 patient medical records who underwent CPR and met the inclusion criteria in the Resuscitation Room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from January to December 2013. The collected data consisted of age, gender, pre-arrest diagnosis, initial rhythm, response time and clinical outcome of CPR. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentage. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: The Success rate of CPR was 15.5%. The success rate was higher in patients with cardiac prearrest diagnoses (8.33%, p=0.024. The most common initial rhythm was unshockable rhythms (83.92%, yet patients with shockable heart rhythms had higher success rates (40.74%, p<0.001. All of the surviving patients had response time within the first minute from cardiac arrest. Conclusions: Success rate of CPR in the resuscitation room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2013 is still low. The factors influencing the survival rate are the pre-arrest diagnosis and initial heart rhythm.

  3. Bystander initiated actions in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results from the Amsterdam Resuscitation Study (ARRESUST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, R. A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Koster, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the functioning of the first two links of the chain of survival: 'access' and 'basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)'. In a prospective study, all bystander witnessed circulatory arrests resuscitated by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel, were

  4. Comparison of three instructional methods for teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of an automatic external defibrillator to high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, S; Cummings, P; Quan, L

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate new instructional methods for teaching high school students cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) knowledge, actions and skills. We conducted a cluster-controlled trial of 3 instructional interventions among Seattle area high school students, with random allocation based on classrooms, during 2003-04. We examined two new instructional methods: interactive-computer training and interactive-computer training plus instructor-led (hands-on) practice, and compared them with traditional classroom instruction that included video, teacher demonstration and instructor-led (hands-on) practice, and with a control group. We assessed CPR and AED knowledge, performance of key AED and CPR actions, and essential CPR ventilation and compressions skills 2 days and 2 months after training. All outcomes were transformed to a scale of 0-100%. For all outcome measures mean scores were higher in the instructional groups than in the control group. Two days after training all instructional groups had mean CPR and AED knowledge scores above 75%, with use of the computer program scores were above 80%. Mean scores for key AED actions were above 80% for all groups with training, with hands-on practice enhancing students' positive outcomes for AED pad placement. Students who received hands-on practice more successfully performed CPR actions than those in the computer program only group. In the 2 hands-on practice groups the scores for 3 of the outcomes ranged from 57 to 74%; they were 32 to 54% in the computer only group. For the outcome of continuing CPR until the AED was available scores were high, 89 to 100% in all 3 training groups. Mean CPR skill scores were low in all groups. The highest mean score for successful ventilations was 15% and for compressions, 29%. The pattern of results was similar after 2 months. We found evidence that interactive computer based self instruction alone was sufficient to teach CPR and AED knowledge and AED

  5. Importance of basic CPR techniques. A study in the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arturo Abraldes Valeiras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Spain many people die from diseases related to heart. Heart attack is the main cause of such deaths. Know and control the basic techniques of basic Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are essential to help a person away from these features. This study examined 1 the importance of knowing these techniques in the general population, and 2 the perception of the difficulty of understanding and application of techniques. We used a questionnaire designed "ad hoc" as a tool for collecting information. The instrument was subjected to validation and reliability for the study. The questionnaire was completed by 235 volunteers aged between 10 and 65. We performed a descriptive analysis, based on gender and the variables importance of knowledge and learning / apply techniques. Among the most relevant results, we emphasize an interest of society to improve training in this type of knowledge. Training would be ideal in most age groups of people (teens to seniors. Likewise, CPR techniques are easy to understand and execute a lesser extent, relevant perception among people who acknowledge and application these techniques

  6. Bystander-initiated CPR in an Asian metropolitan: Does the socioeconomic status matter?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Chang, Anna Marie; Chen, Wei-Ting; Liu, Sot Shih-Hung; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Shey-Ying; Lin, Chien-Hao; Cheng, Ming-Tai; Chong, Kah-Meng; Wang, Hui-Chih; Yang, Chih-Wei; Liao, Mao-Wei; Wang, Chen-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chi-Hung; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Lee, Bin-Chou; Chien, Kuo-Long; Lai, Mei-Shu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and patient outcomes of out of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in an Asian metropolitan area. Methods We performed a retrospective study in a prospectively collected cohort from the Utstein registry of adult non-traumatic OHCAs in Taipei, Taiwan. Average real estate value was assessed as the first proxy of SES. Twelve administrative districts in Taipei City were categorized into low versus high SES areas to test the association. The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR, and the secondary outcome was patient survival status. Factors associated with bystander-initiated CPR were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. The mean household income was assessed as the second proxy of SES to validate the association. Results From January 1, 2008 to December 30, 2009, 3573 OHCAs received prehospital resuscitation in the community. Among these, 617 (17.3%) cases received bystander CPR. The proportion of bystander CPR in low-SES vs. high-SES areas was 14.5% vs. 19.6% (p CPR in low-SES areas was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: [0.60–0.88]) after adjusting for age, gender, witnessed status, public collapse, and OHCA unrecognized by the online dispatcher. Survival to discharge rate was significantly lower in low-SES areas vs. high-SES areas (4.3% vs. 6.8%; p CPR, and demonstrated worse survival outcomes. PMID:24056397

  7. 30 : 2: A Game Designed to Promote the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Boada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is a first-aid key survival technique used to stimulate breathing and keep blood flowing to the heart. Its effective administration can significantly increase the survival chances of cardiac arrest victims. We propose 30 : 2, a videogame designed to introduce the main steps of the CPR protocol. It is not intended for certification and training purpose. Driven by the 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines we have designed a game composed of eight mini games corresponding to the main steps of the protocol. The player acts as a helper and has to solve a different challenge. We present a detailed description of the game creation process presenting the requirements, the design decisions, and the implementation details. In addition, we present some first impressions of our testing users (25 children, five of each age from 8 to 12 years old and 12 males and 13 females. We evaluated clarity of instructions and three settings of the game: the aesthetics of scenarios, the playability, and the enjoyability of each mini game. All games were well punctuated, and there are no significantly differences between their sex. The proposed game can be a suitable tool to disseminate and promote CPR knowledge.

  8. Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the demographic characteristics of patients Who suffered cardiac arrest in our ICUs and to identify thOse factors influencing outcome after resuscitation following cardiac arrest. We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent CPR in the two ICUs at the ...

  9. Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwes, Aline; van Poppelen, Daniel; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Zandstra, Durk F.; Weinstein, Henry C.; Tromp, Selma C.; Zandbergen, Eveline G. J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Horn, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM) can occur in patients admitted after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and is considered to have a poor prognosis. The origin can be cortical and/or subcortical and this might be an important determinant for treatment options and prognosis. The aim of

  10. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana hospitals: Nurse managers’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rajeswaran

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR with functional equipment and adequate resources. The objectives of the study were to identify unit managers’ perceptions about challenges encountered when performing CPR interventions in the two referral public hospitals in Botswana. These results could be used to recommend more effective CPR strategies for Botswana’s hospitals. Interviews, comprising two quantitative sections with closed ended questions and one qualitative section with semi-structured questions, were conducted with 22 unit managers. The quantitative data indicated that all unit managers had at least eight years’ nursing experience, and could identify CPR shortcomings in their hospitals. Only one interviewee had never performed CPR. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the hospital units sometimes had too few staff members and did not have fully equipped emergency trolleys and/or equipment. No CPR teams and no CPR policies and guidelines existed. Nurses and doctors reportedly lacked CPR knowledge and skills. No debriefing services were provided after CPR encounters. The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and nurses and the lack of debriefing sessions after CPR attempts. Die slagoffers van padongelukke, asook persone wat hart- en ander mediese noodtoestande ervaar, kan hulle lewens verloor omdat daar nie opgeleide personeel met funksionele toerusting en voldoende hulpbronne beskikbaar is om effektiewe kardiopulmonale resussitasie (KPR te doen nie. Die studie het ten doel

  11. Willingness to Perform Chest Compression Only in Witnessed Cardiac Arrest Victims versus Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen Yaghmour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Performing immediate bystander Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR is the most important factor that determines survival from cardiac arrest. Recommended mouth to mouth ventilation maneuver during CPR has led to lower rate of CPR performance in the population. Objectives: The present survey aimed to evaluate the willingness of nurses at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for performing CPR versus chest-compression-only CPR. Patients and Methods: During a CPR course, we performed a survey on 25 nurses from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This survey included age and gender of the participants. In the first question, they were asked about their willingness to perform CPR with mouth to mouth breathing for witnessed cardiac arrest victims. In the second question, they were asked about their willingness to perform chest compression only for cardiac arrest victims. Results: Among the participating nurses, 96% were female with a mean age of 31 years. Only 40% were willing to perform CPR that requires mouth to mouth ventilation. On the other hand, 92% were willing to perform chest compression only without mouth to mouth ventilation. The mean age of the nurses who would do CPR was lower compared to those who would not. Conclusions: In this survey, we demonstrated that eliminating mouth to mouth ventilation maneuver could lead to markedly higher willingness to perform CPR for witnessed cardiac arrest victims in CPR trained nursing personnel. Our study is in agreement with other studies advocating that chest-compression-only CPR could lead to higher bystander resuscitation efforts.

  12. [Resuscitation by laypersons: lack of knowledge of first-aid measures in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, N; Engelmann, L; Pfeiffer, D

    2005-12-02

    Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of death. In Germany, only 10% of patients will survive reanimation. The prognosis is mainly determined by the first-aid skills of accidental witnesses. The reaction of 1007 German-speaking adults (462 males, 545 females, median age 39 years) was investigated in an emergency scenario with symptoms of sudden cardiac death in an acquaintance. Afterwards a self-assessment of their first-aid skills, such as cardiac compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation was made. 94% of the interviewees would call professional aid at once. Diagnostic skills, as searching for pulse or checking for breath would be done by 26 and 21%, respectively. The most frequently mentioned therapeutic skill was positioning the victim in stable lateral position (37%), but very less frequently cardiac compression (6%) and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (10%). When asked, 51 (81%) of those interviewed regarded their skills in cardiac compression and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation as adequate. To some extent there were differences in favor of young people and those from East Germany. These representative data suggest that (a) ABC-like first-aid rules are largely unknown among the population; (b) the value of a stable lateral position is overestimated and (c) first-aid skills of elderly persons are worst. A significant improvement of first-aid skills of the German population is mandatory in order to improve in future the outcome of sudden cardiac death.

  13. Debriefing after resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Keith; Perkins, Gavin D

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of suboptimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivery in practice has driven interest in strategies to improve CPR quality. Early data suggest that debriefing may be an effective strategy. In this review, we analyse types of debriefing and the evidence to support their usage. There is a general lack of standardization in terminology and methods used for debriefing that limits evaluation. Debriefing interventions generally take two different formats. Hot debriefing is one where individuals or teams are provided with debriefing immediately after the event. Although perhaps the most widely used and easiest to implement, research evidence for its effectiveness is scant. Cold debriefing, where individuals or teams are provided with feedback sometime after the event, is associated with improvements in process and patient outcomes. Such feedback usually involves the use of objective performance data, such as defibrillator downloads or videotape records. Before and after cohort studies have found that both verbal debriefing in groups and individual written feedback seem to be associated with an improvement in performance. Debriefing is a useful strategy to improve resuscitation performance, but the optimal delivery method remains unclear. Future high-quality research is required to identify the most effective form of debriefing.

  14. Mechanical CPR devices compared to manual CPR during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ambulance transport: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Aims The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to address the question: “In pre-hospital adult cardiac arrest (asystole, pulseless electrical activity, pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation), does the use of mechanical Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) devices compared to manual CPR during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ambulance transport, improve outcomes (e.g. Quality of CPR, Return Of Spontaneous Circulation, Survival)”. Methods Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane database for systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Embase, and AHA EndNote Master Library were systematically searched. Further references were gathered from cross-references from articles and reviews as well as forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar. The inclusion criteria for this review included manikin and human studies of adult cardiac arrest and anti-arrhythmic agents, peer-review. Excluded were review articles, case series and case reports. Results Out of 88 articles identified, only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. Of these 10 articles, 1 was Level of Evidence (LOE) 1, 4 LOE 2, 3 LOE 3, 0 LOE 4, 2 LOE 5. 4 studies evaluated the quality of CPR in terms of compression adequacy while the remaining six studies evaluated on clinical outcomes in terms of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge and Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC). 7 studies were supporting the clinical question, 1 neutral and 2 opposing. Conclusion In this review, we found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of mechanical CPR devices in settings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and during ambulance transport. While there is some low quality evidence suggesting that mechanical CPR can improve consistency and reduce interruptions in chest compressions, there is no evidence that

  15. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrés Vargas-Garzón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reanimation’s guidelines dictated by the AHA (American Heart Association are the strategies to follow in the envi­ronment of any situation related to cardiac arrest. They are acquired after the analysis of the evidence available in reani­mation from higher to less quality, with the best neurological results. After years of observation, was achieved to establish that survival behind cardiac arrest is, in general, low (6%, except that any witness starts immediately cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR maneuvers; therefore, medical personal must know and practice these maneuvers. With these con­siderations, it’s necessary to emphasize in the theoretical training of CPR of all health professional and laity, which guarantee everybody be prepared to emergency system ac­tivation, brain’s preservation and defibrillate to recuperate heart and life. The actual approach that combines compres­sions and defibrillation to closed chest, rescue ventilation and cardio tonic drugs. The guidelines AHA 2010, focus on increase frequency and quality of CPR. The objective of this article is to recognize various changes in these guidelines in cardiopulmonary reanimation and promote the continued education’s importance in reanimation.

  16. Managing cardiac arrest with refractory ventricular fibrillation in the emergency department: Conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation versus extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsieh, Yung-Kun; Lee, Chien-Hui; Wu, Chang-Te; Chou, Chu-Chung; Yen, Hsu-Heng

    2015-07-01

    Refractory ventricular fibrillation, resistant to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is a life threatening rhythm encountered in the emergency department. Although previous reports suggest the use of extracorporeal CPR can improve the clinical outcomes in patients with prolonged cardiac arrest, the effectiveness of this novel strategy for refractory ventricular fibrillation is not known. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation managed with conventional CPR or extracorporeal CPR in our institution. This is a retrospective chart review study from an emergency department in a tertiary referral medical center. We identified 209 patients presenting with cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation between September 2011 and September 2013. Of these, 60 patients were enrolled with ventricular fibrillation refractory to resuscitation for more than 10 min. The clinical outcome of patients with ventricular fibrillation received either conventional CPR, including defibrillation, chest compression, and resuscitative medication (C-CPR, n = 40) or CPR plus extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR, n = 20) were compared. The overall survival rate was 35%, and 18.3% of patients were discharged with good neurological function. The mean duration of CPR was longer in the E-CPR group than in the C-CPR group (69.90 ± 49.6 min vs 34.3 ± 17.7 min, p = 0.0001). Patients receiving E-CPR had significantly higher rates of sustained return of spontaneous circulation (95.0% vs 47.5%, p = 0.0009), and good neurological function at discharge (40.0% vs 7.5%, p = 0.0067). The survival rate in the E-CPR group was higher (50% vs 27.5%, p = 0.1512) at discharge and (50% vs 20%, p = 0. 0998) at 1 year after discharge. The management of refractory ventricular fibrillation in the emergency department remains challenging, as evidenced by an overall survival rate of 35% in this study. Patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation receiving E-CPR

  17. Basic life support skills of high school students before and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation training: a longitudinal investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meissner Theresa M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR significantly improves survival after a sudden cardiopulmonary collapse. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS knowledge and performance of high school students before and after CPR training. Methods This study included 132 teenagers (mean age 14.6 ± 1.4 years. Students completed a two-hour training course that provided theoretical background on sudden cardiac death (SCD and a hands-on CPR tutorial. They were asked to perform BLS on a manikin to simulate an SCD scenario before the training. Afterwards, participants encountered the same scenario and completed a questionnaire for self-assessment of their pre- and post-training confidence. Four months later, we assessed the knowledge retention rate of the participants with a BLS performance score. Results Before the training, 29.5% of students performed chest compressions as compared to 99.2% post-training (P P Conclusions BLS training in high school seems highly effective considering the minimal amount of previous knowledge the students possess. We observed significant improvement and a good retention rate four months after training. Increasing the number of trained students may minimize the reluctance to conduct bystander CPR and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiopulmonary collapse.

  18. Disseminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training by distributing 35,000 personal manikins among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Rasmussen, Lars S; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because most cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mass distribution of CPR instructional materials among schoolchildren. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: We distributed 35,002 resuscitation manikins to pupils (12 to 14 years of age) at 806 primary schools. Using the enclosed 24-minute instructional DVD, they trained in CPR and subsequently used the kit to train family and friends (second tier). They completed a questionnaire on who had trained...... the project did not increase significantly compared with the previous year (25.0% versus 27.9%; P=0.16). CONCLUSIONS: CPR training can be disseminated in a population by distributing personal resuscitation manikins among children in primary schools. The teachers felt able to easily facilitate CPR training...

  19. CPR: A Real Lifesaver (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath CPR: A Real Lifesaver KidsHealth > For Kids > CPR: A ... Let's find out how it works. What Is CPR? Cardio means "of the heart " and pulmonary means " ...

  20. Understanding and improving low bystander CPR rates: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Christian; Stiell, Ian G; Wells, George A

    2008-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial yet weak link in the chain of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We sought to understand the determinants of bystander CPR and the factors associated with successful training. For this systematic review, we searched 11 electronic databases, 1 trial registry and 9 scientific websites. We performed hand searches and contacted 6 content experts. We reviewed without restriction all communications pertaining to who should learn CPR, what should be taught, when to repeat training, where to give CPR instructions and why people lack the motivation to learn and perform CPR. We used standardized forms to review papers for inclusion, quality and data extraction. We grouped publications by category and classified recommendations using a standardized classification system that was based on level of evidence. We reviewed 2409 articles and selected 411 for complete evaluation. We included 252 of the 411 papers in this systematic review. Differences in their study design precluded a meta-analysis. We classified 22 recommendations; those with the highest scores were 1) 9-1-1 dispatch- assisted CPR instructions, 2) teaching CPR to family members of cardiac patients, 3) Braslow's self-training video, 4) maximizing time spent using manikins and 5) teaching the concepts of ambiguity and diffusion of responsibility. Recommendations not supported by evidence include mass training events, pulse taking prior to CPR by laymen and CPR using chest compressions alone. We evaluated and classified the potential impact of interventions that have been proposed to improve bystander CPR rates. Our results may help communities design interventions to improve their bystander CPR rates.

  1. Changing attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people: a 15-year follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P E

    2009-03-01

    while it is well established that individual patient preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may change with time, the stability of population preferences, especially during periods of social and economic change, has received little attention.

  2. Design of the RINSE trial: the rapid infusion of cold normal saline by paramedics during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Conor; Bernard, Stephen; Cameron, Peter; Jacobs, Ian; Smith, Karen; Hein, Cindy; Grantham, Hugh; Finn, Judith

    2011-10-13

    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH) (33 °C for 12-24 hours) as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres) ice-cold (4 °C) normal saline.The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01172678.

  3. Experience with a hospital policy on not offering cardiopulmonary resuscitation when believed more harmful than beneficial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Andrew M; Brackett, Sharon; Cadge, Wendy; Krakauer, Eric L; Robinson, Ellen M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of age, race, and functional status on decisions not to offer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite patient or surrogate requests that CPR be performed. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations between 2007 and 2013 at a large academic hospital with a not offering CPR policy. There were 134 cases of disagreement over whether to provide CPR. In 45 cases (33.6%), the patient or surrogate agreed to a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order after initial ethics consultation. In 67 (75.3%) of the remaining 89 cases, the ethics committee recommended not offering CPR. In the other 22 (24.7%) cases, the ethics committee recommended offering CPR. There was no significant relationship between age, race, or functional status and the recommendation not to offer CPR. Patients who were not offered CPR were more likely to be critically ill (61.2% vs 18.2%, P CPR was 90.2%. There was no association between age, race, or functional status and the decision not to offer CPR made in consultation with an ethics committee. Orders to withhold CPR were more common among critically ill patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CPR in the Schools: Training Students to Save Heart Attack Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Royce J.

    1978-01-01

    A community cardiac emergency medical plan should include training of family and co-workers of high risk patients, including teenage students. The American Heart Association lists ways to introduce cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) into school curricula and describes the plan implemented in Pennsylvania. (MF)

  5. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention Designed to Increase CPR Training among Pregnant Pool Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girasek, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a brief videotape could motivate pregnant pool owners to be trained in infant/child cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Women were recruited from prenatal classes in South Florida. Eligible volunteers were randomized to view a video or receive standard treatment, after completing a questionnaire. The video explained…

  6. Successful Prolonged Mechanical CPR in a Severely Poisoned Hypothermic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Piacentini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (m-CPR devices are an alternative to manual CPR, but their efficacy has been subject to debate. We present a case of a patient with full-neurologic recovery after prolonged m-CPR. The patient presented with severe hypothermia (internal temperature 24°C and poisoning (sedatives/hypnotics. Hepatic perfusion and metabolism are considered keys to restore spontaneous circulation. During this period no problems related to the device or patient positioning were encountered. Delivery of high-quality CPR and prolonged resuscitation were achieved. We confirm that ventilations asynchronous with chest compressions can be a problem. Reduction in chest measurements can hamper lung ventilation. A synchronous mode of manual ventilation (30 : 2 seems to be the best solution. The patient had an initial period of manual CPR. No damage to any organ or structure was noted. This case is of further interest because our EMS helicopters can fly 24 hours a day and m-CPR devices could play an important role as a “bridge” in patients when active rewarming by cardiopulmonary bypass is indicated (CPB.

  7. An assessment of resuscitation quality in the television drama Emergency Room: guideline non-compliance and low-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation lead to a favorable outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Spelten, Oliver; Marks, Jörg; Hellmich, Martin; Böttiger, Bernd W; Wetsch, Wolfgang A

    2014-08-01

    Two earlier studies found that outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the television medical drama Emergency Room (ER) is not realistic. No study has yet evaluated CPR quality in ER. Retrospective analysis of CPR quality in episodes of ER. Three independent board-certified emergency physicians trained in CPR and the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines reviewed ER episodes in two 5-year time-frames (2001-2005 and 2005-2009). Congruency with the corresponding 2000 and 2005 AHA guidelines was determined for each CPR scene. None. None. To evaluate whether CPR is in agreement with the specific algorithms of the AHA guidelines. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-U-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (PCPR scene was in agreement with the published AHA guidelines. However, low-quality CPR and non-compliance with the guidelines resulted in favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Video in Advance Care Planning for Progressive Pancreas and Hepatobiliary Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Chen, Ling Y.; Gary, Kristen A.; Li, Yuelin; Agre, Patricia; Levin, Tomer T.; Reidy, Diane L.; Meng, Raymond D.; Segal, Neil H.; Yu, Kenneth H.; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important advance directive (AD) topic in patients with progressive cancer; however such discussions are challenging. Objective This study investigates whether video educational information about CPR engenders broader advance care planning (ACP) discourse. Methods Patients with progressive pancreas or hepatobiliary cancer were randomized to an educational CPR video or a similar CPR narrative. The primary end-point was the difference in ACP documentation one month posttest between arms. Secondary end-points included study impressions; pre- and post-intervention knowledge of and preferences for CPR and mechanical ventilation; and longitudinal patient outcomes. Results Fifty-six subjects were consented and analyzed. Rates of ACP documentation (either formal ADs or documented discussions) were 40% in the video arm (12/30) compared to 15% in the narrative arm (4/26), OR=3.6 [95% CI: 0.9–18.0], p=0.07. Post-intervention knowledge was higher in both arms. Posttest, preferences for CPR had changed in the video arm but not in the narrative arm. Preferences regarding mechanical ventilation did not change in either arm. The majority of subjects in both arms reported the information as helpful and comfortable to discuss, and they recommended it to others. More deaths occurred in the video arm compared to the narrative arm, and more subjects died in hospice settings in the video arm. Conclusions This pilot randomized trial addressing downstream ACP effects of video versus narrative decision tools demonstrated a trend towards more ACP documentation in video subjects. This trend, as well as other video effects, is the subject of ongoing study. PMID:23725233

  9. Effects of flashlight guidance on chest compression performance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a noisy environment

    OpenAIRE

    You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Chang, Chul Ho; Park, Incheol; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, SeungHo; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2012-01-01

    Background In real cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), noise can arise from instructional voices and environmental sounds in places such as a battlefield and industrial and high-traffic areas. A feedback device using a flashing light was designed to overcome noise-induced stimulus saturation during CPR. This study was conducted to determine whether ?flashlight? guidance influences CPR performance in a simulated noisy setting. Materials and methods We recruited 30 senior medical students with...

  10. Assessment of the success of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts performed in a Turkish university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembeci, Kamil; Yildirim, Ayse; Turan, Eser; Buget, Mehmet; Camci, Emre; Senturk, Mert; Tugrul, Mehmet; Akpir, Kutay

    2006-02-01

    The success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may differ from institution to institution, even within different sites in the same institution. A variety of factors may influence the outcome. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of CPR attempts guided by the current standards and aimed to define the factors influencing the outcome following in-hospital cardiac arrest. One hundred and thirty-four patients who required CPR were studied prospectively. Different variables for the CPR performance were recorded using forms designed for this study in the light of the guidelines. In these CPR forms various data including the demographics, history, monitoring, number, composition and experience of the anaesthesiologists, the site of CPR, time of day, the delay before onset of CPR, tracheal intubation, duration of arrest, initial rhythm in ECG monitored patients, management of CPR, drug administration and reversible causes of cardiac arrest were recorded. Our rates of immediate survival, survival at 24 h and survival to discharge 49.3%, 28.5% and 13.4%, respectively. The extent of monitoring prior to arrest, the attendance of one or more experienced anesthesiologists in the CPR team, CPR during office hours, CPR in ICU or operating room, early initiation of CPR and tracheal intubation prior to arrest were found as the factors increasing discharge survival. We conclude that early initiation of CPR with an experienced team in a well-equipped hospital sites increases the discharge survival rate following cardiac arrest.

  11. Utilization of donors who have suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Kaufman, Stuart S; Girlanda, Raffaele; Little, Cheryl M; Rekhtman, Yuliya; Raofi, Vandad; Laurin, Jaqueline M; Shetty, Kirti; Fennelly, Erin M; Johnson, Lynt B; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2008-10-15

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a person destined to become an organ donor has been associated with overall poor donor quality, especially for the intestinal donor, as splanchnic vasoconstriction that is intended to preserve coronary and cerebral blood flow may result in clinically relevant intestinal ischemia. Outcomes of recipients who receive intestine grafts that have suffered CPR are unknown. We sought to analyze our clinical experience in using intestinal grafts from donors who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation and to evaluate the outcome of recipients of organs coming from resuscitated donors when compared with recipients of nonresuscitated donors. We retrospectively analyzed the donor and recipient charts of all of our intestinal transplants with regard to the performance of donor CPR. Sixty-seven intestinal transplants were performed in 65 patients from November 2003 to December 2007. Twelve donors (18%) were identified as having suffered cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. Mean duration of CPR was 19.3+/-12.7 min. Terminal laboratory profiles of CPR donors and non-CPR donors were similar. Of the 12 resuscitated grafts, two were used for multivisceral, one for a modified multivisceral, seven for liver-intestine, and two for isolated intestinal transplant. There were no significant differences in outcome parameters such as operative time, blood use, ventilation days, length of stay, time to enteral independence, rejection, enteric bacteremia, and survival between the 12 resuscitated grafts and the 55 nonresuscitated grafts. A donor history of cardiac arrest should not automatically exclude the use of the intestine graft for transplantation.

  12. The AED in resuscitation: it's not just about the shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The automated external defibrillator (AED), in combination with effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is a critical part of the American Heart Association's "Chain of survival." Newer guidelines have simplified resuscitation and emphasized the importance of CPR in providing rapid and deep compressions with minimal interruptions; in fact, CPR should resume immediately after the shock given by the AED, without the delay entailed in checking for pulse or rhythm conversion. Our experience with the AED aboard aircraft, showing 40% long-term survival with the AED in ventricular fibrillation, demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the device. Despite this and other reports of successful AED deployment, AEDs are not yet available at all public locations. Prospective research, as undertaken by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, will be the key to future refinements of the guidelines and enhanced survival with use of the AED in sudden cardiac arrest.

  13. Performance review of regional emergency medical service pre‐arrival cardiopulmonary resuscitation with or without dispatcher instruction: a population‐based observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Hidetada; Kawai, Yasuyuki; Asai, Hideki; Seki, Tadahiko; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Urisono, Yasuyuki; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate variations in emergency medical service (EMS) pre‐arrival cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), including both bystander CPR without dispatch assistance and dispatch‐assisted CPR (DACPR). Methods We carried out an observational study by implementing EMS pre‐arrival CPR reports in three fire agencies. We included adult, non‐traumatic, and non‐EMS witnessed out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrests. This reporting system comprised the dispatch instruction process and bystander CP...

  14. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rafati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262 who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and Chi Square tests. Of the patients included (n=2262, 741 patients (32.8% had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9. The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00 was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00. Furthermore, 413 (18.4% cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7% on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4% cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome.

  15. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC...... and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. RESULTS: The study...... included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRprior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduring group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRprior...

  16. Optimal control of CPR procedure using hemodynamic circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Suzanne M.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Jung, Eunok

    2007-12-25

    A method for determining a chest pressure profile for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes the steps of representing a hemodynamic circulation model based on a plurality of difference equations for a patient, applying an optimal control (OC) algorithm to the circulation model, and determining a chest pressure profile. The chest pressure profile defines a timing pattern of externally applied pressure to a chest of the patient to maximize blood flow through the patient. A CPR device includes a chest compressor, a controller communicably connected to the chest compressor, and a computer communicably connected to the controller. The computer determines the chest pressure profile by applying an OC algorithm to a hemodynamic circulation model based on the plurality of difference equations.

  17. Public cardiopulmonary resuscitation training rates and awareness of hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a cross-sectional survey of Victorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Smith, Karen; Case, Rosalind; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Finn, Judith

    2017-04-01

    To provide contemporary Australian data on the public's training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and awareness of hands-only CPR. A cross-sectional telephone survey in April 2016 of adult residents of the Australian state of Victoria was conducted. Primary outcomes were rates of CPR training and awareness of hands-only CPR. Of the 404 adults surveyed (mean age 55 ± 17 years, 59% female, 73% metropolitan residents), 274 (68%) had undergone CPR training. Only 50% (n = 201) had heard of hands-only CPR, with most citing first-aid courses (41%) and media (36%) as sources of information. Of those who had undergone training, the majority had received training more than 5 years previously (52%) and only 28% had received training or refreshed training in the past 12 months. Most received training in a formal first-aid class (43%), and received training as a requirement for work (67%). The most common reasons for not having training were: they had never thought about it (59%), did not have time (25%) and did not know where to learn (15%). Compared to standard CPR, a greater proportion of respondents were willing to provide hands-only CPR for strangers (67% vs 86%, P CPR training rates and awareness of hands-only CPR. Further promotion of hands-only CPR and self-instruction (e.g. DVD kits or online) may see further improvements in CPR training and bystander CPR rates. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Can a flowchart improve the quality of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, B; Ziegler, M; Hüpfl, M; Fleischhackl, R; Krychtiuk, K A; Schebesta, K

    2013-07-01

    Since the introduction of basic life support in the 1950s, on-going efforts have been made to improve the quality of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Even though bystander-CPR can increase the chance of survival almost fourfold, the rates of bystander initiated CPR have remained low and rarely exceed 20%. Lack of confidence and fear of committing mistakes are reasons why helpers refrain from initiating CPR. The authors tested the hypothesis that quality and confidence of bystander-CPR can be increased by supplying lay helpers with a basic life support flowchart when commencing CPR, in a simulated resuscitation model. After giving written informed consent, 83 medically untrained laypersons were randomised to perform basic life support for 300s with or without a supportive flowchart. The primary outcome parameter was hands-off time (HOT). Furthermore, the participants' confidence in their actions on a 10-point Likert-like scale and time-to-chest compressions were assessed. Overall HOT was 147±30 s (flowchart) vs. 169±55 s (non-flowchart), p=0.024. Time to chest compressions was significantly longer in the flowchart group (60±24 s vs. 23±18 s, p<0.0001). Participants in the flowchart group were significantly more confident when performing BLS than the non-flowchart counterparts (7±2 vs. 5±2, p=0.0009). A chart provided at the beginning of resuscitation attempts improves quality of CPR significantly by decreasing HOT and increasing the participants' confidence when performing CPR. As reducing HOT is associated with improved outcome and positively impacting the helpers' confidence is one of the main obstacles to initiate CPR for lay helpers, charts could be utilised as simple measure to improve outcome in cardiopulmonary arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Augmenting communication and decision making in the intensive care unit with a cardiopulmonary resuscitation video decision support tool: a temporal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCannon, Jessica B; O'Donnell, Walter J; Thompson, B Taylor; El-Jawahri, Areej; Chang, Yuchiao; Ananian, Lillian; Bajwa, Ednan K; Currier, Paul F; Parikh, Mihir; Temel, Jennifer S; Cooper, Zara; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Volandes, Angelo E

    2012-12-01

    Effective communication between intensive care unit (ICU) providers and families is crucial given the complexity of decisions made regarding goals of therapy. Using video images to supplement medical discussions is an innovative process to standardize and improve communication. In this six-month, quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study we investigated the impact of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) video decision support tool upon knowledge about CPR among surrogate decision makers for critically ill adults. We interviewed surrogate decision makers for patients aged 50 and over, using a structured questionnaire that included a four-question CPR knowledge assessment similar to those used in previous studies. Surrogates in the post-intervention arm viewed a three-minute video decision support tool about CPR before completing the knowledge assessment and completed questions about perceived value of the video. We recruited 23 surrogates during the first three months (pre-intervention arm) and 27 surrogates during the latter three months of the study (post-intervention arm). Surrogates viewing the video had more knowledge about CPR (p=0.008); average scores were 2.0 (SD 1.1) and 2.9 (SD 1.2) (out of a total of 4) in pre-intervention and post-intervention arms. Surrogates who viewed the video were comfortable with its content (81% very) and 81% would recommend the video. CPR preferences for patients at the time of ICU discharge/death were distributed as follows: pre-intervention: full code 78%, DNR 22%; post-intervention: full code 59%, DNR 41% (p=0.23).

  20. [Materials for the paediatric resuscitation trolley or backpack: Expert recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Rodríguez Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo Álvarez, Ángel; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia; Calvo Macías, Custodio

    2017-07-05

    Cardio-respiratory arrest (CPA) is infrequent in children, but it can occur in any place and at any time. This fact means that every health care facility must always have the staff and material ready to resuscitate a child. These recommendations are the consensus of experts of the Spanish Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation Group on the material and medication for paediatric and neonatal resuscitation and their distribution and use. CPR trolleys and backpacks must include the essential material to quickly and efficiently perform a paediatric CPR. At least one CPR trolley must be available in every Primary Care facility, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department, and Pre-hospital Emergency Areas, as well as in paediatric wards, paediatric ambulatory areas, and radiology suites. This trolley must be easily accessible and exclusively include the essential items to perform a CPR and to assist children (from newborns to adolescents) who present with a life-threatening event. Such material must be familiar to all healthcare staff and also include the needed spare parts, as well as enough drug doses. It must also be re-checked periodically. The standardisation and unification of the material and medication of paediatric CPR carts, trolleys, and backpacks, as well as the training of the personnel in their use are an essential part of the paediatric CPR. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Motivation and adult learning: a survey among hospital personnel attending a CPR course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter

    2008-03-01

    A massive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training programme is continued in most hospitals to make hospital personnel ready to take action in cases of cardiac arrest. Motivated course participants learn more and perform better than unmotivated course participants. This study investigates whether hospital personnel are motivated to participate in CPR courses and whether motivation correlates with important assumptions in adult learning. A survey measuring learning motivation via the MSLQ instrument was performed among 361 hospital personnel before attending a CPR course. Assumptions of adult learning were identified and data were analysed in relation to these assumptions. Hospital personnel are generally motivated for learning CPR. Respondents who had been prepared for the course, who had participated in the decision about attending the course, who were working in high-risk area for cardiac arrest or were nursing personnel working in long-time close contact with patients were more motivated to CPR training than other hospital personnel. It seems like motivation correlates with adult learning assumptions such as the learners need to know, the learners self-concept, readiness to learn and orientation to learning. This study supports the assumption that CPR training should be based on an adult learning model. As preparedness, participation, readiness and relevance seem to be key factors, we may want to include these factors when training hospital personnel in CPR skills.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has become mandatory in many countries, but whether legislation has translated into implementation of CPR training is largely unknown. We assessed CPR training of students following 8 years of legislative mandates in Denmark. METHODS...... to identify factors associated with completed CPR training. Information from 63.1% of eligible schools was collected: 49.3% (n=611) of leadership and 48.2% (n=665) of teachers responded. According to teachers, 28.4% (95% CI 25.0% to 32.0%) and 10.3% (95% CI 8.1% to 12.8%) of eligible classes had completed CPR...... and automated external defibrillator training, respectively. Among leadership, 60.2% (95% CI 56.2% to 64.1%) reported CPR training had occurred during the 3 years prior to the survey. Factors associated with completed CPR training included believing other schools were conducting training (odds ratio [OR] 9...

  3. Implementing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Programs in High Schools: Iowa's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, Derek B; Atkins, Dianne L

    2017-02-01

    To understand perceived barriers to providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education, implementation processes, and practices in high schools. Iowa has required CPR as a graduation requirement since 2011 as an unfunded mandate. A cross-sectional study was performed through multiple choice surveys sent to Iowa high schools to collect data about school demographics, details of CPR programs, cost, logistics, and barriers to implementation, as well as automated external defibrillator training and availability. Eighty-four schools responded (26%), with the most frequently reported school size of 100-500 students and faculty size of 25-50. When the law took effect, 51% of schools had training programs already in place; at the time of the study, 96% had successfully implemented CPR training. Perceived barriers to implementation were staffing, time commitment, equipment availability, and cost. The average estimated startup cost was CPR training programs can be implemented with reasonable resource and time allocations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Certified Basic Life Support Instructors Assess Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Poorly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...... out of 3 CPR cycles with 30±2 chest compressions at a depth of 50-60mm and rate of 100-120 min-1. Correct rescue breathing was defined as ≥50% efficient breaths in 3 CPR cycles with visible, but not excessive, manikin’s chest raise (for instructors) or a volume of 500-600 mL (manikin data).Results: We...... of CPR skills may be beneficial to ensure high-quality learning outcome.Author Disclosures: C. Hansen: None. S.E. Rasmussen: None. M.A. Nebsbjerg: None. M. Stærk: None. B. Løfgren: None....

  5. Return of consciousness during ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaussen, Alexander; Shepherd, Matthew; Nehme, Ziad; Smith, Karen; Bernard, Stephen; Mitra, Biswadev

    2015-01-01

    Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may generate sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure to make the patient conscious. The incidence and management of this phenomenon are not well described. This systematic review aims to identifying cases where CPR-induced consciousness is mentioned in the literature and explore its management options. The databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library were searched from their commencement to the 8th July 2014. We also searched Google (scholar) for grey literature. We combined MeSH terms and text words for consciousness and CPR, and included studies of all types. The search yielded 1997 unique records, of which 50 abstracts were reviewed. Nine reports, describing 10 patients, were relevant. Six of the patients had CPR performed by mechanical devices, three of these patients were sedated. Four patients arrested in the out-of-hospital setting and six arrested in hospital. There were four survivors. Varying levels of consciousness were described in all reports, including purposeful arm movements, verbal communication, and resuscitation interference. Management strategies directed at consciousness were offered to six patients and included both physical and chemical restraints. CPR-induced consciousness was infrequently reported in the medical literature, and varied in management. Given the increasing use of mechanical CPR, guidelines to identify and manage consciousness during CPR are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  7. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Ojaghi Haghighi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is a lifesaving technique useful in the prevention of death or delaying it in a person with cardiac arrest. In this regard, demographic information about patients who need CPR is vital. Methods: In this cross-sectional study patients with cardiopulmonary arrest or arrhythmias admitted to Imam Reza and Sina educational hospitals of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 22 December 2013 to 21 December 2014 entered the study. Demographic information such as age, sex, cardiopulmonary resuscitation time, the place of cardiopulmonary arrest (outside or inside the hospital, the duration of resuscitation process, success or failure of the resuscitation process and the mechanism of cardiopulmonary arrest were obtained. Results: From a total of 354 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 281 cases (79% were unsuccessful and 73 cases (21% were successful. The average age of patients was 59 ± 22 years. The average time of the resuscitation process was 31 ± 12 minutes. There was a significant difference between the mean of age and resuscitation time in patients who had experienced successful or unsuccessful resuscitation (P = 0.0001. There was a significant relationship between sex and the success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.0001. In addition, a significant relationship between the success of the resuscitation operation and the ward of resuscitation was observed (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: The most common mechanism leading to cardiopulmonary arrest among patients was asystole. In this regard, no significant difference was observed between successful and unsuccessful resuscitation processes. It was also observed that the success of resuscitation from 8 am to 4 pm was more than any other time period.

  8. Dissemination of CPR video self-instruction materials to secondary trainees: results from a hospital-based CPR education trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Daniel J.; Buckler, David G.; Li, Jiaqi; Agarwal, Amit K.; Di Taranti, Laura J.; Kurtz, James; dos Reis, Ryan; Leary, Marion; Abella, Benjamin S.; Blewer, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) video self-instruction (VSI) materials have been promoted as a scalable approach to increase the prevalence of CPR skills among the lay public, in part due to the opportunity for secondary training (i.e., sharing of training materials). However, the motivations for, and barriers to, disseminating VSI materials to secondary trainees is poorly understood. Methods This work represents an ancillary investigation of a prospective hospital-based CPR education trial in which family members of cardiac patients were trained using VSI. Mixed-methods surveys were administered to primary trainees six months after initial enrollment. Surveys were designed to capture motivations for, and barriers to, sharing VSI materials, the number of secondary trainees with whom materials were shared, and the settings, timing, and recipients of trainings. Results Between 07/2012–05/2015, 653 study participants completed a six-month follow-up interview. Of those, 345 reported sharing VSI materials with 1455 secondary trainees. Materials were shared most commonly with family members. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the oldest quartile (age > 63 years) were less likely to share materials compared to those in the youngest quartile (age ≤ 44 years, OR 0.58, CI 0.37–0.90, p=0.02). Among the 308 participants who did not share their materials, time constraints was the most commonly cited barrier for not sharing. Conclusions VSI materials represent a strategy for secondary dissemination of CPR training, yet older individuals have a lower likelihood of sharing relative to younger individuals. Further work is warranted to remedy perceived barriers to CPR dissemination among the lay public using VSI approaches. PMID:26776900

  9. Updates in the American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and potential applications to veterinary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Barbara L; Smarick, Sean D

    2012-04-01

    To review the updates in the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and identify potential applications to veterinary patients. Cardiopulmonary arrest is common in veterinary emergency and critical care, and consensus guidelines are lacking. Human resuscitation guidelines are continually evolving as new clinical and experimental studies support updated recommendations. Synthesis of human, experimental animal model, and veterinary literature support the potential for updates and advancement in veterinary CPR practices. This review serves to highlight updates in the AHA guidelines for CPR and evaluate their application to small animal veterinary patients. Interventions identified will be evaluated for trans-species potential, raise questions regarding best resuscitation recommendations, and offer opportunities for further research to continue to advance veterinary CPR. The prognosis for any patient undergoing cardiopulmonary arrest remains guarded. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  10. Do-not-resuscitate order: The experiences of iranian cardiopulmonary resuscitation team members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolghader Assarroudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One dilemma in the end-of-life care is making decisions for conducting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. This dilemma is perceived in different ways due to the influence of culture and religion. This study aimed to understand the experiences of CPR team members about the do-not-resuscitate order. Methods: CPR team members were interviewed, and data were analyzed using a conventional content analysis method. Results: Three categories and six subcategories emerged: “The dilemma between revival and suffering” with the subcategories of “revival likelihood” and “death as a cause for comfort;” “conflicting situation” with the subcategories of “latent decision” and “ambivalent order;” and “low-quality CPR” with the subcategories of “team member demotivation” and “disrupting CPR performance.” Conclusion: There is a need for the development of a contextual guideline, which is required for respecting the rights of patients and their families and providing legal support to health-care professionals during CPR.

  11. Nurses' reactions to participation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the nursing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pups, G M; Weyker, J D; Rodgers, B L

    1997-02-01

    A wide range of emotions are associated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts. Articles documenting nurses' reactions to CPR situations are scarce in the nursing literature. This study contains nurses' own descriptions of feelings experienced during and after CPR attempts and the nurses' suggestions for what could make the experience easier, what makes it more difficult, and what interventions the nurses use to reconcile their emotions. The participants were 29 registered nurses employed at an urban Midwestern hospital who completed an open-ended questionnaire that elicited descriptions of CPR events. The data were analyzed using a process of thematic analysis.

  12. Decisions not to resuscitate in a Swedish university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, H; Adolfsson, A; Lundberg, D

    1997-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has the potential to save many lives. Used indiscriminately though, it may be harmful and not in the best interest of the patient. An advance directive to refrain from resuscitation in selected patients is probably not uncommon in Sweden, but guidelines ruling this are still generally lacking. This study was performed to evaluate the use and documentation of do-not-resuscitate orders in a Swedish university hospital. Adult inpatients at 7 medical, 3 surgical and 2 neurological wards, a total of 220, were investigated on one specific day by interviewing the physicians and nurses responsible for their care. We found a discrepancy in doctors' and nurses' perception concerning the appropriateness of CPR in selected patients. CPR was judged by doctors to be inappropriate for 45 patients (20%). Out of these 45 patients, only 24 had a written do-not-resuscitate order in their medical record, in most cases noted as a code word or sign only. Rarely were the patient or his/her relatives involved in the decision-making process. We conclude that a decision to refrain from resuscitation is often not made, even when considered medically and ethically justifiable. Also, the use of coded information as a sole indicator for a patient not to be resuscitated is still common practice. The patient or his/her relatives are rarely involved in this decision.

  13. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  14. Exploring virtual worlds for scenario-based repeated team training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt, Johan; Hedman, Leif; Medin, Christopher; Heinrichs, Wm LeRoy; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2010-09-03

    Contemporary learning technologies, such as massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW), create new means for teaching and training. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of such training is incomplete, and there are no data regarding how students experience it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a field within medicine in high demand for new and effective training modalities. In addition to finding a feasible way to implement CPR training, our aim was to investigate how a serious game setting in a virtual world using avatars would influence medical students' subjective experiences as well as their retention of knowledge. An MMVW was refined and used in a study to train 12 medical students in CPR in 3-person teams in a repeated fashion 6 months apart. An exit questionnaire solicited reflections over their experiences. As the subjects trained in 4 CPR scenarios, measurements of self-efficacy, concentration, and mental strain were made in addition to measuring knowledge. Engagement modes and coping strategies were also studied. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were carried out according to distribution of the data. The majority of the subjects reported that they had enjoyed the training, had found it to be suitable, and had learned something new, although several asked for more difficult and complex scenarios as well as a richer virtual environment. The mean values for knowledge dropped during the 6 months from 8.0/10 to 6.25/10 (P = .002). Self-efficacy increased from before to after each of the two training sessions, from 5.9/7 to 6.5/7 (P = .01) after the first and from 6.0/7 to 6.7/7 (P = .03) after the second. The mean perceived concentration value increased from 54.2/100 to 66.6/100 (P = .006), and in general the mental strain was found to be low to moderate (mean = 2.6/10). Using scenario-based virtual world team training with avatars to train medical students in multi-person CPR was feasible and showed promising results. Although we

  15. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves survival in a rodent model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using high-dose epinephrine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaul, Conán

    2009-10-01

    Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, its use during CPR would increase survival.

  16. Interruption of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of the automated external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alem, Anouk P.; Sanou, Björn T.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: The protocol for the use of the automated external defibrillator calls for a period of "hands-off" time, during which no cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be performed. We assessed the actual interruption time of CPR during the use of the automated external defibrillator in

  17. Use of donors who have suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Osswald, Brigitte R; Pizanis, Nikolaus; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Massoudy, Parwis; Heckmann, Jens; Jakob, Heinz G; Kamler, Markus

    2011-03-01

    Shortage of donors is one of the major limitations in lung transplantation (LuTX) and an aggressive expansion of criteria for donor selection has been proposed. This study evaluates the outcome of recipients of pulmonary grafts coming from resuscitated donors when compared with recipients of non-resuscitated donors. We retrospectively analyzed the donor and recipient charts of all double LuTX performed at our institution between 2000 and 2008 with regard to the performance of donor-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Out of 186 eligible transplants, 22 patients (11.8%) received lungs from donors who have suffered cardiac arrest (CA) and subsequent CPR. Mean duration of CPR was 15.2 ± 11.3 min. Terminal laboratory profiles of CPR donors and non-CPR donors were similar as were ventilation time and paO(2)/FiO(2) ratio before organ harvesting or chest X-ray. CPR-donor status did not affect the following indices of graft function: length of postoperative ventilation, paO(2)/FiO(2) ratio up to 48 h and lung function up to 60 months. Length of intensive care and hospital stay, need for inotropic support and 30-day mortality were not significantly different for the transplantation of CPR or no-CPR donor lungs. One- and 3-year survival rates were comparable as well with 84.4% and 66.3% for CPR donors versus 88.5% and 69.8% no-CPR donors. This study indicates that transplantation of lungs from resuscitated donors may not affect outcome after LuTX. Therefore, donor history of CA should not automatically preclude LuTX. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. No More CPR! Resuscitate Your Professionalism through Professional Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Susan; Rogers, Reenay R. H.; Parker, Lesa

    2012-01-01

    School librarians are accustomed to their position as a unique species in their school environment. The ratio in a typical school is "everyone else" to one, or perhaps two. On the one hand, being not only the leader of the pack but the sum total of it is a point of pride, serving as "the one" to everyone else. Too frequently the unique position is…

  19. Measuring and improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality inside the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Christopher; Bobrow, Bentley J; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Dameff, Christian; Stolz, Uwe; Silver, Annemarie; Roosa, Jason; Page, Rianne; LoVecchio, Frank; Spaite, Daniel W

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate CPR quality during cardiac resuscitation attempts in an urban emergency department (ED) and determine the influence of the combination of scenario-based training, real-time audiovisual feedback (RTAVF), and post-event debriefing on CPR quality. CPR quality was recorded using an R Series monitor-defibrillator (ZOLL Medical) during the treatment of adult cardiac arrest patients. Phase 1 (P1; 11/01/2010-11/15/2012) was an observation period of CPR quality. Phase 2 (P2; 11/15/2012-11/08/2013) was after a 60-min psychomotor skills CPR training and included RTAVF and post-event debriefing. A total of 52 cardiac arrest patients were treated in P1 (median age 56 yrs, 63.5% male) and 49 in P2 (age 60 yrs, 83.7% male). Chest compression (CC) depth increased from 46.7 ± 3.8mm in P1 to 61.6 ± 2.8mm in P2 (p CPR feedback, and post-event debriefing was associated with improved CPR quality and compliance with CPR guidelines in this urban teaching emergency department. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 'We have to discuss it': cancer patients' advance care planning impressions following educational information about cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, A S; Shuk, E; O'Reilly, E M; Gary, K A; Volandes, A E

    2015-12-01

    Most cancer patients desire information about care options at the end of life, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Communicating such care options can be challenging and is part of advance care planning (ACP). Our prior studies with video educational media produced data on patients' categoric preferences (yes/no/unsure) for CPR; however, the thematic underpinnings of these educated preferences in patients treated for advanced cancer aren't well known. Qualitative thematic content analysis of participants' responses in a randomized trial of an educational video (V) or narrative (N) about CPR in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancers. Responses were independently coded and categorized for thematic content by two reviewers. Of 54 study participants, 26 total (41% of V arm, 56% of N arm) articulated questions, comments, or both. Reviewer analyses demonstrated thematic consensus and resulted in seven distinct themes listed in decreasing order of prevalence: (a) ACP should be started early; (b) educational information about CPR affirmed participants' existing beliefs/knowledge/values about advanced illness; (c) participants were apprehensive about ACP but wanted to discuss it; (d) gaps in knowledge about ACP emerged; (e) CPR information was helpful/acceptable; (f) physicians should be involved in ACP; and (g) medical questions about critical illness arose. Findings identified that while sometimes difficult to discuss, advance care planning is desired, deemed helpful, and ideally begun early by clinicians, and that video education is an appropriate and affirming initiator of discussions. These themes are incorporated into our ongoing research on cancer patient-specific values and education about care options. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation program for high school students (PROCES). Results from the pilot program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Oscar; Jiménez-Fábrega, Xavier; Díaz, Núria; Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Bragulat, Ernest; Jiménez, Sònia; Espinosa, Gerard; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; García-Alfranca, Fernando; Alvarez, M Teresa; Salvador, Jordi; Millá, José; Sánchez, Miquel

    2005-01-15

    The PROCES (Programa de Reanimació Cardiopulmonar Orientat a Centres d'Ensenyament Secundari) program is aimed at teaching basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (b-CPR) to teenagers within high school. Our aim was to analyze the results obtained from the pilot program. PROCES was splitted in 7 sessions: 5 of them (5 hours) were taught by teachers at high school and 2 of them (4 hours, including how to perform b-CPR) were taught by emergency physicians. To assess the degree of students' learning, they were administered a 20-question test before and after the program. Epidemiological characteristics and students' opinions (all them were requested to rate the program from 0 to 10) were also collected. Students were 14 years-old in 38%, 15 in 38% and 16 or more in 24%. Before PROCES, the mean mark (over 20 points) was 8.5 (2.4). After PROCES, marks improved up to 13.5 (3.2) (p PROCES completion. Students rated the theoretical part as 7.9 (1.1), the skill part as 8.2 (1.2), and the emergency physicians classes as 8.4 (1.1). PROCES is an useful tool for teaching and improving teenagers' knowledge and skills in b-CPR, with no exceptions associated with teenagers' characteristics.

  3. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Andrew H; Perkins, Gavin D; Berg, Robert A; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J; Olasveengen, Theresa M; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-10-20

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2) immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system, (3) early high-quality CPR, and (4) rapid defibrillation for shockable rhythms. Highlights in prevention indicate the rational and judicious deployment of search-and-rescue operations in drowning victims and the importance of education on opioid-associated emergencies. Other 2015 highlights in recognition and activation include the critical role of dispatcher recognition and dispatch-assisted chest compressions, which has been demonstrated in multiple international jurisdictions with consistent improvements in cardiac arrest survival. Similar to the 2010 ILCOR BLS treatment recommendations, the importance of high quality was reemphasized across all measures of CPR quality: rate, depth, recoil, and minimal chest compression pauses, with a universal understanding that we all should be providing chest compressions to all victims of cardiac arrest. This review continued to focus on the interface of BLS sequencing and ensuring high-quality CPR with other important BLS interventions, such as ventilation and defibrillation. In addition, this consensus statement highlights the importance of EMS systems, which employ bundles of care focusing on providing high-quality chest compressions while extricating the patient from the scene to the next level of care. Highlights in defibrillation indicate the global importance of increasing the number of sites with public-access defibrillation programs. Whereas the 2010 ILCOR Consensus on Science provided important direction for the “what” in resuscitation (ie, what to do), the 2015 consensus has begun with the GRADE methodology to provide direction for the quality of

  4. Interposed abdominal compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-ke; Wang, Jun; Li, Tian-fa

    2014-12-01

    The management of cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery differs from the management of cardiac arrest under other circumstances. In other studies, interposed abdominal compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (IAC-CPR) resulted in a better outcome compared with conventional CPR. The aim of the present study was to determine the feasibility, safety and efficacy of IAC-CPR compared with conventional CPR in patients with cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. Data on all cardiac surgical patients who suffered a sudden cardiac arrest during the first 24 h after surgery were collected prospectively. Cardiac arrest was defined as the cessation of cardiac mechanical activity with the absence of a palpable central pulse, apnoea and unresponsiveness, including ventricular fibrillation, asystole and pulseless electrical activity. Forty patients were randomized to either conventional CPR (n = 21) or IAC-CPR (n = 19). IAC-CPR was initially performed by compressing the abdomen midway between the xiphoid and the umbilicus during the relaxation phase of chest compression. If spontaneous circulation was not restored after 10-15 min, the surgical team would immediately proceed to resternotomy. The endpoints of the study were safety, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) >5 min, survival to hospital discharge and survival for 6 months. With IAC-CPR, there were more patients in terms of ROSC, survival to hospital discharge, survival for 6 months and fewer CPR-related injuries compared with patients who underwent conventional CPR. IAC-CPR is feasible and safe and may be advantageous in cases of cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Zorzela, Liliane; Robertson, Charlene M T; Alton, Gwen Y; Joffe, Ari R; Moez, Elham Khodayari; Dinu, Irina A; Ross, David B; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lequier, Laurance

    2015-11-01

    Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (E-CPR) is the initiation of extracorporeal life support during active chest compressions. There are no studies describing detailed neurocognitive outcomes of this population. We aim to describe the survival and neurocognitive outcomes of children who received E-CPR. Prospective cohort study. Children who received E-CPR at the Stollery Children's Hospital between 2000 and 2010 were included. Neurocognitive follow-up, including Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence, was completed at the age of 4.5 years, and at a minimum of 6 months after the E-CPR admission. Fifty-five patients received E-CPR between 2000 and 2010. Children with cardiac disease had a 49% survival to hospital discharge and 43% survival at age 5-years, with no survivors (n=4) in those with non-cardiac disease. Pediatric E-CPR survivors had a mean (SD) Full Scale Intelligence quotient (FSIQ) score of 76.5 (15.9); with 4 children (24%) having intellectual disability (defined as FSIQ over 2 standard deviations below the population mean; i.e., CPR, open chest CPR, longer duration of CPR, low pH and more red blood cells given on the first day of ECMO, and longer time for lactate to normalize on ECMO were associated with higher mortality at age 5-years. Pediatric patients with cardiac disease who required E-CPR had 43% survival at age 5 years. Of concern, the intelligence quotient in E-CPR survivors was significantly lower than the population mean, with 24% having intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition improves macrocirculation and microcirculation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junyuan; Li, Chunsheng; Yuan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This study is to clarify whether sildenafil, which is a selective inhibitor of the isoform 5 of the enzyme phosphodiesterase, improves macrocirculation or/and microcirculation during ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) so as to improve outcomes of resuscitation. Sixteen female pigs were used. After anesthesia, the abdominal cavity was opened to observe the mesenteric microcirculation. Following the guidelines, we determined microvascular flow index, perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels both for large(diameter >20 μm)and small (diameter defibrillation was attempted. Compared with saline, sildenafil reduced the shocks and duration of CPR (all P .05). Microvascular flow index in both large and small microvessels were closely correlated to each other (r = 0.91, P < .01), and to CPP during CPR ([r = .88, P < .01] and [r = .70, P < .05], respectively). Sildenafil increases the success of resuscitation through improving macrocirculation and microcirculation during VF and CPR. There is a close relationship between microvascular flow and CPP during CPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disparities in Survival with Bystander CPR following Cardiopulmonary Arrest Based on Neighborhood Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Thakkar Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p=0.05, with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p=0.01 and p=0.03, resp.. Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p=0.04. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p=0.03. Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all.

  8. Outcome of Prolonged Ventricular Fibrillation and CPR in a Rat Model of Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshao Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic left ventricular (LV dysfunction are assumed to have a lower chance of successful CPR and lower likelihood of ultimate survival. However, these assumptions have rarely been documented. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF and CPR in a rat model of chronic LV dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to (1 chronic LV dysfunction: animals underwent left coronary artery ligation; and (2 sham control. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac performance before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Four weeks after surgical intervention, 8 min of VF was induced and defibrillation was delivered after 8 min of CPR. LV dilation and low ejection fraction were observed 4 weeks after coronary ligation. With optimal chest compressions, coronary perfusion pressure values during CPR were well maintained and indistinguishable between groups. There were no differences in resuscitability and numbers of shock required for successful resuscitation between groups. Despite the significantly decreased cardiac index in LV dysfunction animals before induction of VF, no differences in cardiac index were observed between groups following resuscitation, which was associated with the insignificant difference in postresuscitation survival. In conclusion, the outcomes of CPR were not compromised by the preexisting chronic LV dysfunction.

  9. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with information about ... help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means death, continued ...

  10. What are the barriers to implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in secondary schools? A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Folke, Fredrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools is recommended to increase bystander CPR and thereby survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but despite mandating legislation, low rates of implementation have been observed in several countries, including Denmark. The purpose of the study was to explore barriers to implementation of CPR training in Danish secondary schools. Design A qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus groups with school leadership and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning both within and across the interviews. Setting 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. Participants The study population comprised 25 participants, 9 school leadership members and 16 teachers. Results School leadership and teachers considered it important for implementation and sustainability of CPR training that teachers conduct CPR training of students. However, they preferred external instructors to train students, unless teachers acquired the CPR skills which they considered were needed. They considered CPR training to differ substantially from other teaching subjects because it is a matter of life and death, and they therefore believed extraordinary skills were required for conducting the training. This was mainly rooted in their insecurity about their own CPR skills. CPR training kits seemed to lower expectations of skill requirements to conduct CPR training, but only among those who were familiar with such kits. Conclusions To facilitate implementation of CPR training in schools, it is necessary to have clear guidelines regarding the required proficiency level to train students in CPR, to provide teachers with these skills, and to underscore that extensive skills are not required to

  11. Are Chinese Students Willing to Learn and Perform Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiao; Hu, Cuihuan; Mao, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can improve survival rate from cardiac arrest and students are potentially important bystander CPR providers. Our aim was to investigate the willingness among Chinese students to learn and perform bystander CPR. Questionnaires were distributed to 1407 students. The survey investigated the willingness to learn and perform bystander CPR and the barriers to performing CPR on family members and strangers, assuming that students had mastered CPR. Only 14.6% of respondents reported having ever attended CPR training classes, however, 88.3% expressed their willingness to learn. The main characteristics of the students who were willing to learn were the following: they considered the development of the local emergency system excellent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.15); cardiovascular diseases were present within their family (OR = 2.74); and they had previously heard about CPR (OR = 2.43). Almost all respondents (94.6%) reported that they would conduct bystander CPR on family members, while only 59.7% of respondents would do it for strangers. A lack of confidence was the principal barrier to doing CPR for family members (78.4%) and the leading barrier to stranger CPR was the fear of legal liability if their lifesaving attempts failed (90.8%). The complicated process of performing CPR was also a major barrier in both scenarios. When there is a great desire to learn CPR, the rate and effect of training can be significantly improved by providing students with regular CPR training, especially compression-only CPR training. Training classes should focus on enhancing the participants' confidence. In addition, legislation by the government is needed to protect the rescuers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of ultrabrief and brief educational videos for training lay responders in hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation: implications for the future of citizen cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Bentley J; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Spaite, Daniel W; Potts, Jerald; Denninghoff, Kurt; Chikani, Vatsal; Brazil, Paula R; Ramsey, Bob; Abella, Benjamin S

    2011-03-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) but often is not performed. We hypothesized that subjects viewing very short Hands-Only CPR videos will (1) be more likely to attempt CPR in a simulated OHCA scenario and (2) demonstrate better CPR skills than untrained individuals. This study is a prospective trial of 336 adults without recent CPR training randomized into 4 groups: (1) control (no training) (n=51); (2) 60-second video training (n=95); (3) 5-minute video training (n=99); and (4) 8-minute video training, including manikin practice (n=91). All subjects were tested for their ability to perform CPR during an adult OHCA scenario using a CPR-sensing manikin and Laerdal PC SkillReporting software. One half of the trained subjects were randomly assigned to testing immediately and the other half after a 2-month delay. Twelve (23.5%) controls did not even attempt CPR, which was true of only 2 subjects (0.7%; P=0.01) from any of the experimental groups. All experimental groups had significantly higher average compression rates (closer to the recommended 100/min) than the control group (P38 mm) than the control group (Pvideos are more likely to attempt CPR and show superior CPR skills than untrained laypersons. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01191736.

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the human in caring for others is reflected in the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Superstition, divine intervention and finally science have contributed to the development of a technique which may allow any person to save another’s life. Fully 50% of the firs...

  14. Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B

    2008-01-01

    for Resuscitation 2005) was assessed in a 2 min test before randomisation to either IF training in groups of 8 or individual VAM training. Immediately after training and after 3 months, CPR performance was assessed in identical 2 min tests. Laerdal PC Skill Reporting System 2.0 was used to collect data. To quantify...

  15. Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Intensive Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the demographic characteristics of patients who suffered cardiac arrest in our ICUs and to identify those factors influencing outcome after resuscitation following cardiac arrest. We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent CPR in the two ICUs at the Georg-August University ...

  16. Withdrawing Versus not Offering Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Is There a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon JW Oczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict between substitute decision makers (SDMs and health care providers in the intensive care unit is commonly related to goals of treatment at the end of life. Based on recent court decisions, even medical consensus that ongoing treatment is not clinically indicated cannot justify withdrawal of mechanical ventilation without consent from the SDM. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, similar to mechanical ventilation, is a life-sustaining therapy that can result in disagreement between SDMs and clinicians. In contrast to mechanical ventilation, in cases for which CPR is judged by the medical team to not be clinically indicated, there is no explicit or case law in Canada that dictates that withholding/not offering of CPR requires the consent of SDMs. In such cases, physicians can ethically and legally not offer CPR, even against SDM or patient wishes. To ensure that nonclinically indicated CPR is not inappropriately performed, hospitals should consider developing ‘scope of treatment’ forms that make it clear that even if CPR is desired, the individual components of resuscitation to be offered, if any, will be dictated by the medical team’s clinical assessment.

  17. A randomized cross-over study of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among females performing 30:2 and hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrickson W Clive

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hands-Only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is recommended for use on adult victims of witnessed out-of-hospital (OOH sudden cardiac arrest or in instances where rescuers cannot perform ventilations while maintaining minimally interrupted quality compressions. Promotion of Hands-Only CPR should improve the incidence of bystander CPR and, subsequently, survival from OOH cardiac arrest; but, little is known about a rescuer's ability to deliver continuous chest compressions of adequate rate and depth for periods typical of emergency services response time. This study evaluated chest compression rate and depth as subjects performed Hands-Only CPR for 10 minutes. For comparison purposes, each also performed chest compressions with ventilations (30:2 CPR. It also evaluated fatigue and changes in body biomechanics associated with each type of CPR. Methods Twenty healthy female volunteers certified in basic life support performed Hands-Only CPR and 30:2 CPR on a manikin. A mixed model repeated measures cross-over design evaluated chest compression rate and depth, changes in fatigue (chest compression force, perceived exertion, and blood lactate level, and changes in electromyography and joint kinetics and kinematics. Results All subjects completed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR; but, only 17 completed 10 minutes of Hands-Only CPR. Rate, average depth, percentage at least 38 millimeters deep, and force of compressions were significantly lower in Hands-Only CPR than in 30:2 CPR. Rates were maintained; but, compression depth and force declined significantly from beginning to end CPR with most decrement occurring in the first two minutes. Perceived effort and joint torque changes were significantly greater in Hands-Only CPR. Performance was not influenced by age. Conclusion Hands-Only CPR required greater effort and was harder to sustain than 30:2 CPR. It is not known whether the observed greater decrement in chest compression depth associated

  18. A randomized cross-over study of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among females performing 30:2 and hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Cynthia; Parekh, Jesal N; Ricard, Mark D; Potts, Jerald; Patrickson, W Clive; Cason, Carolyn L

    2009-07-07

    Hands-Only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is recommended for use on adult victims of witnessed out-of-hospital (OOH) sudden cardiac arrest or in instances where rescuers cannot perform ventilations while maintaining minimally interrupted quality compressions. Promotion of Hands-Only CPR should improve the incidence of bystander CPR and, subsequently, survival from OOH cardiac arrest; but, little is known about a rescuer's ability to deliver continuous chest compressions of adequate rate and depth for periods typical of emergency services response time. This study evaluated chest compression rate and depth as subjects performed Hands-Only CPR for 10 minutes. For comparison purposes, each also performed chest compressions with ventilations (30:2) CPR. It also evaluated fatigue and changes in body biomechanics associated with each type of CPR. Twenty healthy female volunteers certified in basic life support performed Hands-Only CPR and 30:2 CPR on a manikin. A mixed model repeated measures cross-over design evaluated chest compression rate and depth, changes in fatigue (chest compression force, perceived exertion, and blood lactate level), and changes in electromyography and joint kinetics and kinematics. All subjects completed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR; but, only 17 completed 10 minutes of Hands-Only CPR. Rate, average depth, percentage at least 38 millimeters deep, and force of compressions were significantly lower in Hands-Only CPR than in 30:2 CPR. Rates were maintained; but, compression depth and force declined significantly from beginning to end CPR with most decrement occurring in the first two minutes. Perceived effort and joint torque changes were significantly greater in Hands-Only CPR. Performance was not influenced by age. Hands-Only CPR required greater effort and was harder to sustain than 30:2 CPR. It is not known whether the observed greater decrement in chest compression depth associated with Hands-Only CPR would offset the potential physiological

  19. A Novel Nonlinear Mathematical Model of Thoracic Wall Mechanics During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Based on a Porcine Model of Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Simpao, Allan F; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Nataraj, C

    2017-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is used widely to rescue cardiac arrest patients, yet some physiological aspects of the procedure remain poorly understood. We conducted this study to characterize the dynamic mechanical properties of the thorax during CPR in a swine model. This is an important step toward determining optimal CPR chest compression mechanics with the goals of improving the fidelity of CPR simulation manikins and ideally chest compression delivery in real-life resuscitations. This paper presents a novel nonlinear model of the thorax that captures the complex behavior of the chest during CPR. The proposed model consists of nonlinear elasticity and damping properties along with frequency dependent hysteresis. An optimization technique was used to estimate the model coefficients for force-compression using data collected from experiments conducted on swine. To track clinically relevant, time-dependent changes of the chest's properties, the data was divided into two time periods, from 1 to 10 min (early) and greater than 10 min (late) after starting CPR. The results showed excellent agreement between the actual and the estimated forces, and energy dissipation due to viscous damping in the late stages of CPR was higher when compared to the earlier stages. These findings provide insight into improving chest compression mechanics during CPR, and may provide the basis for developing CPR simulation manikins that more accurately represent the complex real world changes that occur in the chest during CPR.

  20. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Freeman Jackson1, Frances Smith1, Frank J Overdyk21Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAPurpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216. Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77 were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01 or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05.Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.Keywords: code blue, survival, opioids, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, patient safety

  1. CPR courses and semi-automatic defibrillators--life saving in cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Liane; Sterz, Fritz; Haugk, Moritz; Eisenburger, Philip; Scheinecker, Wolfdieter; Kliegel, Andreas; Laggner, Anton N

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to assess the knowledge of life-supporting first-aid in both cardiac arrest survivors and relatives, and their willingness to have a semi-automatic external defibrillator in their homes and use it in an emergency. Cardiac arrest survivors, their families, friends, neighbours and co-workers were interviewed by medical students using prepared questionnaires. Their knowledge and self-assessment of life-supporting first-aid, their willingness to have a semi-automatic defibrillator in their homes and their willingness to use it in an emergency before and after a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with a semi-automatic external defibrillator was evaluated. Courses were taught by medical students who had received special training in basic and advanced life support. Both patients and relatives, after a course of 2-3 h, were no longer afraid of making mistakes by providing life-supporting first-aid. The automated external defibrillator (AED) was generally accepted and considered easy to handle. We consider equipping high-risk patients and their families with AEDs as a viable method of increasing their survival in case of a recurring cardiac arrest. This, of course, should be corroborated by further studies.

  2. Design of the RINSE Trial: The Rapid Infusion of cold Normal Saline by paramedics during CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Ian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH (33°C for 12-24 hours as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods/Design This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres ice-cold (4°C normal saline. The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. Discussion This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01172678

  3. Implementation of an in situ qualitative debriefing tool for resuscitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Paul C; Wuestner, Elizabeth; Kerr, Tarra D; Christopher, Daniel P; Patel, Binita

    2013-07-01

    Multiple guidelines recommend debriefing of resuscitations to improve clinical performance. We implemented a novel standardized debriefing program using a Debriefing In Situ Conversation after Emergent Resuscitation Now (DISCERN) tool. Following the development of the evidence-based DISCERN tool, we conducted an observational study of all resuscitations (intubation, CPR, and/or defibrillation) at a pediatric emergency department (ED) over one year. Resuscitation interventions, patient survival, and physician team leader characteristics were analyzed as predictors for debriefing. Each debriefing's participants, time duration, and content were recorded. Thematic content of debriefings was categorized by framework approach into Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) elements. There were 241 resuscitations and 63 (26%) debriefings. A higher proportion of debriefings occurred after CPR (pDebriefing participants always included an attending and nurse; the median number of staff roles present was six. Median intervals (from resuscitation end to start of debriefing) & debriefing durations were 33 (IQR 15, 67) and 10 min (IQR 5, 12), respectively. Common TEAM themes included co-operation/coordination (30%), communication (22%), and situational awareness (15%). Stated reasons for not debriefing included: unnecessary (78%), time constraints (19%), or other reasons (3%). Debriefings with the DISCERN tool usually involved higher acuity resuscitations, involved most of the indicated personnel, and lasted less than 10 min. Future studies are needed to evaluate the tool for adaptation to other settings and potential impacts on education, quality improvement programming, and staff emotional well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  5. [Advanced resuscitation of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, F.K.; Lauritsen, T.L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    International and European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines for Resuscitation 2005 implicate major changes in resuscitation, including new universal treatment algorithms. This brief summary of Guidelines 2005 for advanced resuscitation of adult cardiac arrest victims is based upon the ERC...

  6. A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of CPR-Associated Cardiovascular and Thoracic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew C.; Rosati, Shannon F.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Schrump, David S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of thoracic injuries resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not well characterized. We describe a case in which a CPR-associated atrial rupture was identified with ultrasound and successfully managed in the intensive care unit with a bedside thoracotomy and atrial repair. We then describe a systematic review with pooled data analysis of CPR-associated cardiovascular, pulmonary, pleural, and thoracic wall injuries. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant published studies. Unpublished studies were identified by searching the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and Google. STUDY SELECTION Inclusion criteria for the pooled analysis were any clinical or autopsy study in which a) patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, b) chest compressions were administered either manually or with the assistance of active compression-decompression devices, and c) autopsy or dedicated imaging assessments were conducted to identify complications. Exclusion criteria for the pooled analysis were pre-clinical studies, case reports and abstracts. DATA EXTRACTION Nine-hundred twenty-eight potentially relevant references were identified. Twenty-seven references met inclusion criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS A systematic review of the literature is provided with pooled data analysis. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of reported CPR-associated cardiovascular and thoracic wall injuries varies widely. CPR with active compression-decompression devices has a higher reported incidence of cardiopulmonary injuries. Bedside ultrasound may be a useful adjunct to assess and risk-stratify patients to identify serious or life-threatening CPR-associated injuries. PMID:24525116

  7. Evaluation of Physicians' and Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Compliance With Family Presence During Resuscitation in an Emergency Department Setting After an Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Gineen; Ramponi, Denise; Cline, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) has been an ongoing topic of discussion in many hospital emergency departments throughout the United States. With the current emphasis promoting patient- and family-centered care, families are now exercising their right to be present at the bedside during resuscitation. With or without a policy, there is continued resistance to allow families to remain with their loved ones during resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an evidence-based educational intervention would increase physicians' and nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with allowing FPDR. This quasi-experimental study evaluated 30 attending physicians' and 65 registered nurses' knowledge of an existing family presence policy and their attitudes toward family presence post-educational intervention in an emergency department setting. Compliance of family presence was observed for 2 months pre- and post-educational intervention. Results show that most physicians and nurses either were not sure or were not aware that there was an existing written policy. The study demonstrated that nurses agree more than physicians that the option of FPDR is a patient/family right. The results also showed that the educational intervention had no effect on the physicians and nurses attitudes for FPDR, but it did change behaviors. Of the events involving professionals who were exposed to the educational intervention, family members were present 87.5% of the time. In contrast, only 23% of the events involving professionals who did not receive the educational intervention had families present. Ongoing staff education will heighten awareness to FPDR, make the staff more comfortable with families being present, and will presumably continue to increase invitations for FPDR.

  8. A Reliable Method for Rhythm Analysis during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR compromise defibrillation success. However, CPR must be interrupted to analyze the rhythm because although current methods for rhythm analysis during CPR have high sensitivity for shockable rhythms, the specificity for nonshockable rhythms is still too low. This paper introduces a new approach to rhythm analysis during CPR that combines two strategies: a state-of-the-art CPR artifact suppression filter and a shock advice algorithm (SAA designed to optimally classify the filtered signal. Emphasis is on designing an algorithm with high specificity. The SAA includes a detector for low electrical activity rhythms to increase the specificity, and a shock/no-shock decision algorithm based on a support vector machine classifier using slope and frequency features. For this study, 1185 shockable and 6482 nonshockable 9-s segments corrupted by CPR artifacts were obtained from 247 patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The segments were split into a training and a test set. For the test set, the sensitivity and specificity for rhythm analysis during CPR were 91.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This new approach shows an important increase in specificity without compromising the sensitivity when compared to previous studies.

  9. The Price of a Helping Hand: Modeling the Outcomes and Costs of Bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouland, Andrew J; Risko, Nicholas; Lawner, Benjamin J; Seaman, Kevin G; Godar, Cassandra M; Levy, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Early, high-quality, minimally interrupted bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) is essential for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. However, rates of bystander intervention remain low in many geographic areas. Community CPR programs have been initiated to combat these low numbers by teaching compression-only CPR to laypersons. This study examined bystander CPR and the cost-effectiveness of a countywide CPR program to improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. A 2-year retrospective review of emergency medical services (EMS) run reports for adult nontraumatic cardiac arrests was performed using existing prehospital EMS quality assurance data. The incidence and success of bystander CPR to produce prehospital return of spontaneous circulation and favorable neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge were analyzed. The outcomes were paired with cost data for the jurisdiction's community CPR program to develop a cost-effectiveness model. During the 23-month study period, a total of 371 nontraumatic adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred, with a 33.4% incidence of bystander CPR. Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis for the community CPR program demonstrated a total cost of $22,539 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A significantly increased proportion of those who received BCPR also had an automated external defibrillator (AED) applied. There was no correlation between witnessed arrest and performance of BCPR. A significantly increased proportion of those who received BCPR were found to be in a shockable rhythm when the initial ECG was performed. In the home setting, the chances of receiving BCPR were significantly smaller, whereas in the public setting a nearly equal number of people received and did not receive BCPR. Witnessed arrest, AED application, public location, and shockable rhythm on initial ECG were all significantly associated with positive ROSC and neurologic outcomes. A home arrest was significantly associated with worse

  10. Quality of resuscitation by first responders using the 'public access resuscitator': a randomized manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Dries G; Huybrechts, Sofie A M; Peersman, Wim; Calle, Paul A; Monsieurs, Koenraad G

    2014-12-01

    The CAREvent Public Access Resuscitator (PAR) is an electronic, oxygen-driven cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) device allowing volume-controlled ventilation with a face mask and guiding the rescuer through the resuscitation with voice prompts and visual indications. We hypothesized that 1 year after initial training, the efficacy of ventilation skills (primary outcome) and compression skills (secondary outcome) by first responders using the PAR would be superior compared with CPR with only a face mask. Seventy-one first responders were randomized to a group using the PAR (n=35) and a control group using only a face mask (n=36). CPR skills were assessed immediately after training and after 3, 7 and 12 months using a Skill Reporter manikin. Differences between groups over time and the interaction between time and groups were assessed using repeated measures models. Results are reported as mean values and number of participants with good ventilation or compression skills. Twelve months after training, there were more PAR users with adequate tidal volume than face mask users. Other ventilations skills did not differ between groups. There were more PAR users with an adequate number of compressions and with good hand position. Skill decay over 12 months did not differ between groups, except for hand position, where no decline was observed in the PAR group. Compared with the face mask, PAR improved tidal volume, compressions per minute and hand position in a manikin setting.

  11. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  12. How best to teach CPR to schoolchildren: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nina; Taylor, Katherine

    2013-04-01

    Training schoolchildren to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one possible method of increasing bystander CPR rates. We reviewed available literature to identify what methods of training children have been successful. This review sought to evaluate evidence addressing the following PICO question: (P) In schoolchildren, (I) what types of CPR, AED and first aid training (C) when compared to no training and to each other (O) lead to ability to perform life saving measures? Searches were conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (1946 - August 2012), Ovid EMBASE (1974 - August 2012) and Ebscohost Cinahl (1981 - August 2012). Database specific subject headings in all three databases (MeSH in MEDLINE, Emtree in EMBASE, Cinahl Headings) were selected for the concepts of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and education. The combined results were then limited by age to include all school aged children. The search yielded 2620 articles. From titles, abstract and key words, 208 articles described CPR, AED and/or first aid training in schoolchildren and were eligible for review. These were obtained in full, were unavailable or not published in English. We reviewed articles for publication type and relevance. 48 studies were identified. One additional study was included as an extension of a study retrieved within the search. The studies found by the search were heterogeneous for study and training methodology. Findings regarding schoolchild age and physical factors, the role of practical training, use of self-instruction kits, use of computer based learning, reduced training time, trainer type, AED training are presented. Evidence shows that cardiopulmonary training, delivered in various ways, is successful in a wide age range of children. While older children perform more successfully on testing, younger children are able to perform basic tasks well, including use of AEDs. Chest compression depth correlates with physical factors such as increasing weight, BMI and height. Instruction

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  14. Post-resuscitation myocardial microcirculatory dysfunction is ameliorated with eptifibatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Karl B; Sasaoka, Taro; Higashi, Haruhiko; Hilwig, Ronald W; Berg, Robert A; Zuercher, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    The post-cardiac arrest syndrome includes a decline in myocardial microcirculation function. Inhibition of the platelet IIb/IIIa glycoprotein receptor has improved myocardial microvascular function post-percutaneous coronary intervention. Therefore, we evaluated such inhibition with eptifibatide for its effect on myocardial microcirculation function post-cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Four groups of swine were studied in a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled protocol including; eptifibatide administered during CPR (Group 1, n=5), after resuscitation (Group 2, n=4), during and after resuscitation (Group 3, n=5), or placebo (Group 4, n=10). CPR was initiated following 12min of untreated VF. Those successfully resuscitated were studied during a 4-h post-resuscitation period. Coronary flow reserve, a measure of microcirculation function (in the absence of coronary obstruction), as well as parameters of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, were measured pre-arrest and serially post-resuscitation. Coronary flow reserve was preserved during the post-resuscitation period, indicating normal microcirculatory function in the eptifibatide-treated animals, but not in the placebo-treated group. However, LV function declined equally in both groups during the first 4h after cardiac arrest. Inhibition of platelet IIb/IIIa glycoprotein receptors with eptifibatide post-resuscitation prevented myocardial microcirculation dysfunction. Left ventricular dysfunction post-resuscitation was not improved with eptifibatide, and perhaps transiently worse at 30min post-resuscitation. Post-cardiac arrest ventricular dysfunction may require a multi-modality treatment strategy for successful prevention or amelioration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions-A nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2010-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service...

  16. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions--a nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2011-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service...

  17. Impedance Threshold Device Combined With High-Quality Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Improves Survival With Favorable Neurological Function After Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Duval, Sue; Nakamura, Yuji; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-09-23

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been recently shown to affect clinical outcome. The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed Analysis (PRIMED) trial showed no differences in outcomes with an active vs. sham impedance threshold device (ITD), a CPR adjunct that enhances circulation. It was hypothesized the active ITD would improve survival with favorable neurological outcomes in witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients when used with high-quality CPR. Using the publicly accessible ROC PRIMED database, a post-hoc analysis was performed on all witnessed subjects with both compression rate and depth data (n=1,808) who received CPR within the study protocol definition of adequate CPR quality (compression rate 80-120/min and depth 4-6 cm; n=929). Demographics were similar between sham and active ITD groups. In witnessed subjects who received quality CPR, survival with favorable neurological function was 11.9% for the active ITD subjects (56/470) vs. 7.4% for the sham (34/459) (odds ratio 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.08, 2.64]). There were no statistically significant differences for this primary outcome when CPR was performed outside the boundaries of the definition of adequate CPR quality. Multivariable models did not change these associations. An active ITD combined with adequate-quality conventional CPR has the potential to significantly improve survival after witnessed cardiac arrest. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2124-2132).

  18. Assessment of CPR-D skills of nursing students in two institutions: reality versus recommendations in the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja; Axelsson, Asa; Castrén, Maaret; Nurmi, Jouni; Lankinen, Iira; Niemi-Murola, Leila

    2010-08-01

    Significant differences in basic life support skills including cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D) were detected when nurses working in one Finnish and one Swedish hospital were tested using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The purpose of this study was to use OSCE test in assessing guideline based CPR-D skills of newly qualified nurses. The CPR-D skills of newly qualified registered nurses studying in Halmstad University (n = 30), Sweden, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (n = 30), and Finland were assessed using an OSCE which was built up with a case of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation as the initial rhythm. The Angoff average, 32.47, was calculated as cutoff point to pass the test. Forty-seven percent of the students in the Swedish group (mean score 32.47/49, range 26-39, SD 3.76) and 13% of the students in the Finnish group (mean score 23.80/49, range 13-35, SD 4.32) passed the OSCE (Pskills correlated with high grading of the clinical skills. In conclusion, CPR-D skills of the newly qualified nurses in both the institutes were clearly under par and were not adequate according to the resuscitation guidelines. Current style of teaching is unlikely to result in students being able to perform adequate CPR-D. Standardized testing would help in controlling the quality of learning.

  19. Delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, M. R.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The microgravity environment presents several challenges for delivering effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Chest compressions must be driven by muscular force rather than by the weight of the rescuer's upper torso. Airway stabilization is influenced by the neutral body posture. Rescuers will consist of crew members of varying sizes and degrees of physical deconditioning from space flight. Several methods of CPR designed to accommodate these factors were tested in the one G environment, in parabolic flight, and on a recent shuttle flight. Methods: Utilizing study participants of varying sizes, different techniques of CPR delivery were evaluated using a recording CPR manikin to assess adequacy of compressive force and frequency. Under conditions of parabolic flight, methods tested included conventional positioning of rescuer and victim, free floating 'Heimlich type' compressions, straddling the patient with active and passive restraints, and utilizing a mechanical cardiac compression assist device (CCAD). Multiple restrain systems and ventilation methods were also assessed. Results: Delivery of effective CPR was possible in all configurations tested. Reliance on muscular force alone was quickly fatiguing to the rescuer. Effectiveness of CPR was dependent on technique, adequate restraint of the rescuer and patient, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR was adequate but rapidly fatiguing. The CCAD was able to provide adequate compressive force but positioning was problematic. Conclusions: Delivery of effective CPR in microgravity will be dependent on adequate resuer and patient restraint, technique, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR may be employed as a stop gap method until patient restraint is available. Development of an adequate CCAD would be desirable to compensate for the effects of deconditioning.

  20. The effect of real-time CPR feedback and post event debriefing on patient and processes focused outcomes: A cohort study: trial protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrest affects 30-35, 000 hospitalised patients in the UK every year. For these patients to be given the best chance of survival, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must be delivered, however the quality of CPR in real-life is often suboptimal. CPR feedback devices have been shown to improve CPR quality in the pre-hospital setting and post-event debriefing can improve adherence to guidelines and CPR quality. However, the evidence for use of these improvement methods in hospital remains unclear. The CPR quality improvement initiative is a prospective cohort study of the Q-CPR real-time feedback device combined with post-event debriefing in hospitalised adult patients who sustain a cardiac arrest. Methods/design The primary objective of this trial is to assess whether a CPR quality improvement initiative will improve rate of return of sustained spontaneous circulation in in-hospital-cardiac-arrest patients. The study is set in one NHS trust operating three hospital sites. Secondary objectives will evaluate: any return of spontaneous circulation; survival to hospital discharge and patient cerebral performance category at discharge; quality of CPR variables and cardiac arrest team factors. Methods: All three sites will have an initial control phase before any improvements are implemented; site 1 will implement audiovisual feedback combined with post event debriefing, site 2 will implement audiovisual feedback only and site 3 will remain as a control site to measure any changes in outcome due to any other trust-wide changes in resuscitation practice. All adult patients sustaining a cardiac arrest and receiving resuscitation from the hospital cardiac arrest team will be included. Patients will be excluded if; they have a Do-not-attempt resuscitation order written and documented in their medical records, the cardiac arrest is not attended by a resuscitation team, the arrest occurs out-of-hospital or the patient has previously participated

  1. Corpuls CPR Generates Higher Mean Arterial Pressure Than LUCAS II in a Pig Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, the use of mechanical chest compression devices is a reasonable alternative in situations where manual chest compression is impractical or compromises provider safety. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a recently developed chest compression device (Corpuls CPR with an established system (LUCAS II in a pig model. Methods. Pigs (n = 5/group in provoked ventricular fibrillation were left untreated for 5 minutes, after which 15 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with chest compressions. After 15 min, defibrillation was performed every 2 min if necessary, and up to 3 doses of adrenaline were given. If there was no return of spontaneous circulation after 25 min, the experiment was terminated. Coronary perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, end-expiratory CO2, regional oxygen saturation by near infrared spectroscopy, blood gas, and local organ perfusion with fluorescent labelled microspheres were measured at baseline and during resuscitation. Results. Animals treated with Corpuls CPR had significantly higher mean arterial pressures during resuscitation, along with a detectable trend of greater carotid blood flow and organ perfusion. Conclusion. Chest compressions with the Corpuls CPR device generated significantly higher mean arterial pressures than compressions performed with the LUCAS II device.

  2. [Discussing the resuscitation policy at a geriatric ward: the experience of patients or their representatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressers, J P A; Algra, A; Dautzenberg, P L J; van Delden, J J M

    2011-12-01

    To identify geriatric patients' and their surrogate decision makers' experience with regard to discussing cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) policy. This is a prospective, observational, explorative survey. During 10 weeks, all patients admitted to a geriatric ward of a general Dutch hospital or their representatives were asked for their experience regarding discussion of the resuscitation policy with the physician in attendance. Discussing this policy is a standard procedure at the first day of admission. We also asked on several factors which could influence their experience and on factors to improve discussing resuscitation policies. The primary outcome was the participant's satisfaction expressed on a scale of 1 to l0 regarding satisfaction with the CPR discussion. Seventy-six participants were included, of which 29 patients and 47 surrogate decision makers. Discussing the resuscitation policy took an average of 4,5 minutes (SD 3.2) to complete. In 70% (n=53) of cases a do-not-resuscitate decision was made. Discussing the resuscitation policy was experienced positive, with an average rate of 7,8 (SD 1.5). A total of 121 positive comments were made, as opposed to 70 negative comments. When they talked about their resuscitation policy, most patients expressed positive emotional responses. As most important improvements were mentioned: a better introduction to discussing this subject (17%), a better explanation of resuscitation and chances of survival (17%) and providing information prior to admission to the ward, so that patient and surrogate decision maker have been informed that the resuscitation policy will be discussed (12%). Most patients and relatives in this study wished to discuss their resuscitation policy with physicians. Still, there is room for improvement in several respects. Patients and surrogate decision makers are in favour of discussing the standard resuscitation policy with the doctor, and evaluate this conversation with a 7.8 / 10. In order

  3. Outcomes of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Among Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Waleed; Ghafoor, Irum; Jamshed, Arif; Gul, Sabika; Hafeez, Haroon

    2017-04-01

    To review all episodes where an emergency code was called in a cancer-specialized hospital in Pakistan and to assess survival to discharge among patients who received a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reviewed demographic and clinical data related to all "code blue" calls over 3 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the association of clinical characteristics with the primary outcome of survival to discharge. A total of 646 code blue calls were included in the analysis. The CPR was performed in 388 (60%) of these calls. For every 20 episodes of CPR among patients with cancer of all ages, only 1 resulted in a patient's survival to discharge, even though in 52.2% episodes there was a return of spontaneous circulation. No association was found between the type of rhythm at initiation of CPR and likelihood of survival to discharge. The proportion of patients with advanced cancer surviving to discharge after in-hospital CPR in a low-income country was in line with the reported international experience. Most patients with cancer who received in-hospital CPR did not survive to discharge and did not appear to benefit from resuscitation. Advance directives by patients with cancer limiting aggressive interventions at end of life and proper documentation of these directives will help in provision of care that is humane and consonant with patients' wishes for a dignified death. Patients' early appreciation of the limited benefits of CPR in advanced cancer is likely to help them formulate such advance directives.

  4. Effect of mobile application-based versus DVD-based CPR training on students’ practical CPR skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to compare students’ practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training. Settings Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities. Design A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12–48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. Participants 63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points. Results The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (33–38) vs 33 (30–36) directly after training (p<0.001) and 33 (30–36) and 31 (28–34) at 6 months (p<0.001), respectively. At 6 months, the DVD group performed significantly better in 8 out of 12 CPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger. Conclusions At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort. PMID:27130166

  5. Effect of mobile application-based versus DVD-based CPR training on students' practical CPR skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-29

    The aim was to compare students' practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training. Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities. A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12-48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. 63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study. Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points. The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (33-38) vs 33 (30-36) directly after training (p<0.001) and 33 (30-36) and 31 (28-34) at 6 months (p<0.001), respectively. At 6 months, the DVD group performed significantly better in 8 out of 12 CPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger. At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Which factors influence spontaneous state transitions during resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Skogvoll, Eirik; Eftestøl, Trygve; Gundersen, Kenneth; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Olasveengen, Theresa Mariero; Steen, Petter Andreas

    2009-08-01

    The clinical state (i.e. ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia: VF/VT, asystole: ASY, pulseless electrical activity: PEA, or return of spontaneous circulation, ROSC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation determines patient management. We investigate how spontaneous transitions (i.e. not forced by DC shock) between these states are influenced by factors like age, gender, bystander CPR, CPR quality, proportion of time spent in a state, or the number of state transitions. Detailed recordings from CPR attempts in 304 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Akershus (Norway), Stockholm (Sweden), and London (UK) were obtained from modified Heartstart 4000 defibrillators. Spontaneous state transitions were studied using a non-parametric intensity regression method that can handle dynamic factors like the state history properly. The initial state tended to preserve itself, as did cumulative time in any state. Recent DC shock, bystander CPR, location, response time, gender, compression depth, and ventilation rate were important for some transitions. More ventilation during PEA might possibly avert development to ASY and favour ROSC; otherwise observed variations in CPR quality had little impact. Using a novel intensity regression approach we studied the influence of various factors on spontaneous (i.e. non-shock) state transitions during CPR. State development was largely determined by the initial state, the proportion of time spent in a state, and the transition frequency; all probably reflecting the underlying aetiology.

  7. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: cardiac health care professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowan, Sarah; Jensen, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Family presence (FP) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is becoming an increasing practice. Within current literature, the attitudes and beliefs towards FP of cardiac health care professionals in Canada are limited. The purpose of this project was to examine the perceptions of cardiac health care professionals (n=368) concerning FP during CPR. A survey was conducted to explore the attitudes and beliefs of cardiac health care professionals towards family presence during CPR within five Edmonton and surrounding area hospitals. The response rate was 46%, with the greatest response from nurses and physicians. Of the respondents, 44.3% believed that family should have the option to be present, and 40.9% believed that family should be allowed at the bedside during CPR. Less than half of the respondents had experience with FP during CPR. The barriers identified towards FP were lack of support for families, the experience would be too traumatic for families, families would not understand the procedures, fear of families physically interfering with procedures, FP would increase stress levels among staff, and tradition and politics excludes FP. Despite less than half the respondents supporting FP the majority endorsed development of policy and procedures to overcome barriers to FP during CPR.

  8. Effect of a reminder video using a mobile phone on the retention of CPR and AED skills in lay responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Shon, You Dong; Park, Seung Min; Kang, Ku Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Skills related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) use by lay responders decay rapidly after training, and efforts are required to maintain competence among trainees. We examined whether repeated viewing of a reminder video on a mobile phone would be an effective means of maintaining CPR and AED skills in lay responders. In a single-blind case-control study, 75 male students received training in CPR and AED use. They were allocated either to the control or to the video-reminded group, who received a memory card containing a video clip about CPR and AED use for their mobile phone, which they were repeatedly encouraged to watch by SMS text message. CPR and AED skills were assessed in scenario format by examiners immediately and 3 months after initial training. Three months after initial training, the video-reminded group showed more accurate airway opening (PAED electrode positioning (Pa reminder video clip on a mobile phone increases retention of CPR and AED skills in lay responders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A standardized template for measuring and reporting telephone pre-arrival cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameff, Christian; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Tully, Jeffrey; Panczyk, Micah; Dunham, Aaron; Murphy, Ryan; Stolz, Uwe; Chikani, Vatsal; Spaite, Daniel; Bobrow, Bentley

    2014-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. Telephone CPR (TCPR) comprises CPR instruction given by emergency dispatchers to bystanders responding to OHCA and the CPR performed as a result. TCPR instructions improve bystander CPR rates, but the quality of the instructions varies widely. No standardized system exists to critically evaluate the TCPR intervention. Investigators analyzed audio recordings of suspected OHCA calls from a large regional 9-1-1 dispatch center and applied descriptive terms, a data collection tool and a six metric reporting template to describe TCPR. Data were obtained from October 2010 to November 2011. Dispatcher recognition of CPR need, delivery of TCPR instructions, and bystander CPR performance were documented. A total of 590 calls were analyzed. Call evaluators achieved "near perfect agreement" with 5/6 reporting metrics and "strong agreement" on the 6th metric: percentage of calls where need for CPR was recognized by dispatch. CPR was indicated in 317 calls and already in progress in 94. Dispatchers recognized the need for TCPR in 176 of the 223 (79%) remaining calls. CPR instructions were started in 65/223 (29%) and bystander CPR resulting from TCPR instructions was started in 31/223 (14%). We developed and demonstrated successful implementation of a simple data collection and reporting system for critical evaluation of the TCPR intervention. A standardized methodology for measuring TCPR is necessary to perform on-going quality improvement, to establish performance standards, and for future research on how to optimize bystander CPR rates and OHCA survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Practices and Perspectives in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Attempts and the Use of Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Orders: A Cross-sectional Survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Abi; Ambepitiyawaduge, Pubudu De Silva; Thilakasiri, Kaushila; Stephens, Tim; Padeniya, Anuruddha; Athapattu, Priyantha; Mahipala, Palitha G; Sigera, Ponsuge Chathurani; Dondorp, Arjen M; Haniffa, Rashan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts, the perspectives of junior doctors involved in those attempts and the use of do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders. A cross-sectional telephone survey aimed at intern doctors working in all medical/surgical wards in government hospitals. Interns were interviewed based on the above objective. A total of 42 CPR attempts from 82 hospitals (338 wards) were reported, 3 of which were excluded as the participating doctor was unavailable for interview. 16 (4.7%) wards had at least 1 patient with an informal DNAR order. 42 deaths were reported. 8 deaths occurred without a known resuscitation attempt, of which 6 occurred on wards with an informal DNAR order in place. 39 resuscitations were attempted. Survival at 24 h was 2 (5.1%). In 5 (13%) attempts, CPR was the only intervention reported. On 25 (64%) occasions, doctors were "not at all" or "only a little bit surprised" by the arrest. CPR attempts before death in hospitals across Sri Lanka is prevalent. DNAR use remains uncommon.

  11. Using adrenaline during neonatal resuscitation may have an impact on serum cardiac troponin-T levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Caroline; Skranes, Janne H; Liestøl, Knut; Fugelseth, Drude

    2015-09-01

    It has been suggested that serum cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) can predict the severity of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We evaluated whether cTnT was better correlated with adrenaline during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than with the severity of the insult itself, based on the Apgar scores. Serum cTnT was analysed in 47 asphyxiated newborn infants treated with hypothermia. Blood samples and resuscitation data were collected from medical records, and multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the effect of the treatment and the Apgar scores on cTnT levels. The infants were divided into three groups: the no CPR group (n = 29) just received stimulation and ventilation, the CPR minus adrenaline group (n = 9) received cardiac compression and ventilation and the CPR plus adrenaline group (n = 9) received complete CPR, including adrenaline. In the univariate analysis, the five and ten-minute Apgar scores were significantly lower in the CPR plus adrenaline group and the cTnT was significantly higher. Multiple regression analysis showed significantly higher cTnT values in the CPR plus adrenaline group, but no significant relationship between cTnT and the Apgar scores. Although cTnT correlated with the severity of the insult in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, the levels may have been affected by adrenaline administered during CPR. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of Dispatcher‐Assisted Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Neurological Outcomes in Children With Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A Prospective, Nationwide, Population‐Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Goto, Yumiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of dispatcher‐assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on neurological outcomes in children is unclear. We investigated whether dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR shows favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2) in children with out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods and Results Children (n=5009, ageCPR (n=2287); bystander CPR with dispatcher instruction (n=2019); and bystander CPR without dispatcher instruction (n=703) groups. The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome at 1 month post‐OHCA. Dispatcher CPR instruction was offered to 53.9% of patients, significantly increasing bystander CPR provision rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60 to 8.57). Bystander CPR with and without dispatcher instruction were significantly associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 1.81 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.67 and 1.07 to 2.62, respectively), compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional CPR was associated with increased odds of 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes irrespective of etiology of cardiac arrest (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.41). However, chest‐compression‐only CPR was not associated with 1‐month meaningful outcomes (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64). Conclusions In children with OHCA, dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR increased bystander CPR provision rate and was associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes, compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest‐compression‐only CPR, irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology. PMID:24785780

  13. Assessment of the Quality of Basic and Expanded Resuscitative Measures in a Multifield Hospital (Simulation Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuzovlev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival of patients after the sudden circulatory arrest (SCA depends not only on immediate onset of resuscitative measures, but also on their quality.The purpose of the study. The purpose is to assess the compliance of basic and expanded resuscitative measures carried out by healthcare providers in hospitals with modern national and international guidelines within the frames of a stimulation course.Materials and Methods. The research was perfomed in a multifield hospital in Moscow, in 2016. It consisted of two phases. During the first phase, within the frames of a simulation course, providers' skills in the cardiopul monary resuscitation (CPR and chest compression (CC technique mastership were evaluated. During the second stage, their skills in expanded CPR and ability to work as a part of resuscitation teams were assessed. During the simulation, all team activities were recorded (both audio and video; CC parameters were also registered using a CC pressure control sensor (hereinafter referred to as a sensor and audiovisual tips. The European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 were used as reference criteria. The analysis was performed using the ZOLL RescueNet Code Review® software. A statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica 7.0 software (MannWhitney Utest. The data were presented as a mean, median ± 25—75 percentiles (25—75 IQR, minimum and maximum values. The difference was considered significant at P<0.05.Results. Test results of most healthcare providers were unsatisfactory when the CPR was performed without sensors and audiovisual tips: the percentage of target CCs was not more than 10% in 72% of providers (n=18. When the CPR was performed with sensors and audiovisual tips regulating the CC quality, the percentage of target CCs was 65.7%. i.e. it was significantly higher than that during the CPR without the sensor and the tips (P=0.0000. While only one provider was able to perform

  14. Are YouTube videos accurate and reliable on basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Atakan; Elicabuk, Hayri; Dal, Onur

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate reliability and accuracy of the information on YouTube videos related to CPR and BLS in accord with 2010 CPR guidelines. YouTube was queried using four search terms 'CPR', 'cardiopulmonary resuscitation', 'BLS' and 'basic life support' between 2011 and 2013. Sources that uploaded the videos, the record time, the number of viewers in the study period, inclusion of human or manikins were recorded. The videos were rated if they displayed the correct order of resuscitative efforts in full accord with 2010 CPR guidelines or not. Two hundred and nine videos meeting the inclusion criteria after the search in YouTube with four search terms ('CPR', 'cardiopulmonary resuscitation', 'BLS' and 'basic life support') comprised the study sample subjected to the analysis. Median score of the videos is 5 (IQR: 3.5-6). Only 11.5% (n = 24) of the videos were found to be compatible with 2010 CPR guidelines with regard to sequence of interventions. Videos uploaded by 'Guideline bodies' had significantly higher rates of download when compared with the videos uploaded by other sources. Sources of the videos and date of upload (year) were not shown to have any significant effect on the scores received (P = 0.615 and 0.513, respectively). The videos' number of downloads did not differ according to the videos compatible with the guidelines (P = 0.832). The videos downloaded more than 10,000 times had a higher score than the others (P = 0.001). The majority of You-Tube video clips purporting to be about CPR are not relevant educational material. Of those that are focused on teaching CPR, only a small minority optimally meet the 2010 Resucitation Guidelines. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Retrospective investigation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome in 146 exotic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Mamoru; Kondo, Hirotaka; Ono, Sadaharu; Murakami, Akiyoshi; Harada, Tomoko; Sano, Tadashi

    2017-09-29

    The outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were retrospectively evaluated in 146 exotic animals including 20 pet birds, 47 rabbits, 34 hamsters, 18 ferrets, 7 turtles and 20 other small mammals in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) at presentation or during hospitalization at an animal clinic. The rates of return of spontaneous circulation, survival after CPR and discharge were 9.3, 2.3 and 1.2%, respectively. The mean success rate of CPR in animals included in this study was lower than those previously reported in dogs and cats. This might have been because of the challenges in effective chest compression, airway management and monitoring as well as establishment of intravenous catheterization route in exotic animals.

  16. Evidence for Time-dependent Maximum Increase ofFree Radical Damage and Eicosanoid Formation in theBrain as Related to Duration of Cardiac Arrest andCardio-pulmonary Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Samar; Liu, Xiaoli; Nozari, Ala; Rubertsson, Sten; Miclescu, Adriana; Wiklund, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of neurological function in patients following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a complex event. Free radical induced oxidative stress is supposed to be involved in this process. We studied levels of 8-iso-PGF2alpha (indicating oxidative injury) and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha (indicating inflammatory response) in venous plasma obtained from the jugular bulb in a porcine model of experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where 2, 5, 8, 10 or 12 min of ve...

  17. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  18. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammar Sadrawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED. This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE, complexity index (CI, and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (p<0.05. The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences.

  19. Extracorporeal CPR and intra-aortic balloon pumping in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy complicating cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Wan; Ahn, Hong Joon; Yoo, Youn Ho; Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Seung Whan; Choi, Si Wan

    2017-08-01

    Although tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) due to atrial fibrillation occurs frequently, it is under-recognized in clinical settings. TIC has a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic tachycardia to cardiomyopathy leading to end stage heart failure. We present a case of a 48year-old-woman who presented as cardiogenic shock, and rapidly progressed to cardiac arrest from recently diagnosed but undertreated atrial fibrillation, resulting TIC in the emergency department (ED). She was rescued by extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for refractory cardiac arrest in the ED, and received concomitant intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) support for severe left ventricular failure. Cardiogenic shock can present as an initial manifestation of TIC, and E-CPR and subsequent IABP support can be a valuable rescue therapy for severe TIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation during real-life out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenborg, Tore; Granfeldt, Asger; Lippert, Freddy; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, little is known about bystander CPR quality in real-life OHCA. To describe bystander CPR quality based on automated external defibrillator (AED) CPR process data during OHCA and compare it with the European Resuscitation Council 2010 and 2015 Guidelines. We included OHCA cases from the Capital Region, Denmark, (2012-2016) where a Zoll AED was used before ambulance arrival. For cases with at least one minute of continuous data, the initial 10min of CPR data were analysed for compression rate, depth, fraction and compressions delivered for each minute of CPR. Data are presented as median [25th;75th percentile]. We included 136 cases. Bystander median compression rate was 101min(-1) [94;113], compression depth was 4.8cm [3.9;5.8] and compressions per minute were 62 [48;73]. Of all cases, the median compression rate was 100-120min(-1) in 42%, compression depth was 5-6cm in 26%, compression fraction≥60% in 51% and compressions delivered per minute exceeded 60 in 54%. In a minute-to-minute analysis, we found no evidence of deterioration in CPR quality over time. The median peri-shock pause was 27s [23;31] and the pre-shock pause was 19s [17;22]. The median CPR performed by bystanders using AEDs with audio-feedback in OHCA was within guideline recommendations without deterioration over time. Compression depth had poorer quality compared with other parameters. To improve bystander CPR quality, focus should be on proper compression depth and minimizing pauses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Advantage of CPR-first over call-first actions for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in nonelderly patients and of noncardiac aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikura, Takahisa; Iwasaki, Hose; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Sakagami, Satoru; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the benefit of immediate call or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Of 952,288 OHCAs in 2005-2012, 41,734 were bystander-witnessed cases without prehospital involvement of physicians but with bystander CPR (BCPR) on bystander's own initiative. From those OHCAs, we finally extracted the following three call/BCPR groups: immediate Call+CPR (N=10,195, emergency call/BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, absolute call-BCPR time interval=0 or 1 min), immediate Call-First (N=1820, emergency call placed at 0 or 1 min after witness, call-to-BCPR interval=2-4 min), immediate CPR-First (N=5446, BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, BCPR-to-call interval=2-4 min). One-month neurologically favourable survivals were compared among the groups. Critical comparisons between Call-First and CPR-First groups were made considering arrest aetiology, age, and bystander-patient relationship after confirming the interactions among variables. The overall survival rates in immediate Call+CPR, Call-First, and CPR-First groups were 11.5, 12.4, and 11.5%, respectively without significant differences (p=0.543). Subgroup analyses by multivariate logistic regression following univariate analysis disclosed that CPR-first group is more likely to survive in subgroups of noncardiac aetiology (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.01; 1.39-2.98) and of nonelderly OHCAs (1.38; 1.09-1.76). Immediate CPR-first action followed by an emergency call without a large delay may be recommended when a bystander with sufficient skills to perform CPR witnesses OHCAs in nonelderly people and of noncardiac aetiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival-An evaluation of 548 emergency calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPRprior. This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01.01.2013 to 31.12.2013. OHCAs were linked to emergency medical dispatch centre records and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. The study included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRprior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduring group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRprior and CPRduring. Predictors positively associated with CPRprior included witnessed OHCA and healthcare professional bystanders. Predictors negatively associated with CPRprior included residential location, solitary bystanders, and bystanders related to the patient. The majority of bystander CPR (65%) was initiated during the emergency call, following dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions. Whether bystander CPR was initiated prior to emergency call versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR was not associated with ROSC or 30-day survival. Dispatcher-assisted CPR was especially beneficial for the initiation of bystander CPR in residential areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Haemodynamic effects of adrenaline (epinephrine) depend on chest compression quality during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytte, Morten; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Eriksen, Morten; Strømme, Taevje A; Godang, Kristin; Wik, Lars; Steen, Petter Andreas; Sunde, Kjetil

    2006-12-01

    Adrenaline (epinephrine) is used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) based on animal experiments without supportive clinical data. Clinically CPR was reported recently to have much poorer quality than expected from international guidelines and what is generally done in laboratory experiments. We have studied the haemodynamic effects of adrenaline during CPR with good laboratory quality and with quality simulating clinical findings and the feasibility of monitoring these effects through VF waveform analysis. After 4 min of cardiac arrest, followed by 4 min of basic life support, 14 pigs were randomised to ClinicalCPR (intermittent manual chest compressions, compression-to-ventilation ratio 15:2, compression depth 30-38 mm) or LabCPR (continuous mechanical chest compressions, 12 ventilations/min, compression depth 45 mm). Adrenaline 0.02 mg/kg was administered 30 s thereafter. Plasma adrenaline concentration peaked earlier with LabCPR than with ClinicalCPR, median (range), 90 (30, 150) versus 150 (90, 270) s (p = 0.007), respectively. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and cortical cerebral blood flow (CCBF) increased and femoral blood flow (FBF) decreased after adrenaline during LabCPR (mean differences (95% CI) CPP 17 (6, 29) mmHg (p = 0.01), FBF -5.0 (-8.8, -1.2) ml min(-1) (p = 0.02) and median difference CCBF 12% of baseline (p = 0.04)). There were no significant effects during ClinicalCPR (mean differences (95% CI) CPP 4.7 (-3.2, 13) mmHg (p = 0.2), FBF -0.2 (-4.6, 4.2) ml min(-1)(p = 0.9) and CCBF 3.6 (-1.8, 9.0)% of baseline (p = 0.15)). Slope VF waveform analysis reflected changes in CPP. Adrenaline improved haemodynamics during laboratory quality CPR in pigs, but not with quality simulating clinically reported CPR performance.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after restoration of spontaneous circulation: a valid technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Lars

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the status of using near-infrared spectroscopy and reporting cerebral oximetry (rSO2) for cardiac arrest patients. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) patients have significantly higher rSO2 compared with no bystander CPR patients. It is unclear how quickly rSO2 changes with hemodynamic instability. rSO2 during mechanical CPR varies between 44 and 55% and manual CPR varies between 20 and 40%, representing a significant relative rSO2 increase. Studies have found a relationship between rSO2 and restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and rSO2 increase can be used as a sign of ROSC. rSO2 evaluation is effective for monitoring quality of resuscitation and neurological prognostication. It seems that cardiac arrest patients with good neurologic outcome have significantly higher rSO2 levels (CPC 1-2 median rSO2 68%, CPC 3-5 median rSO2 58%, P infrared spectroscopy and rSO2 have been used as a monitor during CPR, detection of ROSC, after ROSC, and during post-resuscitation care. Prospective, controlled, randomized clinical studies are needed to document their wide use.

  5. Learn CPR You Can Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sciences Discovery Fund © 1998 - 2010 Learn CPR . All Rights Reserved. Replication of any of the content included in this website without the expressed consent of the author is strictly prohibited.

  6. extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obling, Laust; Wiberg, Sebastian; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Treatment options remain few in refractory cases, but extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) is increasingly applied to improve the outcome. This article summarizes the use, experience and outcome of e...

  7. Detection of a spontaneous pulse in photoplethysmograms during automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshoff, R.W.; Sar, T. van der; Peeters, W.H.; Bezemer, R.; Aelen, P.; Paulussen, I.W.; Ordelman, S.C.; Venema, A.; Berkom, P.F. van; Aarts, R.M.; Woerlee, P.H.; Scheffer, G.J.; Noordergraaf, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reliable, non-invasive detection of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with minimal interruptions to chest compressions would be valuable for high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated the potential of photoplethysmography (PPG) to detect the presence of a

  8. Automated external defibrillators: to what extent does the algorithm delay CPR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Thomas D; Shah, Sachita; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Copass, Michael K; Cobb, Leonard A

    2005-08-01

    Maximizing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during resuscitation may improve survival. Resuscitation protocols stack up to 3 shocks to achieve defibrillation, followed by an immediate postdefibrillation pulse check. The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes of rhythm reanalyses immediately after shock, stacked shocks, and initial postshock pulse checks in relation to achieving a pulse and initiating CPR. We conducted an observational study of patients with ventricular fibrillation treated by first-tier emergency medical services (EMS). We collected data from EMS, dispatch, and hospital records. Additionally, we analyzed automatic external defibrillator recordings to determine the proportion of cardiac arrest victims who were defibrillated and achieved a pulse according to shock number (single versus stacked shock), proportion of victims with a pulse during the initial postdefibrillation pulse check, and interval from initial shock to CPR. The study included 481 cardiac arrest subjects. Automatic external defibrillators terminated ventricular fibrillation with the initial shock in 83.6% (n=402) of cases. A second shock terminated ventricular fibrillation in an additional 7.5% (n=36) of cases, and a third shock terminated ventricular fibrillation in 4.8% (n=23) of cases. The initial sequence of 3 shocks failed to terminate ventricular fibrillation in 4.1% (n=20) of cases. In total, automatic external defibrillators performed 560 rhythm reanalyses during the initial shock sequence and delivered 122 "stacked" shocks. Termination of ventricular fibrillation was not synonymous with return of a pulse. The initial shock produced a pulse that was eventually detected in 21.8% (105/481) of cases. Stacked shocks produced a pulse in 10.7% (13/122) of cases. For the 24.5 % (n=118) of cases in which a pulse returned, the pulse was detected during the initial postshock pulse check only 12 times, or 2.5% of all cases. The median interval from initial shock until CPR was

  9. Factors influencing Chinese university students' willingness to performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cui; Jin, Ying-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Tong; Ma, Wen-Jing; Wang, Yun-Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yao

    2017-05-01

    Low rates of bystander-initiated CPR are a major obstacle to improved survival rates, and the aim of this study is to elucidate the factors associated with university students' attitudes toward performing bystander CPR. Questionnaires were distributed to 18 universities across three metropolises in China. One question asking for respondents' attitudes toward performing bystander CPR was set as the dependent variable, and the logistic regression models were used to extract independent factors for respondents' attitudes toward performing bystander CPR. 2934 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 81.5%. Results suggested that predictors of willingness to perform bystander CPR were: previous experience of performing bystander CPR, higher self-perceived ability to perform bystander CPR properly after instruction, medicine and law discipline, male gender, not being the single child of their parents, higher participation in university societies, being used to taking decisive action immediately, less self-perceived life stress and higher self-perceived knowledge level of CPR. Persons having previous experience of performing bystander CPR and those who thought they would have the ability to perform bystander CPR properly are predominantly associated with willingness to perform bystander CPR. Psychological and cultural factors need further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Refractory cardiac arrest treated with mechanical CPR, hypothermia, ECMO and early reperfusion (the CHEER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stub, Dion; Bernard, Stephen; Pellegrino, Vincent; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Sheldrake, Jayne; Hockings, Lisen; Shaw, James; Duffy, Stephen J; Burrell, Aidan; Cameron, Peter; Smit, De Villiers; Kaye, David M

    2015-01-01

    Many patients who suffer cardiac arrest do not respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There is growing interest in utilizing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) in the management of refractory cardiac arrest. We describe our preliminary experiences in establishing an E-CPR program for refractory cardiac arrest in Melbourne, Australia. The CHEER trial (mechanical CPR, Hypothermia, ECMO and Early Reperfusion) is a single center, prospective, observational study conducted at The Alfred Hospital. The CHEER protocol was developed for selected patients with refractory in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and involves mechanical CPR, rapid intravenous administration of 30 mL/kg of ice-cold saline to induce intra-arrest therapeutic hypothermia, percutaneous cannulation of the femoral artery and vein by two critical care physicians and commencement of veno-arterial ECMO. Subsequently, patients with suspected coronary artery occlusion are transferred to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for coronary angiography. Therapeutic hypothermia (33 °C) is maintained for 24h in the intensive care unit. There were 26 patients eligible for the CHEER protocol (11 with OHCA, 15 with IHCA). The median age was 52 (IQR 38-60) years. ECMO was established in 24 (92%), with a median time from collapse until initiation of ECMO of 56 (IQR 40-85) min. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed on 11 (42%) and pulmonary embolectomy on 1 patient. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 25 (96%) patients. Median duration of ECMO support was 2 (IQR 1-5) days, with 13/24 (54%) of patients successfully weaned from ECMO support. Survival to hospital discharge with full neurological recovery (CPC score 1) occurred in 14/26 (54%) patients. A protocol including E-CPR instituted by critical care physicians for refractory cardiac arrest which includes mechanical CPR, peri-arrest therapeutic hypothermia and

  11. Trainers’ Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mäkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers’ attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D, Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N=185 focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree. Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse’s Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation. Cronbach’s alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student’s t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p<0.01. Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p<0.01 were less confident about their Nurse’s Role (p<0.01 and Nontechnical Skills (p<0.01. Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills.

  12. Intra-arrest selective brain cooling improves success of resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Barbut, Denise; Tsai, Min-Shan; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2010-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that early intra-nasal cooling improved post-resuscitation neurological outcomes. The present study utilizing a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest investigated the effects of intra-nasal cooling initiated at the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on resuscitation success. Our hypothesis was that rapid nasal cooling initiated during "low-flow" improves return of spontaneous resuscitation (ROSC). In 16 domestic male pigs weighing 40+/-3 kg, VF was electrically induced and untreated for 15 min. Animals were randomized to either head cooling or control. CPR was initiated and continued for 5 min before defibrillation was attempted. Coincident with starting CPR, the hypothermic group was cooled with a RhinoChill device which produces evaporative cooling in the nasal cavity of pigs. No cooling was administrated to control animals. If ROSC was not achieved after defibrillation, CPR was resumed for 1 min prior to the next defibrillation attempt until either successful resuscitation or for a total of 15 min. Seven of eight animals in the hypothermic group (87.5%) and two of eight animals in control group (25%) (p=0.04) were successfully resuscitated. At ROSC, brain temperature was increased from baseline by 0.3 degrees C in the control group, and decreased by 0.1 degrees C in the hypothermic animals. Pulmonary artery temperature was above baseline in both groups. Intra-nasal cooling initiated at the start of CPR significantly improves the success of resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. This may have occurred by preventing brain hyperthermia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using a serious game to complement CPR instruction in a nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Imma; Rodriguez-Benitez, Antonio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Juan Manuel; Olivet, Josep; Carreras, Vicenç; Sbert, Mateu

    2015-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid key survival technique used to stimulate breathing and keep blood flowing to the heart. Its effective administration can significantly increase the chances of survival for victims of cardiac arrest. LISSA is a serious game designed to complement CPR teaching and also to refresh CPR skills in an enjoyable way. The game presents an emergency situation in a 3D virtual environment and the player has to save the victim applying the CPR actions. In this paper, we describe LISSA and its evaluation in a population composed of 109 nursing undergraduate students enrolled in the Nursing degree of our university. To evaluate LISSA we performed a randomized controlled trial that compares the classical teaching methodology, composed of self-directed learning for theory plus laboratory sessions with a mannequin for practice, with the one that uses LISSA after self-directed learning for theory and before laboratory sessions with a mannequin. From our evaluation we observed that students using LISSA (Group 2 and 3) gave significantly better learning acquisition scores than those following traditional classes (Group 1). To evaluate the differences between students of these groups we performed a paired samples t-test between Group 1 and 2 (μ1=35, 67, μ2=47, 50 and p<0.05) and between students of Group 1 and 3 (μ1=35, 67, μ3=50, 58 and p<0.05). From these tests we observed that there are significant differences in both cases. We also evaluated student performance of main steps of CPR protocol. Students that use LISSA performed better than the ones that did not use it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Research on optimization of lower limb parameters of cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulation model based on genetic algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin

    2014-10-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the critical clinical syndromes in emergency situations. A cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a necessary curing means for those patients with sudden cardiac arrest. In order to simulate effectively the hemodynamic effects of human under AEI-CPR, which is active compression-decompression CPR coupled with enhanced external counter-pulsation and inspiratory impedance threshold valve, and research physiological parameters of each part of lower limbs in more detail, a CPR simulation model established by Babbs was refined. The part of lower limbs was divided into iliac, thigh and calf, which had 15 physiological parameters. Then, these 15 physiological parameters based on genetic algorithm were optimized, and ideal simulation results were obtained finally.

  15. Compression-only life support (COLS for cardiopulmonary resuscitation by layperson outside the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Moied Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR guidelines of compression-only life support (COLS for management of the victim with cardiopulmonary arrest in adults provide a stepwise algorithmic approach for optimal outcome of the victim outside the hospital by untrained laypersons. These guidelines have been developed to recommend practical, uniform and acceptable resuscitation algorithms across India. As resuscitation data of the Indian population are inadequate, these guidelines have been based on international literature. The guidelines have been recommended after discussion among Indian experts and the recommendations modified to ensure its practical applicability across the country. The COLS emphasises on early recognition of cardiac arrest and activation, early chest compression and early transfer to medical facility. The guidelines emphasise avoidance of any interruption of chest compression, and thus relies primarily on chest compression-only CPR by laypersons.

  16. Effect of automatic external defibrillator audio prompts on cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, L J; Larsen, P D; Tzeng, Y C; Galletly, D C

    2005-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) audio prompts in an automatic external defibrillator in 24 lay subjects, before and after CPR training. Untrained subjects were asked to perform CPR on a manikin with and without the assistance of audio prompts. All subjects were then trained in CPR, and retested them eight weeks later. Untrained subjects who performed CPR first without audio prompts performed poorly, with only (mean (SD)) 24.5% (32%) of compressions at the correct site and depth, a mean compression rate of 52 (31) per minute, and with 15% (32%) of ventilatory attempts adequate. Repeat performance by this group with audio prompts resulted in significant improvements in compression rate (91(12), p = 0.0002, paired t test), and percentage of correct ventilations (47% (40%), p = 0.01 paired t test), but not in the percentage correct compressions (23% (29%)). Those who performed CPR first with audio prompts performed significantly better in compression rate (87 (19), p = 003, unpaired t test), and the percentage of correct ventilations (51 (34), p = 0.003 unpaired t test), but not in the percentage of correct compressions (18 (27)) than those without audio prompts. After training, CPR performance was significantly better than before training, but there was no difference in performance with or without audio prompts, although 73% of subjects commented that they felt more comfortable performing CPR with audio prompts. For untrained subjects, the quality of CPR may be improved by using this device, while for trained subjects the willingness to perform CPR may be increased.

  17. Duration of Prehospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Favorable Neurological Outcomes for Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Funada, Akira; Goto, Yumiko

    2016-12-20

    The appropriate duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains unclear and may differ based on initial rhythm. We aimed to determine the relationship between the duration of prehospital CPR by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel and post-OHCA outcomes. We analyzed the records of 12 877 pediatric patients who experienced OHCAs (Prehospital EMS-initiated CPR duration was defined as the time from CPR initiation by EMS personnel to prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or to hospital arrival when prehospital ROSC was not achieved during prehospital CPR efforts. The rates of 30-day survival and 30-day CPC 1 to 2 were 9.1% (n=1167) and 2.5% (n=325), respectively. Prehospital EMS-initiated CPR duration was significantly and inversely associated with 30-day outcomes (adjusted odds ratio for 1-minute increments: 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.95 for survival; adjusted odds ratio: 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.92 for CPC 1-2). The duration of prehospital EMS-initiated CPR, beyond which the chance for favorable outcomes diminished to prehospital EMS-initiated CPR durations beyond which the chance for 30-day survival with CPC 1 to 2 diminished to prehospital CPR duration, beyond which the chance for favorable outcome diminished to Prehospital EMS-initiated CPR duration for pediatric OHCAs was independently and inversely associated with 30-day favorable outcomes. The duration of prehospital EMS-initiated CPR, beyond which the chance for 30-day favorable outcomes diminished to <1%, was 42 minutes. However, the CPR duration to achieve this proportion of outcomes differed based on initial rhythm. Further research is required to elucidate appropriate CPR duration for pediatric OHCAs, including in-hospital CPR time. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02432196. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Increasing CPR duration prior to first defibrillation does not improve return of spontaneous circulation or survival in a swine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenberger, Jon C.; Suffoletto, Brian; Salcido, David; Logue, Eric; Menegazzi, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The optimum duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to first rescue shock is unknown. Clinical trials have used 90s and 180s. Neither of these durations may be optimal. We sought to determine the optimum duration of CPR prior to first defibrillation attempt and whether this varied depending on the duration of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In this porcine model of basic life support, our outcomes were rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival, and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP). Methods We anesthetized and instrumented 45 swine and then induced VF. After 5 or 8 minutes of untreated VF, we randomized the swine to mechanical CPR for 90, 180, or 300s. A single rescue shock (150J biphasic) was then administered. If this shock failed, 2 minutes of mechanical CPR were completed prior to the next rescue shock. CPP was calculated for each 30 second epoch. ROSC was defined as a blood pressure >80mmHg sustained for 60s. Survival was defined as sustained ROSC for 20 minutes. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Fisher’s exact test, and ANOVA. Results In the 5 minute VF cohort, the rate of ROSC did not differ between the three groups (90s: 25%; 180s: 38%; 300s: 38%, p>.05). Survival rates did not differ (90s: 25%; 180s: 25%; 300s: 25%, p>0.05). In the 8 minute VF cohort, no animals experienced ROSC or survival. CPP were calculated by 30 second epoch and did not differ between the three groups (p>0.05). CPPs decline after 180s of CPR. Conclusions ROSC and survival were equivalent regardless of VF duration and CPR duration. When CPR begins late, CPPs are low, stressing the importance of early CPR. We do not recommend 300s of CPR unless a defibrillator is unavailable. PMID:18620793

  19. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshan, Meng; Lin, Zhao; Wenqing, Liu; Chunlei, Lu; Yongqiang, Liu; Naiyi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a sudden emergency procedure that requires a rapid and efficient response, and personnel training in lifesaving procedures. Regular practice and training are necessary to improve resuscitation skills and reduce anxiety among the staff. As one of the most important skills mastered by medical volunteers serving for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, we randomly selected some of them to evaluate the quality of CPR operation and compared the result with that of the untrained doctors and nurses. In order to evaluate the functions of repeating standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, their performance qualities of CPR were compared with those of the untrained medical workers working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian. The CPR performance qualities of 52 medical volunteers (Standard Training Group), who had continually taken part in standard CPR technical training for six months, were tested at random and were compared with those of 68 medical workers (Compared Group) working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian who hadn't attended CPR training within a year. The QCPR 3535 monitor (provided by Philips Company) was used to measure the standard degree of single simulated CPR performance, including the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions and performance time of compression and ventilation, the results of which were recorded in the table and the number of practical compression per minute was calculated. The data were analyzed by x2 Test and t Test. The factors which would influence CPR performance, including gender, age, placement, hand skill, posture of compression and frequency of training, were classified and given parameters, and were put to Logistic repression analysis. The CPR performance qualities of volunteers were much higher than those of the compared group. The overall pass rates

  20. [A report of 463 in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation based on the "Utstein Style"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Mo, De-Fan; Lan, Bao-Qiong; Gao, Yun-Suo

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of outcomes and outcome-related factors of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) based on the "Utstein Style". The study was designed as a prospective, single-institution, registry investigation of 463 patients (included adult and pediatric patients) for whom a CPR was attempted. The study population consisted of 320 (69.1%) male patients and 143 (30.9%) female patients. The age range of 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 were ranked the first, the second and third highest. In the past medical history, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disorder were two main disorders, accounting for 36.3% (168/463) and 9.9% (46/463), respectively. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was the initial electrocardiographic (ECG) change in 74 patients (16.0%). Two hundred and seventy-three patients received the in-hospital CPR, and 190 patients received the pre-hospital CPR. Spontaneous circulation returned in 34.6% (160/273) of the in-hospital patients after CPR, and 16.6% (77/273) survived for 24 hours and 10.4% (48/273) survived up to the time of discharge. The rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival of the in-hospital CPR were higher than those of the pre-hospital CPR [47.6% (130/273) vs. 15.8% (30/190), 13.9% (38/273) vs. 5.3% (10/190), both Pcardiopulmonary arrest, but the rate of survival for in-hospital resuscitation still seems to be too low. The further improvement of CPR outcome is necessary.

  1. Miniature oxygen resuscitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.

    1969-01-01

    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  2. Can surf-lifeguards perform a quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation sailing on a lifeboat? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Palacios-Aguilar, Jose; Rey, Ezequiel; Costas-Veiga, Javier; Lopez-Garcia, Sergio; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Drowning is a high-priority public health problem around the world. The European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 put special emphasis on special environments like open waters. Stopping the drowning process as soon as possible and starting an early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improve survival. Inflatable rescue boats (IRBs) are used around the world in the water rescue of drowning victims. Our objective was to test the quality of CPR performed by surf-lifeguards while sailing on an IRB. A quasi-experimental simulation trial was conducted in Tenerife (Canary Islands-Spain) on September 2015. Ten surf-lifeguards were asked to perform a 2 min CPR on manikins in four different scenarios: (1) onshore, (2) on adrift boat, (3) on a boat sailing at 5 knots and (4) on a boat sailing at 10 knots. CPR was performed individually and was measured by means of CPRmeter (Laerdal, Norway) located on the standard manikin. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used in order to analyse the differences between scenarios. The composite of all CPR variables was over 84% in all conditions, but it was lower when CPR was performed on board: onshore (96.49±3.58%) versus adrift (91.80±3.56, p=0.04), sailing at 5 knots (88.65±5.54, p=0.03) and sailing at 10 knots (84.74±5.56, p=0.001). Surf-lifeguards are able to deliver good-quality CPR even on a moving IRB, but their performance is lower than onshore. This fact should be considered in real cases to balance the risk and benefits of CPR on board. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Comparison of continuous compression with regular ventilations versus 30:2 compressions-ventilations strategy during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengfei; Liu, Qingyu; Zheng, Guanghui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jiang, Longyuan; Lin, Qing; Chen, Rui; Tang, Wanchun

    2017-09-01

    A compression-ventilation (C:V) ratio of 30:2 is recommended for adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by the current American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. However, continuous chest compression (CCC) is an alternative strategy for CPR that minimizes interruption especially when an advanced airway exists. In this study, we investigated the effects of 30:2 mechanical CPR when compared with CCC in combination with regular ventilation in a porcine model. Sixteen male domestic pigs weighing 39±2 kg were utilized. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for 7 min. The animals were then randomly assigned to receive CCC combined with regular ventilation (CCC group) or 30:2 CPR (VC group). Mechanical chest compression was implemented with a miniaturized mechanical chest compressor. At the same time of beginning of precordial compression, the animals were mechanically ventilated at a rate of 10 breaths-per-minute in the CCC group or with a 30:2 C:V ratio in the VC group. Defibrillation was delivered by a single 150 J shock after 5 min of CPR. If failed to resuscitation, CPR was resumed for 2 min before the next shock. The protocol was stopped if successful resuscitation or at a total of 15 min. The resuscitated animals were observed for 72 h. Coronary perfusion pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide and carotid blood flow in the VC group were similar to those achieved in the CCC group during CPR. No significant differences were observed in arterial blood gas parameters between two groups at baseline, VF 6 min, CPR 4 min and 30, 120 and 360 min post-resuscitation. Although extravascular lung water index of both groups significantly increased after resuscitation, no distinct difference was found between CCC and VC groups. All animals were successfully resuscitated and survived for 72 h with favorable neurologic outcomes in both groups. However, obviously more numbers of rib fracture were observed in CCC animals in comparison with VC animals. There was no

  4. An institutionwide approach to redesigning management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthall, Geoffrey K; Mayette, Michael; Harrison, T Kyle

    2013-04-01

    Despite widespread training in basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) among hospital personnel, the likelihood of survival from in-hospital cardiac arrests remains low. In 2006 a university-affiliated tertiary medical center initiated a cardiopulmonary (CPR) resuscitation redesign project. REDESIGNING THE HOSPITAL'S RESUSCITATION SYSTEM: The CPR Committee developed the interventions on the basis of a large-scale view of the process of delivering BLS and ACLS, identification of key decision nodes and actions, and compartmentalization of specific functions. It was proposed that arrest management follow a steady progression in a two-layer scheme from BLS to ACLS. Handouts describing team structure and specific roles were given to all code team providers and house staff at the start of their month-long rotations. To further increase role clarity and team organization, daily morning and evening meetings of the arrest team were instituted. Site-specific BLS training, on-site ACLS refresher training, and defibrillator training were initiated. Project elements also included use of unannounced mock codes to provide system oversight; preparation and distribution of cognitive aids (printed algorithms, dosing guides, and other checklists to ensure compliance with ACLS protocols), identification of patients who may be unstable or a source of concern, event review and analysis of arrests and other critical events, and a CPR website. A mature hospital-based resuscitation system should include definition of arrest trends and resuscitation needs, development of local methods for approaching the arresting patient, an emphasis on prevention, establishment of training programs tailored to meet specific hospital needs, system examination and oversight, and administrative processes that maximize interaction between all components.

  5. Trauma resuscitation time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olden, G.D.J. van; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.; Goris, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Documenting the timing and organisation of trauma resuscitation can be utilised to assess performance standards, and to ensure a high quality of trauma resuscitation procedures. Since there is no European literature available on trauma resuscitation time (TRT) in the emergency room, the aim of this

  6. A clinical observational study analysing the factors associated with hyperventilation during actual cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang O; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Baek, Kwang Je; Hong, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Kyeong Ryong

    2013-03-01

    This is the first study to identify the factors associated with hyperventilation during actual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the emergency department (ED). All CPR events in the ED were recorded by video from April 2011 to December 2011. The following variables were analysed using review of the recorded CPR data: ventilation rate (VR) during each minute and its associated factors including provider factors (experience, advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) certification), clinical factors (auscultation to confirm successful intubation, suctioning, and comments by the team leader) and time factors (time or day of CPR). Fifty-five adult CPR cases including a total of 673 min sectors were analysed. The higher rates of hyperventilation (VR>10/min) were delivered by inexperienced (53.3% versus 14.2%) or uncertified ACLS provider (52.2% versus 10.8%), during night time (61.0 versus 34.5%) or weekend CPR (53.1% versus 35.6%) and when auscultation to confirm successful intubation was performed (93.5% versus 52.8%) than not (all pHyperventilation during CPR was associated with inexperienced or uncertified ACLS provider, auscultation to confirm intubation, and night time or weekend CPR. And to deliver proper ventilation, comments by the team leader should be given regardless of providers' expert level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Donor Heart Utilization following Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation: Influence of Donor Characteristics and Wait Times in Transplant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Quader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Procurement of hearts from cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitated (CPR donors for transplantation is suboptimal. We studied the influences of donor factors and regional wait times on CPR donor heart utilization. Methods. From UNOS database (1998 to 2012, we identified 44,744 heart donors, of which 4,964 (11% received CPR. Based on procurement of heart for transplantation, CPR donors were divided into hearts procured (HP and hearts not procured (HNP groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of heart procurement. Results. Of the 4,964 CPR donors, 1,427 (28.8% were in the HP group. Donor characteristics that favored heart procurement include younger age (25.5 ± 15 yrs versus 39 ± 18 yrs, P≤0.0001, male gender (34% versus 23%, P≤0.0001, shorter CPR duration (30 min, P≤0.0001, and head trauma (60% versus 15%. Among the 11 UNOS regions, the highest procurement was in Region 1 (37% and the lowest in Region 3 (24%. Regional transplant volumes and median waiting times did not influence heart procurement rates. Conclusions. Only 28.8% of CPR donor hearts were procured for transplantation. Factors favoring heart procurement include younger age, male gender, short CPR duration, and traumatic head injury. Heart procurement varied by region but not by transplant volumes or wait times.

  8. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100215.htm CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - series—Check ... and retrieve an AED until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  9. Effects of a media campaign on resuscitation performance of bystanders: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunien, Rainer; Eberhard, Carolin; Dinse-Lambracht, Alexander; Struck, Manuel F; Muth, Claus-Martin; Winkler, Bernd E

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac arrest is associated with a poor outcome if cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is delayed. Nevertheless, CPR performance by laypersons in witnessed cardiac arrest is frequently poor. The present study evaluated the effect of a media campaign on CPR performance. CPR performance of 1000 individuals who did not have any medical background was evaluated using a resuscitation manikin. The media campaign consisted of flyers, posters, and electronic advertisement. Five hundred individuals were evaluated before the media campaign and 500 individuals after the media campaign. Age and male/female ratio were comparable within each of the groups. Premedia campaign performance was compared with postmedia campaign performance with respect to chest compressions and ventilation metrics. Chest compression depth and total compression work were significantly higher after the media campaign: median depth 51 mm postcampaign versus 45 mm precampaign (Pcampaign, but did not differ between participants who had acknowledged exposure to the campaign and those who did not. Ventilation performance was generally poor across the two groups both before and after the media campaign. A simple and cost-efficient media campaign appears to enhance the performance of chest compressions. Ventilation performance and the rate of CPR performance were not increased by the campaign.

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation on Flemish television: challenges to the television effects hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, J; Damiaans, K

    2004-09-01

    People who watch a lot of medical fiction overestimate the success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It has been suggested that this is because CPR is usually shown to be successful on television. This study analysed a popular Flemish medical drama series. Previous research showed that heavy viewing of this series was related to overestimation of CPR success. Content analysis of 70 episodes of "Spoed" in the period between 2001 and the first three months of 2003. Causes and treatment of cardiac arrest and outcome of CPR were recorded in the same way as previous studies. CPR was performed 31 times in the 70 episodes. Only 19% of the patients survived the resuscitation attempt. Most patients were middle aged or older. Causes of arrest were different from those in British or American television series. The low survival rate challenges the idea that heavy viewers adopt the overestimation shown by television. Psychological research shows that people ignore base rate information in the shape of statistics, in favour of vivid, dramatic examples. Showing some impressive examples of success might therefore be more important than the overall success rate. It is suggested that the message of television fiction is that doctors are not powerless and that treatment does not stop once the heart stops beating. This helps to create what has been called an "illusion of efficacy".

  11. The rate of brain death and organ donation in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, Claudio; D'Arrigo, Sonia; Callaway, Clifton W; Cariou, Alain; Dragancea, Irina; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Antonelli, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of brain death in patients with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury after resuscitation from cardiac arrest creates opportunities for organ donation. However, its prevalence is currently unknown. Systematic review. MEDLINE via PubMed, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for eligible studies (2002-2016). The prevalence of brain death in adult patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest and the rate of organ donation among brain dead patients were summarised using a random effect model with double-arcsine transformation. The quality of evidence (QOE) was evaluated according to the GRADE guidelines. 26 studies [16 on conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (c-CPR), 10 on extracorporeal CPR (e-CPR)] included a total of 23,388 patients, 1830 of whom developed brain death at a mean time of 3.2 ± 0.4 days after recovery of circulation. The overall prevalence of brain death among patients who died before hospital discharge was 12.6 [10.2-15.2] %. Prevalence was significantly higher in e-CPR vs. c-CPR patients (27.9 [19.7-36.6] vs. 8.3 [6.5-10.4] %; p organ donation among brain dead patients was 41.8 [20.2-51.0] % (9/26 studies, 1264 patients; range 0-100 %). The QOE was very low for both outcomes. In patients with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury following CPR, more than 10 % of deaths were due to brain death. More than 40 % of brain-dead patients could donate organs. Patients who are unconscious after resuscitation from cardiac arrest, especially when resuscitated using e-CPR, should be carefully screened for signs of brain death.

  12. How effectively can young people perform dispatcher-instructed cardiopulmonary resuscitation without training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Matthew; Swain, Andrew; Dunning, Andrew; Baine, Julie; Burrowes, Corey

    2015-05-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is increased by bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Bystander performance can be improved when CPR instructions are delivered by a calltaker at the Emergency Communications Centre. Little is known about a young person's ability to understand these instructions and perform CPR correctly. We assessed the ability of a group of untrained young people to effectively apply these directions to an adult resuscitation manikin. 87 youngsters aged 7-15 years with no previous training in CPR were separately equipped with a mobile phone and an adult assessment manikin. They phoned the emergency number (111) and were automatically diverted to a senior emergency medical dispatcher (EMD). The EMD delivered resuscitation instructions which complied fully with Medical Priority Dispatch System (version 12.1). Performance was monitored using a Laerdal Computerised Skill Reporting System. Average compression depth increased with age from 10.3 mm to 30 mm for 8 and 15 year olds respectively. 100 compressions per minute was achieved in youngsters aged 10 years and older but the rate fatigued over time and improved after interruption for two ventilations. Those aged 11 years and older consistently compressed the chest from 31 mm to 50mm. Only one participant could successfully ventilate the manikin by mouth-to-mouth. This study demonstrates that untrained youngsters should perform compression-only CPR. From 11 years of age, they can effectively perform dispatcher-directed CPR by compressing the chest at an appropriate rate and depth. However, their technique benefits from formal training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated external defibrillator availability and CPR training among state police agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lior M; Wallace, Sarah K; Leary, Marion; Tucker, Kathryn D; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S

    2012-07-01

    Access to automated external defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training are key determinants of cardiac arrest survival. State police officers represent an important class of cardiac arrest first responders responsible for the large network of highways in the United States. We seek to determine accessibility of automated external defibrillators and CPR training among state police agencies. Contact was attempted with all 50 state police agencies by telephone and electronic mail. Officers at each agency were guided to complete a 15-question Internet-based survey. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed. Attempts were made to contact all 50 states, and 46 surveys were completed (92% response rate). Most surveys were filled out by police leadership or individuals responsible for medical programs. The median agency size was 725 (interquartile range 482 to 1,485) state police officers, with 695 (interquartile range 450 to 1,100) patrol vehicles ("squad cars"). Thirty-three percent of responding agencies (15/46) reported equipping police vehicles with automated external defibrillators. Of these, 53% (8/15) equipped less than half of their fleet with the devices. Regarding emergency medical training, 78% (35/45) of state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage, and 98% (44/45) reported training them in CPR. One third of state police agencies surveyed equipped their vehicles with automated external defibrillators, and among those that did, most equipped only a minority of their fleet. Most state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage and CPR. Increasing automated external defibrillator deployment among state police represents an important opportunity to improve first responder preparedness for cardiac arrest care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. The Effects of Visual Feedback on CPR Skill Retention in Graduate Student Athletic Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies examining the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR chest compressions have found compression depth and rate to be less than optimal and recoil to full release to be incomplete. Objective: To determine if visual feedback affects the rate and depth of chest compressions and chest recoil values during CPR training of athletic trainers and to determine retention of proficiency over time. Design: Pre-test, post-test. Setting: Medical simulation laboratory. Participants: Eleven females and one male (23.08+.51 years old, from an Athletic Training Graduate Program. All participants were Certified Athletic Trainers (1.12+.46 years of experience and certified in CPR for the Professional Rescuer. Interventions: Participants completed a pre-test, practice sessions, and a post-test on a SimMan® (Laerdal Medical manikin with visual feedback of skills in real time. After the pre-test, participants received feedback by the investigators. Participants completed practice sessions as needed (range=1-4 sessions, until they reached 100% skill proficiency. After achieving proficiency, participants returned 8 weeks later to perform the CPR skills. Main Outcome Measures: The average of all compression outcome measures (rate, depth, recoil was captured every 10 seconds (6x per min. All participants performed 5 cycles of 30 compressions. A two-tailed paired samples t-test (pre to post was used to compare rate of chest compressions, depth of chest compressions, and recoil of the chest. Significance was set a priori at pResults: There was a significant difference between pre and post-test compression depth average, p=.002. The pre-depth average was 41mm + 9.83mm compared to the post-depth average of 52.26mm + 5mm. There were no significant differences between pre and post-test chest compression rates and recoil. Conclusions: The use of a simulated manikin with visual feedback facilitated participants to reach the recommended compression

  15. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  16. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 . Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (PETCO 2 and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO 2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA. There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO 2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.

  17. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Urman, Richard D

    2014-10-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO2). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA). There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.

  18. Do Radiologists Want/Need Training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellhammer, F. [St. Katharinen Hospital, Frechen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decreases morbidity and mortality following cardiopulmonary arrest. Radiologists are frequently confronted with severely ill patients, who may deteriorate at any time. Furthermore, they have to be aware of life-threatening reactions towards contrast media. This study was designed to assess experience and self-estimation of German-speaking radiologists in CPR and cardiac defibrillation (CD). Material and Methods: 650 German-speaking radiologists were audited by a specially designed questionnaire, which was sent via e-mail. The answers were expected to be re-mailed within a 2-month period. Results: The response rate was 12.6%. 72.8% of the responders had performed at least 1 CPR (range 9.5 {+-} 13.1) and 37% at least 1 CD. 67.9% had had opportunities to attend training courses, which had been utilized by 41.8% of them. The last training of the responders was more than 2 years ago in 69.2% and more than 5 years ago in 37%. Of all responders 75.6% expressed the need for further education. Conclusion: The small response rate indicates the small importance of CPR in the subpopulation surveyed. The vast majority of the responders, however, showed interest in basic and advanced life support and advocated regular updates. It seems reasonable that radiological Dept. themselves should organize courses in order to cope with their specific situations.

  19. Chest compression depth after change in CPR guidelines--improved but not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, Tim-Gerald; Lukas, Roman-Patrik; Steffler, Caroline; Sauerland, Cristina; Weber, Thomas P; Van Aken, Hugo; Bohn, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most vital therapeutic options for patients with cardiac arrest. Sufficient chest compression depth turned out to be of utmost importance to increase the likelihood of a return of spontaneous circulation. Furthermore, the use of real-time feedback-systems for resuscitation is associated with improvement of compression quality. The European Resuscitation Council changed their recommendation about minimal compression depth from 2005 (40 mm) to 2010 (50 mm). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this recommendation of the new guidelines was implemented successfully in an emergency medical service using a real-time feedback-system and to what extend a guideline-based CPR training leads to a "change in behaviour" of rescuers, respectively. The electronic resuscitation data of 294 patients were analyzed retrospectively within two observational periods regarding fulfilment of the corresponding chest compression guideline requirements: ERC 2005 (40 mm) 01.07.2009-30.06.2010 (n=145) and ERC 2010 (50mm) 01.07.2011-30.06.2012 (n=149). The mean compression depth during the first period was 47.1mm (SD 11.1) versus 49.6 mm (SD 12.0) within the second period (pdepth decreased (73.9% vs. 49.1%) (pdepth and patient age, sex or duration of resuscitation. The present study was able to show a significant increase in chest compression depth after implementation of the new ERC guidelines. Even by using a real-time feedback system we failed to sustain chest compression quality at the new level as set by ERC Guidelines 2010. In consequence, the usefulness of a fixed chest compression depth should be content of further investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Basic resuscitation of adults and automatic external defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlac, Peter Anthony; Torp-Pedersen, Christian T; Lippert, Freddy K

    2008-11-17

    The new ERC guidelines on resuscitation emphasize the importance of quality CPR. BLS should be started as early as possible. Lay rescuers should not check for a pulse, they should call for help and start chest compressions immediately. Compression depth should be 4-5 cm at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. Chest compressions and ventilation should be performed in a ratio of 30:2. Lay rescuers should continue until professional help arrives. Lay rescuers may use the same procedure for children as recommended for adults. Professionals should, however, initiate CPR in children with 5 ventilations followed by a compression-ventilation ratio of 15:2. Automatic External Defibrillation should be used as early as possible.

  1. Subcapsular liver haematoma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by untrained personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Charniot, Jean-Christophe; Veilhan, Luc Antoine; Mougué, Ferdinand; Bellin, Marie-France; Boissonnas, Alain

    2007-05-01

    Although early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with increased survival of sudden cardiac arrest victims, it may also result in miscellaneous injuries. A 25-year-old inebriated man rescued from drowning in a swimming pool was apnoeic and pulseless after being pulled out of the water. Successful CPR was provided by untrained bystanders, including abdominal thrusts thought to remove water from the airways and chest compressions to provide haemodynamic support. As the patient progressively improved during his subsequent hospital stay, he complained of right upper abdominal and thoracic pain. A computed tomographic scan showed a 11 cm subcapsular haematoma contiguous to the right hepatic lobe. A favourable outcome was obtained after conservative, non-operative treatment. Subcapsular haematoma of the liver is a potentially life threatening complication that warrants consideration in survivors of cardiac arrest who have received closed chest compression and/or abdominal thrusts.

  2. A novel CPR training method using a smar tphone app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Elliot Srither

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to validate that a smartphone application can assist in the learning and skills retention for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. This cardiopulmonary resuscitation feature of the Crowdsav platform is designed to record the chest compression performance as well as the rate of compressions of the trainee. Crowdsav is available for downloading in the public domain. The application, once downloaded can be utilised during training and be replayed by the trainee at his/her own will or via reminders from the training centre. The goal of using this application is to minimise the decay of the knowledge and compression skills and perhaps even reduce the resource for recertification, as skills and performance can be kept up, maintained and monitored remotely by a training centre using the application.

  3. Evaluating the quality of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by reviewing automated external defibrillator records and survival for out-of-hospital witnessed arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Chen, Wen-Jone; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yue

    2005-02-01

    Without an easy method to monitor the performance of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), earlier studies have not been able to assess the quality of CPR. In this study, we have used a new approach to evaluate prehospital CPR performance and the impact on outcome using data retrieved from the automatic external defibrillators (AED). Electrocardiography (ECG) and voice records from AED data cards from 633 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) were reviewed. Fifty-two witnessed cardiac arrests in ventricular fibrillation (VF) requiring post-shock CPR underwent an independent, structured review by two physicians. The adequacy of prehospital CPR was defined on the basis of noticeable deflection of the ECG with chest compressions, the actual number of chest compressions delivered per minute, and the continuity of prehospital CPR at the scene and during transport. Outcome measures included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission and discharge. The quality of prehospital CPR was judged as adequate in 15 (29%, 95%; CI: 18-42%) and inadequate in 37 (71%, 95%; CI: 58-82%) of the consensus. Adequate CPR performance resulted in a higher rate of ROSC at the scene (53% versus 8%, 95% CI of the difference 14-76%), and survival to hospital discharge (53% versus 8%, 95% CI of the difference 14-76%). Two reviewers agreed on whether CPR was adequate in 92.3% of cases, with a kappa of 0.82. The quality of prehospital CPR is associated with a greater likelihood of survival in witnessed VF arrests in need of post-shock CPR. The potential of widely available electrocardiography and voice records in AEDs in providing a convenient and real-time evaluation of prehospital CPR should be explored further.

  4. Trends in in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults receiving maintenance dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan P. Y.; Kreuter, William; Curtis, J. Randall; Hall, Yoshio N.; O’Hare, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Understanding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practices and outcomes can help to support advance care planning in patients receiving maintenance dialysis. Objective To characterize patterns and outcomes of in-hospital CPR in US adults receiving maintenance dialysis. Design A national retrospective cohort study. Setting A comprehensive national registry for end-stage renal disease. Participants 663,734 Medicare beneficiaries aged 18 years who initiated maintenance dialysis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Exposure Receipt of in-hospital CPR from 91 days after dialysis initiation through the time of death, first kidney transplant or end of follow-up on December 31, 2011. Main outcomes and measures Incidence of CPR and survival after the first episode of CPR recorded in Medicare claims during follow-up. Results The annual incidence of CPR for the overall cohort was 1.4 events/1,000 in-hospital days (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.4). Approximately one in five (21.9%, 95% CI 21.4–22.3) CPR recipients survived to hospital discharge, with a median post-discharge survival of 5.0 months (interquartile range 0.7–16.8). Among patients who died in the hospital, 14.9% (95% CI 14.8–15.1) received CPR during their terminal admission. From 2000–2011, there was an increase in the incidence of CPR (1.0 events/1,000 in-hospital days [95% CI 0.9–1.1] to 1.6 events/1,000 in-hospital days [95% CI 1.6–1.7]; trend pCPR recipients who survived to discharge (15.2% [95% CI 11.1–20.5] to 28% [95% CI 26.7–29.4]; trend pCPR (9.5% [95% CI 8.4–10.8] to 19.8% [95% CI 19.2–20.4]; trend pCPR was higher and long-term survival worse than reported for other populations. PMID:25915762

  5. A comparative study of defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance during simulated cardiac arrest in nursing student teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikeland Husebø Sissel I

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nurses must be able to respond quickly and effectively to cardiac arrest, numerous studies have demonstrated poor performance. Simulation is a promising learning tool for resuscitation team training but there are few studies that examine simulation for training defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (D-CPR in teams from the nursing education perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which nursing student teams follow the D-CPR-algorithm in a simulated cardiac arrest, and if observing a simulated cardiac arrest scenario and participating in the post simulation debriefing would improve team performance. Methods We studied video-recorded simulations of D-CPR performance in 28 nursing student teams. Besides describing the overall performance of D-CPR, we compared D-CPR performance in two groups. Group A (n = 14 performed D-CPR in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario, while Group B (n = 14 performed D-CPR after first observing performance of Group A and participating in the debriefing. We developed a D-CPR checklist to assess team performance. Results Overall there were large variations in how accurately the nursing student teams performed the specific parts of the D-CPR algorithm. While few teams performed opening the airways and examination of breathing correctly, all teams used a 30:2 compression: ventilation ratio. We found no difference between Group A and Group B in D-CPR performance, either in regard to total points on the check list or to time variables. Conclusion We found that none of the nursing student teams achieved top scores on the D-CPR-checklist. Observing the training of other teams did not increase subsequent performance. We think all this indicates that more time must be assigned for repetitive practice and reflection. Moreover, the most important aspects of D-CPR, such as early defibrillation and hands-off time in relation to shock, must be highlighted in team

  6. Computational simulation of passive leg-raising effects on hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ah; Park, Jiheum; Lee, Jung Chan; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-03-01

    The passive leg-raising (PLR) maneuver has been used for patients with circulatory failure to improve hemodynamic responsiveness by increasing cardiac output, which should also be beneficial and may exert synergetic effects during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the impact of the PLR maneuver on CPR remains unclear due to difficulties in monitoring cardiac output in real-time during CPR and a lack of clinical evidence. We developed a computational model that couples hemodynamic behavior during standard CPR and the PLR maneuver, and simulated the model by applying different angles of leg raising from 0° to 90° and compression rates from 80/min to 160/min. The simulation results showed that the PLR maneuver during CPR significantly improves cardiac output (CO), systemic perfusion pressure (SPP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) by ∼40-65% particularly under the recommended range of compression rates between 100/min and 120/min with 45° of leg raise, compared to standard CPR. However, such effects start to wane with further leg lifts, indicating the existence of an optimal angle of leg raise for each person to achieve the best hemodynamic responses. We developed a CPR-PLR model and demonstrated the effects of PLR on hemodynamics by investigating changes in CO, SPP, and CPP under different compression rates and angles of leg raising. Our computational model will facilitate study of PLR effects during CPR and the development of an advanced model combined with circulatory disorders, which will be a valuable asset for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training into a cardiac rehabilitation programme: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Susie; Finn, Judith; Bray, Janet E; Case, Rosalind; Barker, Lauren; Missen, Diane; Shaw, James; Stub, Dion

    2018-02-01

    Patients with a cardiac history are at future risk of cardiac events, including out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Targeting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to family members of cardiac patients has long been advocated, but is an area in need of contemporary research evidence. An environment yet to be investigated for targeted training is cardiac rehabilitation. To evaluate the feasibility of providing CPR training in a cardiac rehabilitation programme among patients, their family members and staff. A prospective before and after study design was used. CPR training was delivered using video self-instruction CPR training kits, facilitated by a cardiac nurse. Data was collected pre-training, post-training and at one month. Cardiac patient participation rates in CPR classes were high ( n = 56, 72.7% of eligible patients) with a further 27 family members attending training. Patients were predominantly male (60.2%), family members were predominantly female (81.5%), both with a mean age of 65 years. Confidence to perform CPR and willingness to use skills significantly increased post-training (both p<0.001). Post training participants demonstrated a mean compression rate of 112 beats/min and a mean depth of 48 mm. Training reach was doubled as participants shared the video self-instruction kit with a further 87 people. Patients, family members and cardiac rehabilitation staff had positive feedback about the training. We demonstrated that cardiac rehabilitation is an effective and feasible environment to provide CPR training. Using video self-instruction CPR training kits enabled further training reach to the target population.

  8. Use of the Trendelenburg Position in the Porcine Model Improves Carotid Flow During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenker, Jay

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is now widely used as a treatment for ventricular fibrillation, though numerous studies have shown the outcome of standard CPR to be dismal. Alternative methods of CPR, including interposed abdominal compression, constant aortic occlusion, and the use of intrathoracic pressure regulator, have been shown to increase cardiac output and affect the mortality rate of CPR.OBJECTIVES: Here we suggest the Trendelenburg position as yet another method of increasing cardiac output and therefore improving the effectiveness of chest compressions. We hypothesized that the use of the Trendelenburg position during CPR would increase cardiac output as measured by carotid blood flow.METHODS: We anaesthetized six pigs and measured their pre-arrest carotid flow rate for two minutes. We then induced ventricular fibrillation in those pigs and performed open-chest CPR on them. Post-arrest carotid blood flow was measured for two minutes each at 0 (supine position, 10, 20, and 30 degrees of head-down tilt in each pig. The mean carotid flow for each degree of tilt was compared to mean carotid flow at 0 degrees of tilt using a paired student t-test.RESULTS: We found an increase of up to 1.4-fold in carotid blood flow during CPR in the Trendelenburg position, though only 20 and 30 degrees of Trendelenburg showed a statistically significant increase from the 0 degrees of tilt in pigs.CONCLUSION: The Trendelenburg position can lead to increased blood flow through the carotid arteries during CPR in this pig model. Future studies should investigate whether this increased blood flow through the carotid arteries leads to improved brain perfusion and better neurologic outcomes.

  9. Outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Tim; Ameloot, Koen; Roggen, Mieke; Troost, Els; Gewillig, Marc; Budts, Werner; Van De Bruaene, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with underlying congenital heart disease is uncertain. This study aimed at evaluating outcome after CPR in patients with underlying congenital heart disease, factors related to worse outcome after CPR and whether survivors of sudden cardiac death (SCD) have a worse outcome when compared to an age, gender and disease-matched control population. Between 1984 and 2015, all patients with congenital heart disease who received in or out-of-hospital CPR were identified from the database of congenital heart disease from the University Hospitals Leuven. Postoperative and neonatal (heart defect were included in the study. Thirty-eight patients (66% men; median age 25 years (interquartile range 9-40); 68% out-of-hospital) were identified, of which 27 (66%) survived the event. The main cause of SCD was ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation ( n=21). Heart defect complexity (odds ratio (OR) 5.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-21.9; P=0.027), pulmonary hypertension (OR 13.8; 95% CI 2.1-89.5; P=0.006) and time to return of spontaneous circulation (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0-1.1; P=0.046) were related to worse outcome. Survivors of SCD had a worse prognosis when compared to an age, gender and disease-matched control group (5-year survival 76% vs. 98%; P=0.002). The complexity of underlying heart defect, pulmonary hypertension and time to return of spontaneous circulation are related to worse outcome in the case of CPR. Survivors of SCD have a worse outcome when compared to matched controls, indicating the need for adequate implantable cardioverter defibrillator indication assessment and for stringent follow-up of patients with worsening haemodynamics.

  10. A Review of the Performance of Artifact Filtering Algorithms for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushun Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various filtering strategies have been adopted and investigated to suppress the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR artifact. In this article, two types of artifact removal methods are reviewed: one is the method that removes CPR artifact using only ECG signals, and the other is the method with additional reference signals, such as acceleration, compression depth and transthoracic impedance. After filtering, the signal-to-noise ratio is improved from 0 dB to greater than 2.8 dB, the sensitivity is increased to > 90% as recommended by the American Heart Association, whereas the specificity was far from the recommended 95%, which is considered to be the major drawback of the available artifact removal methods. The overall performance of the adaptive filtering methods with additional reference signal outperforms the methods using only ECG signals. Further research should focus on the refinement of artifact filtering methods and the improvement of shock advice algorithms with the presence of CPR.

  11. Does the choice of definition for defibrillation and CPR success impact the predictability of ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danian; Dai, Chenxi; Gong, Yushun; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of ventricular fibrillation (VF), such as amplitude spectral area (AMSA), predicts shock outcomes. However, there is no uniform definition of shock/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) success in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The objective of this study is to investigate post-shock rhythm variations and the impact of shock/CPR success definition on the predictability of AMSA. A total of 554 shocks from 257 OHCA patients with VF as initial rhythm were analyzed. Post-shock rhythms were analyzed every 5s up to 120s and annotated as VF, asystole (AS) and organized rhythm (OR) at serial time intervals. Three shock/CPR success definitions were used to evaluate the predictability of AMSA: (1) termination of VF (ToVF); (2) return of organized electrical activity (ROEA); (3) return of potentially perfusing rhythm (RPPR). Rhythm changes occurred after 54.5% (N=302) of shocks and 85.8% (N=259) of them occurred within 60s after shock delivery. The observed post-shock rhythm changes were (1) from AS to VF (24.9%), (2) from OR to VF (16.1%), and (3) from AS to OR (12.1%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for AMSA as a predictor of shock/CPR success reached its maximum 60s post-shock. The AUC was 0.646 for ToVF, 0.782 for ROEA, and 0.835 for RPPR (pdefinition of shock/CPR success and performs best with the return of potentially perfusing rhythm endpoint for OHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are sociodemographic characteristics associated with spatial variation in the incidence of OHCA and bystander CPR rates? A population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Bernard, Stephen; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2016-11-07

    Rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been shown to vary considerably in Victoria. We examined the extent to which this variation could be explained by the sociodemographic and population health characteristics of the region. Using the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry, we extracted OHCA cases occurring between 2011 and 2013. We restricted the calculation of bystander CPR rates to those arrests that were witnessed by a bystander. To estimate the level of variation between Victorian local government areas (LGAs), we used a two-stage modelling approach using random-effects modelling. Between 2011 and 2013, there were 15 830 adult OHCA in Victoria. Incidence rates varied across the state between 41.9 to 104.0 cases/100 000 population. The proportion of the population over 65, socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence and education level were significant predictors of incidence in the multivariable model, explaining 93.9% of the variation in incidence among LGAs. Estimates of bystander CPR rates for bystander witnessed arrests varied from 62.7% to 73.2%. Only population density was a significant predictor of rates in a multivariable model, explaining 73% of the variation in the odds of receiving bystander CPR among LGAs. Our results show that the regional characteristics which underlie the variation seen in rates of bystander CPR may be region specific and may require study in smaller areas. However, characteristics associated with high incidence and low bystander CPR rates can be identified and will help to target regions and inform local interventions to increase bystander CPR rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Ruptured subcapsular liver haematoma following mechanically-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, John R; Freundlich, Robert Edward; Abir, Mahshid

    2016-02-02

    A 64-year-old man with a history of ascending aortic surgery and pulmonary embolus presented with shortness of breath. He rapidly decompensated, prompting intubation, after which he lost pulses. Manual resuscitation was initiated immediately, with subsequent use of a LUCAS-2 mechanical compression device. The patient was given bolus thrombolytic therapy and regained pulses after 7 min of CPR. Compressions were reinitiated with the LUCAS-2 twice more during resuscitation over the subsequent hour for brief episodes of PEA. After confirmation of massive pulmonary embolism on CT, the patient underwent interventional radiology-guided ultrasonic catheter placement with local thrombolytic therapy and experienced immediate improvement in oxygenation. He later developed abdominal compartment syndrome, despite cessation of thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy. Bedside exploratory abdominal laparotomy revealed a ruptured subcapsular haematoma of the liver. The patient's haemodynamics improved following surgery and he was extubated 11 days postarrest with intact neurological function. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. An unsuccessful resuscitation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resuscitation and the cause of death. They were not too concerned with possible mistakes made during the resuscitation, as long as they had the details. The doctors experienced many difficulties in breaking the bad news, due to the low level of education of the families, emotional and unpredictable responses, not being.

  15. Dilemmas in decision-making about resuscitation - a focus group study of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Vandrevala, T; Hampson, SE; Daly, T; Arber, S; Thomas, H

    2006-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be used by default on patients suffering a cardiac arrest in hospital in the UK unless there is an order that specifies otherwise in the patient's notes. Guidelines recommend that the decision involves competent and willing patients or, in the case of incapacitation, their families. In practice, patient autonomy is often compromised. Ideally, discussion of preferences for end-of-life care should take place prior to hospitalisation. The majority of resea...

  16. Recognising out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during emergency calls increases bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initiation of early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depends on bystanders' or medical dispatchers' recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary aim of our study was to investigate if OHCA recognition during the emergency call was associated with byst......BACKGROUND: Initiation of early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depends on bystanders' or medical dispatchers' recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary aim of our study was to investigate if OHCA recognition during the emergency call was associated...... with bystander CPR, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 30-day survival. Our secondary aim was to identify patient-, setting-, and dispatcher-related predictors of OHCA recognition. METHODS: We performed an observational study of all OHCA patients' emergency calls in the Capital Region of Denmark from...... the association between OHCA recognition and bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of OHCA recognition. RESULTS: We included 779 emergency calls in the analyses. During the emergency calls, 70.1% (n=534) of OHCAs were recognised...

  17. Family Presence during Resuscitation: A Qualitative Analysis from a National Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla De Stefano

    Full Text Available The themes of qualitative assessments that characterize the experience of family members offered the choice of observing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR of a loved one have not been formally identified.In the context of a multicenter randomized clinical trial offering family members the choice of observing CPR of a patient with sudden cardiac arrest, a qualitative analysis, with a sequential explanatory design, was conducted. The aim of the study was to understand family members' experience during CPR. All participants were interviewed by phone at home three months after cardiac arrest. Saturation was reached after analysis of 30 interviews of a randomly selected sample of 75 family members included in the trial. Four themes were identified: 1- choosing to be actively involved in the resuscitation; 2- communication between the relative and the emergency care team; 3- perception of the reality of the death, promoting acceptance of the loss; 4- experience and reactions of the relatives who did or did not witness the CPR, describing their feelings. Twelve sub-themes further defining these four themes were identified. Transferability of our findings should take into account the country-specific medical system.Family presence can help to ameliorate the pain of the death, through the feeling of having helped to support the patient during the passage from life to death and of having participated in this important moment. Our results showed the central role of communication between the family and the emergency care team in facilitating the acceptance of the reality of death.

  18. The duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in emergency departments after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with the outcome: A nationwide observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Won Chul; Lee, Eui Jung; Hwang, Seung-Sik

    2015-11-01

    The appropriate duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for patients who experience out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the duration of CPR in emergency departments (EDs) and to determine whether the institutions' median duration of CPR was associated with survival-to-discharge rate. A cohort of adult patients from a nationwide OHCA registry was retrospectively evaluated. The main variable was the median duration of CPR for each ED (institutional duration), and the main outcome was survival to discharge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for individual and aggregated confounders. Among the 107,736 patients who experienced OHCA between 2006 and 2010, 30,716 (28.5%) were selected for analysis. The median age was 65 years, and 67.1% were men. The median duration of CPR for all EDs was 28 min, ranging from 11 to 45 min. EDs were categorized into 3 groups according to their institutional duration of CPR: groups A (CPR varied widely among hospitals. The institutional duration of CPR less than 20 min was significantly associated with lower survival-to-discharge rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a major referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghafinia Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, by the code blue team at our center to compare with other centers. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all adult patients who underwent CPR at our hospital from 2007 to 2008. CPR was performed on 290 patients and it was given 313 times. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated via binomial and chi square-tests. Results: Of the 290 patients included, 95 patients (30.4% had successful CPR. However, only 35 patients (12% were alive at discharge. The majority requiring CPR were above 60 years of age (61.7%. Males required CPR more than females. There were 125 women (43.1% and 165 males (56.9% aged 3 to 78 (average 59.6 years. Majority (179 of the cases (61.7% were above 60 years of age. Regarding the various wards, 54 cases (17.3% were in the internal medicine ward, 63 cases (20.1% in the surgery ward, 1 case (0.3% in the clinic, 11 cases (3.5% in the paraclinic, 116 cases (37.1% in the emergency (ER, 55 cases (17.5% in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and Coronary Care Unit (CCU, and 13 cases (4.2% were in other wards. Cardiac massage was done in 133 cases (42.5%, defibrillation only via electroshock 3 cases (1%, and both were used in177 cases (56.5%. The ER had the most cases of CPR. Both cardiac massage and electroshock defibrillation were needed in most cases. Conclusion: In-hospital CPR for cardiopulmonary arrest was associated with 30.4% success at our center at the end of CPR but only 12% were alive at discharge. Duration of CPR> 10 minutes was predictive of significantly decreased survival to discharge.

  20. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of Automated External Defibrillators by laypersons in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using an SMS alert service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; van der Worp, Wim E.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate an SMS service (SMS = short message service = text message) with which laypersons are alerted to go to patients with suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and perform early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED). This study is the

  1. Time to start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the effect of target temperature management at 33°C and 36°C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankiewicz, Josef; Friberg, Hans; Bělohlávek, Jan; Walden, Andrew; Hassager, Christian; Cronberg, Tobias; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hovdenes, Jan; Horn, Janneke; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Thomas; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matthew; Åneman, Anders; Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    The optimal temperature during targeted temperature management (TTM) for comatose patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown. It has been hypothesized that patients with long no-flow times, for example those without bystander CPR would have the most to gain from temperature

  2. Do not attempt resuscitation: the importance of consensual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Janisch, Christine; Kesselring, Annemarie; Zuercher Zenklusend, Regula

    2011-02-03

    To describe the involvement and input of physicians and nurses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR / do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) decisions; to analyse decision patterns; and understand the practical implications. A Qualitative Grounded Theory study using one-time open-ended interviews with 40 volunteer physicians and 52 nurses drawn from acute care wards with mixes of heterogeneous cases in seven different hospitals in German-speaking Switzerland. Establishing DNAR orders in the best interests of patients was described as a challenging task requiring the leadership of senior physicians and nurses. Implicit decisions in favour of CPR predominated at the beginning of hospitalisation; depending on the context, they were relieved/superseded by explicit DNAR decisions. Explicit decisions were the result of hierarchical medical expertise, of multilateral interdisciplinary expertise, of patient autonomy and/or of negotiated patient autonomy. Each type of decision, implicit or explicit, potentially represented a team consensus. Non-consensual decisions were prone to precipitate personal or team conflicts, and, occasionally, led to non-compliance. Establishing DNAR orders is a demanding task. Reaching a consensus is of crucial importance in guaranteeing teamwork and good patient care. Communication and negotiation skills, professional and personal life experience and empathy for patients and colleagues are pivotal. Therefore, leadership by experienced senior physicians and nurses is needed and great efforts should be made with regard to multidisciplinary education.

  3. Rib fractures in infants due to cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinak, David

    2007-06-01

    Although it is widely known that adults may sustain fractures of the anterior and/or lateral aspects of the ribs due to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts, relatively little is written about the generation of CPR-related rib fractures in the infant age range. In a series of 70 consecutive autopsies in infants ranging in age from 2 weeks to 8 months, with no history or indications of injury, the parietal pleura of the thoracic cage was stripped and the ribs carefully examined for fracture. Subtle fractures of the anterolateral aspects of the ribs were discovered in 8 (11%) of the 70 cases. In 7 of the 8 cases, multiple ribs were fractured (ranging up to 10 rib fractures), and in 5 of these cases, the rib fractures were bilateral. All of the rib fractures were subtle, had little if any associated blood extravasation, and would have been easily missed had the parietal pleura not been stripped. These anterolateral rib fractures in infants are the likely correlate of anterolateral rib fractures that are not uncommonly seen in the adult population, resulting from resuscitation efforts. The rib fractures are subtle and may not be identified unless the parietal pleura is stripped.

  4. Evaluation of Smartphone Applications for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There are many smartphone-based applications (apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training. We investigated the conformity and the learnability/usability of these apps for CPR training and real-life supports. Methods. We conducted a mixed-method, sequential explanatory study to assess CPR training apps downloaded on two apps stores in South Korea. Apps were collected with inclusion criteria as follows, Korean-language instruction, training features, and emergency supports for real-life incidents, and analyzed with two tests; 15 medical experts evaluated the apps’ contents according to current Basic Life Support guidelines in conformity test, and 15 nonmedical individuals examined the apps using System Usability Scale (SUS in the learnability/usability test. Results. Out of 79 selected apps, five apps were included and analyzed. For conformity (ICC, 0.95, p<0.001, means of all apps were greater than 12 of 20 points, indicating that they were well designed according to current guidelines. Three of the five apps yielded acceptable level (greater than 68 of 100 points for learnability/usability. Conclusion. All the included apps followed current BLS guidelines and a majority offered acceptable learnability/usability for layperson. Current and developmental smartphone-based CPR training apps should include accurate CPR information and be easy to use for laypersons that are potential rescuers in real-life incidents. For Clinical Trials. This is a clinical trial, registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, cris.nih.go.kr, number KCT0001840.

  5. Effects and limitations of an AED with audiovisual feedback for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Gruber, Julia; Neuhold, Stephanie; Frantal, Sophie; Hochbrugger, Eva; Herkner, Harald; Schöchl, Herbert; Steinlechner, Barbara; Greif, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Correctly performed basic life support (BLS) and early defibrillation are the most effective measures to treat sudden cardiac arrest. Audiovisual feedback improves BLS. Automated external defibrillators (AED) with feedback technology may play an important role in improving CPR quality. The aim of this simulation study was to investigate if an AED with audiovisual feedback improves CPR parameters during standard BLS performed by trained laypersons. With ethics committee approval and informed consent, 68 teams (2 flight attendants each) performed 12 min of standard CPR with the AED's audiovisual feedback mechanism enabled or disabled. We recorded CPR quality parameters during resuscitation on a manikin in this open, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Between the feedback and control-group we measured differences in compression depth and rate as main outcome parameters and effective compressions, correct hand position, and incomplete decompression as secondary outcome parameters. An effective compression was defined as a compression with correct depth, hand position, and decompression. The feedback-group delivered compression rates closest to the recommended guidelines (101 ± 9 vs. 109 ± 15/min, p=0.009), more effective compressions (20 ± 18 vs. 5 ± 6%, pAED's audiovisual feedback system improved some CPR-quality parameters, thus confirming findings of earlier studies with the notable exception of decreased compression depth, which is a key parameter that might be linked to reduced cardiac output. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A COMPARISON OF INTERNET-BASED LEARNING AND TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM LECTURE TO LEARN CPR FOR CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HEMMATI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL and traditional classroom lecture (TCL for continuing medical education (CME programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR curriculum guidelines training either by traditional or by an Internet-based CME. A randomized two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Postgraduate general physician trainees of Iran medical schools were participated. Two methods were compared for teaching the newest curriculum guidelines of the American Heart Association: lecture method in which the teacher follows a Power point presentation with linear layout, and with interactive self-assessment and Scenario-based learning, feedback, multimedia with linear and nonlinear layout with the same power point presentation as lecture in terms of text and photography. The data on final CPR exam grades, collected both groups trained physicians, were obtained for a total of 80 physicians in 2011. An independent sample t-test analysis indicated that participants in the IBL format reported significantly higher mean ratings for this format (62.5 ±2.32 than TCL format (54.6±2.18 (p=.001. There were no significant differences between the two groups in cognitive gains (p<0.05. well-designed IBL content can be effective or a supplement component to CME.

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruptions with use of a load-distributing band device during emergency department cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Annathurai, Annitha; Shahidah, Ahmad; Leong, Benjamin Sieu-Hon; Ong, Victor Yeok Kein; Tiah, Ling; Ang, Shiang Hu; Yong, Kok Leong; Sultana, Papia

    2010-09-01

    Our primary aim is to measure no-flow time and no-flow ratio before and after an emergency department (ED) switched from manual to a load-distributing band mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) device. This was a phased, before-after cohort evaluation at an urban tertiary hospital ED. We collected continuous video and chest compression data with the Physiocontrol CodeStat Suite 7.0 for resuscitations during the period just before and after adoption of load-distributing band CPR. All out-of-hospital, nontraumatic cardiac arrest, adult patients were eligible. From February 2007 to July 2008, there were 26 manual and 41 load-distributing band cases. Patients in both phases were comparable in terms of demographics, medical history, witnessed arrest, arrest location, bystander CPR rates, out-of-hospital defibrillation, initial rhythm, and ED defibrillation. The median no-flow time, defined as the sum of all pauses between compressions longer than 1.5 seconds, during the first 5 minutes of resuscitation, was manual CPR 85 seconds (interquartile range [IQR] 45 to 112 seconds) versus load-distributing band 104 seconds (IQR 69 to 151 seconds). The mean no-flow ratio, defined as no-flow time divided by segment length, was manual 0.28 versus load-distributing band 0.40 (difference=-0.12; 95% confidence interval -0.22 to -0.02). However, from 5 to 10 minutes into the resuscitation, median no-flow time was manual 85 seconds (IQR 59 to 151 seconds) versus load-distributing band 52 seconds (IQR 34 to 82 seconds) and mean no-flow ratio manual 0.34 versus load-distributing band 0.21 (difference=0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.24). The average time to apply load-distributing band CPR during this period was 152 seconds. Application of a load-distributing band in the ED is associated with a higher no-flow ratio than manual CPR in the first 5 minutes of resuscitation. We suggest that attention to team training, rapid application of the device to minimize interruption

  8. A Study in Teaching CPR to a Disabled Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bill; Sanders, Cindy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a CPR training course modified for a student with cerebral palsy. Brian is a 10th grade student with cerebral palsy affecting his right side. Brian had a difficult time in the class and was not able to meet the standards required to pass his CPR training. Here, the author discusses how two adaptations were utilized, that…

  9. Interviews with Students Enrolled in Academic CPR Workshops, Summer 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Chelley

    This study focuses on students enrolled in academic CPR workshops in the summer of 2002. The goal of the study is to examine changes in the population of students with academic problems. The CPR workshops are a requirement for students that are subject to dismissal. The study was conducted in the summer of 2003 on the telephone with a random…

  10. CPR[TM]: Adopting an Out-of-Discipline Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Kay E.

    2008-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review[TM] (CPR) is a web-based instructional tool that encourages "writing gain for students" without adding "grading pain for the instructor!" The use of CPR provides students frequent opportunities to hone both writing as well as peer review skills in a guided environment. And once an assignment is authored, instructors have…

  11. Effects of flashlight guidance on chest compression performance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a noisy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Chang, Chul Ho; Park, Incheol; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, SeungHo; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2013-08-01

    In real cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), noise can arise from instructional voices and environmental sounds in places such as a battlefield and industrial and high-traffic areas. A feedback device using a flashing light was designed to overcome noise-induced stimulus saturation during CPR. This study was conducted to determine whether 'flashlight' guidance influences CPR performance in a simulated noisy setting. We recruited 30 senior medical students with no previous experience of using flashlight-guided CPR to participate in this prospective, simulation-based, crossover study. The experiment was conducted in a simulated noisy situation using a cardiac arrest model without ventilation. Noise such as patrol car and fire engine sirens was artificially generated. The flashlight guidance device emitted light pulses at the rate of 100 flashes/min. Participants also received instructions to achieve the desired rate of 100 compressions/min. CPR performances were recorded with a Resusci Anne mannequin with a computer skill-reporting system. There were significant differences between the control and flashlight groups in mean compression rate (MCR), MCR/min and visual analogue scale. However, there were no significant differences in correct compression depth, mean compression depth, correct hand position, and correctly released compression. The flashlight group constantly maintained the pace at the desired 100 compressions/min. Furthermore, the flashlight group had a tendency to keep the MCR constant, whereas the control group had a tendency to decrease it after 60 s. Flashlight-guided CPR is particularly advantageous for maintaining a desired MCR during hands-only CPR in noisy environments, where metronome pacing might not be clearly heard.

  12. Death before disco: the effectiveness of a musical metronome in layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Jou, Andrew C; Wang, Huaping; Bleess, Brandon B; Tham, Stephanie K

    2015-01-01

    A novel musical memory aid has been proposed for aiding laypersons in complying with the American Heart Association (AHA) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines of 100 compressions per minute (cpm). This study tested usefulness of such a memory aid to improve layperson long-term compliance with CPR compression rate guidelines. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted using CPR-untrained laypersons. Subjects received either a standard CPR educational experience (AHA Heartsaver® CPR class) or an experimental CPR educational experience (AHA Heartsaver® CPR class augmented with a musical metronome). Experimental group subjects were taught to perform compressions to the cadence of a pop music song (The Bee Gees "Stayin' Alive"; Saturday Night Fever, The Original Movie Soundtrack; Polygram International Music, 1977) with a tempo of 100 beats/min. Compression rates, depth of compressions, and correct compressions were measured initially and upon retesting ≥6 weeks post-training. Control subjects had a higher mean compression rate both immediately (121 [standard deviation {SD} = 21] vs. 109 [SD = 15] cpm; 95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference 4-19; p = 0.002) and at follow-up (120 [SD = 20] vs. 111 [SD = 13] cpm; 95% CI of mean difference 2-16; p = 0.014). Compression rates stratified to 100-120 cpm demonstrated no difference between groups initially (39% vs. 48%; p = 0.382), but more experimental subjects maintained these rates at follow-up (43% vs. 74%; p = 0.003). Subjects trained to use a musical metronome more often maintained a compression rate of 100-120 cpm at ≥6-week follow-up, suggesting the memory aid may improve long-term guideline adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Christian; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm J

    2012-10-01

    Many studies over the past decade have investigated delaying initial defibrillation to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), as it has been associated with increased rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation and/or survival. Since 2006, a number of studies have investigated these procedures. The objective of this study was to undertake a literature review examining the commencement of CPR before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting. A literature review was undertaken using the electronic medical databases Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL Plus, Cochrane Systematic Review and Meditext, from their commencement to the end of June 2011. Keywords used in the search included: CPR, defibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, VF, EMS, EMT, paramedic, emergency medical service, emergency medical technician, prehospital, out-of-hospital and ambulance. References of relevant articles were also reviewed. Of the 3079 articles located, 10 met the inclusion criteria. The results of these studies showed conflicting results. All retrospective studies (n=6) indicated a benefit in performing pre-shock CPR on patients with ventricular fibrillation for durations between 90 and 180 s. Conversely, all randomised controlled trials demonstrated no benefit from providing CPR before defibrillation compared with immediate defibrillation for return of spontaneous circulation, neurological outcome and/or survival to hospital discharge. However, none of the studies reported evidence that CPR before defibrillation is harmful. Conflicting evidence remains regarding the benefit of CPR before defibrillation. The establishment of a consistent timeframe of chest compressions before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting will provide uniformity in standards in clinical practice and education and training.

  14. Patient Experiences of Trauma Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Elinore J; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J; Jacoby, Sara F; Holena, Daniel N

    2017-09-01

    Patient satisfaction is an increasingly common feature of quality measurement, and patient-centered care is a key aspect of high-quality clinical care. Incorporating patient preferences in an acute context, such as trauma resuscitation, presents distinct challenges; however, to our knowledge, patients' experiences of trauma resuscitation have not been explored. To describe patient experiences of trauma resuscitation and to identify opportunities to improve patient experience without compromising speed or thoroughness. This qualitative, descriptive study was conducted at an urban, academic, level I trauma center. Semistructured interviews and video observations were conducted from May to December 2015. Interview participants were adult English-speaking patients who had experienced trauma resuscitation and were clinically stable with no alteration in consciousness. We recruited interview participants and conducted video observations until thematic saturation was reached, resulting in 30 interviews and 20 observations. Video observation patients did not overlap with interview participants. The purposive sample included equal numbers of violently and nonviolently injured patients. Data were analyzed for thematic content from June 2015 to April 2016. The main outcomes reported are themes of patient experience. Of 30 interview participants, 25 were men (83.3%), and 21 were black (70.0%). Of 20 video observation patients, 16 were men (80.0%), and 17 were black (85.0%). Salient aspects of patient experience of trauma resuscitation included emotional responses, physical experience, nonclinical concerns, treatment and procedures, trauma team members' interactions, communication, and comfort. Participants drew satisfaction from trauma team members' demeanor, expertise, and efficiency and valued clear clinical communication, as well as words of reassurance. Dissatisfaction stemmed from the perceived absence of these attributes and from participants' emotional or physical

  15. High School CPR/AED Training in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Palazzo, Steven J; Emery, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Describe the rates of CPR/AED training in high schools in the state of Washington after passage of legislation mandating CPR/AED training. A web-based survey was sent to administrators at 660 public and private high schools in the state of Washington. The survey was completed by 148 schools (22%); 64% reported providing CPR training and 54% provided AED training. Reported barriers to implementation included instructor availability, cost, and a lack of equipment. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample characteristics and implementation rates. Mandates without resources and support do not ensure implementation of CPR/AED training in high schools. Full public health benefits of a CPR mandate will not be realized until barriers to implementation are identified and eliminated through use of available, accessible public health resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Germans learn how to save lives: a nationwide CPR education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Manuela; Leberle, Richard; Graf, Bernhard

    2018-02-17

    Sudden cardiac death is one of the most frequent causes of death in Germany and the third leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Yet, the percentage of people providing first aid in the case of sudden cardiac arrest in Germany is alarmingly low by international comparison. Training Germans or reminding them of the simple but effective steps of resuscitation, so that everybody can save a live in an emergency. For the campaign 'Resuscitation Week', physicians and paramedics trained passers-by in cardiovascular resuscitation free of charge. Skills were evaluated before and after the instruction by means of a questionnaire. Three hundred three people aged between 9 and 89 years were trained and evaluated. Forty-nine passers-by had never participated in a resuscitation course, and 46.8% had participated in a course more than 20 years ago. Before the instruction, 41.6% of the passers-by were confident to be capable of resuscitating a person; after the instruction, however, this percentage had risen to 100%! Saving a life is simple, but one has to know what to do in the case of sudden cardiac arrest. The German population is being gradually trained in resuscitation using campaigns such as 'Resuscitation Week' and 'Kids Save Lives' to break down barriers in the long term. However, lives are not only saved by training but also by refreshing knowledge and skills; thus, a further effective approach may be training all holders of a driving license in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intervals of 5 years.

  17. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p performance from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was significant. The improvement was greater for the infant assessment. The participants thought the real-time feedback very useful (mean score of 8.5) and very easy to use (mean score of 8.2). Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance

  18. "Must do CPR??": strategies to cope with the new College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario policy on end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluck, Laura; Oczkowski, Simon J W; Handelman, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario recently released a new policy, Planning for and Providing Quality End-of-Life Care. The revised policy is more accurate in its consideration of the legal framework in which physicians practice and more reflective of ethical issues that arise in end-of-life (EOL) care. It also recognizes valid instances for not offering cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Nevertheless, the policy poses a significant ethical and legal dilemma-i.e., if disputes over EOL care arise, then physicians must provide CPR even when resuscitation would fall outside this medical standard of care. While the policy applies in Ontario, it is likely to influence other physician colleges across Canada as they review their standards of practice. This paper explores the rationale for the mandated CPR, clarifies the policy's impact on the medical standard of care, and discusses strategies to improve EOL care within the policy. These strategies include understanding the help-hurt line, changing the language used when discussing cardiac arrest, clarifying care plans during the perioperative period, engaging the intensive care unit team early in goals-of-care discussions, mentoring hospital staff to improve skills in goals-of-care discussions, avoiding use of the "slow code", and continuing to advocate for quality EOL care and a more responsive legal adjudication process.

  19. Dilemmas in decision-making about resuscitation--a focus group study of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrevala, Tushna; Hampson, Sarah E; Daly, Tom; Arber, Sara; Thomas, Hilary

    2006-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be used by default on patients suffering a cardiac arrest in hospital in the UK unless there is an order that specifies otherwise in the patient's notes. Guidelines recommend that the decision involves competent and willing patients or, in the case of incapacitation, their families. In practice, patient autonomy is often compromised. Ideally, discussion of preferences for end-of-life care should take place prior to hospitalisation. The majority of research on this topic has been conducted on hospitalised patients, so little is known about the views of older, but healthy, people about resuscitation decision-making. The present study was designed to address this gap. A series of eight focus groups involving a total of 48 participants over the age of 65 was conducted to explore people's views about the factors guiding resuscitation decision-making. A qualitative analysis, which emphasised the dilemmatic nature of resuscitation decision-making, identified two broad thematic dilemmas that subsumed six specific themes which contribute to resolving the dilemmas: quality of life (medical condition, mental versus physical incapacity, age and ageing, and burden), and the involvement of others (doctors and families) versus loss of autonomy. The dilemma underlying quality of life is that an acceptable quality of life after CPR cannot be assured. The dilemma underlying the involvement of others is that individual autonomy may be lost. The themes and subthemes provide the basis for guiding these difficult discussions in advance of serious illness.

  20. Cardiac arrest leadership: in need of resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip S; Shall, Emma; Rakhit, Roby

    2016-12-01

    Leadership skills directly correlate with the quality of technical performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and clinical outcomes. Despite an improved focus on non-technical skills in CPR training, the leadership of cardiac arrests is often variable. To assess the perceptions of leadership and team working among members of a cardiac arrest team and to evaluate future training needs. Cross-sectional survey of 102 members of a cardiac arrest team at an Acute Hospital Trust in the UK with 892 inpatient beds. Responses sought from doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to 12 rated statements and 4 dichotomous questions. Of 102 responses, 81 (79%) were from doctors and 21 (21%) from nurses. Among specialist registrars 90% agreed or strongly agreed that there was clear leadership at all arrests compared with between 28% and 49% of nurses and junior doctors respectively. Routine omission of key leadership tasks was reported by as many as 80% of junior doctors and 50% of nurses. Almost half of respondents reported non-adherence with Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines. Among junior members of the team, 36% felt confident to lead an arrest and 75% would welcome further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training. Leadership training is integrated into the ALS (Resus Council, UK) qualification. However, this paper found that in spite of this training; standards of leadership are variable. The findings suggest a pressing need for further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training with a focus on improving key leadership tasks such as role assignment, team briefing and debriefing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Midwives' Experiences, Education, and Support Needs Regarding Basic Newborn Resuscitation in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Alnuaimi, Karimeh; Mohammad, Khitam; Creedy, Debra; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2016-06-01

    Newborns who are compromised at birth require rapid attention to stabilize their respiration attempts. Lack of knowledge regarding basic newborn resuscitation is a contributing factor to poor newborn health outcomes and increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore Jordanian midwives' experiences, education, and support needs to competently perform basic newborn resuscitation. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyze a convenience sample of 20 midwives. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants discussed their experiences of basic newborn resuscitation including knowledge, skills, and barriers and suggested solutions to improve practice. Four themes were revealed: lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints, inadequate teamwork, and educational needs. The midwives perceived that their ability to perform newborn resuscitation was hindered by lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints (such as lack of equipment), and poor co-ordination and communication among team members. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Minnesota Heart Safe Communities: Are community-based initiatives increasing pre-ambulance CPR and AED use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Lori L; Formanek, Michelle B; Harkins, Kim K; Frazee, Carol L; Kamrud, Jonathan W; Stevens, Andrew C; Lick, Charles J; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2017-10-01

    Implementation research that describes how successfully resuscitation guidelines are translated into practice are lacking. We examined whether recent community-based initiatives being conducted as part of the Minnesota Heart Safe (HS) Communities program increase the delivery of CPR and use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by bystanders and first responders prior to ambulance arrival. Non-EMS witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) with presumed cardiac etiology treated by a single ambulance service in 2013-2015 were studied. Data were obtained from the Minnesota HS program and the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) Surveillance Registry. Pre-ambulance CPR and AED use within HS communities before and after completion of the program were compared. As of July 2016, 17 Minnesota communities within the ambulance service area had achieved HS designation and 294 OHCAs that occurred in these communities met inclusion criteria for analysis (120 before HS designation, 174 after). CPR was initiated by bystanders or first responders prior to ambulance arrival in 83% of OHCA events that occurred before HS designation and in 95% of events that occurred after designation (OR=4.23 [1.80-9.98]). Pre-ambulance AED use increased from 63% to 77% after the community intervention (OR=1.94 [1.16-3.24]). Overall unadjusted survival to hospital discharge increased slightly after HS designation, but this difference was not statistically significant (17% vs 20%, p=0.32). Implementation of the Heart Safe program in communities within our ambulance service area in Minnesota has increased use of CPR and AEDs by bystanders and first responders prior to ambulance arrival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Is Clustered and Associated With Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics: A Geospatial Analysis of Kent County, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Amy; Sadler, Richard C; Chassee, Todd; Reynolds, Joshua C

    2017-08-01

    Geographic clustering of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with demographic and socioeconomic features of the community where out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurred, although this association remains largely untested in rural areas. With a significant rural component and relative racial homogeneity, Kent County, Michigan, provides a unique setting to externally validate or identify new community features associated with bystander CPR. Using a large, countywide data set, we tested for geographic clustering of bystander CPR and its associations with community socioeconomic features. Secondary analysis of adult OHCA subjects (2010-2015) in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) data set for Kent County, Michigan. After linking geocoded OHCA cases to U.S. census data, we used Moran's I-test to assess for spatial autocorrelation of population-weighted cardiac arrest rate by census block group. Getis-Ord Gi statistic assessed for spatial clustering of bystander CPR and mixed-effects hierarchical logistic regression estimated adjusted associations between community features and bystander CPR. Of 1,592 subjects, 1,465 met inclusion criteria. Geospatial analysis revealed significant clustering of OHCA in more populated/urban areas. Conversely, bystander CPR was less likely in these areas (99% confidence) and more likely in suburban and rural areas (99% confidence). Adjusting for clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic covariates, bystander CPR was associated with public location (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.39), initially shockable rhythms (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.12-1.96), and those in urban neighborhoods (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.38-0.77). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and bystander CPR are geographically clustered in Kent County, Michigan, but bystander CPR is inversely associated with urban designation. These results offer new insight into bystander CPR patterns in mixed urban and rural

  4. Design, Construction and Evaluation of Cardiac Massage Facilitator Device on Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation: an Innovation Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Gazerani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cardiac massage is the first and most important step during Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Effective massage restores blood flow to the brain and heart and plays a remarkable role in a successful CPR. Exhaustion of treatment team during resuscitation is one of the factors which may lead to reduced quality of resuscitation massages or failure in some cases. The aim of this study was to design, construct and evaluate a new cardiac massage facilitator to improve the quality of CPR in adult patients. Methods: In this study, the massage facilitator was designed and registered as a glove which was worn by rescuers during cardiac massage (number of invention: 80797. A load cell sensor was placed under the surface of the glove and the facilitator could be displayed number and depth of massage in centimeters. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the designed system, an experimental study was conducted among 30 emergency students. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 19 software using Pearson correlation and independent sample t-test. P-values lower than  0.05 were considered to be significant. Results: The mean age of all participants was 23.41±2.02 years, the mean height was 175±4.43 centimeters and the mean weight was 65.45±5.02 kilograms. The instrument validity was evaluated using standard validation method of concurrent validity. Our findings revealed a significant correlation between the cardiac massage facilitator and Sim Pad system (more than 0.9. Accordingly, the validity of cardiac massage facilitator was confirmed. While assessing the efficient massage criteria during cardiac massage facilitator utilization, the massage possessed suitable depth (less than 5 cm in 98% of participants. The numbers of massages were at least 100 massages per minute in 93% of participants. Conclusion: The results showed that designed system could be used as an effective tool to improve quality of cardiac massage in

  5. Neural injury after use of vasopressin and adrenaline during porcine cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Peter; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Basu, Samar

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cardiac tissue injury subsequent to use of vasopressin and adrenaline in combination compared with vasopressin alone during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods In a randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study 28 anesthetized piglets were subject to a 12-min untreated cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. After 1 min of CPR, 10 of the piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg8-vasopressin (V group), and 10 piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg8-vasopressin, 1 min later followed by 20 µg/kg body weight of adrenaline, and another 1 min later continuous administration (10 µg/kg/min) of adrenaline (VA group). After 8 min of CPR, the piglets were defibrillated and monitored for another 3 h. Then they were killed and the brain immediately removed pending histological analysis. Results During CPR, the VA group had higher mean blood pressure and cerebral cortical blood flow (CCBF) but similar coronary perfusion pressure. After restoration of spontaneous circulation there was no difference in the pressure variables, but CCBF tended to be (36% ± 16%) higher in the V group. Neuronal injury and signs of a disrupted blood–brain barrier (BBB) were greater, 20% ± 4% and 21% ± 4%, respectively, in the VA group. In a background study of repeated single doses of adrenaline every third minute after 5 min arrest but otherwise the same protocol, histological measurements showed even worse neural injury and disruption of the BBB. Conclusion Combined use of vasopressin and adrenaline caused greater signs of cerebral and cardiac injury than use of vasopressin alone during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:25645317

  6. Neural injury after use of vasopressin and adrenaline during porcine cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Peter; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Basu, Samar; Wiklund, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cardiac tissue injury subsequent to use of vasopressin and adrenaline in combination compared with vasopressin alone during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In a randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study 28 anesthetized piglets were subject to a 12-min untreated cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. After 1 min of CPR, 10 of the piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin (V group), and 10 piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin, 1 min later followed by 20 µg/kg body weight of adrenaline, and another 1 min later continuous administration (10 µg/kg/min) of adrenaline (VA group). After 8 min of CPR, the piglets were defibrillated and monitored for another 3 h. Then they were killed and the brain immediately removed pending histological analysis. During CPR, the VA group had higher mean blood pressure and cerebral cortical blood flow (CCBF) but similar coronary perfusion pressure. After restoration of spontaneous circulation there was no difference in the pressure variables, but CCBF tended to be (36% ± 16%) higher in the V group. Neuronal injury and signs of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) were greater, 20% ± 4% and 21% ± 4%, respectively, in the VA group. In a background study of repeated single doses of adrenaline every third minute after 5 min arrest but otherwise the same protocol, histological measurements showed even worse neural injury and disruption of the BBB. Combined use of vasopressin and adrenaline caused greater signs of cerebral and cardiac injury than use of vasopressin alone during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  7. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation or uncontrolled donation after the circulatory determination of death following out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest-An ethical analysis of an unresolved clinical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Shaw, David M; Gardiner, Dale

    2016-11-01

    The availability of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR), for use in refractory out-of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), is increasing. In parallel, some countries have developed uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) programs using ECMO to preserve organs for transplantation purposes. When facing a refractory OHCA, how does the medical team choose between initiating ECMO as part of an E-CPR protocol or ECMO as part of a uDCDD protocol? To answer these questions we conducted a literature review on E-CPR compared to uDCDD protocols using ECMO and analyzed the raised ethical issues. Our analysis reveals that the inclusion criteria in E-CPR and uDCDD protocols are similar. There may be a non-negligible risk of including patients in a uDCDD protocol, when the patient might have been saved by the use of E-CPR. In order to avoid the fatal error of letting a saveable patient die, safeguards are necessary. We recommend: (1) the development of internationally accepted termination of resuscitation guidelines that would have to be satisfied prior to inclusion of patients in any uDCDD protocol, (2) the choice regarding modalities of ongoing resuscitation during transfer should be focused on the primary priority of attempting to save the life of patients, (3) only centers of excellence in life-saving resuscitation should initiate or maintain uDCDD programs, (4) E-CPR should be clinically considered first before the initiation of any uDCDD protocol, and (5) there should be no discrimination in the availability of access to E-CPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental Knowledge of Cardiovascular Screening and Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Madison A; Diamond, Alex B; Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt

    2017-08-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of death in youth athletes. Survival from out- of-hospital SCA depends on prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluated parental knowledge, experience, and attitudes related to cardiovascular screening, SCA, and CPR/AED use in youth athletes and made comparisons between parents who are employed in healthcare and parents who are not employed in healthcare. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, experiences, and attitudes of 91 parents of youth athletes who attended a community-based cardiovascular screening event. Although cardiovascular screening can reduce the risk of SCA, we found that 36% of parents incorrectly thought cardiovascular screening could prevent SCA and there was no difference in knowledge between the two groups of parents. This initial evaluation of parental knowledge of cardiovascular screening issues in youth athletes should guide educational efforts to prevent and respond to SCA in youth athletes.

  9. Application of an anatomically-detailed finite element thorax model to investigate pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques on hard bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Binhui; Mao, Haojie; Cao, Libo; Yang, King H

    2014-09-01

    Improved Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) approaches will largely benefit the children in need. The constant peak displacement and constant peak force loading methods were analyzed on hard bed for pediatric CPR by an anatomically-detailed 10 year-old (YO) child thorax finite element (FE) model. The chest compression and rib injury risk were studied for children with various levels of thorax stiffness. We created three thorax models with different chest stiffness. Simulated CPR׳s in the above two conditions were performed. Three different compression rates were considered under the constant peak displacement condition. The model-calculated deflections and forces were analyzed. The rib maximum principle strains (MPS׳s) were used to predict the potential risk of rib injury. Under the constant peak force condition, the chest deflection ranged from 34.2 to 42.2mm. The highest rib MPS was 0.75%, predicted by the compliant thorax model. Under the normal constant peak displacement condition, the highest rib MPS was 0.52%, predicted by the compliant thorax model. The compression rate did not affect the highest rib MPS. Results revealed that the thoracic stiffness had great effects on the quality of CPR. To maintain CPR quality for various children, the constant peak displacement technique is recommended when the CPR is performed on the hard bed. Furthermore, the outcome of CPR in terms of rib strains and total work are not sensitive to the compression rate. The FE model-predicted high strains were in the ribs, which have been found to be vulnerable to CPR in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Stop-Only-While-Shocking algorithm reduces hands-off time by 17% during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Koch; Mohammed, Anna; Pedersen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reducing hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is believed to increase survival after cardiac arrests because of the sustaining of organ perfusion. The aim of our study was to investigate whether charging the defibrillator before rhythm analyses and shock delivery...... significantly reduced hands-off time compared with the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 CPR guideline algorithm in full-scale cardiac arrest scenarios. METHODS: The study was designed as a full-scale cardiac arrest simulation study including administration of drugs. Participants were randomized...... into using the Stop-Only-While-Shocking (SOWS) algorithm or the ERC2010 algorithm. In SOWS, chest compressions were only interrupted for a post-charging rhythm analysis and immediate shock delivery. A Resusci Anne HLR-D manikin and a LIFEPACK 20 defibrillator were used. The manikin recorded time and chest...

  11. Association of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival according to ambulance response-times after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but it is unknown to what degree bystander CPR remains positively associated with survival with increasing time to potential defibrillation. The main objective...... was to examine the association of bystander CPR with survival as time to advanced treatment increases. Methods: We studied 7623 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between 2005 and 2011, identified through the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest statistics, an additional 233 patients could potentially be saved annually if response time was reduced from 10 to 5 minutes and 119 patients if response time was reduced from 7 (the median response time in this study) to 5 minutes. Conclusions: The absolute survival...

  12. Haemostatic resuscitation in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Par I.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the recent developments in and evolvement of next generation haemostatic resuscitation in bleeding trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: Mortality from major trauma is a worldwide problem, and massive haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Development...... of coagulopathy further increases trauma mortality emphasizing that coagulopathy is a key target in the phase of bleeding. The pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma reflects at least three distinct mechanisms that may be present isolated or coexist: acute traumatic coagulopathy, coagulopathy associated...... with the lethal triad, and consumptive coagulopathy. The concepts of 'damage control surgery' and 'damage control resuscitation' have been developed to ensure early control of bleeding and coagulopathy to improve outcome in bleeding trauma. Haemostatic resuscitation aims at controlling coagulopathy and consists...

  13. Telemedicine for neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of readiness for neonatal resuscitation in low-risk maternity settings is challenging. The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) algorithm is a community standard in the United States; yet training is biannual, and exposure to enough critical events to be proficient at timely implementation of the algorithm and the advanced procedures is rare. Evidence supports hands-free leadership to help prevent task saturation and communication to promote patient safety. Telemedicine for neonatal resuscitation involves the addition of remote, expert NRP leadership (a NICU-based neonatal nurse practitioner) via camera link to augment effectiveness of the low-risk birth center team. Unanticipated outcomes to report include faster times to transfer initiation and neuroprotective cooling. The positive impact of remote NRP leadership could lead to use of telemedicine to support teams at birthing centers throughout the United States as well as around the world.

  14. Relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: does stress have an influence?

    OpenAIRE

    Krage, R.; Zwaan, L.; Tjon Soei Len, L.; Kolenbrander, M.; Groeningen, D. van; Loer, S.A.; Wagner, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is increasingly emphasised. Nonetheless, the relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance is poorly understood. We hypothesise that non-technical skills become increa...

  15. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Ariane; Witteman, Holly O; Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-02-11

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient's risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of attending intensivists and alert

  16. Reversible myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Aguayo de Hoyos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Navarro, Silvia; Díaz-Castellanos, Miguel Angel; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Gómez-Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Escobar, Sergio; Moreno, Rafael Melgares; Fierro-Rosón, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Myocardial stunning frequently has been described in patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Recently, it has also been described in critically ill patients without ischaemic heart disease. It is possible that the most severe form of any syndrome, leading to cardio-respiratory arrest, may cause myocardial stunning. Myocardial stunning appears to have been demonstrated in experimental studies, though this phenomenon has not been sufficiently studied in human models. The aim of the present work has been to study and describe the possible development of myocardial dysfunction in patients resuscitated after cardio-respiratory arrest, in the absence of acute or previous coronary artery disease. Descriptive study of a case series. The intensive care unit (ICU) of a provincial hospital. The study period was from April 1999 to June 2001. All patients admitted to the ICU with critical, non-coronary artery pathology, with no past history of cardiac disease, and those who were resuscitated after cardio-respiratory arrest, were included in the study. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and disturbances of segmental contractility. This study was carried out within the first 24h after admission, during the first week, during the second or third week, after 1 month, and between 3 and 6 months. Twenty-nine patients with a median age of 65 years (range 24--76) were included in the study. Twelve patients died. Twenty patients developed myocardial dysfunction; the initial LVEF in these patients was 0.28 (0.12--0.51), showing improvement over time in the patients who survived. All of these patients presented disturbances of segmental contractility which also became normal over time. After successful CPR, reversible myocardial dysfunction, consisting of systolic myocardial dysfunction and disturbances of segmental contractility, may occur.

  17. Doctors' attitudes regarding not for resuscitation orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritharan, Gaya; Mills, Amber C; Levinson, Michele R; Gellie, Anthea L

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to investigate doctors' attitudes regarding the discussion and writing of not for resuscitation (NFR) orders and to identify potential barriers to the completion of these orders. Methods A questionnaire-based convenience study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital. Likert scales and open-ended questions were directed to issues surrounding the discussion, timing, understanding and writing of NFR orders, including legal and personal considerations. Results Doctors thought the presence of an NFR order both should and does alter care delivered by nursing staff, particularly delivery of pain relief, nursing observations and contacting the medical emergency team. Eighty-five per cent of doctors believed they needed somebody else's consent to write an NFR order (seeking of consent is not a requirement in most Australian jurisdictions). Conclusion There are complex barriers to the writing and implementation of NFR orders, including doctors' knowledge around the need for consent when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is likely to be futile or excessively burdensome. Doctors also believed that NFR orders result in changes to goals-of-care, suggesting a confounding of NFR orders with palliative care. Furthermore, doctors are willing to write NFR orders where there is clear medical indication and the patient is imminently dying, but are otherwise reliant on patients and family to initiate discussion. What is known about the topic? Hospitalised elderly patients, in the absence of an NFR order, are known to have poor survival and outcomes following resuscitation. Further, Australian data on the prevalence of NFR forms show that only a minority of older in-patients have a written NFR order in their history. In Australian hospitals, NFR orders are completed by doctors. What does this paper add? To our knowledge, the present study is the first in Australia to qualitatively analyse doctors' reasons to writing NFR orders. The open-text nature

  18. EarthCARE/CPR design results and PFM development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenta; Tomita, Eiichi; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Aida, Yoshihisa; Seki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tomiyama, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Ohno, Yuichi; Horie, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) is a Japanese-European collaborative earth observation satellite mission aimed to deepen understanding of the interaction process between clouds and aerosols and their effects on the Earth's radiation. The outcome of this mission is expected to improve the accuracy of global climate change prediction. As one of instruments for EarthCARE, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) is the world's first space-borne Doppler cloud radar jointly developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). In Japan, the critical design review of the CPR has been completed in 2013, and CPR proto-flight model was manufactured and integrated until summer in 2015. Finally, the proto-flight test have been just started. This paper describes the design results and current status of CPR proto-flight test.

  19. Bystander CPR Helps Save Brain Function After Near-Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_165984.html Bystander CPR Helps Save Brain Function After Near-Drowning Heart compressions were even more ... victims are more likely to recover with good brain function if bystanders immediately begin chest compressions rather than ...

  20. The use of CPR data in fisheries research [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, A.; Lindley, J. A.

    2003-08-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by technological developments in fish detection, but the former has been the subject of continuing, and in recent years expanding use of the CPR data. Examples are presented of application of the data to studies on North Sea herring, cod, mackerel, blue whiting and redfish as well as more general plankton studies relevant to fisheries research. Variations in the migration patterns of herring as well as recruitment have been related to abundances and species composition of the plankton in the CPR survey. Extensive use has been made of the CPR data in relation to cod, particularly in the development and testing of the ‘match-mismatch’ hypothesis. Advection of sufficient numbers of Calanus from the core oceanic areas of its distribution into the areas where the cod stocks occur may partly determine the success of those stocks. The analysis of the distribution and abundances of mackerel larvae in the CPR survey have shown contrasting variations between the North Sea and Celtic Sea. The expansion of the horse mackerel fishery in the north-eastern North Sea since 1987 has been related to physical events and a ‘regime shift’ in the plankton, described from CPR data. The oceanic spawning areas of the blue whiting and redfish were highlighted by the expansion of the CPR survey into the north-eastern and north-western Atlantic respectively. These results helped to focus the attention of fisheries scientists on stocks that have subsequently become the targets for commercial exploitation. The results of the CPR survey, particularly those on Calanusfinmarchicus, the phytoplankton standing stock as measured by the CPR colour index, the overall patterns of trends in plankton abundance and

  1. Clinical observation of ulinastatin combined with CRRT in the treatment of early cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghong; Peng, Jinliang; Zhou, Yuming; Zeng, Weilan; Xiao, Shihui; Cheng, Hui; Zhong, Zhenzhou; Liao, Xiangming; Xiao, Xiaoliu; Luo, Liang; Liu, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of ulinastatin (UTI) combined with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the treatment after early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was evaluated. A total of 70 patients who were successfully treated with CPR in Ganzhou People's Hospital from October 2016 to March 2017 were selected as the subjects. The patients were randomly divided into control group (35 cases, conventional treatment) and UTI combined with CRRT group (35 cases, UTI + CRRT). The whole blood of patients was collected at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h after CPR. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the changes of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in mRNA levels between the two groups, i-STAT system 300 was used to analyze pH level, SO2, HCO3- and lactic acid (LAC) concentration; Abbott AXSYM system was used to detect the expression of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in serum; the concentration of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined by a special kit; interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in patients was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of UTI combined with CRRT in the early stage of CPR was analyzed. The levels of TLR4, cTnI, TNF-α, IL-6 and MDA in the plasma of patients in both groups were significantly increased (PCRRT group was lower than that in control group (PCRRT group at 3 h, while the pH and SO2 did not change significantly. UTI + CRRT could significantly shorten the average recovery time of consciousness and the average recovery time of consciousness and spontaneous respiration in patients treated with CPR (PCRRT treatment can significantly improve the patient's condition after early CPR.

  2. A Comparison of Chest Compression Quality Delivered During On-Scene and Ground Transport Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Russi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: American Heart Association (AHA guidelines recommend cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR chest compressions 1.5 to 2 inches (3.75-5 cm deep at 100 to 120 per minute. Recent studies demonstrated that manual CPR by emergency medical services (EMS personnel is substandard. We hypothesized that transport CPR quality is significantly worse than on-scene CPR quality. Methods: We analyzed adult patients receiving on-scene and transport chest compressions from nine EMS sites across Minnesota and Wisconsin from May 2008 to July 2010. Two periods were analyzed: before and after visual feedback. CPR data were collected and exported with the Zoll M series monitor and a sternally placed accelerometer measuring chest compression rate and depth. We compared compression data with 2010 AHA guidelines and Zoll RescueNet Code Review software. CPR depth and rate were “above (deep,” “in,” or “below (shallow” the target range according to AHA guidelines. We paired on-scene and transport data for each patient; paired proportions were compared with the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: In the pre-feedback period, we analyzed 105 of 140 paired cases (75.0%; in the post-feedback period, 35 of 140 paired cases (25.0% were analyzed. The proportion of correct depths during on-scene compressions (median, 41.9%; interquartile range [IQR], 16.1-73.1 was higher compared to the paired transport proportion (median, 8.7%; IQR, 2.7-48.9. Proportions of on-scene median correct rates and transport median correct depths did not improve in the post-feedback period. Conclusion: Transport chest compressions are significantly worse than on-scene compressions. Implementation of visual real-time feedback did not affect performance.

  3. Outcomes of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Maintenance Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Fahad; Adil, Malik M; Malik, Ahmed A; Schold, Jesse D; Holley, Jean L

    2015-12-01

    Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospitalized patients with ESRD requiring maintenance dialysis are unknown. Outcomes of in-hospital CPR in these patients were compared with outcomes in the general population using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS; 2005-2011). The study population included all adults (≥ 18 years old) from the general population and those with a history of ESRD. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital complications, and discharge outcomes were compared between the two groups. The effects of in-hospital CPR on mortality, length of stay, hospitalization charges, and discharge destination were analyzed. Yearly national trends in survival, discharge to home, and length of stay were also examined using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. During the study period, 56,069 patients with ESRD underwent in-hospital CPR compared with 323,620 patients from the general population. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with ESRD (73.9% versus 71.8%, P<0.001) on univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, gender, and potential confounders, patients with ESRD had higher odds of mortality (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.3; P<0.001). Survival after CPR improved in the year 2011 compared with 2005 (31% versus 21%, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that a greater proportion of patients with ESRD who survived were discharged to skilled nursing facilities. In conclusion, outcomes after in-hospital CPR are improving in patients with ESRD but remain worse than outcomes in the general population. Patients with ESRD who survive are more likely to be discharged to nursing homes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Anxiety after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation: exacerbated by stress and prevented by minocycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Gretchen N; Karelina, Kate; Glasper, Erica R; Bowers, Stephanie L K; Zhang, Ning; Popovich, Phillip G; DeVries, A Courtney

    2009-11-01

    Stress is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, most of the research on this topic has focused on incidence rather than outcome. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of prior exposure to chronic stress on ischemia-induced neuronal death, microglial activation, and anxiety-like behavior. In Experiment 1, mice were exposed to 3 weeks of daily restraint (3 hours) and then subjected to either 8 minutes of cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) or sham surgery. Anxiety-like behavior, microglial activation, and neuronal damage were assessed on postischemic Day 4. In Experiment 2, mice were infused intracerebroventricularly with minocycline (10 microg/day) to determine the effect of inhibiting post-CA/CPR microglial activation on the development of anxiety-like behavior and neuronal death. CA/CPR precipitated anxiety-like behavior and increased microglial activation and neuronal damage within the hippocampus relative to sham surgery. Prior exposure to stress exacerbated these measures among CA/CPR mice, but had no significant effect on sham-operated mice. Treatment with minocycline reduced both neuronal damage and anxiety-like behavior among CA/CPR animals. Anxiety-like behavior was significantly correlated with measures of microglial activation but not neuronal damage. A history of stress exposure increases the pathophysiological response to ischemia and anxiety-like behavior, whereas inhibiting microglial activation reduces neuronal damage and mitigates the development of anxiety-like behavior after CA/CPR. Thus, modulating inflammatory signaling after cerebral ischemia may be beneficial in protecting the brain and preventing the development of affective disorders.

  5. A Standardized Needs Assessment Tool to Inform the Curriculum Development Process for Pediatric Resuscitation Simulation-Based Education in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Shilkofski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionUnder five mortality rates (UFMR remain high for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs in the developing world. Education for practitioners in these environments is a key factor to improve outcomes that will address United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 10 (good health and well being and reduced inequalities. In order to appropriately contextualize a curriculum using simulation, it is necessary to first conduct a needs assessment of the target learner population. The World Health Organization (WHO has published a tool to assess capacity for emergency and surgical care in LMICs that is adaptable to this goal.Materials and methodsThe WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was modified to assess pediatric resuscitation capacity in clinical settings in two LMICs: Uganda and Myanmar. Modifications included assessment of self-identified learning needs, current practices, and perceived epidemiology of disease burden in each clinical setting, in addition to assessment of pediatric resuscitation capacity in regard to infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies. The modified tool was administered to 94 respondents from the two settings who were target learners of a proposed simulation-based curriculum in pediatric and neonatal resuscitation.ResultsInfectious diseases (respiratory illnesses and diarrheal disease were cited as the most common causes of pediatric deaths in both countries. Self-identified learning needs included knowledge and skill development in pediatric airway/breathing topics, as well as general resuscitation topics such as CPR and fluid resuscitation in shock. Equipment and supply availability varied substantially between settings, and critical shortages were identified in each setting. Current practices and procedures were often limited by equipment availability or infrastructural considerations.Discussion and conclusionEpidemiology of disease

  6. A mixed-methods study exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Futile CPR has the potential to inflict significant, avoidable harms on dying patients. Futile CPR is widely debated in the literature, but there is little research into futile CPR in the context of nursing. There are no published studies exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR. Aim: To explore student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR Methods: A mixed methods study, using questionnaires to establish background data and identify prominent issues. ...

  7. Scholars from Asia and Africa exchange knowledge at CPR South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ... south's 2017 conference, drew activists, scholars, and former telecom regulators to Myanmar to exchange insights in August. Over the last ten years, the CPRsouth program has fostered the emergence of policy leaders with the skills and experience to engage in public interest research to inform policy.

  8. Passive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized cross-over manikin simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Bernd E; Muellenbach, Ralf M; Wurmb, Thomas; Struck, Manuel F; Roewer, Norbert; Kranke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    While controlled ventilation is most frequently used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and passive ventilation of the lung synchronously with chest compressions and decompressions might represent a promising alternative approach. One benefit of CPAP during CPR is the reduction of peak airway pressures and therefore a potential enhancement in haemodynamics. We therefore evaluated the tidal volumes and airway pressures achieved during CPAP-CPR. During CPR with the LUCAS™ 2 compression device, a manikin model was passively ventilated at CPAP levels of 5, 10, 20 and 30 hPa with the Boussignac tracheal tube and the ventilators Evita® V500, Medumat® Transport, Oxylator® EMX, Oxylog® 2000, Oxylog® 3000, Primus® and Servo®-i as well as the Wenoll® diver rescue system. Tidal volumes and airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were recorded and analyzed. Tidal volumes during CPAP-CPR were higher than during compression-only CPR without positive airway pressure. The passively generated tidal volumes increased with increasing CPAP levels and were significantly influenced by the ventilators used. During ventilation at 20 hPa CPAP via a tracheal tube, the mean tidal volumes ranged from 125 ml (Medumat®) to 309 ml (Wenoll®) and the peak airway pressures from 23 hPa (Primus®) to 49 hPa (Oxylog® 3000). Transport ventilators generated lower tidal volumes than intensive care ventilators or closed-circuit systems. Peak airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were lower than those during controlled ventilation CPR reported in literature. High peak airway pressures are known to limit the applicability of ventilation via facemask or via supraglottic airway devices and may adversely affect haemodynamics. Hence, the application of ventilators generating high tidal volumes with low peak airway pressures appears desirable during CPAP-CPR. The limited CPAP-CPR capabilities of transport ventilators in our study might

  9. Sodium bicarbonate use during in-hospital pediatric pulseless cardiac arrest - a report from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines(®)-Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Tia T; Stromberg, Daniel; Stigall, William; Burton, Grant; Zaritsky, Arno

    2015-04-01

    Despite limited recommendations for using sodium bicarbonate (SB) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), we hypothesized that SB continues to be used frequently during pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and that its use varies by hospital-specific, patient-specific, and event-specific characteristics. We analyzed 3719 pediatric (<18 years) index pulseless CPR events from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation database from 1/2000 to 9/2010. SB was used in 2536 (68%) of 3719 CPR events. Incidence of SB use between 2000 and 2005 vs. 2006 and 2010 was 71.1% vs. 66.2% (P=0.002). The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Secondary outcomes included 24-h survival and neurologic outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analyzed the association between SB use and outcomes. SB had increased use an ICU location, metabolic/electrolyte disturbance, prolonged CPR, pVT/VF, and concurrently with other pharmacologic interventions. Adjusting for confounding factors, SB use was associated with decreased 24-h survival (aOR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.99) and decreased survival to discharge (aOR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.97). Inclusion of metabolic/electrolyte abnormalities, hyperkalemia, and toxicologic abnormalities only (n=674), SB use was not associated with worse outcomes or unfavorable neurologic outcome. SB is used frequently during pediatric pulseless IHCA, yet there is a significant trend toward less routine use over the last decade. Because SB is more likely to be used in an ICU, with prolonged CPR, and concurrently with other pharmacologic interventions; its use during CPR may be associated with poor prognosis due to an association with "last ditch" efforts of resuscitation rather than causation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resuscitation of the Newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to insufflate the lungs (this is an application of La Place's law), but more gas will be forced through the escape pres- sure vent and less gas will reach the lungs than in a larger neonate. The resuscitator (Fig. 1) consists of a polypropylene accordion-like bellows (capacity 100 cm') which is attached to a clear polystyrene valve ...

  11. Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure of the circulation for 3-4 minutes will lead to irreversible cerebral damage. Delay, within that time, will lessen the ... airway /breathing/ circulation. The basic principles of resuscitation: These include a SAFE ... units, accident and emergency, theatres, intensive care units and x-ray departments must be trained. This. 47 ...

  12. Hydroxyethyl starch for resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is controversial. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of HES solutions including data from recent high-quality randomized clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses of HES vs. control fluids show clear...

  13. A video to improve patient and surrogate understanding of cardiopulmonary resuscitation choices in the ICU: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael E; Krupa, Artur; Hinds, Richard F; Litell, John M; Swetz, Keith M; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Kashani, Kianoush

    2015-03-01

    To determine if a video depicting cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation preference options would improve knowledge and decision making among patients and surrogates in the ICU. Randomized, unblinded trial. Single medical ICU. Patients and surrogate decision makers in the ICU. The usual care group received a standard pamphlet about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation preference options plus routine code status discussions with clinicians. The video group received usual care plus an 8-minute video that depicted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, showed a simulated hospital code, and explained resuscitation preference options. One hundred three patients and surrogates were randomized to usual care. One hundred five patients and surrogates were randomized to video plus usual care. Median total knowledge scores (0-15 points possible for correct answers) in the video group were 13 compared with 10 in the usual care group, p value of less than 0.0001. Video group participants had higher rates of understanding the purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation options and terminology and could correctly name components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. No statistically significant differences in documented resuscitation preferences following the interventions were found between the two groups, although the trial was underpowered to detect such differences. A majority of participants felt that the video was helpful in cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision making (98%) and would recommend the video to others (99%). A video depicting cardiopulmonary resuscitation and explaining resuscitation preference options was associated with improved knowledge of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation options and cardiopulmonary resuscitation terminology among patients and surrogate decision makers in the ICU, compared with receiving a pamphlet on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients and surrogates found the video helpful in decision

  14. Impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration on neurologically favourable outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Nishiyama, Chika; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi; Ohta, Bon; Iwami, Taku

    2017-04-01

    The optimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between CPR duration and outcome after OHCA. This prospective, population-based observational study conducted in Osaka, Japan enrolled 6981 adult patients with non-traumatic witnessed OHCA who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from January 2005 through December 2012. CPR duration was defined as the time of CPR initiation by emergency medical service personnel to the ROSC in pre-hospital settings or after hospital admission. The primary outcome was one-month survival with neurologically favourable outcome (cerebral performance category scale 1 or 2). Overall, median CPR duration was 25min (interquartile range: 15-34) and the proportion of neurologically favourable outcome was 12.5% (875/6,981). The proportion of neurologically favourable outcome among the CPR duration ≥31min group was significantly lower compared with that among the 0-5min group (55.1% [320/581] versus 2.2% [54/2424], adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.05 in all patients, 78.4% [240/306] versus 11.4% [30/264], AOR 0.04; 95% CI 0.02-0.06 in the shockable group, 29.1% [80/275] versus 1.1% [24/2160], and AOR 0.03; 95% CI 0.02-0.05 in the non-shockable group). The cumulative proportion for neurologically favourable outcome reached 99% after 44, 41, and 43min of CPR in all patients, the shockable group, and the non-shockable group, respectively. The proportion of patients with neurologically favourable outcome declined with increasing CPR duration, but some OHCA patients could benefit from prolonged CPR duration >30min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect on quality of chest compressions and exhaustion of a compression--ventilation ratio of 30:2 versus 15:2 during cardiopulmonary resuscitation--a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschilder, Koen; de Vos, Rien; Stockman, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Recent cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines changed the compression:ventilation ratio in 30:2. To compare the quality of chest compressions and exhaustion using the ratio 30:2 versus 15:2. A prospective, randomised crossover design was used. Subjects were recruited from the H.-Hart

  16. The study protocol for the LINC (LUCAS in cardiac arrest) study: a study comparing conventional adult out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a concept with mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, Sten; Silfverstolpe, Johan; Rehn, Liselott; Nyman, Thomas; Lichtveld, Rob; Boomars, Rene; Bruins, Wendy; Ahlstedt, Björn; Puggioli, Helena; Lindgren, Erik; Smekal, David; Skoog, Gunnar; Kastberg, Robert; Lindblad, Anna; Halliwell, David; Box, Martyn; Arnwald, Fredrik; Hardig, Bjarne Madsen; Chamberlain, Douglas; Herlitz, Johan; Karlsten, Rolf

    2013-01-25

    The LUCAS™ device delivers mechanical chest compressions that have been shown in experimental studies to improve perfusion pressures to the brain and heart as well as augmenting cerebral blood flow and end tidal CO2, compared with results from standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Two randomised pilot studies in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients have not shown improved outcome when compared with manual CPR. There remains evidence from small case series that the device can be potentially beneficial compared with manual chest compressions in specific situations. This multicentre study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mechanical chest compressions with the LUCAS™ device whilst allowing defibrillation during on-going CPR, and comparing the results with those of conventional resuscitation. This article describes the design and protocol of the LINC-study which is a randomised controlled multicentre study of 2500 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00609778?term=LINC&rank=1). Primary endpoint is four-hour survival after successful restoration of spontaneous circulation. The safety aspect is being evaluated by post mortem examinations in 300 patients that may reflect injuries from CPR. This large multicentre study will contribute to the evaluation of mechanical chest compression in CPR and specifically to the efficacy and safety of the LUCAS™ device when used in association with defibrillation during on-going CPR.

  17. Time to start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the effect of target temperature management at 33°C and 36°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankiewicz, Josef; Friberg, Hans; Bělohlávek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    interaction between no flow-time and intervention group (p=0.11), which may imply that the non-superior effect of 33°C was consistent for all no-flow times. Bystander CPR was not independently associated with neurological function. CONCLUSIONS: TTM at 33°C compared to 36°C was not associated with an increased......INTRODUCTION: The optimal temperature during targeted temperature management (TTM) for comatose patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown. It has been hypothesized that patients with long no-flow times, for example those without bystander CPR would have the most to gain...

  18. A new way to analyze resuscitation quality by reviewing automatic external defibrillator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Lin, Chen; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Hsiung, Kuang-Hua; Lin, Jiunn-Lee; Chen, Wen-Jone; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2012-02-01

    High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) plays an important role in survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). We have developed an algorithm to automatically identify the quality of chest compressions from data retrieved from automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals retrieved from AEDs were analyzed by a newly developed algorithm to identify fluctuations in CPR. The algorithm contained three steps. First, it decomposed the AED signals into several intrinsic mode fluctuations (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Second, it identified the dominant IMFs that carried the chest compression signals and weighted the IMFs to both enhance the chest compression oscillations and filter the noise. Third, it calculated the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the reconstructed signals and tested their periodicity. Using this algorithm, several CPR quality indicators were automatically calculated minute-by-minute and compared with those derived by audio and visual review of AED data by experienced physicians. A total of 77 (29 women, 48 men) OHCA patients were enrolled, and 351 one-min segments were analyzed. The results showed that the CPR quality parameters calculated from the algorithm were highly correlated with those from the manual review (all Pautomatically determined by analyzing the ECG signals from AEDs using EMD and autocorrelograms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitude and skill levels of graduate health professionals in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn, Endale; Berhe Gebregergs, Gebremedhn; Anderson, Bernard Bradley; Nagaratnam, Vidhya

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure used to treat victims following cardiopulmonary arrest. Graduate health professionals at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital manage many trauma and critically ill patients. The chance of survival after cardiopulmonary arrest may be increased with sufficient attitude and skill levels. The study aimed to assess the attitude and skill levels of graduate health professionals in performing CPR. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2013, at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. The mean attitude and skill scores were compared for sex, original residence, and department of the participants using Student's t-test and analysis of variance (Scheffe's test). P-values skill scores were 2.34 (SD =1.95), 3.77 (SD =1.58), 1.18 (SD =1.52), 2.16 (SD =1.93), 3.88 (SD =1.36), and 1.21 (SD =1.77), respectively. Attitude and skill level of graduate health professionals with regard to CPR were insufficient. Training on CPR for graduate health professionals needs to be given emphasis.

  20. Impaired Cerebral Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Function in a Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcardiac arrest brain injury significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients suffering from cardiac arrest (CA. Evidence that shows that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key factor in tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion is accumulating. However, limited data are available regarding the cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and its relationship to the alterations of high-energy phosphate. Here, we sought to identify alterations of mitochondrial morphology and oxidative phosphorylation function as well as high-energy phosphates during CA and CPR in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF. We found that impairment of mitochondrial respiration and partial depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr developed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following a prolonged cardiac arrest. Optimal CPR might ameliorate the deranged phosphorus metabolism and preserve mitochondrial function. No obvious ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria have been found during CA. We conclude that CA causes cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction along with decay of high-energy phosphates, which would be mitigated with CPR. This study may broaden our understanding of the pathogenic processes underlying global cerebral ischemic injury and provide a potential therapeutic strategy that aimed at preserving cerebral mitochondrial function during CA.

  1. Retention of knowledge of and skills in cardiopulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-31

    Oct 31, 2009 ... amongst healthcare professionals (HCPs), even in countries where emergency services are well developed.2,5 Effective resuscitation involves effective technique (breaths and compressions) and the early use of defibrillation.2,3 Many victims of cardiac arrest do not receive CPR and, even when it is given ...

  2. Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation challenges in selected Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participating hospitals should address the following challenges that might affect CPR outcomes: shortages of staff, overpopulation of hospital units, shortcomings of the emergency trolleys and CPR equipment, absence of CPR policies and guidelines, absence of CPR teams, limited CPR competencies of doctors and ...

  3. Towards evidence-based resuscitation of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Hooper, Stuart B; Jacobs, Susan E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G

    2017-04-22

    Effective resuscitation of the newborn infant has the potential to save many lives around the world and reduce disabilities in children who survive peripartum asphyxia. In this Series paper, we highlight some of the important advances in the understanding of how best to resuscitate newborn infants, which includes monitoring techniques to guide resuscitative efforts, increasing awareness of the adverse effects of hyperoxia, delayed umbilical cord clamping, the avoidance of routine endotracheal intubation for extremely preterm infants, and therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Despite the challenges of performing high-quality clinical research in the delivery room, researchers continue to refine and advance our knowledge of effective resuscitation of newborn infants through scientific experiments and clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of early amiodarone administration during and immediately after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlis, G; Iacovidou, N; Lelovas, P; Niforopoulou, P; Zacharioudaki, A; Papalois, A; Sunde, K; Steen, P A; Xanthos, T

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this experimental study was to compare haemodynamic effects and outcome with early administration of amiodarone and adrenaline vs. adrenaline alone in pigs with prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF). After 8 min of untreated VF arrest, bolus doses were administered of adrenaline (0.02 mg/kg) and either amiodarone (5 mg/kg) or saline (n = 8 per group) after randomisation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was commenced immediately after drug administration, and defibrillation was attempted 2 min later. CPR was resumed for another 2 min after each defibrillation attempt, and the same dose of adrenaline was given every 4th minute during CPR. Haemodynamic monitoring and mechanical ventilation continued for 6 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the pigs were euthanised at 48 h. Researchers were blinded for drug groups throughout the study. There was no difference in rates of ROSC and 48-h survival with amiodarone vs. saline (5/8 vs. 7/8 and 0/8 vs. 3/8, respectively). Diastolic aortic pressure and coronary perfusion pressure were significantly lower with amiodarone during CPR and 1 min after ROSC (P < 0.05). The number of electric shocks required for terminating VF, time to ROSC and adrenaline dose were significantly higher with amiodarone (P < 0.01). The incidence of post-resuscitation tachyarrhythmias tended to be higher in the saline group (P = 0.081). Early administration of amiodarone did not improve ROSC or 48-h survival rates, and was associated with worse haemodynamics in this swine model of cardiac arrest. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Resuscitation skills of pediatric residents and effects of Neonatal Resuscitation Program training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Ilker; Agin, Hasan; Devrim, Ilker; Apa, Hursit; Tezel, Basak; Ozbas, Sema

    2013-08-01

    The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) is an effective tool in decreasing mortality and morbidity due to birth asphyxia. The aim of the study was to assess the skill and knowledge level of pediatric residents in a teaching hospital and the effects of NRP training. Subjects consisted of pediatric residents of Dr Behcet Uz Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. They were assessed on practice exam scenarios and NRP provider course flow charts. Teams with two members were formed randomly. Each resident was evaluated on a 100 point scale covering all resuscitation steps and interventions. Exam scores were analyzed for two major parameters: resident participation in NRP training (never, within the last 6 months, and ≥6 months previously) and being a senior (>18 months residency). A total of 49 residents enrolled in the study (94.2% of the target group). Twenty-one residents had NRP training (42.9%). Junior residents comprised 46.9% of the study group. The mean skill score was 72.1, and it was significantly higher for senior residents and residents who attended the NRP course (P training significantly increases the resuscitation knowledge and skill of pediatric residents, although this can be achieved by being a senior. Residents should undergo training as soon as possible to achieve a higher level of quality in resuscitating babies. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Effects of kneeling posture on chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michael Sh; Chow, Daniel Hk

    2017-10-05

    To study the effects of kneeling posture on chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in males. Efficiency of chest compression during CPR affected millions of victims over the world. There are still no clear guidelines on kneeling posture that a rescuer should adopt in performing CPR. A self-controlled repeated-measures design was applied in this study. The efficiency of chest compression on a mannequin when three kneeling postures were adopted (farthest, self-adjusted and nearest) was analysed. Eighteen participants with qualified first-aid certificate were recruited. Each participant had to perform three sessions of CPR, using one of the three different kneeling postures (i.e., farthest, self-adjusted and nearest) in each. They were performed in a random order chosen by drawing lots. Each session consisted of five cycles of CPR in each kneeling posture. Each cycle consisted of 30 strokes of chest compression performed within 18 s with a 4-s pause between consecutive cycles. Each session lasted for 2 min. The participants were allowed to rest for 10 min on a chair between sessions. Efficiency of chest compression was quantified by compression force, joint angle, heart rate and energy expenditure. After each session of CPR, the participants were surveyed about their rate of perceived exertion. Efficiency of chest compression in self-adjusted and nearest kneeling postures was significantly better than that of the farthest one. While the self-adjusted and nearest postures had the similar effect, most of the participants preferred self-adjusted kneeling posture because of lower rate of perceived exertion. The use of the self-adjusted and nearest kneeling postures during CPR in males resulted in more effective chest compression with lower perceived exertion, compared with the farthest kneeling posture. Both these positions can be objectively recommended to enhance the efficiency of chest compression and thereby increase the cardiac arrest

  7. Does location matter? A proposed methodology to evaluate neighbourhood effects on cardiac arrest survival and bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Jason E; Allan, Katherine S; Ray, Joel G; Kiss, Alexander; Dorian, Paul; Gozdyra, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J

    2015-05-01

    Traditional variables used to explain survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) account for only 72% of survival, suggesting that other unknown factors may influence outcomes. Research on other diseases suggests that neighbourhood factors may partly determine health outcomes. Yet, this approach has rarely been used for OHCA. This work outlines a methodology to investigate multiple neighbourhood factors as determinants of OHCA outcomes. A retrospective, observational cohort study design will be used. All adult non-emergency medical service witnessed OHCAs of cardiac etiology within the city of Toronto between 2006 and 2010 will be included. Event details will be extracted from the Toronto site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest, an existing population-based dataset of consecutive OHCA patients. Geographic information systems technology will be used to assign patients to census tracts. Neighbourhood variables to be explored include the Ontario Marginalization Index (deprivation, dependency, ethnicity, and instability), crime rate, and density of family physicians. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis will be used to explore the association between neighbourhood characteristics and 1) survival-to-hospital discharge, 2) return-of-spontaneous circulation at hospital arrival, and 3) provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Receiver operating characteristics curves will evaluate each model's ability to discriminate between those with and without each outcome. Discussion This study will determine the role of neighbourhood characteristics in OHCA and their association with clinical outcomes. The results can be used as the basis to focus on specific neighbourhoods for facilitating educational interventions, CPR awareness programs, and higher utilization of automatic defibrillation devices.

  8. The impact of television fiction on public expectations of survival following inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan J M

    2002-12-01

    Research has shown that the public overestimates the survival chances of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other studies have suggested that demonstrably exaggerated survival rates in medical television fiction might affect these estimates. Such studies were mostly conducted in the United States, dealt with cardiopulmonary resuscitation in general, and asked respondents to indicate their source of medical information, an unreliable survey technique. To examine whether public perceptions of survival after inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by physicians and nurses is related to the consumption of medical drama, without relying on respondents' self-reports of what influences them. To examine whether training in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques mediates this relationship. A random sample of 820 third and fifth year secondary school students completed a questionnaire in which they indicated their consumption of medical television fiction, their practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, and their estimates of the survival rate after inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A relationship was found between the consumption of medical television drama and higher estimates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation survival. Practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation also resulted in increased estimated survival rates. An interaction effect of drama and practical knowledge was found. Respondents with practical knowledge were less affected by television. The consumption of medical television drama is related to overestimating survival chances after inhospital resuscitation by physicians and nurses following cardiopulmonary arrest. A practical knowledge of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques moderates but does not eliminate the television effect.

  9. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphuwanun V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%, survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%, and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%. The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19; ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13; precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90; the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38; surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82; shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15

  10. Are they trained? Prevalence, motivations and barriers to CPR training among cohabitants of patients with a coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariou, Guillaume; Pelaccia, Thierry

    2016-06-27

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurs most often at home and often in the presence of family members of the patient who witness the event. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training of the next of kin of at-risk patients is thus potentially beneficial. The aim of our study was to document the prevalence of appropriate training among cardiac patients' cohabitants, as well as the motivations or obstacles to seeking training. 153 cohabitants of 127 patients who were hospitalized 1 year prior for confirmed coronary disease in a cardiology department (Paris, France) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between October 2013 and March 2014. 38 % of interrogated cohabitants had received CPR training, and in two-thirds of the cases, their training was undertaken prior to the onset of the patient's heart disease. The training received was often a single instruction session. Half took place more than 5 years prior to the interview. For two-thirds of interrogated families, the reasons they sought training were related to professional or military duties. Training undertaken solely due to cohabitation with a patient affected by coronary disease represented only 3.5 % of the trained respondents. A lack of information regarding existing training programs and a lack of concrete propositions were given as the main barriers to seeking training. The families of patients who are at-risk for cardiac arrests that were interrogated in our study are inadequately trained in CPR. The creation of dedicated training programs at cardiac rehabilitation services for patients' next of kin or the use of alternative methods such as self-instruction kits could potentially remedy this situation.

  11. Detection of spontaneous pulse using the acceleration signals acquired from CPR feedback sensor in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhengfei; Yu, Tao; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin

    2017-01-01

    Reliable detection of return of spontaneous circulation with minimal interruptions of chest compressions is part of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and routinely done by checking pulsation of carotid arteries. However, manual palpation was time-consuming and unreliable even if performed by expert clinicians. Therefore, automated accurate pulse detection with minimal interruptions of chest compression is highly desirable during cardiac arrest especially in out-of-hospital settings. To investigate whether the acceleration (ACC) signals acquired from accelerometer-based CPR feedback sensor can be used to distinguish perfusing rhythm (PR) from pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced in 49 male adult pigs. ECG, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and ACC waveforms were simultaneously recorded during CPR. 3-second segments containing compression-free signals during chest compression pauses were extracted and only those segments with organized rhythm were used for analysis. PR was defined as systolic arterial pressure >60 mmHg and pulse pressure >10 mmHg, while PEA was defined as an organized rhythm that does not meet the above criteria for PR. Peak correlation coefficient (CCp) of the cross-correlation function between pre-processed ECG and ACC, was used to discriminate PR and PEA. 63 PR and 153 PEA were identified from the total of 1025 extracted segments. CCp was significantly higher for PR as compared to PEA (0.440±0.176 vs. 0.067±0.042, pfeedback sensor can be used to detect the presence of spontaneous pulse with high accuracy.

  12. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Gene Yong Kwang; Chan, Irene Lai Yeen; Ng, Agnes Suah Bwee; Chew, Su Yah; Mok, Yee Hui; Chan, Yoke Hwee; Ong, Jacqueline Soo May; Ganapathy, Sashikumar; Ng, Kee Chong

    2017-01-01

    We present the revised 2016 Singapore paediatric resuscitation guidelines. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation’s Pediatric Taskforce Consensus Statements on Science and Treatment Recommendations, as well as the updated resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council released in October 2015, were debated and discussed by the workgroup. The final recommendations for the Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016 were derived after carefully reviewing the current available evidence in the literature and balancing it with local clinical practice. PMID:28741003

  14. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Association between cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration and one-month neurological outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiura, Masahiro; Hamabe, Yuichi; Akashi, Akiko; Sakurai, Atsushi; Tahara, Yoshio; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Nagao, Ken; Yaguchi, Arino; Morimura, Naoto

    2017-04-21

    The duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor associated with the outcomes for an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the appropriate CPR duration remains unclear considering pre- and in-hospital settings. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the CPR duration (including both the pre- and in-hospital duration) and neurologically favorable outcomes 1-month after cardiac arrest. Data were utilized from a prospective multi-center cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients transported to 67 emergency hospitals between January 2012 and March 2013 in the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 3,353 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (age ≥18 years) who underwent CPR by emergency medical service personnel and achieved the return of spontaneous circulation in a pre- or in-hospital setting were analyzed. The primary outcome was a 1-month favorable neurological outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration. The CPR duration that achieved a cumulative proportion >99% of cases with a 1-month neurologically favorable outcome was determined. Of the 3,353 eligible cases, pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation was obtained in 1,692 cases (50.5%). A total of 279 (8.3%) cases had a 1-month neurologically favorable outcome. The CPR duration was significantly and inversely associated with 1-month neurologically favorable outcomes with adjustment for pre- and in-hospital confounders (adjusted odds ratio: 0.911, per minute, 95% CI: 0.892-0.929, p CPR, the probability of a 1-month neurologically favorable outcome decreased from 8.3 to 0.7%. At 45 min of CPR, the cumulative proportion for a 1-month neurologically favorable outcome reached >99%. The CPR duration was independently and inversely associated with 1-month neurologically favorable outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The CPR duration required to achieve return

  16. Damage control resuscitation: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoudi, M; Harwood, P

    2016-06-01

    Damage control resuscitation describes an approach to the early care of very seriously injured patients. The aim is to keep the patient alive whilst avoiding interventions and situations that risk worsening their situation by driving the lethal triad of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis or excessively stimulating the immune-inflammatory system. It is critical that the concepts and practicalities of this approach are understood by all those involved in the early management of trauma patients. This review aims to summarise this and discusses current knowledge on the subject. Damage control resuscitation forms part of an overall approach to patient care rather than a specific intervention and has evolved from damage control surgery. It is characterised by early blood product administration, haemorrhage arrest and restoration of blood volume aiming to rapidly restore physiologic stability. The infusion of large volumes of crystalloid is no longer appropriate, instead the aim is to replace lost blood and avoid dilution and coagulopathy. In specific situations, permissive hypotension may also be of benefit, particularly in patients with severe haemorrhage from an arterial source. As rapid arrest of haemorrhage is so important, team-based protocols that deliver patients rapidly but safely, via CT scan where appropriate, to operating theatres or interventional radiology suites form a critical part of this process. Given that interventions are so time dependent in the severely injured, it is likely that by further improving trauma systems and protocols, improvements in outcome can still be made. Further research work in this area will allow us to target these approaches more accurately to those patients who can benefit most.

  17. Clinical utility of high b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in post-resuscitative encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Hitoshi; Danjou, Wataru; Yamazaki, Kei [Sapporo City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-03-01

    It is very important to estimate brain functional capacity immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to determine subsequent treatment strategy and to elucidate the pathophysiology of patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. However, computed tomography scanning, electric encephalography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging do not contribute significantly to the assessment of brain functions immediately after CPR. Recently, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has been applied to the patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. However, no papers have described serial clinical and repeated DW-MRI studies of patients during the acute phase of post-resuscitative encephalopathy. Moreover, in some cases, high signal intensity in the cortex after CPR is indistinguishable from normal cortex. Thus, we tried to apply high b-value DW-MRI to estimate the brain function of patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy. This study was performed on 11 patients with post-resuscitative encephalopathy and 5 healthy volunteers as controls. DW-MRI was performed using GYROSCAN 1.5 Tesla MR imager (Philips) with single-shot echo-planner imaging sequences performed 3 times, first within 24 hours after CPR, second between day 3 to 6, and third more than 7 days after CPR. And we tested the usefulness of DW-MRI at 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 in b value. Five patients survived, one fully recovered and four remained in a vegetative state. The other six died with clinical brain death. The first DW-MRI revealed in high signal intensity in the frontal and the parietal lobes in all patients who eventually progressed to a vegetative state or brain death. This result was much more wide-spread in the latter patients, while it was never seen in the patients who recovered fully. The high signal intensity areas increased in follow-up DW-MRI studies. The signal intensity remained high in some parts, while it decreased in other parts with

  18. Survivors' quality of life after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Gunilla; van der Riet, Pamela; Maguire, Jane

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation continues to increase worldwide largely due to greater awareness of the symptoms of cardiac events and increased attention to cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community. Globally, predicted survival rates after cardiopulmonary resuscitation have remained at 10% for decades and although patient outcome remains unpredictable, there is a positive trend in life expectancy. For a resuscitation attempt to be classed as successful, not only survival but also quality of life has to be evaluated. The aim of this review was to examine literature that explores the quality of life (QOL) for survivors' after CPR and the influence cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has had on their QOL. This review follows Whittemore and Knafl's framework for an integrative literature review. Electronic databases EBSCO, Ovid, PubMed and EMBASE were searched. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, thirty-six papers published from January 2000 to June 2015 were included in this review. These papers represent a broad spectrum of research evaluating quality of life for survivors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The heterogeneous research methods and vast number of different research tools make it challenging to compare the findings. The majority of papers concluded that quality of life for survivors of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was generally acceptable. However, studies also described survivors' experience of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress and cognitive dysfunction. A majority of papers reported an acceptable quality of life if the patient survived to hospital discharge. The heterogeneity in quantitative papers was noticeable and indicates a marked variance in patient outcomes. This review highlights the absence of specialized tools used to investigate survivors' experience of the event. Further exploration of the

  19. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation......-training. The second group attended a conventional 6 h BLS course (6 HR). After 3 months BLS skills were assessed on a Laerdal ResusciAnne manikin using the Laerdal PC Skill reporting System, and a total score was calculated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between groups in BLS performance using...

  20. Delay and performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in surf lifeguards after simulated cardiac arrest due to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Andreas; Karlsson, Tomas; Thorén, Ann-Britt; Herlitz, Johan

    2011-11-01

    To describe time delay during surf rescue and compare the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before and after exertion in surf lifeguards. A total of 40 surf lifeguards at the Tylösand Surf Lifesaving Club in Sweden (65% men; age, 19-43 years) performed single-rescuer CPR for 10 minutes on a Laerdal SkillmeteÔ Resusci Anne manikin. The test was repeated with an initial simulated surf rescue on an unconscious 80-kg victim 100 m from the shore. The time to victim, to first ventilation, and to the start of CPR was documented. The mean time in seconds to the start of ventilations in the water was 155 ± 31 (mean ± SD) and to the start of CPR, 258 ± 44. Men were significantly faster during rescue (mean difference, 43 seconds) than women (P = .002). The mean compression depth (millimeters) at rest decreased significantly from 0-2 minutes (42.6 ± 7.8) to 8-10 minutes (40.8 ± 9.3; P = .02). The mean compression depth after exertion decreased significantly (44.2 ± 8.7 at 0-2 minutes to 41.5 ± 9.1 at 8-10 minutes; P = .0008). The compression rate per minute decreased after rescue from 117.2 ±14.3 at 0 to 2 minutes to 114.1 ± 16.1 after 8 to 10 minutes (P = .002). The percentage of correct compressions at 8 to 10 minutes was identical before and after rescue (62%). In a simulated drowning, 100 m from shore, it took twice as long to bring the patient back to shore as to reach him; and men were significantly faster. Half the participants delivered continuous chest compressions of more than 38 mm during 10 minutes of single-rescuer CPR. The quality was identical before and after surf rescue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of simulation in teaching pediatric resuscitation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yiqun Lin,1 Adam Cheng2 1KidSIM-ASPIRE Simulation Research Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2KidSIM-ASPIRE Research Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: The use of simulation for teaching the knowledge, skills, and behaviors necessary for effective pediatric resuscitation has seen widespread growth and adoption across pediatric institutions. In this paper, we describe the application of simulation in pediatric resuscitation training and review the evidence for the use of simulation in neonatal resuscitation, pediatric advanced life support, procedural skills training, and crisis resource management training. We also highlight studies supporting several key instructional design elements that enhance learning, including the use of high-fidelity simulation, distributed practice, deliberate practice, feedback, and debriefing. Simulation-based training is an effective modality for teaching pediatric resuscitation concepts. Current literature has revealed some research gaps in simulation-based education, which could indicate the direction for the future of pediatric resuscitation research. Keywords: simulation, pediatric resuscitation, medical education, instructional design, crisis resource management, health care

  2. 77 FR 74278 - Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application...

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia activates the endothelin and nitric oxide systems after cardiac arrest in a pig model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zoerner

    Full Text Available Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction is a major cause of mortality in patients receiving successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH is the recommended treatment after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA and is known to exert neuroprotective effects and improve short-term survival. Yet its cytoprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, our aim was to determine the possible effect of MTH on vasoactive mediators belonging to the endothelin/nitric oxide axis in our porcine model of CA and CPR. Pigs underwent either untreated CA or CA with subsequent CPR. After state-of-the-art resuscitation, the animals were either left untreated, cooled between 32-34 °C after ROSC or treated with a bolus injection of S-PBN (sodium 4-[(tert-butylimino methyl]benzene-3-sulfonate N-oxide until 180 min after ROSC, respectively. The expression of endothelin 1 (ET-1, endothelin converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1, and endothelin A and B receptors (ETAR and ETBR transcripts were measured using quantitative real-time PCR while protein levels for the ETAR, ETBR and nitric oxide synthases (NOS were assessed using immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Our results indicated that the endothelin system was not upregulated at 30, 60 and 180 min after ROSC in untreated postcardiac arrest syndrome. Post-resuscitative 3 hour-long treatments either with MTH or S-PBN stimulated ET-1, ECE-1, ETAR and ETBR as well as neuronal NOS and endothelial NOS in left ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our data suggests that the endothelin and nitric oxide pathways are activated by MTH in the heart.

  4. Viscoelastic guidance of resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bleeding in trauma carries a high mortality and is increased in case of coagulopathy. Our understanding of hemostasis and coagulopathy has improved, leading to a change in the protocols for hemostatic monitoring. This review describes the current state of evidence supporting...... populations. In trauma care, viscoelastic hemostatic assays allows for rapid and timely identification of coagulopathy and individualized, goal-directed transfusion therapy. As part of the resuscitation concept, viscoelastic hemostatic assays seem to improve outcome also in trauma; however, there is a need...

  5. Family presence during resuscitation: extending ethical norms from paediatrics to adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christine; Lederman, Zohar

    2017-10-01

    Many families of patients hold the view that it is their right to be present during a loved one's resuscitation, while the majority of patients also express the comfort and support they would feel by having them there. Currently, family presence is more commonly accepted in paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than adult CPR. Even though many guidelines are in favour of this practice and recognise potential benefits, healthcare professionals are hesitant to support adult family presence to the extent that paediatric family presence is supported. However, in this paper, we suggest that the ethical case to justify family presence during paediatric resuscitation (P-FPDR) is weaker than the justification of family presence during adult resuscitation (A-FPDR). We go on to support this claim using three main arguments that people use in clinical ethics to justify FPDR. These include scarcity of evidence documenting disruption, psychological benefits to family members following the incident and respect for patient autonomy. We demonstrate that these arguments actually apply more strongly to A-FPDR compared with P-FPDR, thereby questioning the common attitude of healthcare professionals of allowing the latter while mostly opposing A-FPDR. Importantly, we do not wish to suggest that P-FPDR should not be allowed. Rather, we suggest that since P-FPDR is commonly (and should be) allowed, so should A-FPDR. This is because the aforementioned arguments that are used to justify FPDR in general actually make a stronger case for A-FPDR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Abdominal counter pressure in CPR: What about the lungs? An in silico study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanru; Karemaker, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The external pumping action in CPR should generate sufficient flow and pressure, but the pump must also be 'primed' by ongoing venous return. Different additions to standard CPR are in use just for this purpose. Active decompression of the thorax (ACD-CPR) to 'suck in' venous blood has proven

  7. The Effectiveness of Using Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of CPR in submitting general Chemistry (123L) laboratory report. This is expected to improve writing skills and alleviate grading burdens particularly when dealing with a large class due to lack sufficient instructors and high grading burden. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test ...

  8. The use of CPR data in fisheries research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Lindley, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by

  9. Detection of spontaneous pulse using the acceleration signals acquired from CPR feedback sensor in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wei

    Full Text Available Reliable detection of return of spontaneous circulation with minimal interruptions of chest compressions is part of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and routinely done by checking pulsation of carotid arteries. However, manual palpation was time-consuming and unreliable even if performed by expert clinicians. Therefore, automated accurate pulse detection with minimal interruptions of chest compression is highly desirable during cardiac arrest especially in out-of-hospital settings.To investigate whether the acceleration (ACC signals acquired from accelerometer-based CPR feedback sensor can be used to distinguish perfusing rhythm (PR from pulseless electrical activity (PEA in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.Cardiac arrest was induced in 49 male adult pigs. ECG, arterial blood pressure (ABP and ACC waveforms were simultaneously recorded during CPR. 3-second segments containing compression-free signals during chest compression pauses were extracted and only those segments with organized rhythm were used for analysis. PR was defined as systolic arterial pressure >60 mmHg and pulse pressure >10 mmHg, while PEA was defined as an organized rhythm that does not meet the above criteria for PR. Peak correlation coefficient (CCp of the cross-correlation function between pre-processed ECG and ACC, was used to discriminate PR and PEA.63 PR and 153 PEA were identified from the total of 1025 extracted segments. CCp was significantly higher for PR as compared to PEA (0.440±0.176 vs. 0.067±0.042, p<0.01 and highly correlated with ABP (r = 0.848, p<0.001. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.965, 93.6%, 97.5% and 96.7% for the ACC-based automatic spontaneous pulse detection.In this animal model, the ACC signals acquired from an accelerometer-based CPR feedback sensor can be used to detect the presence of spontaneous pulse with high accuracy.

  10. Systematic review of interventions to improve appropriate use and outcomes associated with do-not-attempt-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard A; Fritz, Zoë; Baker, Annalie; Grove, Amy; Perkins, Gavin D

    2014-11-01

    The treatment for a cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), may be lifesaving following an acute, potentially reversible illness. Yet this treatment is unlikely to be effective if cardiac arrest occurs as part of the dying process towards the end of a person's natural life. Do not attempt CPR (DNACPR) decisions allow resuscitation to be withheld when it has little chance of success, or where the patient, or those close to the patient, indicate the burdens of CPR outweigh the benefits. This review sought to identify evidence for systems that improve the appropriate use of DNACPR decisions. Electronic databases were searched (Medline, CINAHL and Embase) for English language articles from 2001 to 2014. 4090 citations were identified of which 37 studies were relevant. The overall quality of evidence was moderate to poor. Thematic synthesis identified key interventions which may improve DNACPR decision making. The most promising interventions involved structured discussion at the time of acute admission to hospital and review by specialist teams at the point of an acute deterioration. Linking DNACPR decisions to discussions about overall treatment plans provided greater clarity about goals of care, aided communication between clinicians and reduced harms. Standardised documentation proved helpful for improving the frequency and quality of recording DNACPR decisions. Patient and clinician education in isolation were associated with limited or no effects. Relatively simple process changes may enhance the appropriate use of and outcomes associated with DNACPR decisions. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO2012:CRD42012002669. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation of three methods of in-hospital cardiac arrest educational debriefing: The cardiopulmonary resuscitation debriefing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Keith; Kimani, Peter K; Davies, Robin P; Baker, Annalie; Davies, Michelle; Husselbee, Natalie; Melody, Teresa; Griffiths, Frances; Perkins, Gavin D

    2016-08-01

    The use of cardiac arrest educational debriefing has been associated with improvements in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality and patient outcome. The practical challenges associated with delivering some debriefing approaches may not be generalisable to the UK health setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the deliverability and effectiveness of three cardiac arrest debriefing approaches that were tailored to UK working practice. We undertook a before/after study at three hospital sites. During the post-intervention period of the study, three cardiac arrest educational debriefing models were implemented at study hospitals (one model per hospital). To evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, CPR quality and patient outcome data were collected from consecutive adult cardiac arrest events attended by the hospital cardiac arrest team. The primary outcome was chest compression depth. Between November 2011 and July 2014, 1198 cardiac arrest events were eligible for study inclusion (782 pre-intervention; 416 post-intervention). The quality of CPR was high at baseline. During the post-intervention period, cardiac arrest debriefing interventions were delivered to 191 clinicians on 344 occasions. Debriefing interventions were deliverable in practice, but were not associated with a clinically important improvement in CPR quality. The interventions had no effect on patient outcome. The delivery of these cardiac arrest educational debriefing strategies was feasible, but did not have a large effect on CPR quality. This may be attributable to the high-quality of CPR being delivered in study hospitals at baseline. ISRCTN39758339. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and predictors of survival in patients undergoing coronary angiography including percutaneous coronary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Juraj; Ritter, Matthew J; Rihal, Charanjit S; Warner, Mary E; Wilson, Gregory A; Williams, Brent A; Stevens, Susanna R; Schroeder, Darrell R; Bourke, Denis L; Warner, David O

    2006-01-01

    We studied the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CA) and/or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Of 51,985 CA and PCI patients treated between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2000, 114 required CPR. Records were reviewed for relationships between patient characteristics and various procedures and short-term survival. Long-term survival was compared with that of a matched cohort of patients who did not have an arrest during catheterization and a matched cohort from the general Minnesota population. Over the 11-year period, the overall incidence of CPR was 21.9 per 10,000 procedures. This rate decreased from 33.9 per 10,000 before 1995 to 13.1 per 10,000 after 1995. Overall survival to hospital discharge after CPR was 56.1%. Survival to discharge was less frequent with a history of congestive heart failure, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, hemodynamic instability during the procedure, and with prolonged or emergent catheterizations. Pulseless electrical activity (versus asystole or ventricular fibrillation) indicated very poor short-term survival. Interestingly, short-term survival was not related to the extent of coronary artery disease. Long-term survival of patients who survived cardiac arrest was comparable to that of those who did not have arrest during catheterization. In conclusion, the incidence of periprocedural CPR during diagnostic or interventional coronary procedures decreased after 1995. Patients who received CPR in the cardiac catheterization lab have a remarkably frequent survival to hospital discharge rate. Long-term survival of these patients is only minimally reduced.

  13. Prevalence, natural history, and time-dependent outcomes of a multi-center North American cohort of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest extracorporeal CPR candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joshua C; Grunau, Brian E; Elmer, Jonathan; Rittenberger, Jon C; Sawyer, Kelly N; Kurz, Michael C; Singer, Ben; Proudfoot, Alastair; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-08-01

    Estimate prevalence of ECPR-eligible subjects in a large, North American, multi-center cohort, describe natural history with conventional resuscitation, and predict optimal timing of transition to ECPR. Secondary analysis of clinical trial enrolling adults with non-traumatic OHCA. Primary outcome was survival to discharge with favorable outcome (mRS 0-3). Subjects were additionally classified as survival with unfavorable outcome (mRS 4-5), ROSC without survival (mRS 6), or without ROSC. We plotted subject accrual as a function of resuscitation duration (CPR onset to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or termination of resuscitation), and estimated time-dependent probabilities of ROSC and mRS 0-3 at discharge. Adjusted logistic regression models tested the association between resuscitation duration and survival with mRS 0-3. Of 11,368 subjects, 1237 (10.9%; 95%CI 10.3-11.5%) were eligible for ECPR, Of these, 778 (63%) achieved ROSC, 466 (38%) survived to discharge, and 377 (30%) had mRS 0-3 at discharge. Half with eventual mRS 0-3 achieved ROSC within 8.8min (95%CI 8.3-9.2min) of resuscitation, and 90% within 21.0min (95%CI 19.1-23.7min). Time-dependent probabilities of ROSC and mRS 0-3 declined over elapsed resuscitation, and the likelihood of additional cases with mRS 0-3 beyond 20min was 8.4% (95%CI 5.9-11.0%). Resuscitation duration was independently associated with survival to discharge with mRS 0-3 (OR 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.97). Approximately 11% of subjects were eligible for ECPR. Only one-third survived to discharge with favorable outcome. Performing 9-21min of conventional resuscitation captured most ECPR-eligible subjects with eventual mRS 0-3 at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of chest compression artefact on capnogram-based ventilation detection during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leturiondo, Mikel; de Gauna, Sofía Ruiz; Ruiz, Jesus M; Julio Gutiérrez, J; Leturiondo, Luis A; González-Otero, Digna M; Russell, James K; Zive, Dana; Daya, Mohamud

    2017-12-12

    Capnography has been proposed as a method for monitoring the ventilation rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A high incidence (above 70%) of capnograms distorted by chest compression induced oscillations has been previously reported in out-of-hospital (OOH) CPR. The aim of the study was to better characterize the chest compression artefact and to evaluate its influence on the performance of a capnogram-based ventilation detector during OOH CPR. Data from the MRx monitor-defibrillator were extracted from OOH cardiac arrest episodes. For each episode, presence of chest compression artefact was annotated in the capnogram. Concurrent compression depth and transthoracic impedance signals were used to identify chest compressions and to annotate ventilations, respectively. We designed a capnogram-based ventilation detection algorithm and tested its performance with clean and distorted episodes. Data were collected from 232 episodes comprising 52654 ventilations, with a mean (±SD) of 227 (±118) per episode. Overall, 42% of the capnograms were distorted. Presence of chest compression artefact degraded algorithm performance in terms of ventilation detection, estimation of ventilation rate, and the ability to detect hyperventilation. Capnogram-based ventilation detection during CPR using our algorithm was compromised by the presence of chest compression artefact. In particular, artefact spanning from the plateau to the baseline strongly degraded ventilation detection, and caused a high number of false hyperventilation alarms. Further research is needed to reduce the impact of chest compression artefact on capnographic ventilation monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Validity of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in the Emergency Department Using Video-Assisted Surveillance: An Iranian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hossein-Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the quality of CPR procedures performed in Tehran’s Rasool-e-Akram Hospital-- the first Emergency Medicine academic center in Iran-using a videotaped real-life (actual CPR technique, with the aim of pointing out the defects and shortcomings in this regard. The performance of the CPR team in the emergency resuscitation room of Rasool-e-Akram Hospital was evaluated through videotaping. In an expert panel in the educational council of the emergency medicine group scored each item, which could be evaluated through videotaping, based on the existing guidelines. Fifty CPRs were videotaped between May to July 2008. From among the 33 CPRs which were recorded from the very first moment, 25 of them were started which the correct procedure, chest compression and ventilation, whereas procedures such as checking for pulse, getting an IV-line or intubation were performed as the first action in the remaining cases. While many believe CPR is performed properly in our center, the present study revealed that the performance is still distant from the desired ideal.

  16. The validity of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in the emergency department using video-assisted surveillance: an Iranian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hossein-Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the quality of CPR procedures performed in Tehran's Rasool-e-Akram Hospital-- the first Emergency Medicine academic center in Iran-using a videotaped real-life (actual CPR technique, with the aim of pointing out the defects and shortcomings in this regard. The performance of the CPR team in the emergency resuscitation room of Rasool-e-Akram Hospital was evaluated through videotaping. In an expert panel in the educational council of the emergency medicine group scored each item, which could be evaluated through videotaping, based on the existing guidelines. Fifty CPRs were videotaped between May to July 2008. From among the 33 CPRs which were recorded from the very first moment, 25 of them were started which the correct procedure, chest compression and ventilation, whereas procedures such as checking for pulse, getting an IV-line or intubation were performed as the first action in the remaining cases. While many believe CPR is performed properly in our center, the present study revealed that the performance is still distant from the desired ideal.

  17. Ukraine: Resuscitation of Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliakova Olha Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying, generalizing and structuring the current problems in the sphere of innovations of Ukraine and development of proposals for their solution. The article analyzes the key indicators of innovation activity of enterprises of Ukraine for the period 2005-2015, carries out the international comparisons using data reports of «Global innovation index – 2016" and «European Innovation Scoreboard 2016», revealing worsening of negative tendencies in the sphere of innovations of Ukraine. The carried out study allowed to formulate three directions under which the key problems in the sphere of innovations of Ukraine and the ways for resuscitation of innovations were structured: financing, innovation activity of enterprises and its State regulation, organizational and infrastructural provision. As a matter of priority, development and approval of an integrated strategy for the development of innovation, science and education of Ukraine have been proposed.

  18. The Force-Displacement Relationship in Commonly Used Resuscitation Manikins: Not Very Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob E; Stærk, Mathilde; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    (Laerdal) and CPR Anytime® Infant (inflatable; American Heart Association) and five adult manikins: Mini Anne (inflatable), Little Anne®, Resusci Anne, Resusci Anne Advanced(Laerdal) and Ambu® Man (Ambu). Infant manikins required a force of 57 N and 34 N to compress the chest 3 cm. The force required...... to compress the adult manikins to a depth of 5 cm ranged from 195 N to 543 N. The force-displacement curve is shown in the Figure.Conclusions: Four out of five adult resuscitation manikins and one infant manikin had a nearly linear force-displacement curve different from the human chest. The Mini Anne......Introduction: Manikins are widely used for CPR training and designed to simulate a human in cardiac arrest. Previous studies show a non-linear force-displacement relationship in the human chest. This may not be the case for resuscitation manikins. The aim of this study was to investigate the force...

  19. Comprehensive cardiopulmonary life support (CCLS for cardiopulmonary resuscitation by trained paramedics and medics inside the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR guideline of comprehensive cardiopulmonary life support (CCLS for management of the patient with cardiopulmonary arrest in adults provides an algorithmic step-wise approach for optimal outcome of the patient inside the hospital by trained medics and paramedics. This guideline has been developed considering the infrastructure of healthcare delivery system in India. This is based on evidence in the international and national literature. In the absence of data from the Indian population, the extrapolation has been made from international data, discussed with Indian experts and modified accordingly to ensure their applicability in India. The CCLS guideline emphasise the need to recognise patients at risk for cardiac arrest and their timely management before a cardiac arrest occurs. The basic components of CPR include chest compressions for blood circulation; airway maintenance to ensure airway patency; lung ventilation to enable oxygenation and defibrillation to convert a pathologic 'shockable' cardiac rhythm to one capable to maintaining effective blood circulation. CCLS emphasises incorporation of airway management, drugs, and identification of the cause of arrest and its correction, while chest compression and ventilation are ongoing. It also emphasises the value of organised team approach and optimal post-resuscitation care.

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly: analysis of the events in the emergency department

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    Augusto Tricerri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of old people in all western countries and increasing life expectancy at birth, many seniors spend the last period of their life with various afflictions that may lead to cardiac arrest. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR increases survival rates. Octogenarians are the fastest growing segment of the population and despite empirical evidence that CPR is of questionable effectiveness in seniors with comorbidities, it is still the only treatment among life-sustaining ones. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is frequently unsuccessful, but if survival is achieved, a fairly good quality of life can be expected. Various papers analyzed the effect of CPR in hospitalized patients or in cardiac arrest occurring at home or in public places, while less is known about events occurring in the emergency room (ER. We performed a retrospective analysis of cardiac arrest events occurred in ER within 54 months: we analyzed 415,001 records of ER visits (from 01/01/1999 to 30/06/2003 in San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital. Data were analyzed in terms of age and outcome. We identified 475 records with the outcome of death in ER or death on arrival. Out of them, we selected 290 medical records which had sufficient data to be analyzed. Of the 290 patients evaluated, 225 died in ER, 18 were deemed to die on arrival, and 47 survived the cardiac arrest and were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU. The overall mortality was 0.11%, while the incidence of the selected events was 0.072%. The mean age of the analyzed population was 71.3 years. The only possible diagnosis was often cardiac arrest, though most of the times we could specify and group the diagnosis even better. The analysis of the procedures showed that cardiac arrest treated by direct current (DC shock was similarly distributed in different age groups, and no difference was detectable between the two groups. The mean age of the patients who underwent tracheal intubation (TI was

  1. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  2. Results achieved by emergency physicians in teaching basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fábrega, Xavier; Escalada-Roig, Xavier; Sánchez, Miquel; Culla, Alexandre; Díaz, Núria; Gómez, Xavier; Villena, Olga; Rodríguez, Esther; Gaspar, Alberto; Molina, José Emilio; Salvador, Jordi; Miró, Oscar

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the results obtained with a basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (b-CPR) program (PROCES) specifically designed for secondary school students (14-16 years old) and taught by emergency physicians. We used a multiple-choice test with 20 questions (10 on theory and 10 on skills) answered before and immediately after and 1 year after receiving the b-CPR course. Satisfactory learning was considered when at least 8 out of 10 skill questions were correctly answered. We investigated student variables associated with better immediate and deferred (1 year after) PROCES performance. We compared the results with those obtained using a more standardized program to teach b-CPR to police cadets. We enrolled 600 high school students. PROCES achieved significant improvement in overall, theory and skill marks immediately after the course (PPROCES and by 37% when assessed 1 year later. Students without pending study subjects (P=0.001) and those from private schools (PPROCES and only female students achieved greater performance 1 year after the course (PPROCES, and this specific program achieves a reasonable amount of satisfactory learning.

  3. Effects of team coordination during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Castelao, Ezequiel; Russo, Sebastian G; Riethmüller, Martin; Boos, Margarete

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate to what extent the literature on team coordination during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) empirically confirms its positive effect on clinically relevant medical outcome. A systematic literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases was performed for articles published in the last 30 years. A total of 63 articles were included in the review. Planning, leadership, and communication as the three main interlinked coordination mechanisms were found to have effect on several CPR performance markers. A psychological theory-based integrative model was expanded upon to explain linkages between the three coordination mechanisms. Planning is an essential element of leadership behavior and is primarily accomplished by a designated team leader. Communication affects medical performance, serving as the vehicle for the transmission of information and directions between team members. Our findings also suggest teams providing CPR must continuously verbalize their coordination plan in order to effectively structure allocation of subtasks and optimize success. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. When Terminal Illness Is Worse Than Death: A Multicenter Study of Health-Care Providers' Resuscitation Desires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Luis O; Einav, Sharon; Varon, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    To investigate how a terminal illness may affect the health-care providers' resuscitation preferences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 9 health-care institutions located in 4 geographical regions in North and Central America, investigating attitudes toward end-of-life practices in health-care providers. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and χ2 test for the presence of associations ( P code status and their preference for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in case of terminal illness. A total of 852 surveys were completed. Among the respondents, 21% (n = 180) were physicians, 36.9% (n = 317) were nurses, 10.5% (n = 90) were medical students, and 265 participants were other staff members of the institutions. Most respondents (58.3%; n = 500) desired "definitely full code" (physicians 73.2%; n = 131), only 13.8% of the respondents (physicians 8.33%; n = 15) desired "definitely no code" or "partial support," and 20.9% of the respondents (n = 179; among physicians 18.4%; n = 33) had never considered their code status. There was an association between current code status and resuscitation preference in case of terminal illness ( P code status and terminal illness code preference among physicians ( P = .290) and nurses ( P = .316), whereupon other hospital workers were more consistent ( P < .01, Cramer V = .291). Doctors and nurses have different end-of-life preferences than other hospital workers. Their desire to undergo CPR may change when facing a terminal illness.

  5. Ultrasound-guided intracardiac xenotransfusion of canine packed red blood cells and epinephrine to the left ventricle of a severely anemic cat during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Liron; Bruchim, Yaron; Klainbart, Sigal; Kelmer, Efrat

    2017-03-01

    To describe the use of an ultrasound-guided intracardiac xenotransfusion of canine packed red blood cells (pRBC) to the left ventricle of a severely anemic cat during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). An 8-year-old previously healthy neutered female cat was presented with severe weakness after she had disappeared for 1 month. On presentation, the cat was in hypovolemic shock, laterally recumbent, and severely anemic with massive flea infestation. Within minutes of admission, the cat became agonal and suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. CPR was immediately initiated; however, attempts to gain IV access during CPR were unsuccessful. As the cat's blood type was yet unknown, 10 mL of canine pRBC was transfused directly into the left ventricular chamber using ultrasound guidance, as well as 0.02 mg/kg of epinephrine using a similar technique. The cat regained cardiac activity and once the jugular vein was cannulated it received 20 additional mL of canine pRBC intravenously. The packed cell volume and total plasma protein following the intracardiac transfusion were 0.09 L/L [9%] and 30 g/L [3.0 g/dL], respectively. Subsequent blood typing revealed the cat had type B blood. The cat was discharged 3 days post-CPR and was alive and doing well 3 months following discharge. This is the first reported case of ultrasound-guided intracardiac canine-to-feline xenotransfusion during CPR. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  6. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in High School Using Avatars in Virtual Worlds: An International Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Leif; Heinrichs, LeRoy; Youngblood, Patricia; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today’s youth (ie, the digital native generation). Objective Our main aim was to assess the feasibility of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in high school students by using avatars in MMVM. We also analyzed experiences, self-efficacy, and concentration in response to training. Methods In this prospective international collaborative study, an e-learning method was used with high school students in Sweden and the United States. A software game platform was modified for use as a serious game to train in emergency medical situations. Using MMVW technology, participants in teams of 3 were engaged in virtual-world scenarios to learn how to treat victims suffering cardiac arrest. Short debriefings were carried out after each scenario. A total of 36 high school students (Sweden, n=12; United States, n=24) participated. Their self-efficacy and concentration (task motivation) were assessed. An exit questionnaire was used to solicit experiences and attitudes toward this type of training. Among the Swedish students, a follow-up was carried out after 6 months. Depending on the distributions, t tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used. Correlation between variables was assessed by using Spearman rank correlation. Regression analyses were used for time-dependent variables. Results The participants enjoyed the training and reported a self-perceived benefit as a consequence of training. The mean rating for self-efficacy increased from 5.8/7 (SD 0

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in high school using avatars in virtual worlds: an international feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt, Johan; Hedman, Leif; Heinrichs, LeRoy; Youngblood, Patricia; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-14

    Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today's youth (ie, the digital native generation). Our main aim was to assess the feasibility of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in high school students by using avatars in MMVM. We also analyzed experiences, self-efficacy, and concentration in response to training. In this prospective international collaborative study, an e-learning method was used with high school students in Sweden and the United States. A software game platform was modified for use as a serious game to train in emergency medical situations. Using MMVW technology, participants in teams of 3 were engaged in virtual-world scenarios to learn how to treat victims suffering cardiac arrest. Short debriefings were carried out after each scenario. A total of 36 high school students (Sweden, n=12; United States, n=24) participated. Their self-efficacy and concentration (task motivation) were assessed. An exit questionnaire was used to solicit experiences and attitudes toward this type of training. Among the Swedish students, a follow-up was carried out after 6 months. Depending on the distributions, t tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used. Correlation between variables was assessed by using Spearman rank correlation. Regression analyses were used for time-dependent variables. The participants enjoyed the training and reported a self-perceived benefit as a consequence of training. The mean rating for self-efficacy increased from 5.8/7 (SD 0.72) to 6.5/7 (SD 0.57, Phighly immersed

  8. A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxley Susan M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that trained rescuers have difficulties achieving and maintaining the correct depth and rate of chest compressions during both in and out of hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Feedback on rate and depth mitigate decline in performance quality but not completely with the residual performance decline attributed to rescuer fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feedback (none, auditory only and visual only on the quality of CPR and rescuer fatigue. Methods Fifteen female volunteers performed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR in each of three feedback conditions: none, auditory only, and visual only. Visual feedback was displayed continuously in graphic form. Auditory feedback was error correcting and provided by a voice assisted CPR manikin. CPR quality measures were collected using SkillReporter® software. Blood lactate (mmol/dl and perceived exertion served as indices of fatigue. One-way and two way repeated measures analyses of variance were used with alpha set a priori at 0.05. Results Visual feedback yielded a greater percentage of correct compressions (78.1 ± 8.2% than did auditory (65.4 ± 7.6% or no feedback (44.5 ± 8.1%. Compression rate with auditory feedback (87.9 ± 0.5 compressions per minute was less than it was with both visual and no feedback (p Conclusions In this study feedback mitigated the negative effects of fatigue on CPR performance and visual feedback yielded better CPR performance than did no feedback or auditory feedback. The perfect confounding of sensory modality and periodicity of feedback (visual feedback provided continuously and auditory feedback provided to correct error leaves unanswered the question of optimal form and timing of feedback.

  9. Elevated Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is Associated with Poor Functional Outcome After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Kirsten; Seeger, Florian; Hölschermann, Hans; Lischke, Volker; Gerriets, Tibo; Niessner, Marion; Foerch, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The neurological prognosis of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is difficult to assess. GFAP is an astrocytic intermediate filament protein released into bloodstream in case of cell death. We performed a prospective study aiming to compare the predictive potential of GFAP after resuscitation to the more widely used biomarker neuron-specific enolase (NSE). One hundred patients were included at 48 h (tolerance interval ±12 h) after cardiac arrest. A serum sample was collected immediately after study inclusion. We determined serum levels of GFAP and NSE by means of immunoassays. Primary outcome was the modified Glasgow outcome scale at 4 weeks. Values below four were considered as a poor functional outcome. Median GFAP levels in poor outcome (n = 61) and good outcome (n = 39) patients were 0.03 μg/L (interquartile range 0.01-0.07 μg/L) and 0.02 μg/L (0.01-0.03 μg/L; p = 0.014), respectively. GFAP revealed a sensitivity of 60.7% and a specificity of 66.7% to predict a poor functional outcome. All patients having a GFAP level >0.08 µg/L had a poor functional outcome. For NSE, sensitivity was 44.3% and specificity was 100.0% for predicting a poor outcome. Multivariate regression analysis revealed GFAP, NSE, and the Karnofsky index to be independent predictors of outcome. The release patterns of GFAP and NSE after CPR show differences. GFAP levels above 0.08 µg/L were associated with a poor outcome in all cases, and patients with strongly elevated values (>3 µg/L) consistently had severe brain damage on brain imaging. Both biomarkers independently contribute to outcome prediction after CPR.

  10. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2002-04-01

    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  11. Time Perception during Neonatal Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Res, Giulia; Sordino, Desiree; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Weiner, Gary; Cavallin, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of time perception during a simulated complex neonatal resuscitation. Participants in 5 neonatal resuscitation program courses were directly involved in a complex simulation scenario. They were asked to assume the role of team leader, assistant 1, or assistant 2. At the end of the scenario, each participant completed a questionnaire on perceived time intervals for key resuscitation interventions. During the scenario, actual times were documented by an external observer and video recorded for later review. In addition, participants were asked to evaluate their self-perceived level of stress and preparation. Health care providers (68 physicians and 40 nurses) were involved in 36 scenarios. Perceived time intervals for the initiation of key resuscitation interventions were shorter than the actual time intervals, regardless of the participant's role in the scenario. Self-assessed levels of stress and preparation did not influence time perception. Health care providers underestimate the passage of time, irrespective of their role in a simulated complex neonatal resuscitation. Participant's self-assessed levels of stress and preparation were not related to the accuracy of their time perception. These findings highlight the importance of assigning a dedicated individual to document interventions and the passage of time during a neonatal resuscitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of shock-first strategy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation-first strategy in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Jun; Li, Chun-Sheng; Yin, Wen-Peng; Hou, Xiao-Min; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Da

    2013-02-01

    The choice of a shock-first or a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-first strategy in the treatment of prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these strategies on oxygen metabolism and resuscitation outcomes in a porcine model of 8min CA. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced. After 8min of untreated VF, 24 male inbred Wu-Zhi-Shan miniature pigs were randomized to receive either defibrillation first (ID group) or chest compression first (IC group). In the ID group, a shock was delivered immediately. If the defibrillation attempt failed to attain restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), manual chest compressions were rapidly initiated at a rate of 100compressionsmin(-1), and the compression-to-ventilation ratio was 30:2. If VF persisted after five cycles of CPR, a second defibrillation attempt was made. In the IC group, chest compressions were delivered first, followed by a shock. Hemodynamic variables, the VF waveform and blood gas analysis outcomes were recorded. Oxygen metabolism parameters and the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) of the VF waveform were computed. There were no significant differences in the rate of ROSC and 24h survival between two groups. The ID group had lower lactic acid levels, higher cardiac output, better oxygen consumption and better oxygen extraction ratio at 4 and 6h after ROSC than the IC group. In a porcine model of prolonged CA, the choice of a shock-first or CPR-first strategy did not affect the rate of ROSC and 24h survival, but the shock-first strategy might result in better hemodynamic status and better oxygen metabolism than the CPR-first strategy at the first 6h after ROSC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Verma, Rohit; Ghosh, Dipak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell.

  14. Resuscitation og abdominalkirurgiske aspekter ved damage control-kirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingsø, Jens G; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Johansson, Pär I

    2011-01-01

    vicious cycle". Due to this a new resuscitation practice has been defined; damage control resuscitation, consisting of hypotensive resuscitation (restricted use of crystalloids), haemostatic resuscitation (balanced use of blood components) in combination with surgical haemostatic procedures (damage...... control surgery)....

  15. Kinetics of carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, L; Söderberg, D; Henneberg, S

    1986-01-01

    an equivalent amount of tris-buffer mixture. The results of these experiments, as well as previously described circulatory variables during CPR, were analyzed using a computer model describing the CO2 kinetics of the pig. Our main finding was that PaCO2 was positively correlated to cardiac output during CPR...

  16. Kinetics of carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, L; Söderberg, D; Henneberg, S

    1986-01-01

    CO2 kinetics during CPR was investigated in 15 anesthetized piglets. BP, blood gases, and acid-base balance were monitored through catheters in the carotid artery and a central vein, as well as in cerebrospinal fluid. Cardiac arrest was induced by a transthoracic direct current shock. CPR was begun...

  17. The characteristics of postcountershock pulseless electrical activity may indicate the outcome of CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Wang, Jinglan; Huang, Lei; Weil, Max Harry

    2006-05-01

    When ventricular fibrillation is cardioverted to pulseless electrical activity (PEA), PEA has been regarded as a non-resuscitatable rhythm. Yet, recent reports and our earlier observations suggested otherwise. We therefore investigated outcomes after postcountershock PEA, and aimed to develop a scoring