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  1. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey

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    Nerrière Eléna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Conclusion Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

  2. The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies

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    Veenman, S.A.M.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.


    In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described. The coaches involved in these studies were: (1) school counsellors, (2) school principals, (3) mentors of beginning teachers, (4) mentors of

  3. What Will Classroom Teachers Do With Shared Research Results? (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Weissel, J. K.; Cormier, M.; Newman, K. R.


    Scientists are passionate about the research problems they investigate, and wish to share their discoveries as widely as possible. Similarly, classroom teachers who are passionate about their subject can better foster student learning. One way to enhance such passions involves bringing teachers and scientists together to discuss cutting-edge discoveries and develop curricular materials based on the respective strengths of educators and investigators. Our presentation describes one example of this approach based on research about gas blowout structures offshore Virginia and North Carolina. Methane venting processes along continental margins may have important climatic, geotechnical, hazard, and resource implications. In 2000, shipboard surveys documented that large structures offshore VA-NC resulted from massive gas expulsion. Gas appears to be trapped in shelf edge deltas and stresses resulting from downslope creep is favoring its release. Scientists undertook a new expedition in 2004 to determine if there is present-day discharge of methane-rich fluids through the floors or walls of the blowouts or whether these seepage sites are relict features, and to gain insight into the origin of the vented methane. In July 2005, 12 teachers from New York and New Jersey met with the co-PIs (Weissel and Cormier), graduate student (Newman), and educational specialist (Passow) over a 2-day workshop to learn about how scientific problems are identified, how a research cruise is organized, what was learned through the measurements and analysis, and what might be possible significant impacts from such understandings. Based on what they learned, participants began development of classroom activities, Internet-based investigations, and constructed-response assessment items utilizing data and concepts from the project and other sources. The resulting curriculum units are designed for use in middle and high school chemistry, physics, earth science, and technology courses. Curricular

  4. Workshop Results: Teaching Geoscience to K-12 Teachers (United States)

    Nahm, A.; Villalobos, J. I.; White, J.; Smith-Konter, B. R.


    A workshop for high school and middle school Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers was held this summer (2012) as part of an ongoing collaboration between the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and El Paso Community College (EPCC) Departments of Geological Sciences. This collaborative effort aims to build local Earth science literacy and educational support for the geosciences. Sixteen teachers from three school districts from El Paso and southern New Mexico area participated in the workshop, consisting of middle school, high school, early college high school, and dual credit faculty. The majority of the teachers had little to no experience teaching geoscience, thus this workshop provided an introduction to basic geologic concepts to teachers with broad backgrounds, which will result in the introduction of geoscience to many new students each year. The workshop's goal was to provide hands-on activities illustrating basic geologic and scientific concepts currently used in introductory geology labs/lectures at both EPCC and UTEP to help engage pre-college students. Activities chosen for the workshop were an introduction to Google Earth for use in the classroom, relative age dating and stratigraphy using volcanoes, plate tectonics utilizing the jigsaw pedagogy, and the scientific method as a think-pair-share activity. All activities where designed to be low cost and materials were provided for instructors to take back to their institutions. A list of online resources for teaching materials was also distributed. Before each activity, a short pre-test was given to the participants to gauge their level of knowledge on the subjects. At the end of the workshop, participants were given a post-test, which tested the knowledge gain made by participating in the workshop. In all cases, more correct answers were chosen in the post-test than the individual activity pre-tests, indicating that knowledge of the subjects was gained. The participants enjoyed participating in these

  5. Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement (United States)

    Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon


    Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…

  6. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study


    Steven Glazerman Sarah Dolfin Martha Bleeker Amy Johnson Eric Isenberg Julieta Lugo-Gil Mary Grider Edward Britton


    Comprehensive teacher induction provides novice teachers with carefully selected and trained full-time mentors, as well as a curriculum of intensive and structured support. This report presents the first round of results from a large-scale randomized controlled study of the effects of two comprehensive teacher induction programs. Intensive mentoring and professional development for teachers just entering the profession did not increase teacher retention or generate any significant improvement...

  7. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study.


    Steven Glazerman; Sarah Dolfin; Martha Bleeker; Amy Johnson; Eric Isenberg; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Mary Grider; Edward Britton


    Comprehensive teacher induction provides novice teachers with carefully selected and trained full-time mentors, as well as a curriculum of intensive and structured support. This report presents the first round of results from a large-scale randomized controlled study of the effects of two comprehensive teacher induction programs. Intensive mentoring and professional development for teachers just entering the profession did not increase teacher retention or generate any significant improvement...

  8. Incentive Pay Programs Do Not Affect Teacher Motivation or Reported Practices: Results from Three Randomized Studies (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Marsh, Julie A.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Springer, Matthew G.


    This study drew on teacher survey responses from randomized experiments exploring three different pay-for-performance programs to examine the extent to which these programs motivated teachers to improve student achievement and the impact of such programs on teachers' instruction, number of hours worked, job stress, and collegiality. Results showed…

  9. Pathways to Resilience: How Drawings Reveal Pre-Service Teachers' Core Narratives Underpinning Their Future Teacher-Selves (United States)

    Dinham, Judith; Chalk, Beryl; Beltman, Susan; Glass, Christine; Nguyen, Bich


    For this study of teacher-identity, which is part of a larger research project on teacher resilience, preservice teachers were invited to draw "the kind of teacher you hope to become". In this, our study recognises drawing as a semiotic system of meaning-making and communication. The drawings were examined in terms of the…

  10. Burnout hazard in teachers results of a clinical-psychological intervention study

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    Wegner Ralf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigates whether established in-patient therapy for teachers with burnout results in long-acting success and whether gender gaps and differences between teachers of different school levels exist. According to our knowledge, our study is the most extensive inpatient intervention study on the burnout of a defined occupational group, i.e., teachers. Methods 200 teachers participated, 150 took part in a later performed katamnestic survey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used and work-related data were recorded. The days of incapacity for work and the percentage of teachers endangered by burnout decreased, which supports the long-term success of the treatment. Results Significant differences between males and females and between teacher levels were found. However, the differences between teacher levels only showed up before treatment. Because males only underwent treatment at a more severe stage, further efforts in persuading males to start therapy earlier are needed. Conclusions The proven and long-term success of the performed intervention could have greater effects if people, especially males, undergo treatment more frequently. Our results are based on selectively high proposition of teachers of advanced age. Thus it is possible that the long term effect of the intervention, particularly on retirement age, is greater when the intervention is started earlier. Regular burnout tests could help to identify risk cases among teachers at an early stage and to offer a therapeutic intervention.

  11. Working Conditions of Foreign Language Teachers: Results from a Pilot Survey (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Coral; Albright, Jeremy J.


    Recent research has consistently shown that teacher working conditions are highly predictive of faculty turnover and student performance. However, very little work investigates specifically the experiences of foreign-language instructors. This paper reports results from a pilot survey of language teachers in public and private schools from across…

  12. From Gardeners to Tour Guides: The Epistemological Struggle Revealed in Teacher-Generated Metaphors of Teaching (United States)

    Patchen, Terri; Crawford, Teresa


    This study examines the relationship between epistemological beliefs and perceptions of practice through the analysis of teacher-generated metaphors. In a multilevel qualitative examination of the self-descriptive metaphors of 32 working teachers, the authors uncovered a dissonance between teachers' metaphors and their epistemological positions.…

  13. Prospective Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning Revealed through Metaphor Analysis (United States)

    Saban, Ahmet; Kocbeker, Beyhan Nazli; Saban, Aslihan


    This study investigated the metaphors that prospective teachers in Turkey (N = 1,142) formulated to describe the concept of "teacher". Participants completed the prompt "A teacher is like...because..." by focusing on only one metaphor to indicate their conceptualization of teaching and learning. Altogether 64 valid personal metaphors were analyzed…

  14. Arizona Teacher Working Conditions: Designing Schools for Educator and Student Success. Results of the 2006 Phase-In Teacher Working Conditions Survey (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott


    Many schools across the country face persistent teacher working condition challenges that are closely related to high teacher turnover rates and chronic difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers. Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ) research examining working conditions survey results in both North Carolina and South Carolina demonstrates…

  15. Teacher Effectiveness Research and the Evolution of U.S. Teacher Policy. The Productivity for Results Series No. 5 (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan


    This paper focuses on what research has shown about the impact of teacher quality on student achievement, the connection between quality and observable teacher characteristics and traits, and what all this might mean for teacher policy. Teacher quality is the largest factor contributing to student achievement in schools, but teacher…

  16. Subject Knowledge and Perceptions of Bioenergy among School Teachers in India: Results from a Survey

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    Pradipta Halder


    Full Text Available Teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy, and their motivation to teach such a topic, can largely determine the success of implementing bioenergy related education in schools. The study aimed to explore science teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy in India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 28 science teachers from four urban schools in India. Results indicated that the science teachers were fairly knowledgeable regarding bioenergy and they also demonstrated positive perceptions of bioenergy. In addition, they were positive towards the prospect of receiving more information to increase their own knowledge of bioenergy. However, the science teachers appeared to have some misconceptions regarding the issue of CO2 emission from using bioenergy. It also emerged that although the existing Science syllabus for Grade X in Indian schools includes a topic on bioenergy, the majority of the science teachers were not aware of it. Policy makers and educators are recommended to provide science teachers more support to improve their capacity for teaching energy and environmental topics in schools in India. In addition, an improvement of the current learning and teaching environment in Indian schools could help teachers to deliver energy and environmental education more effectively to their students.

  17. Exploring Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Beliefs About Science Teaching and Learning as Revealed in Their Metaphor Writing (United States)

    Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Narayan, Ratna


    This study examined elementary preservice teachers' beliefs about the role/image of a science teacher and science teaching and how these beliefs change during an elementary science methods course; this examination was conducted through an analysis of their metaphor writing. Data included personal metaphors and rationale papers for supporting them collected from 106 participants at the start and end of the semester. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and also quantified for statistical analysis. Results indicate that most participants came to the course with traditional views and developed more constructivist views during the course. However, they tended to keep their traditional views and added new constructivist perspectives into their original belief systems. This study suggests that metaphor writing can be used as both a reflection tool for preservice teachers to clarify and refine their beliefs about science teaching and learning and a diagnostic assessment tool for teacher educators to understand their students for tailoring a methods course accordingly.

  18. Investigating inquiry beliefs and nature of science (NOS) conceptions of science teachers as revealed through online learning (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of

  19. Using Self-Efficacy to Measure Primary School Teachers' Perception of ICT: Results from Two Studies (United States)

    Fanni, F.; Rega, I.; Cantoni, L.


    The aim of this article is twofold. First, the final results of two research projects, which investigated the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on primary schools teachers in disadvantaged areas in Brazil (BET k-12) and South Africa (MELISSA), are presented and discussed. Second, the Self-Efficacy construct is proposed as a…

  20. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret


    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  1. Do Reinforcement and Induction Increase Prosocial Behavior? Results of a Teacher-Based Intervention in Preschools (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vidya; Bergin, Christi


    Teachers were trained to use reinforcement and induction to increase prosocial behavior in a sample of 98 children in Head Start-affiliated preschools, using a peer coaching model. There was one control group and three intervention groups: reinforcement-only, induction-only, and reinforcement-and-induction. Results indicated that the intervention…

  2. Novices "In Story": What First-Year Teachers' Narratives Reveal about the Shady Corners of Teaching (United States)

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza


    In a national contest of story writing in Israel, first-year teachers from all educational sectors were invited to write a story that mirrors their first year of teaching experience. The narrative analysis of the stories sheds light on the hostile and adverse sides of teaching, surfacing novices' sense of impotence in their capacity to act. The…

  3. STEM Images Revealing STEM Conceptions of Pre-Service Chemistry and Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Akaygun, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma


    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has been an integral part of many countries' educational policies. In last decade, various practices have been implemented to make STEM areas valuable for 21st century generation. These actions require reconsideration of both pre- and in-service teacher education because those who…

  4. Symbolic Drawings Reveal Changes in Preservice Teacher Mathematics Attitudes after a Mathematics Methods Course (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Harrell, Mary H.


    A new method of analyzing mathematics attitudes through symbolic drawings, situated within the field of Jungian-oriented analytical psychology, was applied to 52 preservice elementary teachers before and after a mathematics methods course. In this triangulation mixed methods design study, pretest images related to past mathematics experiences…

  5. High School Physics Teacher Preparation: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On (United States)

    White, Susan; Tyler, John


    This report examines teachers' self-assessed preparedness to teach physics, their membership in professional organizations, and where they turn for help when they have questions. Almost every teacher reports feeling at least adequately prepared to teach basic physics knowledge and the application of physics to everyday experience. The smallest…

  6. Experiences and Results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Teacher at Sea Program, Expedition 301 (United States)

    Rice, J.; Iturrino, G. J.; Klaus, A.


    The IODP US implementing organization began a Teacher at Sea Program (TASP) during Expedition 301 to the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The main scientific objectives of this expedition were to establish borehole observatories as part of a series of multidisciplinary experiments that will help evaluate the hydrogeologic properties of the oceanic crust, including the distribution of fluid pathways within an active hydrothermal system as well as the linkages between fluid circulation, alteration, and microbiological processes. The goals of the U.S. sponsored IODP TASP were to provide the participant with seagoing research experiences, working side-by-side with scientists, using current state-of-the-art approaches to solve scientific problems pertinent to this expedition, and gaining first-hand knowledge of the results of seagoing science. In addition, the participating teacher will use these experiences for translating scientific results into useful teaching resources, such as expedition information materials and help disseminating these resources into classrooms across the country. During IODP Expedition 301, the participating teacher spent 2 months working with shipboard scientists in processing core data and learning the different techniques used for the shipboard laboratory analyses. Several laboratory briefs targeted for middle to high school student audiences were developed during the cruise including the microbiology, chemistry, paleomagnetics, and physical properties laboratories and educational classroom activities are currently being developed. In addition, other laboratory briefs and educational activities for the underway geophysics, core, downhole measurements, and paleontology laboratories are being developed as part of the post-expedition curriculum development initiatives. The teacher also kept a daily journal detailing life at sea experiences as well as all the science and operational developments that took place during the expedition. The

  7. Outcome Results from "Yo Veo": A Visual Intervention for Teachers Working with Immigrant Latino/Latina Students (United States)

    Chapman, Mimi V.; Hall, William J.


    Objective: This study reports results from the outcome evaluation of "Yo Veo," a visual intervention with schoolteachers, which structures conversations about challenges that teachers face teaching Latino/Latina immigrant students. Method: The intervention was delivered to teachers at two middle schools in the southeastern United States,…

  8. The Impact of a Dynamic Approach to Professional Development on Teacher Instruction and Student Learning: Results from an Experimental Study (United States)

    Antoniou, Panayiotis; Kyriakides, Leonidas


    This paper argues that Educational Effectiveness Research (EER) should establish closer links with research on teacher professional development. A dynamic integrated approach (DIA) to teacher professional development is proposed. The methods and results of a study comparing the impact of the DIA and the Holistic Approach (HA) to teacher…

  9. Head teacher professional networks in Italy: preliminary results of a national survey

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    Maurissens Isabel de


    Full Text Available In this article, we present the preliminary results of a national survey conducted by INDIRE on head teachers communities and professional networks. About one-fourth of the total population of Italian public school leaders participated in the survey. One of the main intents of this research is to contribute to understanding of the phenomenon of professional networks frequented by school leaders and to pave the way for a further reflection on how to use such networks for head teachers’ training so as to support their daily professional practice conducted too often in isolation.

  10. Teacher Survival in Oregon School Districts: First Results of a State-Wide Study. (United States)

    Charters, W.W., Jr.

    The careers of 799 male and 1,265 female teachers employed in Oregon school districts were traced for 4 years from 1962 to 1966 to determine the teachers' survival rates. The primary method of analysis chosen was an actuarial approach which involves construction of a survival curve showing numbers of teachers surviving after each period of time…

  11. An Engineering Research Program for High School Science Teachers: Year Two Changes and Results (United States)

    DeJong, Brian P.; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga


    The research experiences for teachers program at Central Michigan University was initiated to team in-service and pre-service teachers with undergraduate engineering students and engineering faculty, in an engineering research setting. During the six-week program, teachers learn engineering concepts and develop high-school instructional material…

  12. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

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    Pinto João


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  13. Teachers Using Continuous GPS Data to Learn About Earthquakes - Sharing Research Results in the Classroom Through Lesson Study (United States)

    de Groot, R. M.; McGill, S. F.


    This EarthScope-funded project is a collaboration between high school science teachers and their students, undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty from California State University San Bernardino (CSUSB), University of Arizona, and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). As high school teachers and their students work alongside one another, they are exposed to and contribute to an authentic research process that will lead to publishable results. The scientific goal of this project is to measure plate tectonic movement within the San Bernardino mountain area and the Inland Empire region of Southern California utilizing the Global Positioning System (GPS). Teachers and high school students collected survey-mode GPS data from 11 sites (among a total of 25 sampled by the larger group of participants) during a 5-day campaign from July 14 -19, 2011. The information obtained will be useful for understanding and characterizing seismic hazards in that region of Southern California. To enhance this experience, all of the teachers and their students have been invited to present their results at the SCEC Annual Meeting in September 2011. As part of the classroom implementation phase of the program the teachers are introduced to the Lesson Study approach. Lesson Study is a professional development process where teachers systematically examine their practice with the goal of becoming more effective. This process centers on teachers working collaboratively on a small number of Research Lessons. First, they identify the areas where their students are encountering challenges in learning standards-based content. The challenging areas are identified through results from standardized exams (e.g. California Standards Tests) or other assessment tools. To address areas of difficulty the teachers develop, test, and improve an instructional experience that promotes student learning of that standards-based material. Lesson Study is different from "lesson planning" because

  14. Results from pre- and post- tests of professional development astronomy workshops for teachers in Peru (United States)

    Deustua, Susana; Ros, Rosa


    Since 2009, the Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE) has held 55+ workshops in countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America, training more than 1200 teachers and potentially reaching one million or more students. Like modern professional development programs, NASE’s emphasis is on interactive, hands-on learning. However, our emphasis is on “low-tech” tools that are readily available, and, inexpensive. Teachers are led through a series of activities that cover a wide range of topics in astronomy, more or less equivalent to that covered in the typical 1st year astronomy course in US colleges.In 2014 we adopted the Astronomy Diagnostic Test as pre- and post- workshop tests to guage the change in teachers’ knowledge as a result of participation in this intervention. In this paper we discuss the first results using the Astronomy Diagnostic Test in astronomy workshops in Peru during March 2014 and February 2015. NASE workskhops were held at the facilities of the Observatorio de Radio de Sicaya of the Instituto Geofisico del Peru, in Chupaca, a farming community approximately 20 km from the Andean city, Huancayo. Sponsors of the Chupaca workshop were the IGP, NASE and the UGEL (regional school district). The second workshop was held at the University of Ica, in the coastal city of Ica, 250 km south of Lima, sponsored by the Instituto Geofisico del Peru and the University, and the 3rd workshop in Lima.We will discuss our results, which for the most part do indeed show a positive change in knowledge, but in a couple of areas the change is either null or negative.

  15. An Examination of What Metaphor Construction Reveals about the Evolution of Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling M.; McSorley, Fiona A.; Bote, Lisa A.


    Examination of prospective teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning on entry to teacher education programs, and tracking the development of these beliefs in light of academic and field-based experiences, is a critical task for teacher educators. The study examines metaphor construction as a tool to gain access to, and promote the development…

  16. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

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    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  17. A Standards-Based Professional Development Program and the Resulting Impact on Two Sixth Grade Teachers' Classroom Practices (United States)

    Bereki, Debra Lynn

    In 2000, California introduced science content standards as part of an across the curriculum reform. This presented a special challenge for elementary teachers due to an increased emphasis on math and language arts, and limited science background and resources. This two year qualitative study looks at a professional development program that resulted from collaboration between a university and an elementary school district. The program brought sixth grade elementary teachers together with scientists (geologists) and a science educator to develop a quality sixth grade science curriculum aligned to the California content standards. This multiple-case embedded study included an analysis of how these standards were addressed during the program, and the impact of this professional development on two teachers' classroom practices. The results of this study indicate that the geologists and the science educator played different but complementary roles in the professional development program. Furthermore, the professional development disproportionately focused on the Earth science standards, and this correlated to a disproportionate focus on these standards in the classrooms of the two teachers studied. Finally, the results indicate that as these two teachers implemented their new science units, they progressed through the initial stages of teacher change as outlined by change models described in the literature. However, they did not reach the final stage of change that involves complete confidence in their knowledge and being satisfied with the implementation of their science units.

  18. Information Security of Children and Adolescents According to Parents and Teachers (Part 2: The Results of an Empirical Study

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    Budykin S.V.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a second part of the study on information security of children and adolescents according to parents and teachers. This part of the study focuses at empirical research results aimed in studying the so-called "naive theories" about information security. 136 people (aged 21 to 62 years attended the study. We based on the following hypotheses : 1 the group of parents and teachers understand similarly the issue of information threat for children and adolescents, yet they have different understandings of the dangerous effects of information on children and adolescents: parents underestimate the seriousness of the effects compared with teachers; 2 according to parents and teachers, the formers are primarily responsible for information security of children; while teachers expect parents to monitor, prohibit, restrict the access to information for children and adolescents. Parents, in turn, expect teachers to train children and teenagers to observe the safety procedures, as well as use Internet safely. Our assumptions are confirmed partly, and study results are discussed in terms of the theory of social representations.

  19. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: results from seven studies of preschool programs. (United States)

    Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas


    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.

  20. High School Physics Textbooks, Resources and Teacher Resourcefulness: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On (United States)

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; White, Susan


    What textbooks are physics teachers using? How highly do they rate those textbooks? What other types of materials do teachers use? The textbooks and other resources used by high school physics teachers in the US have evolved along with the changing demands of physics classes and the evolving set of options available to teachers. In this report,…

  1. Professional Experiences of Online Teachers in Wisconsin: Results from a Survey about Training and Challenges. REL 2016-110 (United States)

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Stafford, Erin; Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.


    REL Midwest, in partnership with the Midwest Virtual Education Research Alliance, analyzed the results of a survey administered to Wisconsin Virtual School teachers about the training in which they participated related to online instruction, the challenges they encounter while teaching online, and the type of training they thought would help them…

  2. Kinder Habitats: Teacher Perspectives and the Results of a Professional Development on Managing Kindergarten Literacy Environments (United States)

    Miller, Allyson Laura


    Kindergarten teachers are being asked to deliver differentiated small-group literacy instruction. The problem is managing the independent work being done by the rest of the class during the literacy period. Research on early childhood development and literacy indicates that the classroom environment plays an important role in supporting student…

  3. Perceptions of Supervision Practices by Agricultural Education Student Teachers (United States)

    Thobega, Moreetsi; Miller, Greg


    The purpose of this study was to describe student teachers' perceptions and preferences of the type of supervision they experienced while interacting with their university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Results revealed that student teachers perceived both their cooperating teachers and university supervisors to engage in contextual and…

  4. Exoplanet hosts reveal lithium depletion: Results from a homogeneous statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Figueira, P; Delgado-Mena, E; Adibekyan, V Zh; Sousa, S G; Santos, N C; Israelian, G


    Aims. We study the impact of the presence of planets on the lithium abundance of host stars and evaluate the previous claim that planet hosts exhibit lithium depletion when compared to their non-host counterparts. Methods. Using previously published lithium abundances, we remove the confounding effect of the different fundamental stellar parameters by applying a multivariable regression on our dataset. In doing so, we explicitly make an assumption made implicitly by different authors: that lithium abundance depends linearly on fundamental stellar parameters. Using a moderator variable to distinguish stars with planets from those without, we evaluate the existence of an offset in lithium abundances between the two groups. We perform this analysis first for stars that present a clear lithium detection exclusively and include in a second analysis upper lithium measurements. Results. Our analysis shows that under the above-mentioned assumption of linearity, a statistically significant negative offset in lithium a...

  5. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU


    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  6. Designing Summer Research Experiences for Teachers and Students That Promote Classroom Science Inquiry Projects and Produce Research Results (United States)

    George, L. A.; Parra, J.; Rao, M.; Offerman, L.


    Research experiences for science teachers are an important mechanism for increasing classroom teachers' science content knowledge and facility with "real world" research processes. We have developed and implemented a summer scientific research and education workshop model for high school teachers and students which promotes classroom science inquiry projects and produces important research results supporting our overarching scientific agenda. The summer training includes development of a scientific research framework, design and implementation of preliminary studies, extensive field research and training in and access to instruments, measurement techniques and statistical tools. The development and writing of scientific papers is used to reinforce the scientific research process. Using these skills, participants collaborate with scientists to produce research quality data and analysis. Following the summer experience, teachers report increased incorporation of research inquiry in their classrooms and student participation in science fair projects. This workshop format was developed for an NSF Biocomplexity Research program focused on the interaction of urban climates, air quality and human response and can be easily adapted for other scientific research projects.

  7. What Do the California Standards Test Results Reveal about the Movement toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All? (United States)

    Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal


    In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…

  8. Common Pressures, Same Results? Recent Reforms in Professional Standards and Competences in Teacher Education for Secondary Teachers in England, France and Germany (United States)

    Page, Tina M.


    Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…

  9. Strengthening TPACK: A Broader Notion of Context and the Use of Teacher's Narratives to Reveal Knowledge Construction (United States)

    Porras-Hernandez, Laura Helena; Salinas-Amescua, Bertha


    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a framework to understand and foster teachers' knowledge for efficient technology integration has the value of unveiling new types of knowledge and departing from technocentric approaches. In this article, we consider two approaches to advance this framework. One of these opens the discussion…

  10. Teachers' Sense of Efficacy: Examining the Relationship of Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement (United States)

    Alrefaei, Nouf

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which teachers' characteristics have an impact on teachers' sense of efficacy. In addition, the relationship between mathematics and science fifth grade teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement was examined. Two characteristics related to teachers were examined: teachers' years of teaching experience and teachers' highest degree. Participants included 62 mathematics and science teachers from three school districts in Northwest Arkansas. When comparing fifth grade mathematics and science teachers' efficacy beliefs based on their highest degree, a significant difference in teachers' efficacy beliefs was found based on their degrees. Teachers with a Bachelor degree have higher total efficacy than teachers who hold Master's degrees. Moreover, an investigation to determine if there is a difference in mathematics and science teachers' efficacy beliefs in the three subscale of teachers' efficacy (for classroom management, for student engagement, and for instructional strategies) revealed a significant difference in teachers' efficacy for two of the three constructs. However, when examining teachers' sense of efficacy based on their teaching experience, no differences in teachers' efficacy were found. A correlation was conducted and the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between fifth grade teachers' sense of efficacy and students' achievement in the benchmark test in mathematics and science. The recommendations from this study should be used to inform other scholars and administrators of the importance of teachers' sense of efficacy in order to improve students' achievement gains.

  11. Teacher Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne


    Full Text Available When discussing the teacher quality gap, policy makers have tended to focus on teacher certification, degrees, and experience. These indicators have become key benchmarks for progress toward equality of educational opportunity, in part for lack of additional teacher quality indicators. This article turns attention to teachers' academic skills. National data on teachers' entrance examination scores and college selectivity reveal substantial disparities by school poverty level. The findings commend attention to the gap in academic skills in the formulation of future policy and research on the teacher quality gap.

  12. Effects of Professional Development on Teachers' Gendered Feedback Patterns, Students' Misbehaviour and Students' Sense of Equity: Results from a One-Year Quasi-Experimental Study (United States)

    Consuegra, Els; Engels, Nadine


    There have been numerous studies investigating the extent to which teacher-student classroom interactions differ between boys and girls and the results of these studies suggest that teacher negative feedback is higher for boys, which in turn leads to lower levels of on-task behaviour. The article describes the results of a quasi-experimental…

  13. Self Evaluation and Peer Observation of Early Career Teachers in a Standards-Based Context: Preliminary Results. (United States)

    Hansen, Joe B.; Schalock, Mark D.; McConney, Andrew; Rudd, Andy

    This study examined the relationships between teachers' self-assessment and their ratings by master teachers on key dimensions of proficiency as defined by Oregon's Continuing Teaching Licensure (CTL) requirements, and it explored differences between teacher behaviors and practices as a function of their teacher preparation programs. It also…

  14. WCPSS Teacher Working Conditions Survey Results: 2011-12. Data Trends. D&A Report No.12.13 (United States)

    Halstead, Elizabeth O.


    During the spring of 2012, over 100,000 educators across the state took the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions (TWC) survey. Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) teachers responded more positively to 46 of the 85 survey items in 2012 than did teachers statewide. On 14 items, WCPSS teachers' responses were less favorable than those of…

  15. Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers' Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required for Teaching Mathematics (United States)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.


    Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…

  16. Examining How Prospective Teachers Come To Understand Two Science Constructs, Evaporation and Condensation, as a Result of Class Discussion and Textbook Reading. (United States)

    You, Li-Ching; Schallert, Diane L.

    As part of a larger project aimed at exploring how students' conceptual growth results from interacting with the teacher and the assigned readings associated with a course, this study focused on how prospective elementary teachers conceptualized two concepts, evaporation and condensation in a Concepts in Earth Science Course. In the conceptual…

  17. Helping Italian science teachers to make earth and climate active lessons. Results of 3 years support with the ICLEEN project (United States)

    Cattadori, M.


    collaboration with the University of Trento dealing with the effectiveness of the service as well as the usability of the graphic user interface (GUI). The present work aims to illustrate the essential features of the service I-cleen and the results achieved during the last three years of operation. It will be display and interpret for the first time data with web traffic, and other data from downloading and publishing documents of the teaching resources and the main outcomes of the above mentioned tests. The purpose of this contribution is to highlight strengths and weaknesses of this experience and potentially able to provide valuable information on the role of today's web based services and online communities to help support teachers in earth and climate sciences subjects.

  18. Thick Description of the Teacher-Student Relationship in the Educational Context of School: Results of an Ethnographic Field Study (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Bukowski, William M.; Mohr, Sonja


    Complexities of essential aspects of the teacher-student relationship were identified in a group of German adolescents and their teachers through participant observation. It is already known that the determinants of the teacher-student relationship cannot be simply categorized and analyzed as univariate features. Using Clifford Geertz?s concept of…

  19. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4034 (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Dolfin, Sarah; Bleeker, Martha; Johnson, Amy; Isenberg, Eric; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Grider, Mary; Britton, Edward; Ali, Melanie


    In practice, teacher induction is common, but induction that is intensive, comprehensive, structured, and sequentially delivered in response to teachers' emerging pedagogical needs is less so. Congressional interest in formal, comprehensive teacher induction has grown in recent years. The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional…

  20. US Urban Elementary Teachers' Knowledge and Practices in Teaching Science to English Language Learners: Results from the first year of a professional development intervention (United States)

    Santau, Alexandra O.; Secada, Walter; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Cone, Neporcha; Lee, Okhee


    The study examined US elementary teachers' knowledge and practices in four key domains of science instruction with English language learning (ELL) students. The four domains included: (1) teachers' knowledge of science content, (2) teaching practices to promote scientific understanding, (3) teaching practices to promote scientific inquiry, and (4) teaching practices to support English language development during science instruction. The study was part of a larger five-year research and development intervention aimed at promoting science and literacy achievement of ELL students in urban elementary schools. It involved 32 third grade, 21 fourth grade, and 17 fifth grade teachers participating in the first-year implementation of the intervention. Based on teachers' questionnaire responses and classroom observation ratings, results indicated that (1) teachers' knowledge and practices were within the bounds of acceptability but short of reform-oriented practices and (2) grade-level differences existed, especially between Grades 3 and 5.

  1. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature. (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas H; Liu, Xiaoying; Ulusarac, Ozlem; Ponnuru, Kimberly D; Schnepp, Stephanie L


    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  2. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulusarac Ozlem


    Full Text Available Abstract An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  3. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami


    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n = 20). This includes analysis of the communication styles used and the students' pre- and post-conceptualisation of climate change based on results obtained via essay writing and drawings. The essays and drawings concerned the students' unprompted pre- and post-conceptions about climate change, collected before and after each of the four inquiry-based science sessions (in physics, chemistry, biology and geography). Concept mapping was used in the analysis of the students' responses. The communication used in the four sessions was analysed with a communicative approach in order to find out the discussion about climate change between teacher and students. The analyses indicated that the students did not have the knowledge or the courage to participate in discussion, but post-conceptualisation map showed that students' thinking had become more coherent after the four sessions. Given the results of the present study, proposals for using concepts maps and/or communication analysis in studying students' conceptions are presented.

  4. A Survey Study of Chinese In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy about Inclusive Education (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zan, Fei; Liu, Jiaqiu; Liu, Chunling; Sharma, Umesh


    A survey study was conducted to a total of 323 in-service teachers (110 special education teachers and 213 general education teachers) in Shanghai regarding their self-efficacy and concerns about inclusive education. Multivariate analysis results reveal that special teachers have significantly higher self-efficacy about inclusive education than…

  5. An examination of an aspect of the worldview of female college science teachers as revealed by their concepts of nature (United States)

    Tryon, Lisa A.

    American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.

  6. Kindergarten Teachers Speak out: "Too Much, Too Soon, Too Fast!" (United States)

    Gallant, Patricia A.


    This article presents results of a study of 229 kindergarten teachers who completed a survey designed to gather information about the current state of Michigan kindergartens. In addition to detailed data that reveals teachers' literacy instructional practices, teachers provided written responses to the following open-ended questions: What are the…

  7. Geometry of the Farallon Slab Revealed by Joint Interpretation of Wavefield Imaging and Tomography Results from the Earthscope Transportable Array (United States)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Wang, Y.


    A significant number of P and S wave tomography models have been produced in the past decade using various subsets of data from the Earthscope USArray and different inversion algorithms. We focus here on published tomography results that span large portions of the final footprint of the USArray. We use 3D visualization techniques to search for common features in different tomography models. We also compare tomography results to features seen in our current generation wavefield images. Recent innovations of our plane wave migration method have yielded what is arguably the highest resolution image ever produced of the mantle in the vicinity of the transition zone. The new results reveal a rich collection of coherent, dipping structures seen throughout the upper mantle and transition zone. These dipping interfaces are judged significant according to a coherence metric. We treat these surfaces as strain markers to assess proposed models for geometry of the 3D geometry of the Farallon Slab under North America. We find the following geologic interpretations are well supported by independent results: 1. The old Farallon under eastern North America and below the base of transition zone is universally seen as a high velocity anomaly. 2. All results support a simple, 3D kinematic model of the updip limit of the Farallon slab window that follows a track from Cape Mendocino, across Nevada, and northern Arizona and New Mexico. 3. All models show a strong low-velocity mantle under the southwestern U.S. 4. A low-velocity features is universally seen related to the Yellowstone-Snake River system. Shorter wavelength features observed in different tomography models are inconsistent showing that the theme of this session is very important to understand what features are in current results are real. Isopach maps of the thickness of the transition show a systematic difference in transition zone thickness in the western and eastern US. The transition zone thickens in the eastern US in

  8. Interobserver reliability in musculoskeletal ultrasonography: results from a "Teach the Teachers" rheumatologist course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, ee.; Møller, I.; Moragues, C.


    : The shoulder, wrist/hand, ankle/foot, or knee of 24 patients with rheumatic diseases were evaluated by 23 musculoskeletal ultrasound experts from different European countries randomly assigned to six groups. The participants did not reach consensus on scanning method or diagnostic criteria before......, tendon lesions, bursitis, and power Doppler signal. Afterwards they compared the ultrasound findings and re-examined the patients together while discussing their results. RESULTS: Overall agreements were 91% for joint effusion/synovitis and tendon lesions, 87% for cortical abnormalities, 84......% for tenosynovitis, 83.5% for bursitis, and 83% for power Doppler signal; kappa values were good for the wrist/hand and knee (0.61 and 0.60) and fair for the shoulder and ankle/foot (0.50 and 0.54). The principal differences in scanning method and diagnostic criteria between experts were related to dynamic...

  9. Functional anatomy of the cardiovascular system: professional development for PreK-3 teachers using a "train and equip" method results in learning opportunities for students. (United States)

    Burns, E Robert


    Preadolescent students are interested in learning the structure and function of the human body. However, their teachers are not trained in this content. The purpose of this project was to expand a successful outreach effort in the health sciences for grade 7-12 teachers to include PreK-3 teachers. A "Healthy Hearts" workshop was offered to train the teachers in relevant content and also to give them a resource kit of supplies and equipment to facilitate the transference of the training into educational opportunities for their students. The workshop included many role-playing activities and use of all items in the resource kit. A total of 25 workshops were conducted in 14 different community locations with 716 PreK-3 teachers attending from 169 communities representing 59 (79%) of the state's 75 counties. African American (AA) teacher participation was 35%, twice the state AA population rate and 3.5x the AA public school teacher rate. Pre to Posttest scores increased an average of 15%. The results of the evaluation measures regarding the workshop and the transference of the training and use of resource kit items into learning opportunities for students were excellent. Universities have the capability, perhaps the responsibility, to provide the much-needed professional development training to PreK-12 teachers. Anatomists in medical and nonmedical school settings are well positioned to participate in this process and help close the gap between the interest young children have in learning about the human body and the lack of teacher training in this content.

  10. Technology Use and Acceptance in the Classroom: Results from an Exploratory Survey Study among Secondary Education Teachers in the USA (United States)

    Holden, Heather; Ozok, Ant; Rada, Roy


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the current usage and acceptance of classroom technologies by secondary math/science education teachers in one community. Design/methodology/approach: Forty-seven secondary education math and science teachers in one American city responded to a survey about their use and perceptions of technology in…

  11. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the Second Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4072 (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Glazerman, Steven; Bleeker, Martha; Johnson, Amy; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Grider, Mary; Dolfin, Sarah; Britton, Edward


    One of the main policy responses to the problems of turnover and inadequate preparation among beginning teachers is to support them with a formal, comprehensive induction program. Congressional interest in formal, comprehensive teacher induction has grown in recent years. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), which reauthorized the…

  12. Collection Evaluation in a Georgia Elementary School: A Look at the Process and Resulting Change in Teachers' Perceptions of Its Quality and Usefulness. (United States)

    Willcoxon, Wanda Odom


    Describes methods used to revitalize a media collection in a DeKalb County, Georgia elementary school. Explains collection development issues; collection evaluation, including curriculum mapping, collection mapping, and weeding; reorganization, made possible through weeding; results of recency analyses; and results of teacher surveys that…

  13. Impact of Teacher Preparation upon Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Redmon, Robert J.


    A cohort of students in a teacher preparation program completed questionnaires measuring their feelings of teacher self efficacy at three points in the program. Results suggest that pre-service teachers' feelings of self efficacy do improve as a result of their participation in such programs. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table. Teacher Efficacy…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Adopting the position that maximizing learner involvement is conducive to second language acquisition, this paper aims to explore the relationship between teacher talk and learner opportunities in language classrooms in senior schools through classroom observation techniques. Four excellent high school teachers from Zhejiang province in China are involved in this research. The results reveal that such features as minimal teacher talking time, referential questions, extended wait time,discoursal feedback can increase potential of learning opportunities through classroom interaction in language classrooms in high schools.

  15. Geography Teachers' Concepts of Working with Thinking through Geography Strategies--Results of an Empirical Reconstructive Study (United States)

    Applis, Stefan


    The educational standards in geography in the German-speaking world separately refer to the areas of competence of judgment and evaluation and thus attach outstanding importance to reflective value orientation in geography classes. The tasks and challenges that arise from that for geography teachers will be investigated in a…

  16. What Belongs in a Montessori Primary Classroom? Results from a Survey of AMI and AMS Teacher Trainers (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.


    There are two major types of Montessori teacher education in the United States: (1) AMI-USA (the American branch of the Association Montessori Internationale, founded by Dr. Montessori to carry on her work); and (2) AMS (American Montessori Society, founded by Nancy Rambusch to represent Montessori in America). This article presents the results…

  17. Continuing Education of Civics Teachers for Teaching the European Union: Results of the Jean Monnet Project PEB (United States)

    Oberle, Monika; Forstmann, Johanna


    The European dimension is of salient importance for understanding and shaping politics especially, but not only, in Europe. The European Union by now has become a compulsory content of civics classes in secondary schools throughout Germany. For teachers, however, teaching this topic is connected with manifold difficulties, for example, due to the…

  18. Results of the 2004 DesignShare POE Program: Students and Teachers Tell Us what They Really Think (United States)

    Lackney, Jeffery A.


    DesignShare/School Construction News (DS/SCN) Jurists have often critically reflected on their desire to know more about how teachers and students really experience so-called innovative award-winning schools. Through the DesignShare Post-Occupancy Evaluation Program, the intention is to give voice to the individuals whose lives are directly…

  19. A novel mouse model reveals that polycystin-1 deficiency in ependyma and choroid plexus results in dysfunctional cilia and hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Wodarczyk

    Full Text Available Polycystin-1 (PC-1, the product of the PKD1 gene, mutated in the majority of cases of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD, is a very large (approximately 520 kDa plasma membrane receptor localized in several subcellular compartments including cell-cell/matrix junctions as well as cilia. While heterologous over-expression systems have allowed identification of several of the potential biological roles of this receptor, its precise function remains largely elusive. Studying PC-1 in vivo has been a challenging task due to its complexity and low expression levels. To overcome these limitations and facilitate the study of endogenous PC-1, we have inserted HA- or Myc-tag sequences into the Pkd1 locus by homologous recombination. Here, we show that our approach was successful in generating a fully functional and easily detectable endogenous PC-1. Characterization of PC-1 distribution in vivo showed that it is expressed ubiquitously and is developmentally-regulated in most tissues. Furthermore, our novel tool allowed us to investigate the role of PC-1 in brain, where the protein is abundantly expressed. Subcellular localization of PC-1 revealed strong and specific staining in ciliated ependymal and choroid plexus cells. Consistent with this distribution, we observed hydrocephalus formation both in the ubiquitous knock-out embryos and in newborn mice with conditional inactivation of the Pkd1 gene in the brain. Both choroid plexus and ependymal cilia were morphologically normal in these mice, suggesting a role for PC-1 in ciliary function or signalling in this compartment, rather than in ciliogenesis. We propose that the role of PC-1 in the brain cilia might be to prevent hydrocephalus, a previously unrecognized role for this receptor and one that might have important implications for other genetic or sporadic diseases.

  20. The Impact of NBPTS Participation on Teacher Practice: Learning from Teacher Perspectives (United States)

    Tracz, Susan M.; Daughtry, Jody; Henderson-Sparks, Joan; Newman, Carole; Sienty, Sarah


    This study presents the results of qualitative interviews of teachers who completed the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification process. Teachers (N=25) were asked a series of questions about how the NBPTS process impacted their teaching. The findings revealed that the themes of reflection, assessment, and…

  1. The role of disease perceptions and results sharing in psychological adaptation after genetic susceptibility testing: the REVEAL Study. (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Koehly, Laura M; Roberts, J Scott; Chen, Clara A; Hiraki, Susan; Green, Robert C


    This study evaluates the extent to which psychological adaptation (validated measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and test-specific distress) after genetic susceptibility testing is influenced by changes in beliefs about Alzheimer's disease (AD) and sharing of test results with others. Adult children of AD patients (N=269) from a randomized clinical trial involving genetic testing for apolipoprotein E (APOE) provided information before, as well as 6 weeks and 12 months after results disclosure. The levels of adaptation varied highly among participants at 12-month assessment. Participants who learned that they were ε4 negative (lower risk) had a reduction in perceived risk and concern about developing AD compared with those who learned that they were ε4 positive. Those who received results through an extended educational protocol (three in-person visits) had a larger decline in AD concern than those in a condensed protocol (educational brochure and two in-person visits). Increase in AD concern 6 weeks after disclosure was associated with increase in depression scores (b=0.20, Ptesting (b=0.18, P=0.02) 1 year after testing. Increase in perceived risk (b=0.16, P=0.04) was also associated with higher AD genetic testing distress. Sharing the test results with health professionals and friends (but not family) was associated with decrease in depression (b=-0.11, P=0.05) and anxiety levels (b=-0.16, Ptesting may help facilitate test recipients' long-term psychological adaptation.

  2. Computational Analysis Reveals the Association of Threonine 118 Methionine Mutation in PMP22 Resulting in CMT-1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi Vinay Kumar


    Full Text Available The T118M mutation in PMP22 gene is associated with Charcot Marie Tooth, type 1A (CMT1A. CMT1A is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Mutations in CMT related disorder are seen to increase the stability of the protein resulting in the diseased state. We performed SNP analysis for all the nsSNPs of PMP22 protein and carried out molecular dynamics simulation for T118M mutation to compare the stability difference between the wild type protein structure and the mutant protein structure. The mutation T118M resulted in the overall increase in the stability of the mutant protein. The superimposed structure shows marked structural variation between the wild type and the mutant protein structures.

  3. Enhancing mathematics teachers' quality through Lesson Study. (United States)

    Lomibao, Laila S


    The efficiency and effectivity of the learning experience is dependent on the teacher quality, thus, enhancing teacher's quality is vital in improving the students learning outcome. Since, the usual top-down one-shot cascading model practice for teachers' professional development in Philippines has been observed to have much information dilution, and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization demanded the need to develop mathematics teachers' quality standards through the Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics Teachers (SEARS-MT), thus, an intensive, ongoing professional development model should be provided to teachers. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of Lesson Study on Bulua National High School mathematics teachers' quality level in terms of SEARS-MT dimensions. A mixed method of quantitative-qualitative research design was employed. Results of the analysis revealed that Lesson Study effectively enhanced mathematics teachers' quality and promoted teachers professional development. Teachers positively perceived Lesson Study to be beneficial for them to become a better mathematics teacher.

  4. DNA Hydroxymethylation Profiling Reveals that WT1 Mutations Result in Loss of TET2 Function in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Raajit Rampal


    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and TET2 result in impaired TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. The observation that WT1 inactivating mutations anticorrelate with TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML led us to hypothesize that WT1 mutations may impact TET2 function. WT1 mutant AML patients have reduced 5hmC levels similar to TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutant AML. These mutations are characterized by convergent, site-specific alterations in DNA hydroxymethylation, which drive differential gene expression more than alterations in DNA promoter methylation. WT1 overexpression increases global levels of 5hmC, and WT1 silencing reduced 5hmC levels. WT1 physically interacts with TET2 and TET3, and WT1 loss of function results in a similar hematopoietic differentiation phenotype as observed with TET2 deficiency. These data provide a role for WT1 in regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and suggest that TET2 IDH1/IDH2 and WT1 mutations define an AML subtype defined by dysregulated DNA hydroxymethylation.

  5. Revealing the sequence and resulting cellular morphology of receptor-ligand interactions during Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta E Weiss


    Full Text Available During blood stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, merozoites invade uninfected erythrocytes via a complex, multistep process involving a series of distinct receptor-ligand binding events. Understanding each element in this process increases the potential to block the parasite's life cycle via drugs or vaccines. To investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions, they were systematically blocked using a combination of genetic deletion, enzymatic receptor cleavage and inhibition of binding via antibodies, peptides and small molecules, and the resulting temporal changes in invasion and morphological effects on erythrocytes were filmed using live cell imaging. Analysis of the videos have shown receptor-ligand interactions occur in the following sequence with the following cellular morphologies; 1 an early heparin-blockable interaction which weakly deforms the erythrocyte, 2 EBA and PfRh ligands which strongly deform the erythrocyte, a process dependant on the merozoite's actin-myosin motor, 3 a PfRh5-basigin binding step which results in a pore or opening between parasite and host through which it appears small molecules and possibly invasion components can flow and 4 an AMA1-RON2 interaction that mediates tight junction formation, which acts as an anchor point for internalization. In addition to enhancing general knowledge of apicomplexan biology, this work provides a rational basis to combine sequentially acting merozoite vaccine candidates in a single multi-receptor-blocking vaccine.

  6. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results. (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D


    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers.

  7. 454 Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing of tropical mycorrhizal fungi provide similar results but reveal substantial methodological biases. (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Nilsson, R Henrik; Abarenkov, Kessy; Jairus, Teele; Sadam, Ave; Saar, Irja; Bahram, Mohammad; Bechem, Eneke; Chuyong, George; Kõljalg, Urmas


    • Compared with Sanger sequencing-based methods, pyrosequencing provides orders of magnitude more data on the diversity of organisms in their natural habitat, but its technological biases and relative accuracy remain poorly understood. • This study compares the performance of pyrosequencing and traditional sequencing for species' recovery of ectomycorrhizal fungi on root tips in a Cameroonian rain forest and addresses biases related to multi-template PCR and pyrosequencing analyses. • Pyrosequencing and the traditional method yielded qualitatively similar results, but there were slight, but significant, differences that affected the taxonomic view of the fungal community. We found that most pyrosequencing singletons were artifactual and contained a strongly elevated proportion of insertions compared with natural intra- and interspecific variation. The alternative primers, DNA extraction methods and PCR replicates strongly influenced the richness and community composition as recovered by pyrosequencing. • Pyrosequencing offers a powerful alternative for the identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi in pooled root samples, but requires careful selection of molecular tools. A well-populated backbone database facilitates the detection of biological and technical artifacts. The pyrosequencing pipeline is available at

  8. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick


    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

  9. Break-seq reveals hydroxyurea-induced chromosome fragility as a result of unscheduled conflict between DNA replication and transcription. (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A; McCulley, Andrew; Haarer, Brian; Arnak, Remigiusz; Feng, Wenyi


    We have previously demonstrated that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication, checkpoint inactivation via a mec1 mutation leads to chromosome breakage at replication forks initiated from virtually all origins after transient exposure to hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Here we sought to determine whether all replication forks containing single-stranded DNA gaps have equal probability of producing double-strand breaks (DSBs) when cells attempt to recover from HU exposure. We devised a new methodology, Break-seq, that combines our previously described DSB labeling with next generation sequencing to map chromosome breaks with improved sensitivity and resolution. We show that DSBs preferentially occur at genes transcriptionally induced by HU. Notably, different subsets of the HU-induced genes produced DSBs in MEC1 and mec1 cells as replication forks traversed a greater distance in MEC1 cells than in mec1 cells during recovery from HU. Specifically, while MEC1 cells exhibited chromosome breakage at stress-response transcription factors, mec1 cells predominantly suffered chromosome breakage at transporter genes, many of which are the substrates of those transcription factors. We propose that HU-induced chromosome fragility arises at higher frequency near HU-induced genes as a result of destabilized replication forks encountering transcription factor binding and/or the act of transcription. We further propose that replication inhibitors can induce unscheduled encounters between replication and transcription and give rise to distinct patterns of chromosome fragile sites.

  10. Deep scientific drilling results from Koyna and Killari earthquake regions reveal why Indian shield lithosphere is unusual, thin and warm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Pandey


    Full Text Available The nature of crustal and lithospheric mantle evolution of the Archean shields as well as their subsequent deformation due to recent plate motions and sustained intraplate geodynamic activity, has been a subject of considerable interest. In view of this, about three decades ago, a new idea was put forward suggesting that out of all shield terrains, the Indian shield has an extremely thin lithosphere (∼100 km, compared to 250–350 km, elsewhere, apart from being warm, non-rigid, sheared and deformed. As expected, it met with scepticism by heat flow and the emerging seismic tomographic study groups, who on the contrary suggested that the Indian shield has a cool crust, besides a coherent and thick lithosphere (as much as 300–400 km like any other shield. However, recently obtained integrated geological and geophysical findings from deep scientific drillings in 1993 Killari (Mw: 6.3 and 1967 Koyna (Mw: 6.3 earthquake zones, as well as newly acquired geophysical data over other parts of Indian shield terrain, have provided a totally new insight to this debate. Beneath Killari, the basement was found consisting of high density, high velocity mid crustal amphibolite to granulite facies rocks due to exhumation of the deeper crustal layers and sustained granitic upper crustal erosion. Similar type of basement appears to be present in Koyna region too, which is characterized by considerably high upper crustal temperatures. Since, such type of crust is depleted in radiogenic elements, it resulted into lowering of heat flow at the surface, increase in heat flow contribution from the mantle, and upwarping of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Consequently, the Indian shield lithosphere has become unusually thin and warm. This study highlights the need of an integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical approach in order to accurately determine deep crust-mantle thermal regime in continental areas.

  11. Deep scientific drilling results from Koyna and Killari earthquake regions reveal why Indian shield lithosphere is unusual, thin and warm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.P. Pandey


    The nature of crustal and lithospheric mantle evolution of the Archean shields as well as their subse-quent deformation due to recent plate motions and sustained intraplate geodynamic activity, has been a subject of considerable interest. In view of this, about three decades ago, a new idea was put forward suggesting that out of all shield terrains, the Indian shield has an extremely thin lithosphere (w100 km, compared to 250e350 km, elsewhere), apart from being warm, non-rigid, sheared and deformed. As expected, it met with scepticism by heat flow and the emerging seismic tomographic study groups, who on the contrary suggested that the Indian shield has a cool crust, besides a coherent and thick lithosphere (as much as 300e400 km) like any other shield. However, recently obtained integrated geological and geophysical findings from deep scientific drillings in 1993 Killari (Mw: 6.3) and 1967 Koyna (Mw: 6.3) earthquake zones, as well as newly acquired geophysical data over other parts of Indian shield terrain, have provided a totally new insight to this debate. Beneath Killari, the basement was found consisting of high density, high velocity mid crustal amphibolite to granulite facies rocks due to exhumation of the deeper crustal layers and sustained granitic upper crustal erosion. Similar type of basement appears to be present in Koyna region too, which is characterized by considerably high upper crustal temperatures. Since, such type of crust is depleted in radiogenic elements, it resulted into lowering of heat flow at the surface, increase in heat flow contribution from the mantle, and upwarping of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Consequently, the Indian shield lithosphere has become unusually thin and warm. This study highlights the need of an integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical approach in order to accurately determine deep crust-mantle thermal regime in continental areas.

  12. What about Writing? A National Exploratory Study of Writing Instruction in Teacher Preparation Programs (United States)

    Myers, Joy; Scales, Roya Q.; Grisham, Dana L.; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Dismuke, Sherry; Smetana, Linda; Yoder, Karen Kreider; Ikpeze, Chinwe; Ganske, Kathy; Martin, Susan


    This small scale, exploratory study reveals how writing instruction is taught to preservice teachers across the United States in university-based preservice teacher education programs based on online survey results from 63 teacher educators in literacy from 50 institutions. Despite the growing writing demands and high stakes writing sample testing…

  13. Beliefs Systems and Classroom Practices: Identified Typologies of Elementary School Teachers from the United States (United States)

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Nietfeld, John L.


    In a mixed-methods study, the authors investigate teacher typologies of elementary teachers (N = 132) in the United States based on their reformed science teaching beliefs. Additionally, the identified teacher typologies were compared with respect to their science content knowledge, self-efficacy and epistemic beliefs. Results revealed three…

  14. Becoming a 'Good' Chinese Language Teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    Recent studies on CFL (Chinese as foreign language) teacher identity have increasingly been paying attention to teachers’ beliefs, learning experience, and educational context. Whilst insightful, these studies have not addressed the ways CFL teachers relate their beliefs, experiences and context....... The study reveals that teachers' present teaching is closely influenced by teachers’ prior CFL learning experience at Chinese university, and the ability of making sense of their experience determines the degree each nonnative-speaker teacher of Chinese modify the sense of identification. The second study......, reported in Chapter 6 aims to understand the identity construction of two new nonnative-speaker teachers of Chinese. A narrative approach is adopted. The study results show the relationship between prior domain-related (i.e., CFL learning) experience, their beliefs of being teachers, and their self...

  15. Reframing the Australian nurse teacher competencies: do they reflect the 'REAL' world of nurse teacher practice? (United States)

    Guy, Jacqui; Taylor, Christine; Roden, Janet; Blundell, Jennifer; Tolhurst, Gerda


    The Australian nurse teacher competencies were introduced in 1996; however, the researchers perceived that changes to the health care system and a nursing workforce shortage may have affected nurse teacher roles over the past decade. This study aimed to explore perceptions of nurse teachers on the applicability of the current Australian nurse teacher competencies to practice, and modify the nurse teacher competencies to better reflect current practice. Methodology utilized mixed methods, and data collection was via focus groups, telephone interviews, and survey data. Results revealed that participants were mostly positive about the original competency statements, although there were some variations between items. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data were: changing trends in health care; preparation for teaching; understanding of the competencies, contextual influences on education role; nurse teachers as change agents, and resource management. Conclusions were that the Australian nurse teacher competencies (1996) were reflective of the current generic roles of nurse teachers however some of the competencies needed reframing to meet the current needs of nurse teachers. However, changes needed to be made in areas such as reducing complex language, inclusion of technology, and cultural competencies. Nurse teachers were supportive of the research because they valued the teacher competencies for reflection on their practice and the development of portfolios, job descriptions and performance appraisals.

  16. Teacher Burnout in Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Croom, D. Barry


    Results of the Maslach Burnout Inventory completed by 164 secondary agriculture teachers revealed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization in relationships, and a high degree of personal accomplishment. Gender, degree, contract length, preservice versus lateral entry method, school/department size, and community…

  17. Teachers Performing Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Bourke


    Full Text Available Faced with the perceived need to redefine education for more economic utilitarian purposes, as well as to encourage compliance with government policies, Australia, like many other Anglophone nations, has engaged in numerous policy shifts resulting in performativity practices becoming commonplace in the educational landscape. A series of interviews with teachers from Queensland, Australia, in which they revealed their experiences of professionalism are examined archaeologically to reveal how they enact their roles in response to this performative agenda. Findings suggest that while there is some acceptance among teachers of the performative discourse, there is increasing resistance, which permits the construction of alternative or counter-discourses to the currently internationally pervasive performative climate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin İPEK


    Full Text Available Women are underrepresented in leadership positions in Turkish work life as well as in other countries. There are some social and personal barriers preventing women from managerial positions. One of the area in which women are underrepresented is school leadership. The main purpose of this study is to describe the attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions in schools. In accordance with the main purpose of the study it was investigated whether there were any differences between the attitudes and the views of the primary teacher and the primary pre-service teachers. The attitudes and the views about the barriers facing female teachers in school leadership were also compared according to gender and the grades of the primary pre-service teachers. Data were collected from 114 primary teachers working in primary schools in Çayeli district and 192 primary pre-service teachers attending primary school teacher training program in the Faculty of Education in Rize University.The attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions were described in two dimensions, personal attitudes and views, and social attitudes and views. Study results revealed that the attitudes and views differentiated significantly due to gender and position (teacher or pre-service teacher in both dimensions. Moreover, it was indicated that gender and the position of the primary teachers and the primary pre-service teachers have significant joint effects on the personal attitudes and views whereas joint effects of the gender and positions on the social attitudes and views were not observed at statistically significant level. As a conclusion, study results indicated that female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers have not

  19. Changes in teacher efficacy and beliefs during a one-year teacher preparation program (United States)

    Lockman, Alison Schirmer

    This study attempted to further understanding of factors affecting the teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary science preservice teachers, and to develop a model relating teacher efficacy to beliefs about teaching and students. A mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was utilized in order to track participants' beliefs both broadly and in depth throughout a one-year teacher preparation program. Results from this analysis revealed that preservice teachers at the end of the program had significantly higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs than at the beginning of the program. No significant difference in science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs was found, although individual preservice teachers did develop alternate beliefs. Teacher efficacy beliefs were directly affected by three of Bandura's four sources of self-efficacy beliefs---Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion---with the influence of each source of self-efficacy information appearing to change during the course of the teacher preparation program. No evidence was found that affective states by themselves had resulted in belief changes, although many of the other experiences were more powerful because they were accompanied by an emotional incident. Connections between teacher efficacy beliefs, beliefs about students, and beliefs about teaching were uncovered, as was the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge on a teacher's sense of efficacy.

  20. Sources of Stress: Perceptions of South African TESOL Teachers (United States)

    Bowen, Amanda


    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study investigating which factors inside and outside the classroom result in feelings of stress for TESOL teachers working at private language schools in South Africa. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, the findings reveal three main areas that cause stress for TESOL teachers: the job of…

  1. Technology Integration in Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Practices of Student Teachers (United States)

    Liu, Ping


    This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…

  2. Digital game-based learning and video games in teacher training. Conception, evaluation and results from Leipzig University

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    Robert Aust


    Full Text Available By the beginning of the 21st century, media education on topics such as video games and strategies founded on the concept of Game-Based Learning has become an essential issue in school educational contexts. Continually rising standards in gameplay as well as recent developments in technology, in the gaming community, in the concepts and expectations of the potentials of gaming, have successively changed the perspectives on who is playing what, when and for what purpose, as well as on the consequences, opportunities and problems of gaming itself. The authors of this article designed a seminar at the Faculty of Education at Leipzig University, in which different scenarios of playing computer games in school pedagogical contexts could be tried out, discussed and reflected on. The course was developed, tested and evaluated in cooperation with the Computer Gaming School Leipzig (ComputerSpielSchule Leipzig before and during the summer semester of 2014. The aim was to create a situation in which future teachers and seminar instructors would be able to reflect critically on the opportunities, obstacles and challenges of a sensible integration of entertainment software (such as video games in pedagogical teaching concepts. Theoretical and critical introductions to some selected issues concerning Game-Based Learning and computer games in general as well as hands-on gaming experience (gained in three practical sessions provided the basis for discussion in the seminar.

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Teaching Reading and Writing for First Grade Students in Kuwait (United States)

    Al-Dhafir, Mohammad


    The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…

  4. An analysis of zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development (United States)

    Kubarek-Sandor, Joy

    Informal science institutions are a significant provider of science teacher professional development. As pressure continues to critically analyze the work of teachers and their effectiveness in the classroom, it is important to understand how informal science institutions contribute to effective change in teacher science content knowledge and pedagogy. This research study analyzed zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development to respond to the research questions: How do zoos and aquaria determine and assess their goals for teacher professional development? How do these goals align with effective teacher change for science content knowledge and pedagogy? Theoretical frameworks for high quality teacher professional development, effective evaluation of teacher professional development, and learning in informal science settings guided the research. The sample for the study was AZA accredited zoos and aquariums providing teacher professional development (N=107). Data collection consisted of an online questionnaire, follow-up interviews, and content analysis of teacher professional development artifacts. Analysis revealed that by and large zoos and aquariums are lacking in their provision of science teacher professional development. Most professional development focuses on content or resources, neglecting pedagogy. Assessments mismatch the goals and rely heavily on self-report and satisfaction measures. The results demonstrate a marked difference between those zoos and aquariums that are larger in capacity versus those that are medium to small in size. This may be an area of research for the future, as well as analyzing the education resources produced by zoos and aquariums as these were emphasized heavily as a way they serve teachers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Baitman


    Full Text Available This study attempts to explore the differences and similarities between native English speaker (NES teachers and non-native English speaker (NNES teachers in their oral evaluation ratings of the same university level English language learners. To this effect, the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test Independent Speaking Rubric and a questionnaire were employed. The results reveal that NES teachers are more lenient in their oral evaluation ratings than NNES teachers. In regards to the questionnaire employed, it was found that NES teachers take into consideration the aspects of fluency and pronunciation more so than NNES teachers when orally assessing students, while NNES teachers take more into consideration the aspects of grammatical accuracy and vocabulary. Further research is required in the area of oral assessment specifically pertaining to nationality, age, work experience, and knowledge of a second language.




    The modern Russian school needs a teacher, capable of continuous professional development and able to choose the appropriate direction and forms for their own growth. In terms of modernization of education requires pedagogical support Of a teacher from the school administration - activities to create an environment for the development of personal and professional qualities of a teacher and as a consequence of the growth of its professionalism. The professionalism of a teacher based on profess...

  7. A Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Affective In-Service Training Program for Junior High School Teachers: Second Year Results. (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    Teachers were trained in either or both of two versions of Effective Classroom Management--Junior High (ECM). In the second year of the study, teachers were taught techniques in discipline, communication, and self-esteem enhancement. The goals of the in-service training were to make teachers more responsive to students' affective and cognitive…

  8. A Study on Effective Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays, effective teaching has become an important phrase in English language teaching, and causes great attention. As a result of the emergence of teacher-led initiatives, the need of teacher effectiveness has been given renewed focus. This essay outlines what roles teachers play in effective teaching, and what personal qualities teachers maintain that qualify them as effective teachers.

  9. Effects of the learning assistant model on teacher practice (United States)

    Gray, Kara E.; Webb, David C.; Otero, Valerie K.


    Through the transformation of undergraduate STEM courses, the Colorado Learning Assistant Program recruits and prepares talented STEM majors for careers in teaching by providing them with early, sustained teaching experiences. The research reported here compares teaching practices of K-12 teachers who served as learning assistants (LAs) as undergraduates to colleagues that were certified through the same teacher certification program but did not serve as LAs. Observations of teacher practices revealed that former LAs used significantly more reformed teaching practices than their colleagues, especially in their first year of teaching. These results suggest the LA Program serves as a valuable supplement to traditional teacher certification programs.

  10. Japanese EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Communicative, Audiolingual and Yakudoku Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Gorsuch


    Full Text Available In recent years, the learning of English as a Foreign Language in Japanese high schools has become the focus of new educational policies applied at the national level. One of these is The Course of Study issue by the Ministry of Education, in which teachers are, for the first time in a long series of curriculum guidelines, adjured to develop students' "positive attitudes towards communicating in English." Another is the JET program, which has put thousands of native English speaking assistant language teachers (ALTs into Japanese secondary classrooms for the purpose of team teaching with Japanese teachers. Data resulting from a survey project of 876 Japanese high school English teachers was used to provide empirical evidence of teachers' levels of approval of communicative, audiolingual and traditional (yakudoku activities. Teachers were also asked to rate the strengths of a variety of influences on their instruction, including university entrance exams, and pre- and in-service teacher education programs. Teachers' perceptions of both activities and instructional influences were examined in light of teachers' length of career, type of school (private versus public, academic versus vocational, and level of contact with an ALT. The data revealed the complexities of imposing broad, national educational policies on a diverse group of teachers, and in an educational culture which likely precludes teachers' use of communicative activities.

  11. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy


    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout. Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment

  12. Are Quebec’s Future Teachers Ready to Use ICT in Class? The Case of Prospective Teachers in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Karsenti


    Full Text Available Are Quebec’s future teachers ready to integrate information and communication technologies (ICT into the scholastic context? To answer this question, a study was conducted with some 2,065 future teachers, 410 associate professors and 90 supervisors of teaching practices from nine French-speaking Quebec universities offering a beginning teacher-training program. The results show that these prospective teachers have access to the equipment needed to become familiar with ICT, and that they use basic technology skills well. Furthermore, the data collected revealed that teachers in training use ICT regularly and reflectively to plan their classes, communicate, search for information, prepare didactic materials, solve problems, or improve themselves professionally. Although the profile shown is promising, the study results also indicate a very low proportion of future teachers who use ICT in the classroom.

  13. An assessment of mathematics teachers' Internet self-efficacy: implications on teachers' delivery of mathematics instruction (United States)

    Tella, Adedeji


    This study examined the mathematics teachers' Internet self-efficacy and its possible influence on the delivery of mathematics instruction. The participants were 90 mathematics teachers selected from various schools in five local government areas of Osun State, Nigeria. The results demonstrated that to a great extent mathematics teachers have high Internet self-efficacy and that correlation exists between mathematics teachers' age, Internet usage and Internet self-efficacy. Irrespective of gender, mathematics teachers have the same level of Internet self-efficacy. Moreover, Internet self-efficacy and usage were revealed to drastically improve the way teacher teach mathematics and conduct research. Upon these findings, it was recommended that mathematics teachers who do not know how to browse and search the Internet should consider doing so now without wasting much time. There is also the need to increase Internet usage, on the part of the mathematics teachers who just begin using the Internet. They need to do this considering the fact that increased usage leads to high Internet self-efficacy. Moreover, it is high time to close the technology gender gap which has been in existence since a long time. This can start from the mathematics teachers.

  14. Learners’ Beliefs of an Effective Teacher: A Case of Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Daftarifard


    Full Text Available

    The influence that teachers have on learners’ achievements is unquestionable. Learners’ beliefs and perspectives are also considered as a determining factor in their academic achievements. Sixty students from the University of Tehran’s Center for Extra Curricular Activities participated in this study. The participants’ perception of their teachers in different aspects, such as Personality of the teacher, Proficiency of the teacher, Teaching skills, was investigated. The findings revealed that teaching skills were viewed, by learners, as the most influential characteristic of a teacher. Proficiency and personality of a teacher were ranked second and third accordingly. The results of the study had certain implications for teachers and teacher educators.

  15. Teachers' Voice: A Needs Analysis of Teachers' Needs for Professional Development with the Emergence of the Current English Textbooks (United States)

    AL-Qahtani, Hind M.


    The study attempts to reveal the attitudes' of the English teachers toward teachers' professional development, to identify the needs of English teachers for Teachers' professional development, to clarify the challenges that faced by English teachers throughout their teachers' professional development. The study uses a descriptive methods to…

  16. High-resolution, terrestrial radar velocity observations and model results reveal a strong bed at stable, tidewater Rink Isbræ, West Greenland (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Walker, R. T.; Stearns, L. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Cassotto, R.; Catania, G. A.; Felikson, D.; Fried, M.; Sutherland, D.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.


    At tidewater Rink Isbræ, on the central west coast of Greenland, satellite observations reveal that glacier velocities and terminus positions have remained stable, while the lowest 25 km have thinned 30 m since 1985. Over this same time period, other tidewater glaciers in central west Greenland have retreated, thinned and accelerated. Here we present field observations and model results to show that the flow of Rink Isbræ is resisted by unusually high basal shear stresses. Terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) observations over 9 days in summer 2014 demonstrate weak velocity response to 4 km wide, full thickness calving events. Velocities at the terminus change by +/- 10% in response to rising and falling tides within a partial-width, 2.5-km-long floating ice tongue; however these tidal perturbations damp out within 2 km of the grounding line. Inversions for basal shear stress and force balance analyses together show that basal shear stresses in excess of 300 kPa support the majority of the driving stress at thick, steep Rink Isbræ. These observational and modeling results tell a consistent story in which a strong bed may limit the unstable tidewater glacier retreats observed elsewhere. Rink Isbræ has an erosion resistant quartzite bed with low fracture density. We hypothesize that this geology may play a major role in the bed strength.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kerekes


    Full Text Available Trying to develop new perspectives of teaching is never easy, but trying to cultivate ownership and initiative among teacher education students is a still greater aspiration that is infrequently realized. This article addresses each of these highly valued goals for teacher educators as a case study reveals the impact of involving teacher candidates in interdisciplinary focused, constructivist and reflective models and planning for teaching, and then student teaching, which reaffirms this approach. Most significant is the phenomenon of several teacher candidates continuing their development and study of innovative drama play projects with their classes after the semester finishes. The resulting transformations in professional identity development, self-efficacy and student-teacher relationships confirm the value of the teacher education model which has developed over a decade of practice (Lyublinskaya & Kerekes, 2009.

  18. Opportunities and Challenges in Training Elementary School Teachers in Classroom Management: Initial Results from Classroom Management in Action, an Online Professional Development Program (United States)

    Marquez, Brion; Vincent, Claudia; Marquez, Jessie; Pennefather, Jordan; Smolkowski, Keith; Sprague, Jeffrey


    Classroom management remains a challenge for many teachers. The approach and delivery of professional development (PD) in classroom management may determine how well teachers are able to apply evidence-based approaches in their classrooms. We use existing literature to identify the key features that make in-service PD effective and present them as…

  19. Inclusive and Individually Adapted Education in Norway Results from a Survey Study in Two Municipalities Focusing the Roles of Headteachers, Teachers and Curriculum Planning (United States)

    Buli-Holmberg, Jorun; Nilsen, Sven; Skogen, Kjell


    This article aims to throw light on how the intentions behind inclusive and individually adapted education in Norwegian compulsory schools are followed up in practice with regard to central aspects of the roles of headteachers, teachers and curriculum planning. The study was carried out as a postal survey of compulsory school teachers in two…

  20. Lost at Sea: Summary Results of a Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teacher Induction and Implications for Administrative Practice (United States)

    Shockley, Robert; Watlington, Eliah; Felsher, Rivka


    This paper summarizes a qualitative meta-analysis of the empirical research on the effectiveness of teacher induction programs over the last decade for the purpose of identifying the essential elements that make them effective in reducing teacher attrition. The study used Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation as the theoretical framework for…

  1. Mongolian Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius


    The article comprises the result of a research project conducted among Mongolian teachers in a period of transition. The study is based on quantitative as well as on qualitative data. The study is carried out as part of research activities in an educational development programme.......The article comprises the result of a research project conducted among Mongolian teachers in a period of transition. The study is based on quantitative as well as on qualitative data. The study is carried out as part of research activities in an educational development programme....

  2. Diversity, Neoliberalism and Teacher Education (United States)

    Rodriguez, Arturo; Magill, Kevin Russell


    In this essay, we conduct a brief analytical review of teacher preparation programs, which claim to prepare lifelong culturally responsive teachers. Initial evaluation revealed factors limiting program success, they include: deeply embedded dominant ideological assumptions, use of traditional methods to train teachers, inability to understand or…

  3. Smith-Magenis syndrome results in disruption of CLOCK gene transcription and reveals an integral role for RAI1 in the maintenance of circadian rhythmicity. (United States)

    Williams, Stephen R; Zies, Deborah; Mullegama, Sureni V; Grotewiel, Michael S; Elsea, Sarah H


    Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a circadian-rhythm-dysfunction disorder. However, the molecular cause of the circadian defect in SMS has not been described. The circadian oscillator temporally orchestrates metabolism, physiology, and behavior largely through transcriptional modulation. Data support RAI1 as a transcriptional regulator, but the genes it might regulate are largely unknown. Investigation into the role that RAI1 plays in the regulation of gene transcription and circadian maintenance revealed that RAI1 regulates the transcription of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a key component of the mammalian circadian oscillator that transcriptionally regulates many critical circadian genes. Data further show that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and Rai1 in SMS fibroblasts and the mouse hypothalamus, respectively, results in the transcriptional dysregulation of the circadian clock and causes altered expression and regulation of multiple circadian genes, including PER2, PER3, CRY1, BMAL1, and others. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation of RAI1 and Rai1 leads to a disrupted circadian rhythm and thus results in an abnormal sleep-wake cycle, which can contribute to an abnormal feeding pattern and dependent cognitive performance. Finally, we conclude that RAI1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CLOCK, pinpointing a novel and important role for this gene in the circadian oscillator.

  4. Why Teachers Fail (United States)

    Bass, Ronald E.


    Peer and subordinate criticism directed at the beginning industrial arts teacher ultimately leads to teacher failure. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning is used as an analogy to explain how the beginning teacher is conditioned to the norms of teaching, resulting in the loss of his enthusiam and idealism. (DS)

  5. School Principals' Authentic Leadership and Teachers' Psychological Capital: Teachers' Perspectives (United States)

    Feng, Feng-I


    This study examined teachers' perceptions of principals' authentic leadership and the relationship of authentic leadership to teachers' psychological capital in Taiwan. A total of 1,429 elementary and secondary school teachers were surveyed. The results showed that teachers perceived their principals' authentic leadership as moderate and that the…

  6. Effects of Teacher Evaluation on Teacher Job Satisfaction in Ohio (United States)

    Downing, Pamela R.


    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore whether or not increased accountability measures found in the Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) impacted teacher job satisfaction. Student growth measures required by the OTES increased teacher accountability. Today, teachers are largely evaluated based on the results of what they do in the…

  7. Development of Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (United States)

    Koc, Ebru Melek


    This study aimed to develop and investigate the validity and reliability of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (MTRI). A total of 1843 student teachers in the Distance English Teacher Training Program participated in the study. The 58 items of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory underwent principal factor analysis, which revealed nine factors…

  8. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers (United States)

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir


    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  9. Initial Results from a New Lake Elsinore Sediment Core Reveal Evidence for Hydrologic Change During the Late-Glacial/Holocene Transition (United States)

    Fantozzi, J. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Lund, S.; Hiner, C.


    While there are several well-developed records of marine climate from Southern California that span the late-Glacial/Holocene transition, there are currently no high-resolution terrestrial counterparts. In June 2010, a 20 meter sediment core covering 10-30 meters below the sediment-water interface was extracted from the depocenter of Lake Elsinore, California - the largest natural, permanent lake in the region. Here, we present the initial results of a multi-proxy study on the section of this sediment core that spans the late-Glacial/Holocene transition (10-18.5 m below the sediment-water line [bswl]). Initial results reveal three distinct sediment units. Unit I (10-15m bswl) is composed of a homogeneous, often mottled (bioturbated?), gray mud with high and moderately variable magnetic susceptibility values (avg=1.20±0.29x10-7m3/kg), low organic matter content (6.50±0.83%), and highly variable carbonate content (12.21±4.89%). Unit II (15-17m bswl) is a transitional unit that begins as a gray mud similar to that of Unit I and transitions into a massive to laminated brown mud with low and variable magnetic susceptibility values (0.88±0.38x10-7m3/kg), increasing organic matter content (11.52±2.19%), and highly variable carbonate content (10.84±4.75%). Unit III (17-18.5m bswl) is characterized by a massive to laminated brown mud with very low and stable magnetic susceptibility values (0.87±0.19x10-7m3/kg), declining organic matter content (11.21±2.02%), and low to negligible carbonate content (5.0±0.87%). Together, these data indicate a significant change in Lake Elsinore’s depositional environment that is likely related to hydrologic change (i.e. average lake level) during the late Glacial to Holocene transition - a change that has not previously been documented in Southern California.

  10. Teacher Working Conditions that Matter (United States)

    Leithwood, Ken; McAdie, Pat


    To advance understanding of the issues concerning teachers' working conditions, the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario commissioned one of the authors to do an analytical review of literature on teachers' working conditions. This resulted in the publication, "Teacher Working Conditions That Matter: Evidence for Change." The…

  11. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.


    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

  12. Trait Emotional Intelligence of Greek Special Education Teachers in Relation to Burnout and Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Platsidou, Maria


    This study investigates perceived emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to burnout syndrome and job satisfaction in primary special education teachers from Greece. EI was measured by the EIS developed by Schutte et al. (1998). Factor analysis revealed that four factors can be identified in the EIS. Results showed that Greek teachers reported…

  13. The Pre-Service Science Teachers' Mental Models for Concept of Atoms and Learning Difficulties (United States)

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet


    The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…

  14. Investigation of the impacts of physical environment on teacher-child communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Erbay*


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the effects of physical environment in pre-school education on teacher-child communication. The sample of the study is composed of 42 nursery classes and their teachers in primary schools affiliated with Konya Provincial Directorate of National Education. The study was conducted in survey model. In the study, “The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- the sub-dimensions of Classroom Space and Furnishings” was used to assess physical environment and “Teacher-Child Communication Questionnaire” which was developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher-child communication. The relation between physical environment and teacher-child communication was tested with Spearman Correlation. The results of the study revealed that teacher-child communication is a significantly related with ECER-S daily care, play and learning space sub-scale and furnishings for relaxation and comfort sub-scale.

  15. Factors That Promote/Inhibit Teaching Gifted Students in a Regular Class: Results from a Professional Development Program for Chemistry Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Benny


    Full Text Available The current study aims at better understanding the factors that promote and hinder chemistry teachers in teaching a gifted student in their regular chemistry class. In addition, it provides evidence of ways that teachers perceive a professional development course dealing with a gifted student in a mixed-abilities science classroom. Eighty-four photonarratives were collected from 14 chemistry teachers that participated in the course about teaching a gifted student in a regular classroom (41 promoting, 43 hindering factors. Factors that concern chemistry education specifically as well as general practices were raised by the teachers. The teachers were asked to “take a picture” (namely, of an external object or person; they considered most of the factors to be internal factors that are dependent on themselves and therefore concluded that they have the power to influence them. The internal factors can be addressed in the PD course; however the external factors should be managed by the school principal and district educational administration.

  16. Mathematics teacher candidates’ evaluations of teaching and learning process in faculty of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Baştürk


    Full Text Available Teacher has an important role in the formation of subjects that society needs. Therefore teacher training programs should be continuously reviewed and improved to have well-trained teachers. This study aimed to investigate master's non-thesis program in education faculty according to student teachers' opinions. A questionnaire included one open-ended question was administered to 36 student teachers in Secondary School Mathematics Education. Data were examined and qualitatively analyzed for the common themes by means of qualitative analysis software. The results revealed that while relations between student teachers and lecturers were considered as positive by student teachers, there were some problems in courses, courses' organizations and given homework.

  17. Level of Information & Communication Technology (ICT Usage Among ESL Teachers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyosha Morshedi Hendehjan


    Full Text Available The current study attempted to identify the level of (ICT usage among ESL teachers, the difference between the level of ICT usage based on gender and age, the teachers’ perception towards ICT usage and the barriers faced by teachers. This study was a quantitative study using the descriptive survey approach. The total number of participants was 90 ESL student teachers. Data collection involved the use of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that the level of ICT among teachers was moderate to high. The findings also revealed that females used ICT more than males and younger teachers used ICT more than older teachers. In addition, the level of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness was moderate to high and high respectively. The findings also indicated that the level of barrier among teachers was low.

  18. Teacher educators modelling their teachers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje


    The teacher educator is always also a teacher, and as a role model may have an important impact on student teachers' views on teaching. However, what is the impact of these teacher educator's own role models on their teaching views and practices? Do teacher educators simply imitate the positive role

  19. Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Bullying (United States)

    Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F


    This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…

  20. Exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and teachers' job satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    do Carmo Amorim Neto, Roque; Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Panzer, Shannon


    This exploratory study has two goals: exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction among teachers, and identifying the demographic characteristics associated with both variables. Using a snowball technique, a sample of 385 K-12 Brazilian teachers from public...... and private schools responded to the survey. Statistical analysis revealed a moderate correlation between entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction. Results also show that gender and educational level are associated with entrepreneurial behavior. The discussion includes theoretical and practical...

  1. Student classroom misbehavior: an exploratory study based on teachers' perceptions. (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L


    This study aimed to examine the conceptions of junior secondary school student misbehaviors in classroom, and to identify the most common, disruptive, and unacceptable student problem behaviors from teachers' perspective. Twelve individual interviews with teachers were conducted. A list of 17 student problem behaviors was generated. Results showed that the most common and disruptive problem behavior was talking out of turn, followed by nonattentiveness, daydreaming, and idleness. The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn and verbal aggression. The findings revealed that teachers perceived student problem behaviors as those behaviors involving rule-breaking, violating the implicit norms or expectations, being inappropriate in the classroom settings and upsetting teaching and learning, which mainly required intervention from teachers.

  2. Student Classroom Misbehavior: An Exploratory Study Based on Teachers' Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun


    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the conceptions of junior secondary school student misbehaviors in classroom, and to identify the most common, disruptive, and unacceptable student problem behaviors from teachers' perspective. Twelve individual interviews with teachers were conducted. A list of 17 student problem behaviors was generated. Results showed that the most common and disruptive problem behavior was talking out of turn, followed by nonattentiveness, daydreaming, and idleness. The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn and verbal aggression. The findings revealed that teachers perceived student problem behaviors as those behaviors involving rule-breaking, violating the implicit norms or expectations, being inappropriate in the classroom settings and upsetting teaching and learning, which mainly required intervention from teachers.

  3. Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies (United States)

    Ragnarsdottir, Hanna


    This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

  4. Patterns in the Initial Teaching Assignments of Secondary English Teachers: Implications for Teacher Agency and Retention (United States)

    Bieler, Deborah; Holmes, Stephen; Wolfe, Edward W.


    This study examined the teaching assignments of English teachers in 13 Mid-Atlantic high schools across five states. Data on the experience levels of 175 English teachers teaching 246 classes and surveys from 85 teacher participants were collected. Findings reveal that major agency-thwarting challenges face new English teachers: They typically are…

  5. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin


    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  6. Impacting Teachers' Understanding of Geometric Similarity: Results from Field Testing of the Learning and Teaching Geometry Professional Development Materials (United States)

    Seago, Nanette M.; Jacobs, Jennifer K.; Heck, Daniel J.; Nelson, Courtney L.; Malzahn, Kristen A.


    The main goal of the Learning and Teaching Geometry project is to build professional development materials that provide opportunities for teachers to learn about mathematical similarity through the use of videocases, in which specific and increasingly complex mathematical ideas are presented within the dynamics of classroom practice. The central…

  7. Helping teachers in middle and high school to do self-evaluations of teaching (United States)

    Esswein, Jennifer; Aubrecht, Gordon; Schmitt, Bill


    Formative assessments can allow teachers to immediately understand what is and is not working in their classrooms for the purpose of changing how they teach various content. We encouraged teachers who are participating in a project funded through the Ohio Department of Education to do real formative assessments as an application for the development of formative assessments in the classroom in a rurally located, city high-needs district in the state of Ohio. The authors wrote formative assessments (CFAs) for the teachers in differing categories. Teachers had the opportunity to provide feedback, the CFAs were changed if necessary, and then they analyzed the CFA at the both the beginning and the end of the quarter. The emphasis in the analysis was on what student thinking as expressed in writing reveals. The pretests reveal what students think at the beginning, giving the teacher an idea of what ideas might already exist, right or wrong; the posttest should reveal to the teacher whether the instruction succeeded. The final quarter of the year, we asked the teachers themselves to draft assessments for their classes. Results indicate changes not only in the way teachers view their pedagogical approaches, but also in how teachers consider student personal epistemologies.

  8. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana


    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  9. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z~2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.


    The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-SFR*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. They extend the dynamical range in SFR and Ms of our compilation of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4

  10. Revealing pre-earthquake signatures in atmosphere and ionosphere associated with 2015 M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Davidenko, Dmitry


    We analyze retrospectively/prospectively the transient variations of three different physical parameters of atmosphere during the time of M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal: outgoing earth radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC and the thermodynamic proprieties in the lower atmosphere. We found that in mid March 2015 a rapid augment of satellite observed earth radiation in atmosphere and the anomaly located in close vicinity to the future M7.8 epicenter reached the maximum on April 21-22. Our continuous satellite analysis revealed prospectively the new strong anomaly on May 3th, which was the reason to contemplate another large event in the area. On May 12, 2015 a large aftershock of M7.3 occurred. The analysis of air temperature from weather ground station near Katmandu shows analogous patterns with offset 1-2 days earlier to the satellite anomalies. The GPS/TEC data analysis indicates an augment and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value during April 22-24 period. A strong negative TEC anomaly in the crest of ...

  11. The Atlas-3D project - IX. The merger origin of a fast and a slow rotating Early-Type Galaxy revealed with deep optical imaging: first results

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Serra, Paolo; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Ferriere, Etienne; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M


    The mass assembly of galaxies leaves imprints in their outskirts, such as shells and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of such fine structures depend on the main acting mechanisms - secular evolution, minor or major mergers - and on the age of the last substantial accretion event. We use this to constrain the mass assembly history of two apparently relaxed nearby Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) selected from the Atlas-3D sample, NGC 680 and NGC 5557. Our ultra deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope reach 29 mag/arcsec^2 in the g-band. They reveal very low-surface brightness (LSB) filamentary structures around these ellipticals. Among them, a gigantic 160 kpc long tail East of NGC 5557 hosts gas-rich star-forming objects. NGC 680 exhibits two major diffuse plumes apparently connected to extended HI tails, as well as a series of arcs and shells. Comparing the outer stellar and gaseous morphology of the two ellipticals with that predicted from models of colliding galax...

  12. Upper Secondary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Chemical Bonding Models (United States)

    Bergqvist, Anna; Drechsler, Michal; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang


    Researchers have shown a growing interest in science teachers' professional knowledge in recent decades. The article focuses on how chemistry teachers impart chemical bonding, one of the most important topics covered in upper secondary school chemistry courses. Chemical bonding is primarily taught using models, which are key for understanding science. However, many studies have determined that the use of models in science education can contribute to students' difficulties understanding the topic, and that students generally find chemical bonding a challenging topic. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' knowledge of teaching chemical bonding. The study focuses on three essential components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): (1) the students' understanding, (2) representations, and (3) instructional strategies. We analyzed lesson plans about chemical bonding generated by 10 chemistry teachers with whom we also conducted semi-structured interviews about their teaching. Our results revealed that the teachers were generally unaware of how the representations of models they used affected student comprehension. The teachers had trouble specifying students' difficulties in understanding. Moreover, most of the instructional strategies described were generic and insufficient for promoting student understanding. Additionally, the teachers' rationale for choosing a specific representation or activity was seldom directed at addressing students' understanding. Our results indicate that both PCK components require improvement, and suggest that the two components should be connected. Implications for the professional development of pre-service and in-service teachers are discussed.

  13. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education. (United States)

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A


    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis were conducted with 10 teachers who delivered nutrition education in their classrooms. Inductive coding was used to determine invariant constituents, reduce constituents to categories, and cluster categories into themes. Reliability and validity were accomplished through intercoder agreement, audio recording, triangulation, bracketing, and member checking. Results: Results identified 5 core themes related to roles teachers play in nutrition education, the importance placed upon nutrition, motivation for supplementary activities, barriers, and a triadic relationship between students, teachers, and curriculum. Discussion: Findings reveal interactions within the nutrition education experience in which teachers balance barriers with their value of nutrition education and motivation to help students make healthy choices. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators should work with classroom teachers at the program design, implementation, and evaluation stages of curriculum development to better address needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for students.

  14. Teacher Collaboration Praxis: Conflicts, Borders, and Ideologies From a Micropolitical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Keranen


    Full Text Available This paper looks at a feature of teacher collaboration within Achinstein’s (2002 micropolitics of collaboration but from an intrapersonal perspective. Results discussed feature issues of conflict, borders, and ideologies within each participating teacher rather than between teachers. Unresolved or unacknowledged intrapersonal conflict might lead to interpersonal conflict of the type that does not enrich collaborative efforts. Findings from this study reveal that participating teachers did experience intrapersonal conflicts that fit within Achinstein’s micropolitical framework. These intrapersonal conflicts were not regarded as aberrant or pathological behavior, but as a natural effect of collaboration and growth.

  15. Barriers perceived by teachers at work, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout. (United States)

    Doménech Betoret, Fernando; Gómez Artiga, Amparo


    This study examines the relationships among stressors, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout in a sample of 724 Spanish primary and secondary teachers. We understood stressors as barriers perceived by teachers that interfere with their work meeting learning objectives and which cause them stress and burnout. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression revealed that pedagogical barriers had significant positive effects on the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, the results show not only the moderator role played by coping strategies in the pedagogical barriers-burnout dimensions relationship, but also the association between self-efficacy and the coping strategies used by teachers. Practical implications are discussed.

  16. My teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ My name is Yanjiaai. I am 14 years old. I study in YuYing School. My Chinese teacher and English teacher is Miss Du, she is tall and thin, and she is very strict. My math teacher is Miss Zhang, she is short and strong, she is very strick too. But they are very nice, I love my teachers!

  17. Expectations for English Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the article,the author consciously compared American educational systems and the students' expectation of their teachers with their Chinese equivalents.An investigation about students' expectations towards their teachers is done among college freshmen she was teaching.The result is both exciting and worrying.Through careful analysis and summary she has made,the author hopes it will arouse concerns of both teachers and students.

  18. Can teachers' global ratings identify children with academic problems? (United States)

    Glascoe, F P


    Physicians often elicit ratings from teachers when making diagnostic, treatment, or referral decisions. The purpose of this study was to view the relationship between teachers' ratings and children's academic skills, assess the utility of teacher ratings in detecting academic problems, and thus determine whether physicians can depend on teacher ratings when making decisions about patients' needs. Subjects were a national sample of 80 teachers and 934 children between 6 and 13 years of age participating in a test standardization study. Families were representative of United States demographics in terms of parental level of education, income, and ethnicity, and sites were geographically diverse elementary schools. Children were administered the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills--Revised (CIBS-R), a diagnostic academic achievement test. Teachers rated children's academic performance on a five-point scale ranging from far above average to far below average and were blinded to the results of the CIBS-R. Teacher ratings varied significantly with children's performance for all academic domains. Logistic regression revealed that teacher ratings were best predicted by children's performance in basic reading skills, followed by math skills, and were not influenced by race, parents' level of education, history of retention, or gender. Participation in Title I services, testing in winter or spring, and parents who spoke a language other than English produced significantly lower ratings. Nevertheless, teachers rated as average many students with mild to moderate academic difficulties. School system personnel and health care providers should avoid sole dependence on global teacher ratings when deciding which students need special education referrals or other services. Supplementing teacher ratings with standardized screening test results is needed to ensure accurate decision-making.

  19. NEWEST teachers (United States)


    NEWEST, or NASA Educational Workshops for Elementary School Teachers, is a two-week honors program for teachers, sponsored by NASA, the National Science Teachers Association, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the International Technology Education-Association. A total of 25 teachers from the United States and U.S. State Department schools in Europe are chosen to work with NASA and other federal agency science and engineering professionals. Pictured, participants make hot air balloons as part of their activities.

  20. Analysis on physical examination results among teachers in a comprehensive university of Baoji City%宝鸡市某综合大学教职工体检结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective] To learn the health examination condition among teachers in Baoji University of Arts and Sciences,offer an evidence for further implementation of medical,health care and prevention among teachers.[Methods] The physical examination results (903 samples) of teachers in Baoji University of Arts and Sciences in 2012 were collected and analyzed.[Results] The hypertension,hyperlipemia,fatty liver,gall stone,electrocardiographic abnormality,hysteromyoma and prostatic hyperplasia were commonly encountered diseases among teachers.Teachers over 60 years old had higher incidence rates,and the incidence rate of nine diseases in males was higher than that in females.[Conclusion] The health condition of teachers is facing a challenge.It is necessary to strengthen the medical and health care among teachers,pay attention on physical examination,guide reasonable exercise and diet,and carry out activity health intervention.%目的 调查了解宝鸡文理学院教职工健康检查状况,为高校进一步做好教职工医疗、保健和预防工作提供借鉴.方法 对宝鸡文理学院2012年教职工健康检查结果资料(903份)进行分类统计.结果 高血压、高血脂、脂肪肝、胆结石、心电图异常、子宫肌瘤、前列腺增生等为教职工高发病,其中60岁以上组为各种疾病的高发年龄组.其中共检的9种疾病,均为男性发病率高于女性.结论 教职工整体健康状况令人担忧,应加强教职工医疗和预防保健工作,重视教职工体检工作,引导教职工体育锻炼和合理饮食,进行积极的健康干预.

  1. The Effects of Transformational Leadership and the Sense of Calling on Job Burnout among Special Education Teachers (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Zimmerli, Laurie; Hoffer, Harry E.


    This article examines the effects of transformational leadership of supervisors and the sense of calling on job burnout among special education teachers. A total of 256 special education teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and rated their supervisors on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results reveal that transformational…

  2. Classroom Behaviour Management: The Effects of In-Service Training on Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs (United States)

    Gaudreau, Nancy; Royer, Égide; Frenette, Éric; Beaumont, Claire; Flanagan, Tara


    We examined a training program in classroom management in relation to the efficacy beliefs of elementary school teachers. The training program used a quasi-experimental design with a waitlist control group. Twenty-seven elementary school teachers in the greater Quebec City area participated. The repeated measures ANOVA results revealed positive…

  3. Teachers' Beliefs about Educational Justice in an Advancement via Individual Determination (A.V.I.D.) Program (United States)

    Gillmore, Marina V.; Sullivan, M. Alayne


    This research project explored the impact of seven teachers' life experiences on their core beliefs about educationally just teaching philosophy and practices. Results of a qualitative, phenomenological case study yielded six themes, each revealing particular connections between teachers' life experiences and their beliefs about educational…

  4. University Teachers' Job Dissatisfaction: Application of Two-Factor Theory--A Case of Pakistani Education System (United States)

    Mir, Imran Anwar


    This qualitative case study presents the reasons of teachers' job dissatisfaction in the government educational institutes in Pakistan. This case study is based on the two factor theory of Herzberg. The results of this case study reveal four core factors that cause job dissatisfaction among teachers in the public sector universities in developing…

  5. Construction of teacher knowledge in context: Preparing elementary teachers to teach mathematics and science (United States)

    Lowery, Maye Norene Vail


    The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of how preservice teacher construct teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of elementary mathematics and science and to determine the extent of that knowledge in a school-based setting. Preservice teachers, university instructors, inservice teachers, and other school personnel were involved in this context-specific study. Evidence of the preservice teachers' knowledge construction (its acquisition, its dimensions, and the social context) was collected through the use of a qualitative methodology. Collected data included individual and group interviews, course documents, artifacts, and preservice teaching portfolios. Innovative aspects of this integrated mathematics and science elementary methods course included standards-based instruction with immediate access to field experiences. Grade-level teams of preservice and inservice teachers planned and implemented lessons in mathematics and science for elementary students. An on-site, portable classroom building served as a mathematics and science teaching and learning laboratory. A four-stage analysis was performed, revealing significant patterns of learning. An ecosystem of learning within a constructivist learning environment was identified to contain three systems: the university system; the school system; and the cohort of learners system. A mega system for the construction of teacher knowledge was revealed in the final analysis. Learning venues were discovered to be the conduits of learning in a situated learning context. Analysis and synthesis of data revealed an extensive acquisition of teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge through identified learning components. Patience, flexibility, and communication were identified as necessities for successful teaching. Learning components included: collaboration with inservice teachers; implementation of discovery learning and hands-on/minds-on learning; small groupwork; lesson planning

  6. Preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of language constructs in Finland. (United States)

    Aro, Mikko; Björn, Piia Maria


    The aim of the study was to explore the Finnish preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of language constructs relevant for literacy acquisition. A total of 150 preservice teachers and 74 inservice teachers participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire that assessed self-perceived expertise in reading instruction, knowledge of phonology and phonics, and knowledge of morphology. The inservice teachers outperformed the preservice teachers in knowledge of phonology and phonics, as well as morphology. Both groups' knowledge of morphology was markedly lower than their knowledge of phonology and phonics. Because early reading instruction does not focus on the morphological level of language but is phonics-based, this result was expected. However, the findings also revealed a lack of explicit knowledge of basic phonological constructs and less-than-optimal phonemic awareness skills in both groups. Problems in phonemic skills manifested mostly as responding to the phonological tasks based on orthographic knowledge, which reflects an overreliance on the one-to-one correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. The preservice teachers' perceptions of expertise were weakly related to their knowledge and skills. Among the inservice teachers, perceived expertise and knowledge of language constructs were completely unrelated. Although the study was exploratory, these findings suggest that within the Finnish teacher education there is a need to focus more on explicit content studies for language structures and the concepts relevant for literacy instruction, as well as phonological and phonemic skills.

  7. Student teaching from the perspectives of cooperating teachers and pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zülküf Altan


    Full Text Available To facilitate student-teachers’ transition from internship to permanent positions, they are advised to meticulously learn from real experiences of practicum process as it might form their future teaching practices. To help promote the effectiveness of this process, investigating student-teaching from stakeholder perspectives could be enriching. Research on the cooperating teacher has mainly dealt with the perspective of student-teachers; however, this study focuses on student teaching process from the perspective of both cooperating teachers and the pupils in student-teacher’s classes of EFL in a Turkish teaching context. We administered open-ended questionnaires to 21 teachers and 114 pupils and carried out inductive qualitative content analysis to analyze the data. The study elaborates on the cooperating teachers’ and pupils’ perceptions of the student-teachers as well as the impact of their teaching. Results reveal that the arrival of student-teachers was highly welcomed by most of the students and some of the cooperating teachers even though some expectations from student-teachers were not met.

  8. 教员队伍变化对教学成果影响的预测模型%Prediction Model on Influence of Teacher Quantity on Teaching Result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩维; 岳奎志; 杨帆; 史建国


    This paper builts the stock and flow diagrams about every element of impacting on teaching result with the change of teacher quantity on the basis of system dynamics, establishes the prediction model about teaching result in college, and simulates with Vensim PLE 5.9 to solve the bad influence on the teaching experience and teaching result when the teacher quantity has changed in a college. The simulation test shows that the model can make prediction on the teaching result trend and provide theoretical evidence for making plan of hiring and firing teachers with consideration of teaching result.%为解决院校教员数量波动对教学经验及教学成果的影响问题,基于系统动力学理论,构建影响教员队伍变化对教学成果影响的各元素存量流量图,建立院校教学成果预测模型,并以系统动力学软件Vensim PLE 5.9为平台进行建模仿真.运行结果表明,该模型能进行教学成果趋势的预测,可为考虑教学成果因素时教员应聘与解聘方案的制定提供理论依据.

  9. Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Perceptions of Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoan; Shi, Qingmin; Tonelson, Stephen; Robinson, Jack


    This study investigated preservice and inservice teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of teacher self-disclosure. A sample of 180 preservice teachers and 135 preK-12 teachers participated in the study. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups of teachers in their perceptions of appropriateness of teacher…

  10. Exploring Factors Related to Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.; Sawyer, Brook; Tompkins, Virginia


    This study examined how teacher (teaching experience, perceptions of teacher collaboration and teacher influence) and classroom (children's engagement) characteristics predicted teacher self-efficacy for 48 preschool teachers in the U.S. Results showed a significant interaction effect between teachers' perceptions of collaboration and children's…

  11. Evidence of Two Component Accretion Flows as revealed by time lag properties: Results of Long-Term RXTE/ASM Data Analysis (United States)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar


    Long-term RXTE/ASM X-ray data of several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs) are analyzed. The results of this analysis show the existence of two component accretion flow (TCAF) in both low-mass and high-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs & HMXBs). Large disks with long viscous timescales in the accreting matter with high angular momentum are prevalent in LMXBs due to processes like Roche lobe overflow, while small disks with little viscous delays are observed in HMXBs, primarily because of wind accretion. Two parameters are defined as photon indices, independent of the choice of a BHC, in order to find correlation between the two components, namely, the Keplerian disk component and the sub-Keplerian component, thereby estimating the time lag between two aforesaid timescales. Fluxes of hard and soft photons are observed to be anti-correlated with respect to these photon indices. The time lags give us an idea of the viscosity in the Keplerian component.

  12. Teacher-child relationships and academic achievement: a multilevel propensity score model approach. (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; O'Connor, Erin E; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G


    A robust body of research finds positive cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between teacher-child relationships and children's academic achievement in elementary school. Estimating the causal effect of teacher-child relationships on children's academic achievement, however, is challenged by selection bias at the individual and school level. To address these issues, we used two multilevel propensity score matching approaches to estimate the effect of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math and reading achievement during children's transition to first grade. Multi-informant data were collected on 324 low-income, Black and Hispanic students, and 112 kindergarten and first-grade teachers. Results revealed significant effects of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math achievement in first grade. No significant effects of teacher-child relationships were detected for reading achievement. Implications for intervention development and public policy are discussed.

  13. Choice and control in a museal environment: a study with science teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Tiago dos Santos Soares


    Full Text Available This study aims to understand teachers’ strategies of planning students’ visits to science museums and how they intend to relate this visit to formal science teaching. The study was conducted with 21 teachers of Science, Physics, Chemistry and Biology, randomly identified among visitors to a science museum, who were accompanying their students. Interviews and written records of teachers about teachers strategies were analyzed using the textual discursive analysis revealed five levels of control (or choice adopted by teachers for planning and tracking of students' visits to the museum. The results showed that most teachers surveyed use control elements, requesting notes for reports to be retrieved in school. The evaluation mechanisms planned by teachers after the visit showed an intention for preserving and contextualization of the museum experience in other contexts, like in school.

  14. An evaluation of computer-based programmed instruction for promoting teachers' greetings of parents by name. (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hanley, Gregory P


    Although greeting parents by name facilitates subsequent parent-teacher communication, baseline measures revealed that 4 preschool teachers never or rarely greeted parents by name during morning check-in. To promote frequent and accurate use of parents' names by teachers, the effects of a fully automated computerized assessment and programmed instruction (CAPI) intervention were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. The CAPI intervention involved assessment and training of relations among parents' and children's pictures and names, and produced rapid learning of parent names. The CAPI intervention also resulted in substantial improvements in the classroom use of parents' names for 3 of the 4 teachers; however, a supervisor-mediated feedback package (consisting of instructions, differential reinforcement, and error correction) was necessary to maintain name use for 2 of those teachers. The practical strengths and limitations of computer-based teacher training are discussed.

  15. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from A Camembert Cheese reveals contradictory findings to recent results from a Human Short-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eMönch


    Full Text Available Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities which may affect their nutritional value. In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analysed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters Cmax, tmax and AUC were determined in plasma within the interval of 0 to 12 hours. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and Cmax for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64% compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50 % bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism.

  16. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study. (United States)

    Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael


    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional "value." In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analyzed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters C max, t max, and area under the curve (AUC) were determined in plasma within the interval of 0-12 h. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and C max for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64%) compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%). It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism.

  17. Preservice Teachers: Teacher Preparation, Multicultural Curriculum and Culturally Relevant Teaching (United States)

    Hopkins-Gillispie, Delphina


    This study is part of a larger study that uses mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative methods) to investigate preservice teachers' knowledge and understanding of multiculturalism and to prepare preservice teachers to work in diverse classrooms. The results indicate two findings: 1) that preservice teachers come from homogeneous backgrounds;…

  18. Job Satisfaction of a Physical Education Teacher as Seen by School Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Katarzyna


    Full Text Available In A high level of satisfaction with a job influences the effectiveness and increases the quality of performed tasks. In the case of physical education teachers it is connected not only with a higher commitment to passing knowledge and skills but also with instilling passion in their students. The aim of the study was to analyse how school community perceives job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The research included 148 teachers and 171 students who were divided into three groups by means of random-purposive sampling. The groups were as follows: physical education teachers (n=22, teachers of other subjects (n=22 and students (n=22. The results obtained from these respondents (n=66 were subjected to further analysis. In the study a modified Polish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS prepared by Juczyński (2001 was used. It made it possible to diagnose the job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The analyses revealed that the subjects assess the job satisfaction of a physical education teacher at an average or low level. This assessment showed significant differences between physical education teachers and teachers of other subjects. The study also revealed differences between groups with regard to two out of five scores in the SWLS.

  19. Synthesis of Research on Teachers' Questioning. (United States)

    Gall, Meredith


    Reseach on use of questioning in classroom teaching reveals that recitation is a poor method, but teachers use it anyway because it is effective in teaching curriculum that is largely textbook based. Teacher educators may be advised to help teachers learn to use recitation well. (MD)

  20. 2012年宝鸡市某高校教职工健康检查中B超结果%Results of B-ultrasound examination among teachers in a university of Baoji City in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 了解高校教师的健康状况,以开展有针对性的健康干预,提高教师生活质量.方法 对宝鸡文理学院2012年教职工健康检查中B超检查结果资料按年龄、性别、岗位等进行分类统计.结果 脂肪肝、胆结石、子宫肌瘤、前列腺增生、胆囊息肉等为教职工高发病,其中60岁以上组为各种疾病的高发年龄组,且男性发病率高于女性.结论 教职工整体健康状况令人担忧,不良的生活方式、体育锻炼较少、膳食营养摄入不均衡是导致疾病的主要因素,应进行积极的健康干预.%[Objective] To learn the health condition of university teachers,carry out effective health intervention,and improve the life quality of teachers.[Methods] The results of B-ultrasound examination of teachers were collected from physical examination in Baoji University of Arts and Sciences in 2012,and the data were analyzed according to age,gender and post.[Results]The fatty liver,gall stone,hysteromyoma,prostatic hyperplasia and gallbladder polyps were commonly encountered diseases among teachers.Teachers over 60 years old had higher incidence rates,and the incidence rate in males was higher than that in females.[Conclusion] The health condition of teachers is facing a challenge.The main reasons for this problem include unhealthy life style,lack of exercise and unbalanced dietary,so it is necessary to carry out the health intervention actively.

  1. Revealing Rembrandt

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    Andrew J Parker


    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  2. Teacher argumentation in the secondary science classroom: Images of two modes of scientific inquiry (United States)

    Gray, Ron E.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine scientific arguments constructed by secondary science teachers during instruction. The analysis focused on how arguments constructed by teachers differed based on the mode of inquiry underlying the topic. Specifically, how did the structure and content of arguments differ between experimentally and historically based topics? In addition, what factors mediate these differences? Four highly experienced high school science teachers were observed daily during instructional units for both experimental and historical science topics. Data sources include classroom observations, field notes, reflective memos, classroom artifacts, a nature of science survey, and teacher interviews. The arguments were analyzed for structure and content using Toulmin's argumentation pattern and Walton's schemes for presumptive reasoning revealing specific patterns of use between the two modes of inquiry. Interview data was analyzed to determine possible factors mediating these patterns. The results of this study reveal that highly experienced teachers present arguments to their students that, while simple in structure, reveal authentic images of science based on experimental and historical modes of inquiry. Structural analysis of the data revealed a common trend toward a greater amount of scientific data used to evidence knowledge claims in the historical science units. The presumptive reasoning analysis revealed that, while some presumptive reasoning schemes remained stable across the two units (e.g. 'causal inferences' and 'sign' schemes), others revealed different patterns of use including the 'analogy', 'evidence to hypothesis', 'example', and 'expert opinion' schemes. Finally, examination of the interview and survey data revealed five specific factors mediating the arguments constructed by the teachers: view of the nature of science, nature of the topic, teacher personal factors, view of students, and pedagogical decisions. These

  3. Stress levels, gender and personality factors in teachers. (United States)

    Fontana, D; Abouserie, R


    The study reports an investigation of stress levels, gender and personality dimensions in a sample of school teachers. The Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS) was used to assess teachers' stress levels and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was used to define their personality dimensions (Extroversion-Introversion, Neuroticism-High Psychoticism-Low Psychoticism). The study sample consisted of 95 teachers, 51 females and 44 males. Results revealed that the majority of teachers sampled, 72.6 per cent, were experiencing moderate levels of stress, and 23.2 per cent serious levels. T-test results showed no significant difference between male and female teachers in stress levels. Correlation analysis between stress level and personality dimensions revealed significant positive correlation between stress and psychoticism. A significant negative correlation emerged between stress and extroversion, and a significant positive correlation between stress and neuroticism. A multiple regression analysis revealed that extroversion and neuroticism were the best predictors of stress levels. Overall, the results therefore indicated that personality dimensions appear to contribute more to stress levels than do the variables of either age or gender.

  4. Social Justice Language Teacher Education (United States)

    Hawkins, Margaret R.


    Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…

  5. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science (United States)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  6. Working with "rookies": A case study of science teachers mentors (United States)

    Meagher, Thomas Francis

    To gain insight into the world of mentoring new science teachers it is imperative to examine how a veteran science teacher is influenced through his or her work mentoring a new teacher. The impacts of mentoring new teachers have been extensively researched within the literature, documenting many of the factors that may enhance the teaching abilities of new teachers (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez & Tomlinson, 2008; Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004; Wang & Odell, 2002). A thorough search of the literature reveals an unbalanced representation of research focusing on the many influences mentoring may bring to a new teacher while ignoring the impact on the mentor. It is when the activity of mentoring a new teacher is examined within the theoretical frame work of social cognitive learning, it is apparent that not only are two individuals participating in working together, but also that research needs to investigate both sides of the relationship. Also, since the mentoring relationship is situated within a community of practice, it becomes important to utilize a situated learning theoretical framework in tandem with social cognitive learning to provide the clearest picture of this dynamic social relationship. This case study seeks to share the impacts experienced by mentors through their work with new teachers and provide balance to the other side of research into the social partnership of mentoring. Five science teachers mentoring new teachers online, through the University of Minnesota's Science Engineering, Math Mentoring Program (STEMMP) and Science Teacher Induction Network (TIN), participated in this study that explores their experiences through a phenomenographic lens and follows an interpretive research approach. Four main themes emerged that identified how science teacher mentors were impacted from mentoring which included: (1) impacts to their teaching practice, (2) perceptions influenced from feedback, (3) enhanced reflection, and (4) enhancement of self-efficacy. The

  7. Families Speak to Early Childhood Teachers: Impressions and Expectations (United States)

    Thomas, Suzanne B.; Dykes, Frank


    Investigators interviewed 54 families of children with disabilities ages seven through nine to examine the expectations that families of young children hold for their child's teacher. Responses themes were examined to determine if a pattern existed between families of different groups of children. Results reveal many families expressed true…

  8. Trainee Primary Teachers' Ideas about the Ozone Layer. (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; And Others


    Survey results reveal trainee primary teachers are well informed about the nature and location of the ozone layer and appreciated that it screens the earth from ultraviolet (UV) rays, although some thought that it protects the earth from acid rain. Identifies themes in students' thinking and groups of students with different concepts. (LZ)

  9. The Experiences of Neophyte Teachers: A Critical Constructivist Assessment. (United States)

    Goddard, J. Tim; Foster, Rosemary Y.


    Interviewed beginning teachers to examine their experiences and the extent to which their preservice programs adequately prepared them for teaching. Results revealed six conceptual and temporal states through which they passed during their initial experiences: archetype; approaching the gates; clearing the gates; the gloss wears off;…

  10. Preservice Science Teachers' Views on Science-Technology-Society (United States)

    Dikmentepe, Emel; Yakar, Zeha


    The aim of this study is to investigate the views of pre-service science teachers on Science-Technology-Society (STS). In the research, a descriptive research method was used and data were collected using the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) Questionnaire. In general, the results of this study revealed that pre-service science teachers…

  11. Physics Teachers' Professional Development in the Project "physics in Context" (United States)

    Mikelskis-Seifert, Silke; Duit, Reinders


    Developing teachers' ways of thinking about "good" instruction as well as their views of the teaching and learning process is generally seen as essential for improving teaching behaviour and implementation of more efficient teaching and learning settings. Major deficiencies of German physics instruction as revealed by a nationwide video-study on the practice of physics instruction are addressed. Teachers participating in the project are made familiar with recent views of efficient instruction on the one hand and develop context-based instructional settings on the other. The evaluation resulted in partly encouraging findings. However, it also turned out that a number of teachers' ways of thinking about good instruction did only develop to a somewhat limited degree. The most impressive changes occurred for teachers who enjoyed the most intensive coaching.

  12. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships on EFL Learning

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    Carlos Alberto García Sánchez


    Full Text Available This research report aims at sharing the findings that emerged from a qualitative research study by a student-teacher, under the supervision of two practicing teacher-researchers. The study focused on the impact of teacher-student relationships in English as a foreign language learning according to the collective perceptions of a group of university students. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews, as well as the concurrent analysis of the data, based on aspects of grounded theory. The results of this inquiry revealed that university students’ sense of well-being, attitudes, and willingness to learn are improved when teachers demonstrate empathy, interest in student development, and respect.

  13. Evaluating Teacher-Candidates’ Teaching in the Extended Practicum

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    Edwin G. Ralph


    Full Text Available This study reports the aggregate results of the evaluations of the teaching performance of 17 cohorts of teacher-candidates (n = 374, who completed their extended practicum during their pre-service teacher-education program at one Western Canadian university. Over a 15-year period, one of the researchers served as the College Supervisor for these cohorts in their respective four-month internship in schools in a variety of locations throughout the province. The teacher-candidates’ final evaluations on nine categories of teaching performance revealed varying levels of strength among the skill areas. Implications of the findings are drawn: (a for the undergraduate program administrators, faculty members, and practicum-program personnel at the university connected to this study, and (b for other teacher-education institutions interested in making use of this information to help inform their deliberations in assessing/improving their own pre-service and practicum initiatives.

  14. Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel


    When studied separately, research shows that both teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are associated with adaptive motivational and emotional outcomes. This study tested whether teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are independently associated with engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. 2,569 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school (719 men, 1,850 women; M age = 45.0 yr., SD = 11.5) were administered the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, the Teacher Autonomy Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The analysis revealed that both teacher autonomy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. This study suggests that autonomy or decision latitude works positively but through different processes for teachers with high and low mastery expectations.

  15. Reflection in Teacher Education Programmes for Novice EFL Teachers

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    Panagiota G. Karkaletsi


    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the concept of reflection as an integral component of professional English Foreign Language teacher education. Many scholars have acknowledged its paramount importance in teachers’ training and development and the relevant literature reveals that reflection may herald the beginning of a true learning process towards professional growth, productive change and professional autonomy. Thus, it appears as an imperative need to evaluate whether teacher preparation programmes develop reflective abilities in their trainees. It is primarily for this reason that the study seeks to investigate whether the compulsory, induction training programme offered by the Greek State for the newly appointed English Foreign Language teachers (P.E.K. induction training programme grants them sufficient space, time and support to engage in reflective thought and action consciously and creatively. The research that is conducted employs the questionnaire as its methodological tool with a view to collecting sufficient data, whose analysis will lead to valuable conclusions. The results show that the training programme under investigation bears a great weakness since it marginalises the role of reflection leaving its rich potential unexploited. The findings provide a strong case for assigning greater value to reflective practices and for enhancing the quality of reflection in the specific induction training programme through the adoption of various promising techniques.

  16. An Investigation of Middle School Teachers' Thinking about Motivation (United States)

    Wall, Nancy Amanda


    Motivation is an important topic of concern for teachers. A review of motivation research, though, revealed that students have been the focus of motivation research. When teachers have been included in studies, researchers have asked teachers to evaluate specific students, compared teacher and student perception of the same phenomena, or asked…

  17. Teacher expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    . The question is how teacher preparation leads to effective teachers. The study Expert in Teaching paid special attention to the intention of connecting coursework more directly to practice in pre-service teacher education. The overall objective of the study was to strengthen the relationship between theory...... and practice through development of better models for bridging the teaching at college and the internship teaching. The study was a longitudinal research and development project that followed teacher students during their first three years of a four year teacher education program after the teacher education...... between college and practice teaching. These actions were evaluated in relation to a two-dimensional framework of criteria for teacher expertise. One dimension consists of three different knowledge forms (scientific, professional, and practice knowledge), the other in the goals set in the national...

  18. The Call to Teach and Teacher Hopefulness (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.


    The purpose of this paper is to explore teacher motivation and well-being. Our analysis focuses on two central concepts, the notion of a "calling to teach" and of teacher "hopefulness." Data from 205 preservice and inservice teachers were collected to determine teachers' sense of calling and level of hope. Results indicate that overwhelmingly,…

  19. Training the novice teacher in the Pedagogy Department of Education of the University of the Andes, Tachira

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    Mireya Vivas de Chacón


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a case study whose objective was to describe the process of training first-year college teachers. The information was collected through in-depth interviews. In the context investigated, the novice teachers do not get enough institutional support in their new jobs and develop their work alone, since they do not carry on research or learn to teach alongside more-experienced teachers. The new teachers said they felt nervous, insecure, rejected, distressed, alone and disoriented. The results of this study reveal a disparity between what is demanded by the rules established for the training of new university teachers, and what actually happens in the departments. This is because training plans are not carried out, and training is considered to be the responsibility of the novice teacher. Finally, recommendations are made for the development of a training policy for new faculty members.

  20. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

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    Yong Yu


    Full Text Available Carefully constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about teaching, while spaces outside the college classroom remain the “practice fields.” This study examined Project CONNECT (PC, an after-school program designed to create early experiential learning opportunities for pre-service teachers (PSTs by bringing together different aspects of expertise from the schools, communities, and universities. Pre-service teachers in this study worked with children one afternoon a week in school-based sites during their sophomore and junior years. Case study was adopted to assess the impact of the experience on teacher learning and the factors contributing to the effect. Multiple data sources, including weekly reflection journals, field observation notes, and an exit survey were collected and analyzed. Results revealed participants’ transformation of professional identity, and development of professional skills and dispositions. Several factors emerged as important to PSTs’ learning throughout the experience, including connections between the course and the program, quality of faculty supervision, and systematic reflection. Implications for teacher education were discussed.

  1. Teachers' Views on the Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships on School Dropout: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Misrecognition (United States)

    Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus


    Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…

  2. Ambiguity Revealed


    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou


    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  3. Ambiguity revealed


    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic


    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  4. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  5. Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.


    The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments

  6. In their words, through their eyes: Novice teachers reflect on teaching and their preservice education (United States)

    Heath, James Edward

    In recent years, cries for reform in science teacher education have come from many directions. Teachers often leave the profession after a few years, and the teachers that stay are perceived as insufficiently prepared for the challenges they will face. One pervasive problem is that teachers themselves are rarely consulted in efforts to reform science teacher education. This study is an attempt to address that lack of input, by investigating the "lived reality" of prospective science teachers and trying to see the process through their eyes, to discover what they wanted and needed from their teacher preparation program, and to assess how well their preservice program met those needs. During the semester of their student teaching, six prospective teachers were asked questions about their experiences and asked to reflect on their preservice education. The researcher continued to follow the progress of one of the cohort members through his first year as a full-time teacher with a series of interviews. The study revealed a number of skills and attitudes that the student teachers felt were essential to their success: a sense of "caring," classroom management skills, organizational skills, and science content knowledge. Unfortunately, the study also reveals that the student teachers also felt that their preservice education did very little to help meet these needs. Also disturbing was the fact that all but one of the student teachers had bad experiences with their cooperating host teachers. The study makes a number of suggestions for improving teacher preparation. Field experiences need to be frequent, and varied, with extensive opportunities for reflection on those experiences. Also, teacher education programs should more closely integrate the three elements of preservice education: extensive field experiences, courses in education theory, and courses in science content. Student teachers need at least one mentor who is dedicated to their success, and is not in a position

  7. Factors Affecting the Retention of First-career and Second-career Science Teachers in Urban High Schools (United States)

    Rak, Rosemary C.

    The turnover of high school science teachers is an especially troubling problem in urban schools with economically disadvantaged students. Because high teacher turnover rates impede effective instruction, the persistence of teacher attrition is a serious concern. Using an online survey and interviews in a sequential mixed-methods approach, this study investigates the perceptions of high school science teachers regarding factors that contribute to their employment decisions. The study also compares first-career and second-career science teachers' perceptions of retention and attrition factors and identifies conditions that urban school leaders can establish to support the retention of their science teachers. A purposeful sample of 138 science teachers from urban area New England public high schools with 50% or more Free and Reduced Price Lunch-eligible students participated in the survey. Twelve survey respondents were subsequently interviewed. In accord with extant research, this study's results suggest that school leadership is essential to fostering teacher retention. The findings also reveal the importance of autonomy, professional community, and adequate resources to support science instruction. Although mentoring and induction programs receive low importance ratings in this study, career-changers view these programs as more important to their retention than do first-career science teachers. Second-career interviewees, in particular, voice the importance of being treated as professionals by school leaders. Future research may examine the characteristics of mentoring and induction programs that make them most responsive to the needs of first-career and second-career science teachers. Future studies may also investigate the aspects of school leadership and professional autonomy that are most effective in promoting science teacher retention. Keywords: career-changers; school leaders; science teachers; second-career teachers; teacher retention; teacher turnover

  8. Examining two Turkish teachers' questioning patterns in secondary school science classrooms (United States)

    Cikmaz, Ali

    This study examined low and high level teachers' questioning patterns and classroom implementations within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, which addresses issues on negotiation, argumentation, learning, and teaching. The level of the teachers was determined by the students' writing scores. This study was conducted in Turkey with seven teacher for preliminary study. Because scoring writing samples examines the students' negotiation level with the different sources and students learn scientific process, as negotiation, which they may transfer into their writing, in classroom, two teachers were selected to represent low and high level teachers. Data collection involved classroom observation through video recordings. The comparative qualitative method was employed throughout the data analysis process with including quantitative results. The research questions that guided the present study were: (1) How are low and high level teachers, determined according to their students' writing scores, questioning patterns different from each other during classroom discourse? (2) Is there a relationship between students' writings and teachers' questioning styles in the classroom? Analysis of Qualitative data showed that teachers' classroom implementations reveal big differences based on argumentation patterns. The high level teacher, whose students had high scores in writing samples, asked more questions and the cognitive levels of questions were higher than the low level teacher. Questions promote an argumentative environment and improve critical thinking skills by discussing different ideas and claims. Asking more questions of teacher influences students to initiate (ask questions) more and to learn the scientific process with science concepts. Implicitly, this learning may improve students' comparison in their writing. Moreover, high level teacher had a more structured and organized classroom than low level teacher.

  9. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices (United States)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  10. Are teacher candidates able to use educational technologies effectively? A case study in terms of standards

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    Ahmet Naci Çoklar


    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the educational technology use of teacher candidates attending education faculties in Turkey in terms of NETS*T standards. The study employed 2.566 senior teacher candidates from 7 different universities in Turkey. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the teacher candidates considered themselves to have a high level of self-efficacy with respect to educational technology standards as a whole. Considering the factors, teacher candidates reported the highest level of self-efficacy for the factor of productivity and professional practices and the lowest level of f-self-efficacy for the factor of social, ethical, legal and human issues. Gender caused differences for certain factors. In addition, the department being attended was another variable that resulted in difference when the departments of the teacher candidates were taken into consideration. 

  11. Are teacher candidates able to use educational technologies effectively? A case study in terms of standards

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    Ahmet Naci Çoklar


    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the educational technology use of teacher candidates attending education faculties in Turkey in terms of NETS*T standards. The study employed 2.566 senior teacher candidates from 7 different universities in Turkey. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the teacher candidates considered themselves to have a high level of self-efficacy with respect to educational technology standards as a whole. Considering the factors, teacher candidates reported the highest level of self-efficacy for the factor of productivity and professional practices and the lowest level of f-self-efficacy for the factor of social, ethical, legal and human issues. Gender caused differences for certain factors. In addition, the department being attended was another variable that resulted in difference when the departments of the teacher candidates were taken into consideration.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teacher Efficacy Scale for Prospective Teachers (United States)

    Denzine, Gypsy M.; Cooney, John B.; McKenzie, Rita


    Background: Research on teacher self-efficacy has revealed substantive problems concerning the validity of instruments used to measure teacher self-efficacy beliefs. Although claims about the influence of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs on student achievement, success with curriculum innovation, and so on, may be true statements, one cannot make…

  13. Good Teacher-Student Relationships: Perspectives of Teachers in Urban High Schools (United States)

    Wilkins, Julia


    This study examined the behaviors that teachers in eight large urban high schools in a Northeastern state considered important for good teacher-student relationships. A factor analysis of teacher (N = 103) survey responses revealed three factors related to student behaviors: (a) demonstrating engagement and interest in schoolwork; (b) being…

  14. Job Burnout among Iranian Elementary School Teachers of Students with Autism: a Comparative Study

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    Hadi Zarafshan


    Full Text Available Objective: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs.Methods: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results.Results: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010, emotional exhaustion (p=0.005 and depersonalization (p<0.001; however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children.Conclusions: Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to

  15. Teachers Communicative Activities in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL: A Study at SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung

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    Mohammad Muhassin


    implemented by the teachers. This was a kind of descriptive quantitative research. The technique in collecting data was the direct observation of the English teachers in TEFL at the first, second and third years of SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung. There were three teachers as the sample of the research chosen by using purposive sampling technique. The researcher used the checklist by putting tallies to certain columns. There were 42 items in the checklist of communicative activities implemented by the teachers. The result of the research shows that there are 24 communicative activities implemented by the English teachers at SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung. The research also reveals that the dominant communicative activity of each English skill implemented in TEFL at SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung is teachers asking the question in speaking, note-taking in listening, pre-question in reading, and making sentences in writing.

  16. Examination of the Factors Influencing the Exam Results (United States)

    Sitku-Görömbei, Cecília


    The defectiveness of the effectiveness of the Hungarian general education revealed in the PISA survey appears in the higher education as well. The "Introduction to Informatics" subject has one of the lowest exam results among the students of the College of Nyíregyháza majoring in Computer Program Designer and Teacher of Computer Science.…



    Ruben Navarro Patón; Víctor Arufe Giráldez; Silvia Basanta Camiño


    This research aims to know the current situation of first aid teaching at Elementary School as a Physical Education content. The research population consisted of active teachers who taught Physical Education in Elementary School, in the Lugo province schools. The sample consisted of 36 teachers (N=36). An ad hoc questionnaire with 22 questions about the interest topic was applied to obtain data. The statistical program SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze data. The results reveal a poor use ...

  18. Classroom Management: A Persistent Challenge for Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers


    Diego Fernando Macías; Jesús Ariel Sánchez


    This qualitative descriptive study aimed to ascertain the extent to which classroom management constituted a problem among pre-service foreign language teachers in a teacher education program at a public university in Colombia. The study also sought to identify classroom management challenges, the approaches to confronting them, and the alternatives for improving pre-service teachers’ classroom management skills. The results revealed that classroom management is a serious problem with challen...

  19. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. (United States)

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J


    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  20. Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective (United States)

    Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

    How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external

  1. Mathematics teachers' support and retention: using Maslow's hierarchy to understand teachers' needs (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David


    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.

  2. Middle School Science Teachers' Confidence and Pedagogical Practice of New Literacies (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Yin; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Runco, Lisa


    Due to the rapid advancements of information and communication technologies (ICTs), educational researchers argue that multimodal and new literacies should become common practices in schools. As new ICTs emerge and evolve, students need the new literacies skills and practices to successfully participate fully in the civic life of a global community. Are teachers prepared to integrate ICTs in the classroom to develop students' new literacies skills? The purpose of this study is to suggest a new literacies framework that guides ICTs integration and supports scientific inquiry, as well as investigate middle school teachers' confidence to practice new literacies in science classrooms. The study adopted mixed-methodology design, surveyed 32 middle school science teachers' ICTs and new literacies skills, and randomly observed 15 teachers' new literacies practices in the classrooms. The results revealed that even though teachers have high confidence in using ICTs, the meaningful technology integration and new literacies practices were scarcely observed in their classroom practices.

  3. Teachers' Perceptions and Practices of STEAM Education in South Korea (United States)

    Park, HyunJu; Byun, Soo-yong; Sim, Jaeho; Han, Hyesook; Baek, Yoon Su


    This study examined teachers' perceptions and practices of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education in South Korea, drawing on a survey of teachers in STEAM model schools. Results showed that the majority of Korean teachers, especially experienced teachers and male teachers, had a positive view on the role of STEAM…

  4. Teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah


    of the contexts within which teachers work – for example accountability mechanisms and other forms of output regulation of teachers’ work – leading to engagement with policy that is often instrumental and blighted by unintended consequences. In the chapter, we illustrate how a detailed understanding of teacher...

  5. Sustaining Lesson Study: Resources and Factors that Support and Constrain Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Continue After the Grant Ends (United States)

    Druken, Bridget Kinsella

    Lesson study, a teacher-led vehicle for inquiring into teacher practice through creating, enacting, and reflecting on collaboratively designed research lessons, has been shown to improve mathematics teacher practice in the United States, such as improving knowledge about mathematics, changing teacher practice, and developing communities of teachers. Though it has been described as a sustainable form of professional development, little research exists on what might support teachers in continuing to engage in lesson study after a grant ends. This qualitative and multi-case study investigates the sustainability of lesson study as mathematics teachers engage in a district scale-up lesson study professional experience after participating in a three-year California Mathematics Science Partnership (CaMSP) grant to improve algebraic instruction. To do so, I first provide a description of material (e.g. curricular materials and time), human (attending district trainings and interacting with mathematics coaches), and social (qualities like trust, shared values, common goals, and expectations developed through relationships with others) resources present in the context of two school districts as reported by participants. I then describe practices of lesson study reported to have continued. I also report on teachers' conceptions of what it means to engage in lesson study. I conclude by describing how these results suggest factors that supported and constrained teachers' in continuing lesson study. To accomplish this work, I used qualitative methods of grounded theory informed by a modified sustainability framework on interview, survey, and case study data about teachers, principals, and Teachers on Special Assignment (TOSAs). Four cases were selected to show the varying levels of lesson study practices that continued past the conclusion of the grant. Analyses reveal varying levels of integration, linkage, and synergy among both formally and informally arranged groups of

  6. The Evaluation of Classroom Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Regarding Turkish Language I: Phonetics and Morphology Course

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    Çavuş ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses. The attitude scale consists of 28 items. The scale has been applied for the total 255 teacher candidates attending the third and fourth grades in the department of the classroom teaching of the educational faculty at Onsekiz Mart University in the academic year 2009-2010. According to the results, the attitudes of classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkishlanguage I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined to have revealed significant differences according to gender, age and education type and success grade. On the other hand, the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined not to have revealed a significant difference according to the region where they are from, the high school and class type they attend.

  7. The Effect of Trust on Teacher Empowerment: The Mediation of Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Yin, Hong-biao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Jin, Yu-le; Zhang, Zhong-hua


    This study explores the impact of teachers' perception of trust in colleagues on their sense of empowerment in Mainland China, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher efficacy. The results of a survey of 1646 teachers indicate that although teachers scored positively on trust in colleagues, efficacy and empowerment, they had…

  8. Teachers' Preferences for Educational Planning: Dynamic Testing, Teaching Experience and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (United States)

    Bosma, Tirza; Hessels, Marco G. P.; Resing, Wilma C. M.


    This study surveyed a sample of 188 elementary teachers with respect to their preference for information regarding educational planning, in particular information captured with dynamic testing procedures. The influence of teachers' experience and sense of efficacy on teachers' preferences was also investigated. Results indicated teachers'…

  9. Echoes from teacher discourse: an inside-out perspective Echoes from teacher discourse: an inside-out perspective

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    Adriana de Carvalho Kuerten Dellagnelo


    Full Text Available Researchers in teacher education have paid increasing attention to teacher reflectivity and its relevance for teaching/learning practices. However, to our knowledge, there has been no investigation of teacher reflectivity from the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL. In this paper we draw mainly on SFL to examine aspects of the relationship between teachers and learners as construed in self-evaluative reports written by 4 Brazilian teacher-trainees. These reports – self-reflections on the trainees’ own teaching practices – were collected as part of work developed in a Teaching Practicum Course taken by these trainees. In addition to SFL, in our discussion of results we also draw on research related to teacher education/reflectivity (e.g., Freeman & Johnson, 1998; Richards & Lockart, 1996. The linguistic structures described and interpreted in order to unravel the roles these trainees ascribe to themselves and their students reveal a selfcentered positioning of the trainees as social participants whose practices are shaped by conceptions traditionally established by a culture of schooling which maintains the emphasis of teaching on the transmission of knowledge. Results also reveal asymmetry between teachers and students inasmuch as the latter are construed as playing a secondary role, with little responsibility in the process of teaching/learning a foreign language. The study may contribute to enhance the search for awareness of contrasts between new views of language teaching/learning and traditional perceptions such as the ones conveyed in the reports analyzed. Researchers in teacher education have paid increasing attention to teacher reflectivity and its relevance for teaching/learning practices. However, to our knowledge, there has been no investigation of teacher reflectivity from the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL. In this paper we draw mainly on SFL to examine aspects of the relationship

  10. A Comparison of Student Teachers' Beliefs from Four Different Science Teaching Domains Using a Mixed Methods Design (United States)

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo


    The study presented in this paper integrates data from four combined research studies, which are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The studies describe freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning. These freshmen intend to become teachers in Germany in one of four science teaching domains (secondary biology, chemistry, and physics, respectively, as well as primary school science). The qualitative data from the first study are based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in teaching situations. It was formulated using Grounded Theory to test three scales: Beliefs about Classroom Organisation, Beliefs about Teaching Objectives, and Epistemological Beliefs. Three further quantitative studies give insight into student teachers' curricular beliefs, their beliefs about the nature of science itself, and about the student- and/or teacher-centredness of science teaching. This paper describes a design to integrate all these data within a mixed methods framework. The aim of the current study is to describe a broad, triangulated picture of freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning within their respective science teaching domain. The study reveals clear tendencies between the sub-groups. The results suggest that freshman chemistry and-even more pronouncedly-freshman physics student teachers profess quite traditional beliefs about science teaching and learning. Biology and primary school student teachers express beliefs about their subjects which are more in line with modern educational theory. The mixed methods approach towards the student teachers' beliefs is reflected upon and implications for science education and science teacher education are discussed.

  11. Teacher Effectiveness in Identifying High-Risk Kindergarten Children. (United States)

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; And Others


    Teacher effectiveness in identifying children "at risk" for learning problems was studied with five Head Start teachers. Results showed that, after training in classroom observation techniques, paraprofessional teachers are capable of identifying developmental delays in children. (PHR)

  12. An Assessment of Attitudes and Behaviors of Foreign Language Teachers (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony


    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) and the Teacher Description Instrument (TDI) were used in a comparative analysis of modern language teachers' attitudes toward their students. Students verified results in a reciprocal survey. (RL)

  13. Elementary Teacher's Conceptions of Inquiry Teaching: Messages for Teacher Development (United States)

    Ireland, Joseph E.; Watters, James J.; Brownlee, Jo; Lupton, Mandy


    This study explored practicing elementary school teacher's conceptions of teaching in ways that foster inquiry-based learning in the science curriculum (inquiry teaching). The advocacy for inquiry-based learning in contemporary curricula assumes the principle that students learn in their own way by drawing on direct experience fostered by the teacher. That students should be able to discover answers themselves through active engagement with new experiences was central to the thinking of eminent educators such as Pestalozzi, Dewey and Montessori. However, even after many years of research and practice, inquiry learning as a referent for teaching still struggles to find expression in the average teachers' pedagogy. This study drew on interview data from 20 elementary teachers. A phenomenographic analysis revealed three conceptions of teaching for inquiry learning in science in the elementary years of schooling: (a) The Experience-centered conception where teachers focused on providing interesting sensory experiences to students; (b) The Problem-centered conception where teachers focused on engaging students with challenging problems; and (c) The Question-centered conception where teachers focused on helping students to ask and answer their own questions. Understanding teachers' conceptions has implications for both the enactment of inquiry teaching in the classroom as well as the uptake of new teaching behaviors during professional development, with enhanced outcomes for engaging students in Science.

  14. Questioning Strategies of English Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    AMY.B.M.TSUI thinks that most of the interactive learning starts with the teachers ’questioning. Richard and Lock-art (1994) think that the proper questioning can help the students to acquire the second language. Jin Chuanbao ( 1997) even thinks that the questioning process of the teachers should become the core of the class. Though almost all of the teachers are ques-tioning, they know little about the questioning strategies. In this case, it is urgent to study this subject. The present study reveals some problems of four teachers’questioning strategies in Junior Middle School. I hope some helpful ideas can be found in the thesis.

  15. Peer Coaching: Teachers Supporting Teachers. (United States)

    Donegan, Mary M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.


    This article describes peer coaching as a method for teacher improvement and offers guidelines for establishing a peer coaching program for early childhood and early childhood special education teachers and related services professionals. It also identifies common problems and possible solutions of peer coaching programs. Sample forms for use in…

  16. Primary School Teachers' Views on Constructive Classroom Management

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    Ercan ARI


    Full Text Available Behavioural teaching programmes that had long been used in Turkey began changing in 2005. In a significant development, new programmes based on constructivism have come to the fore. The adaptation of teachers in this transitional process and their internalization of this new approach have been of utmost importance for the success of the programme. Difficulties faced by experienced primary school teachers in particular have become a serious matter that should be qualitatively addressed. This study aimed to reveal the views of experienced primary school teachers (175 about constructive classroom management. Interviews were employed to do so. The study revealed that a large majority of the interviewed teachers considered themselves to be successful at classroom management (thanks to factors like experience, close contact with students, their affection for students, etc., while almost half of the teachers thought that classroom management had been much easier in pre-2005 teaching programmes. The results also exposed disturbing behaviours, among them students fighting, the use of improper language, disrupting in-class teaching processes and irrelevant talking among students. The coping techniques adopted for these behaviours were warnings, punishment and more enjoyable teaching that incorporated a range of different activities.

  17. An examination of the perceived teaching competencies of novice alternatively licensed and traditionally licensed high school science teachers (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen A.

    In most states, there are two routes to teacher licensure; traditional and alternative. The alternative route provides an accelerated entry into the classroom, often without the individual engaging in education coursework or a practicum. No matter the route, teaching skills continue to be learned by novice teachers while in the classroom with the guidance of a school-based mentor. In this study, the perceptions of mentor teachers of traditionally and alternatively licensed high school science teachers were compared with respect to mentees' science teaching competency. Further, the study explored the novice teachers' self-perception of their teaching competency. A survey, consisting of 56 Likert-type questions, was completed by mentors (N = 79) and novice high school science teachers (N = 83) in six northeastern states. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in the perceptions of the mentors of traditionally and alternatively licensed novice high school science teachers in the areas of general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional growth, with more favorable perceptions recorded by mentors of traditionally licensed science teachers. There were no differences in the perceptions of the mentors with respect to novice high school teachers' content knowledge. There was no statistical difference in the self-perceptions of competency of the novice teachers. While alternative routes to licensure in science may be a necessity, the results of this study indicate that the lack of professional preparation may need to be addressed at the school level through the agency of the mentor. This study indicates that mentors must be prepared to provide alternatively licensed novice teachers with different assistance to that given to traditionally licensed novice teachers. School districts are urged to develop mentoring programs designed to develop the teaching competency of all novice teachers regardless of the route that led them

  18. Special and General Education Biology Teachers Working Together Collaboratively (United States)

    Gagne-Grosso, Melissa

    Collaborative teaching, between special education and general education teachers working together, came about as a result of the No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts. Despite the positive intentions of those acts, teachers are not always ready to teach collaboratively. Guided by the theories of fundamental change and inclusion, this study was based on a lack of understanding about collaborative teaching at 3 high schools. The research questions focused on the benefits, process, and concerns related to collaborative teaching. The perspectives of 4 special education and 8 regular education teachers in 3 urban, public high schools were collected through interviews and observations. Data were analyzed descriptively and inductively using coding, reconstruction, and interpretation of the underlying meanings. The findings revealed that teachers benefitted from being in these classrooms by having a reduced work load and shared responsibility; however, they needed more time for collaboration and modifying instruction, professional development, and stronger support. Students in these classrooms benefitted from social interactions with other students and by getting direct answers to questions. Based on these findings, a professional development training was created based on how collaborative teachers can work together to promote successful learning. This project study can have a positive impact by assisting collaborative teachers with support, communication, strategies for modifications and accommodations, and an enhanced experience, and additionally by improving the academic outcomes for their students.

  19. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

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    Yong Yu


    Full Text Available Carefully-constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about teaching, while spaces outside the college classroom remain the “practice fields”. This study examines Project CONNECT (PC, an afterschool program designed to create early experiential learning opportunities by bringing together different aspects of expertise from the schools, communities, and universities. Preservice teachers (PSTs in this study were placed to work with children one afternoon a week in school-based sites in their sophomore and junior years. Case study design was adopted to assess the impact of the experience on teacher learning as well as the process created such effects. Multiple data such as open-ended survey, written reflection, and field observation notes were collected and analyzed. Results revealed participants’ transformation of professional identity, and development of professional skills and dispositions. Several factors emerged as important to PSTs’ learning throughout the experience, including connections between the course and the program, quality of faculty supervision, and systematic reflection. Implications for teacher education were discussed.

  20. Methods of assessing reading used by Iranian EFL teachers

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    Somaye Ketabi


    Full Text Available Investigating the effects of different methods of assessing reading on students’ reading comprehension has been one of the major topics among Iranian EFL researchers (Atai & Nikuinezhad, 2006; Delgoshaei, Kharrazi, & Talkhabi, 2011; Shams & Tavakoli, 2014. However, the amount of popularity of these methods among teachers has not gained this much attention. The present study examined the popularity of different methods of assessing reading among teachers of adult and young adult learners and also investigated the difference in the frequency of the methods used by these two groups of teachers. Categories of different methods were chosen based on Brown's (2004 taxonomy and the study conducted by Cheng, Rogers, and Hu (2004. Background Information Questionnaire and assessment questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results revealed that Iranian teachers did not use a variety of reading assessment methods in their classes. The most common method to assess reading among Iranian teachers was reported to be reading aloud, and other methods of assessing reading ‒ e.g. preparing summaries and oral questioning ‒ were far less common than reading aloud. Alternative methods of assessment ‒ e.g. journals and portfolios ‒ were the least common methods as were reported by Iranian EFL teachers.

  1. Multiple case studies of STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering design (United States)

    Rupp, Madeline

    The following master's thesis is composed of two manuscripts describing STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering within the context of the Science Learning through Engineering Design (SLED) partnership. The framework guiding both studies was science teaching orientations, a component of pedagogical content knowledge. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, multi-day classroom observations, pre- and post-observation interviews, implementation plans, and written reflections. Data sources were analyzed to generate two orientations to science teaching through engineering design for each participant. The first manuscript illustrates a single case study conducted with a sixth grade STEM teacher. Results of this study revealed a detailed picture of the teacher's goals, practices, assessments, and general views when teaching science through engineering design. Common themes across the teacher's instruction were used to characterize her orientations to science teaching through engineering design. Overall, the teacher's orientations showed a shift in her practice from didactic to student-centered methods of teaching as a result of integrating engineering design-based curriculum. The second manuscript describes a comparative case study of two sixth grade SLED participants. Results of this study revealed more complex and diverse relationships between the teachers' orientations to teaching science through engineering design and their instruction. Participants' orientations served as filters for instruction, guided by their divergent purposes for science teaching. Furthermore, their orientations and resulting implementation were developed from knowledge gained in teacher education, implying that teacher educators and researchers can use this framework to learn more about how teachers' knowledge is used to integrate engineering and science practices in the K-12 classroom.

  2. Senior science teachers' experience of teaching in a changing multicultural classroom: A case study (United States)

    Ryan, Mark

    Demographic changes within the US are bringing significant changes in the cultural make-up of the classrooms in our schools. Results from national and state assessments indicate a growing achievement gap between the science scores of white students and students from minority communities. This gap indicates a disconnect somewhere in the science classrooms. This study examines the teacher's perspective of the changing learning environment. The study focuses on senior teachers with traditional Midwestern backgrounds and little multicultural experience assuming these teachers had little or no education in multicultural education. Senior teachers are also more likely to have completed their science education within a traditional Universalist perspective of science and likewise have little or no education in multicultural science. The research method was comparative case studies of a purposeful sample of nine science teachers within a community experiencing significant demographic change, seven core senior teachers and two frame of reference teachers. The interviews examined the teachers' awareness of their own cultural beliefs and the impact of those beliefs on classroom practices, the teachers' understanding of cultural influences on the students' academic performance, and the relationships between the teachers' understanding of the cultural aspects of the nature of science and their classroom practices. Analysis of the interview data revealed that the teachers maintain a strong, traditional Midwestern worldview for classroom expectations and they are generally unaware of the impact of those standards on the classroom environment. The teachers were supportive of minority students within their classroom, changing several practices to accommodate student needs, but they were unaware of the broader cultural influences on student learning. The teachers had a poor understanding of the nature of science and none of them recognized a cultural element of NOS. They maintained a

  3. Efficacy development in science: Investigating the effects of the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model in Hilo elementary schools (United States)

    Pinner, Pascale Creek

    Conderman and Sheldon Woods (2008) suggest that although science plays a central role in our world today, science instruction seems to be minimized particularly at the elementary grade levels. Research has investigated the construct of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 2006a; Riggs & Enochs, 1990; Ramey-Gassert, Shroyer & Staver, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy & Hoy, 1998, 2001). Professional and conceptual development in teachers has also been explored (Gordon, 1990; Sheerer, 1997; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007). The purpose of this research was to describe the changes in efficacy elementary teachers experience as they participated in science professional development. Data from a Math/Science Partnership (MSP) grant sample suggested significant changes in science self-efficacy and improved pedagogy. Mixed methods revealed connections resulting in a multi-faceted Progression of Efficacy Growth flowchart. The results suggest that utilizing the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model has created a pathway for more science teaching across the Hilo elementary schools.

  4. A comparison of bilingual education and generalist teachers' approaches to scientific biliteracy (United States)

    Garza, Esther

    The purpose of this study was to determine if educators were capitalizing on bilingual learners' use of their biliterate abilities to acquire scientific meaning and discourse that would formulate a scientific biliterate identity. Mixed methods were used to explore teachers' use of biliteracy and Funds of Knowledge (Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N., 1992; Gonzales, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) from the students' Latino heritage while conducting science inquiry. The research study explored four constructs that conceptualized scientific biliteracy. The four constructs include science literacy, science biliteracy, reading comprehension strategies and students' cultural backgrounds. There were 156 4th-5th grade bilingual and general education teachers in South Texas that were surveyed using the Teacher Scientific Biliteracy Inventory (TSBI) and five teachers' science lessons were observed. Qualitative findings revealed that a variety of scientific biliteracy instructional strategies were frequently used in both bilingual and general education classrooms. The language used to deliver this instruction varied. A General Linear Model revealed that classroom assignment, bilingual or general education, had a significant effect on a teacher's instructional approach to employ scientific biliteracy. A simple linear regression found that the TSBI accounted for 17% of the variance on 4th grade reading benchmarks. Mixed methods results indicated that teachers were utilizing scientific biliteracy strategies in English, Spanish and/or both languages. Household items and science experimentation at home were encouraged by teachers to incorporate the students' cultural backgrounds. Finally, science inquiry was conducted through a universal approach to science learning versus a multicultural approach to science learning.

  5. Teachers' Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach. (United States)

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara


    Teachers' relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers' relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student's relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers' depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers' personal accomplishment. Teachers' secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers' relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher's wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student-teacher relationships in education.

  6. Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of teacher self-disclosure

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    Ali Rahimi


    Full Text Available Teacher self-disclosure (TSD as a communication behavior can influence students' learning by increasing their engagement and class participation as well as helping them establish effective interpersonal relationships. Owning to its context-sensitive and culture-dependent nature, however, TSD topics, purposes, and considerations may vary cross-culturally. This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD as well as to investigate whether there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD. To this end, the Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure Scale was distributed among 68 Iranian EFL teachers (34 females and 34 males from six language institutes. The results of the study indicated the extent to which the Iranian EFL teachers perceived TSD topics, purposes, and considerations to be appropriate or inappropriate. Furthermore, the study found convergence and divergence between male and female teachers' perceptions in terms of the topics used in TSD, the purposes TSD serves in classroom, and considerations the teachers take into account when practicing TSD. The results of the study suggest that Iranian EFL teachers can practice TSD as a pedagogical tool to enhance learning although they should be wary of its consequences in some aspects as TSD is contingent upon context and culture.

  7. Learning in the Gymnasium: Teacher Perspectives. (United States)

    Arrighi, Margarite A.


    A study was made of 379 inservice and preservice teachers to identify the objectives they sought to attain in their physical education classes. Results are presented, and differences between preservice and inservice teachers are discussed. (MT)

  8. Southern Federal University in Relation to Teacher Education Modernization Project: Strategic Reflection of the Testing Results of Integrative Modules of the “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” Research Master’s Program

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    Chernaya A. V.


    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of a strategic reflection of the Southern Federal University participation in the project of modernization of teacher education. It analyses how theoretical, methodological and organizational-activity basis of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” research master’s program designed by Moscow State University of Psychology & Education relates to the strategic objectives of Southern Federal University. Priorities and forward-looking statements in the strategy for the training of specialists in education based on action-competence approach, integrative principle of educational modules construction, network forms of cooperation of educational institutions are shown. Basic methodological ideas of culturalhistorical psychology and activity theory and their applicability to the needs of modern education objectified in the draft are specially considered. The article presents the preliminary test results of integrative modules of research master’s program for Southern Federal University

  9. Towards Constructivist Teacher Professional Development

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    V. J. Pitsoe


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years, much has been written about constructivist learning theories and their applications to outcomes-based teaching and learning environments in South Africa. Approach: Little, if any, has been said about the implications of these ideas and practices for teacher professional development and teacher education. The introduction of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS Policy requires teachers to acquire new skills, knowledge, attitudes and values and to employ a wide variety of teaching strategies, in order to enable students to construct their own knowledge. Results: The purpose of this desktop review is to rethink teacher professional development within a constructivist framework. Conclusion: In this article, we argue that teacher professional development can fit the context and, more specifically, in outcomes-based settings, as well as proposed a move away from a mechanistic world-view (modernist and behaviorist approach to a holistic world-view (constructivist and situational or contextual approach of teacher professional development.


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    Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.

  11. The relationship between the teacher autonomy and learner autonomy support behaviors

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    Ahmet Şakir YAZICI


    Full Text Available In the current study, the purpose is to determine the relationship between teachers’ autonomy behaviors and learner autonomy support behaviors. The current study was designed in the survey model. The population of the study is comprised of teachers working in elementary, secondary and high schools located in the city of Muğla, Turkey, and its surrounding districts during the 2015-2016 school year. The sampling of the study consists of 428 teachers selected through disproportional cluster sampling technique. In the study, the Teacher Autonomy Scale and Learner Autonomy Support Behaviors Scale were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, correlation and multiple regression analysis were employed. The results of the analyses revealed that the general autonomy behaviors of the teachers are above medium level. The autonomy behavior most frequently exhibited by the teachers is communication autonomy and the least exhibited is professional development autonomy. The teachers are of the opinion that they often demonstrate learner autonomy support behaviors. There is a medium level and same directional correlation between the teacher autonomy and learner autonomy support behaviors. The dimensions of teacher autonomy explain 12% of learner autonomy support behaviors. Communication autonomy and teaching process autonomy are important predictors of learner autonomy support behaviors.

  12. Identifying Science Teachers' Perceptions of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chai, Ching Sing; Lee, Min-Hsien


    The application of information and communication technology in instruction is highly emphasized in the contemporary education of science teachers. This paper hence aims to explore science teachers' perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) addressing teachers' perceptions of the affordances of technology application in instruction. A total of 222 pre- and in-service science teachers in Singapore were surveyed. Structural equation models analysis was utilized to examine the model of TPACK involving the seven factors of technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), content knowledge (CK), technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), as well as synthesized knowledge of technology, pedagogy, and content (TPC). The results confirm the seven-factor model and indicate that the science teachers' perceived TPC significantly and positively correlated with all the other TPACK factors. This paper further reveals the relationships between the science teachers' perceptions of TPACK and their demographic characteristics such as teaching experience, gender, and age. The findings indicate that female science teachers perceive higher self-confidence in pedagogical knowledge but lower self-confidence in technological knowledge than males. Further, female in-service science teachers' perceptions of TK, TPK, TCK, and TPC significantly and negatively correlate with their age.

  13. Acceptability of Strategies to Reduce Student Sitting: A Mixed-Methods Study With College Teachers. (United States)

    Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Haukkala, Ari; Hankonen, Nelli


    Background As school days among adolescents include long periods of prolonged sitting, teachers are key agents to deliver interventions to reduce youth sedentary behavior. To develop an intervention, acceptability and feasibility of alternative strategies should be tested. We aimed to examine teachers' current use and willingness to use various strategies to decrease student sitting and potential barriers and facilitators of use. Method Mixed-methods design with college teachers using an online cross-sectional survey (n = 192) and focus group interviews (n = 13). Findings Although a vast majority (87%) of the teachers found reducing prolonged sitting an important goal, only 47% were actually including practices to reduce sitting in their classroom. 89% of the teachers reported willingness to use at least one of the five alternative strategies presented. Focus groups revealed a discussion emphasis on environmental opportunity and motivation as key to implementation. Teachers also generated additional ideas for intervention content. Discussion Despite low levels of current sitting reduction, teachers were willing to try at least one strategy to reduce sitting. Results informed intervention development regarding parameters of use for each strategy. When possible, interventions should provide teachers with a variety of alternative strategies that are easy to use to reduce prolonged sitting.

  14. An Analysis of the Information Behaviour of Geography Teachers in a Developing African Country–Lesotho

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    Constance BITSO


    Full Text Available Information behaviour studies have the potential to inform the design of effective information services that incorporate the information needs, information-seeking and preferences for information sources of target users; hence a doctoral study was conducted on the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho with the aim of guiding the design and implementation of an information service model for these teachers. This paper focuses on the analysis of the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho as a contribution of original knowledge on geography teachers’ information behaviour. The analysis established the information behaviour of geography teachers using the information behaviour concept that encompasses information needs, information-seeking and information sources. Data were collected and analyzed through focus group discussions and conceptual content analysis respectively.The analysis reveals that these geography teachers need current and accurate information covering a variety of aspects in teaching and learning, such as content, pedagogy, classroom management and learners’ assessment. Owing to the increasing number of orphans in schools as a result of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, most teachers expressed the need for information on social assistance for orphans and vulnerable children. Recommendations include information literacy training for teachers and access to the Internet in schools, including the use of open access journals on the Internet by the teachers.

  15. Effective Teachers

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    Beverly A. King Miller


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.


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    Pakhomova Irina Yurevna


    Full Text Available This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication. Objective: To define the notion of "communicative competence of future teachers' Methodology of work: competence approach. Scope of the results: the preparation of future teachers at the Pedagogical University. Results: This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication.

  17. Analysis on the results of general investigation of gynecological diseases in 2 928 female college teachers%2928例高校女教工妇科疾病普查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: To explore the prevalence and related factors of gynecological diseases in female college teachers, provide a scientific basis for reproductive health, prevention and health care of female college teachers. Methods; The data of general investigation of 2 928 person - limes in Yunnan university were analyzed retrospectively. Results-. The prevalence rates of gynecological diseases in younger group and elder group were 85. 7% and 61. 1% , respectively. In younger group, the incidence of breast diseases was the highest (43. 2% ) , followed by cervicitis (30.7% ) , the incidence of hysteromyoma ranked the fourth place, showing an obvious increasing trend. In elder group, the incidence of vaginitis was the highest (41, 5% ) , followed by breast diseases (18.6% ) . Conclusion; The reproductive health status of female college teachers is not optimistic, breast diseases and reproductive tract infection are the key points for prevention and treatment of gynecological diseases currently.%目的:探讨高校女教职工妇科疾病的发病情况及其相关因素,为女教工生殖健康及预防保健工作提供科学依据.方法:回顾性分析云南大学2928人次妇科病普查资料.结果:低龄组和高龄组患病率分别为85.7%和61.1%.低龄组以乳腺疾病居第1位(43.2%),宫颈炎为第2位(30.7%),子宫肌瘤居第4位且逐年上升趋势明显.高龄组以阴道炎居首位(41.5%),乳腺疾病居其次(18.6%).结论:高校女教职工的生殖健康状况不容乐观,乳腺疾病及生殖道感染是当前妇女病防治工作的重点.

  18. How to Activate Teachers through Teacher Evaluation? (United States)

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert


    There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…

  19. Teacher Socialization of EFL Teachers at Public School Levels in Central Mexico

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    M. Martha Lengeling


    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the processes of teacher socialization and identity formation of nine English as a foreign language teachers at public schools in central Mexico. These teachers began their careers in the National English Program in Basic Education. Qualitative research and narrative inquiry were used as a basis for this research. The data revealed that the teachers’ socialization was somewhat informal in that little was required from them to gain entrance into the program. Once teaching, the participants dealt with challenges in their teaching contexts and the program. From these challenges, the teachers were able to make decisions concerning their future as teachers, forming and imagining their identity.

  20. Educating Teachers for the New Millennium? Teacher training, ICT and digital competence

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    Cathrine Edelhard Tømte


    Full Text Available In this study we explored how teacher education institutions handle the use of ICT in teacher education. A qualitative approach conducted as a multiple case study design involved three teacher education institutions. Two case studies where conducted in 2009 and one in 2012. Findings revealed that teachers appear to have become more aware of the use of ICT in education in 2011 compared to 2009. Still, teacher students remain to be sufficiently well prepared on how to use ICT for pedagogical purposes, even if their technical skills are improved over the years.

  1. Educating Teachers for the New Millennium? - Teacher training, ICT and digital competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Edelhard Tømte


    Full Text Available In this study we explored how teacher education institutions handle the use of ICT in teacher education. A qualitative approach conducted as a multiple case study design involved three teacher education institutions. Two case studies where conducted in 2009 and one in 2012. Findings revealed that teachers appear to have become more aware of the use of ICT in education in 2011 compared to 2009. Still, teacher students remain to be sufficiently well prepared on how to use ICT for pedagogical purposes, even if their technical skills are improved over the years.

  2. Constructing Outcomes in Teacher Education

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    Marilyn Cochran-Smith


    Full Text Available As we enter the twenty-first century, the outcomes, consequences, and results of teacher education have become critical topics in nearly all of the state and national policy debates about teacher preparation and licensure as well as in the development of many of the privately and publicly funded research agendas related to teacher and student learning. In this article, I argue that teacher education reform over the last fifty years has been driven by a series of questions about policy and practice. The question that is currently driving reform and policy in teacher education is what I refer to as "the outcomes question." This question asks how we should conceptualize and define the outcomes of teacher education for teacher learning, professional practice, and student learning, as well as how, by whom, and for what purposes these outcomes should be documented, demonstrated, and/or measured. In this article, I suggest that the outcomes question in teacher education is being conceptualized and constructed in quite different ways depending on the policy, research, and practice contexts in which the question is posed as well as on the political and professional motives of the posers. The article begins with an overview of the policy context, including those reforms and initiatives that have most influenced how outcomes are currently being constructed, debated, and enacted in teacher education. Then I identify and analyze three major "takes" on the outcomes question in teacher education—outcomes as the long-term or general impacts of teacher education, outcomes as teacher candidates' scores on high stakes teacher tests, and outcomes as the professional performances of teacher candidates, particularly their demonstrated ability to influence student learning. For each of these approaches to outcomes, I examine underlying assumptions about teaching and schooling, the evidence and criteria used for evaluation, units of analysis, and consequences for the

  3. What Teachers Think about Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behavior of Enhancing Students’ Self-Regulation

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    Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk


    Full Text Available In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL, teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs on promoting SRL, as well as their predictive value on teachers’ promotion of SRL in the classroom. Forty-seven primary school teachers completed questionnaires on knowledge and beliefs towards both components of the promotion of SRL: strategy instruction and a constructivist learning environment. In addition, teachers had to answer open-ended questions on their understanding of SRL, as well as their implementation of SRL in their classroom. The results show that teachers are more positive towards constructivist than towards SRL (teacher beliefs, and most teachers mentioned characteristics of constructivist learning environments, while only few teachers addressed strategy instruction when being asked about their understanding of SRL (teacher knowledge. Moreover, teacher beliefs are the only predictor for teacher behavior. The results indicate how teacher education could support teachers to learn how to promote SRL effectively.

  4. Teacher Support Resources, Need Satisfaction and Well-Being. (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Lloret-Segura, Susana; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo


    Based on Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), this study examines the relationships among teacher support resources, psychological need satisfaction, engagement and burnout in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher psychological needs were identified based on the study of Bess and on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the constructs selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by structural equation modeling. The results reveal a good model fit to the data (NNFI = .88; CFI = .90; GFI = .90; RMSEA = .061). The analyses indicate a positive and significant effect of latent variable Psychological Need Satisfaction on engagement (β = .74, p model fit: Δχ2(2) = 2.428, p = .29). Finally, practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Working conditions, work style, and job satisfaction among Albanian teachers (United States)

    Kloep, Marion; Tarifa, Fatos


    For the first time in Albania, a large-scale study investigating teachers' working conditions was conducted. 349 teachers from many parts of the country and from all school levels answered an extensive questionnaire, providing a comprehensive description of their working situation. As data for parts of the study exist from the USA, Germany, Singapore, England, and Poland, results could be discussed in comparison to the conditions in these countries, showing that self-reported job satisfaction and engagement in effective classroom practices is relatively high among Albanian teachers, while the economic and physical conditions are bad. Stepwise regression analyses reveal that the items measuring professional autonomy account for a considerable part of the variance of the job satisfaction measure; while work efficiency is mainly predicted by items measuring social support and, again, professional autonomy.

  6. Literacy and Art: Collage for Pre-Service Teachers

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    Alice J. Feret, EdD


    Full Text Available Art educators have a unique opportunity to develop and strengthen a crosscurricular foundation in literacy through art education. Enrolled in a content area reading course, pre-service teachers in art education at one, large southeastern university discovered that using language skills as a lens sharpened their observations of student performance in art classes at the elementary and high school levels. The inclusion of brief lessons featuring listening, reading, speaking, or writing strategies revealed unanticipated academic needs, which impacted classroom performance and artistic development. This increased awareness deepened preservice teachers’ understanding of young students as learners and allowed the preservice teachers to adjust their lesson planning and classroom management skills. The pre-service teachers were more confident in their practice as they witnessed the results of their efforts in terms of students’ improved levels of artistic achievements.

  7. How Novice EFL Teachers Regulate Their Negative Emotions

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    Silvia Arizmendi Tejeda


    Full Text Available This research report shares the findings that emerged from a qualitative study in which the main objective was to discover whether or not novice English as a foreign language teachers regulate their negative emotions during their initial teaching practice, and if so, how they do this. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews and observations, and analyzed by microanalysis and constant comparative analysis. The participants were five novice teachers who study English at the same university, and who were giving classes as part of their internship. The results from this research revealed that these particular novice English as a foreign language teachers use different emotional strategies to regulate their negative emotions.

  8. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

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    I. Eloff


    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  9. Florida Teachers' Attitudes about Teaching Evolution (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.; Meisels, Gerry G.


    A survey of Florida teachers reveals many differences in comfort level with teaching evolution according to the state's science teaching standards, general attitudes and beliefs about evolution, and the extent to which teachers are criticized, censured, disparaged, or reprehended for their beliefs about the teaching of evolution.

  10. Values Education and Some Suggestions to Teachers (United States)

    Demirhan Iscan, Canay


    This paper focuses on the process, approaches and teacher roles in values education and offers recommendations for teachers. It uses print materials and Internet sources on values education. These sources were analyzed and synthesized to reveal certain cases and/or opinions. In addition to contemporary sources, older reference materials were also…

  11. Breaking through Isolation with New Teacher Groups. (United States)

    Rogers, Dwight L.; Babinski, Leslie


    Two education professors developed New Teacher Groups to offer a safe place where beginning teachers can voice their concerns, share their joys and frustrations, and help one another deal with problems. Interviews with participants revealed that nearly two-thirds attended for personal and professional support they could get nowhere else. (MLH)

  12. Prospective Teachers' Personal Characteristics to Multicultural Education (United States)

    Eskici, Menekse


    The aim of this paper is to determine prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education. It is also aimed to reveal whether there are meaningful differences in prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education according to their genders, age and number of siblings. The descriptive model was chosen to…

  13. Opinions Of The Teachers Of Basic Medical Sciences Of Istanbul Medical Faculty On The Education In Basic Medical Sciences


    ÖNER, Pernur


    In the present study which aims to assess the criticisms, opinions and suggestions of 63 teachers of basic medical sciences who teach in the 1st, and 2nd years, questionnaires were evaluated. Since the percentage of participating teachers is 70 %, the reliability of the results obtained are very high. Approximately 80 % of them revealed that, theoretical lessons are required to be presented by interactive education principles. Lecture presentations enriched with advanced technology-based...

  14. How Junior High School English Teachers in Bengkulu City Utilise Published Textbooks in the Classroom: A Classroom Observation Study

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    Safnil Safnil


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out: (1 how the junior high school English teachers in Bengkulu city exploited the commercially published textbooks for classroom use; (2 if there was a difference in the way the experienced and the inexperienced English language teachers exploited the commercially published textbooks in the classroom; and (3 whether the teachers adapted textbooks or produced their own materials for classroom use. Twelve English teachers (6 experienced and 6 inexperienced teachers from four different junior high schools or SMPs (2 favourite and 2 non-favourite in Bengkulu city were the participants in this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, classroom observations, and sample lesson plans. The results of the study revealed that: first, the junior high school English language teachers (ET and IT; (1 used the commercially prescribed textbooks to a large extent; (2 there was not much difference between the way experienced teachers and inexperienced teachers exploited the textbooks; (3 both groups of teachers adapted the textbooks or produced their own teaching materials.

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Identified Methods and Techniques Teachers Adopt in Prose Literature Lessons in some Secondary Schools in Owerri

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    F. O. Ezeokoli


    Full Text Available The study determined the methods adopted by teachers in prose literature-in-English classrooms, activities of teachers and students, teachers’ perceived effectiveness of techniques used. It also examined the objectives of teaching prose literature that teachers should address and the extent teachers believe in student-identified difficulties of studying prose literature. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 85 schools in Owerri metropolis and in each school, all literature teachers of senior secondary I and II were involved. In all, 246 literature teachers participated out of which 15 were purposively selected for observation. The two instruments were: Teachers’ Questionnaire (r = 0.87 and Classroom Observation Schedule (r = 0.73. Data were analysed using frequency counts and percentages. Results revealed that teachers adopted lecture (28.4%, reading (10.9% and discussion (7.3% methods. Teacher’s activities during the lesson include: giving background information, summarizing, dictating notes, reading aloud and explaining and asking questions. The adopted techniques include: questioning, oral reading, silent reading and discussion. Teachers’ perceived questioning as the most effective technique followed by debating and summarizing. Teachers identified development of students’ critical faculties and analytical skills, literary appreciation and language skills to be of utmost concern. It was concluded that the methods adopted by teachers are not diverse enough to cater for the needs and backgrounds of students. Keywords: Methods, Techniques, Perceived Effectiveness, Objectives, Literature-in-English

  16. Second Language Teacher Education Today (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.


    Second Language Teacher Education (SLTE) is affected by two factors; a rethinking of its knowledge base and instructional practices as a response to changes in our understanding of the nature of SLTE, as well as external pressures resulting from the expanded need for competent language teachers worldwide. The impact of these two factors is seen in…

  17. Cross Cultural Marketing Teachers' Profile (United States)

    Vila, Natalia; Boluda, Ines Kuster


    Purpose: Marketing has attracted increased interested over the past 15 years in both academic and commercial circles and there has been a market rise in the number of students. At the university level, the characteristics of the teacher play an essential role in student/teacher interaction and influence academic results and future professional…

  18. What are the roles of prospective teachers on the educational technology use? A metaphor study

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    Ahmet Naci Çoklar, Hakki Bagci


    Full Text Available Metaphors in qualitative research methods have been used as a data collection technique, which can’t be obtained directly ensure that data is obtained indirectly. In this research, the training of teachers in using technology to determine what role they are estimated at. In this context, Afyon Kocatepe University, a total of 131 teacher candidates from six different sections to the question directed at the metaphor and the data were analyzed with content analysis. Responses to the metaphor of the six different themes have been obtained: being important / useful, assistant / guide, user, producer / designer, learner and attitude. Evaluation of teacher candidates was their most important roles of the time / to be useful, help / guide and user issues have been. As a result of the analysis according to the department of prospective teachers according to the department the role they differ in their evaluation of the results have been revealed

  19. Qualities of Ideal Teacher Educators

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    Nihal Tunca


    Full Text Available Abstract Generally, the relationship between the teacher educators' qualities and the quality of teacher education has not been discussed extensively in the literature. At the same time, various studies can be found in the eastern literature examining the characteristics of faculty members at the education faculties. The effect of teacher educators over teacher candidates has not been explored, and in this sense, there is limited number of studies examining faculty members at education faculties in Turkey. Mostly employing quantitative research designs, these studies have focused on faculty members in terms of various characteristics However, which qualities that faculty members should have as a whole have not been studied. However, faculty members, as well as teachers who are a matter of debate in terms of the qualities they are supposed to have should be examined in research studies. In this context, this study aims to identify the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have from the perspective of education faculty students as future teachers. The current research is a qualitative study in phenomenology design. The participants of the study are third and fourth year 214 pre-service teachers from the departments of Science and Technology Teaching, Pre-School Teacher Education, Classroom Teacher Education, Social Studies Teaching and Turkish Language Teaching. Criterion sampling was used for participant selection. The data gathering tool consisted of an open-ended question that would reveal the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have based on teacher candidates’ views. Junior and senior teacher candidates’ views were asked and the data were analyzed according to content analysis approach. As a result, the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have been gathered under five main themes including ‘professional roles and responsibilities, professional values, personal characteristics, professional ethic

  20. Interpersonal Behaviour Styles of Primary Education Teachers during Science Lessons (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell; den Brok, Perry; Waldrip, Bruce; Dorman, Jeffrey


    This study reports the first development in Australia of primary science teacher typologies of teacher-student interpersonal behaviour, which was measured by students' perceptions using the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI). Earlier work with the QTI in The Netherlands has revealed eight different interpersonal styles, which were later…

  1. Teachers' Micropolitics and School Change in Vietnam (United States)

    Bui, Chi Binh


    The study describes and analyzes teachers' micropolitics to serve two purposes: to understand how teachers make sense with the way change is led and to interpret if the way they make sense can influence the change process. This empirical study revealed the following: Teachers felt that their professional development was affected because of…

  2. The Construction of the Teacher's Authority in Pedagogic Discourse (United States)

    Wenren, Xing


    This article examines the discursive construction of the authoritative identity of teachers in relation to a number of issues in the classroom context, including identity negotiation, pedagogic discourse and teacher-student power relationship. A variety of classroom teacher talks are analyzed from a discourse analytical perspective, revealing the…

  3. Development of Classroom Management Scale for Science Teachers (United States)

    Temli-Durmus, Yeliz


    Students cannot learn in chaotic, badly managed classrooms. In the first years of teaching experiences, teachers revealed that novice teachers came to recognize the importance of discipline skills and classroom management for effective instruction. The purpose of the study was (i) to develop Science teachers' views towards classroom management…

  4. Challenging Teacher Beliefs about Student Engagement in Mathematics (United States)

    Bobis, Janette; Way, Jennifer; Anderson, Judy; Martin, Andrew J.


    This study explored the beliefs about student engagement in mathematics of three Year 5 and 6 teachers, focusing on the shifts that occurred during a 10-week intervention. Data obtained from teacher surveys, interviews, video-recorded workshop observations and artefacts from teachers' classrooms reveal variations in their reactions to the…

  5. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan; Uzuntiryaki, Esen


    In order to study the beliefs of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about teaching chemistry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 prospective teachers. Analysis of the interviews revealed that most of the prospective teachers held intermediate (transition between constructivist and traditional) beliefs about chemistry teaching.…

  6. Developing Beliefs about Classroom Motivation: Journeys of Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Mansfield, Caroline F.; Volet, Simone E.


    This paper examines the developing beliefs about classroom motivation of eight preservice teachers during teacher education. The framework conceptualises the contexts in which preservice teachers participate and the filtering effect of prior beliefs. Qualitative analyses of multiple data sources reveal two distinct trajectories in the development…

  7. How Does Using Technology Affect Student Attitudes about Teachers? (United States)

    Forman, David W.


    Describes how a version of the Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form (TTFF) was used to measure teachers'"personality" factors as perceived by students. The instrument included 28 sets of bipolar adjectives to use in describing the teacher. Findings revealed that the application of technology to instruction improved students' perceptions of…

  8. Quality of Distance Education in Turkey: Preschool Teacher Training Case

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    Mehmet Gultekin


    Full Text Available Distance education is used for teacher training at different levels and fields in Turkey. Launched in the 2000-2001 academic year and still applied by Anadolu University, the Pre-School Teacher Training Program is one of those programs offered by distance education. This study aims to evaluate Anadolu University’s Preschool Teacher Training Program in Turkey by obtaining student opinions. A total of 1,026 senior students enrolled in the Preschool Education major at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University participated in the survey. A questionnaire to determine the opinions of students on the program was used as a means of data collection. Means (X and standard deviations (SD were employed to analyze the survey data. The results showed that although the teacher candidates study at a good level, they do not have a good record of watching the television programs. The results also revealed that the opinions of teacher candidates about the textbooks, television programs, teaching practices, and academic assistance services are positive.

  9. Learners, teachers and curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg


    , locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...... of virtual e-learning, interviews with teachers and 10 learner participants in a virtual classroom setting, and discourse analysis of curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course The research has taken place in the context of a study of e-learning and virtual teaching of Danish as a Second...... language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning...

  10. Professional self-esteem as a predictor of teacher burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL teachers

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    Ebrahim Khezerlou


    Full Text Available The study aimed at measuring the perceived Professional Self-esteem, Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Depersonalization (DP, and Personal Accomplishment (PA of Iranian (n = 230 and Turkish (n =156 EFL teachers and determining the prediction role of Professional Self-esteem in EE, DP, and PA processes. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES was used to measure the perceived burnout levels of the participants, and a shortened English version of Professional Self-esteem Scale developed by Aricak (1999 was employed to measure the participants’ self-esteem perceptions in five dimensions of satisfaction, knowledge development, commitment, adaptation and communication. The internal reliability of the professional self-esteem scale was r = 0.821. The results revealed that professional selfesteem was strongly correlated with EE, DP, and PA burnout. They also showed that EE, DP, and PA processes were better predicted by Satisfaction, Commitment, and Knowledge Development dimensions of Professional Self-esteem in the case of both Iranian and Turkish teachers, respectively. Moreover, the EE and PA prediction variances of Iranian group were greater than that of Turkish group, whereas the DP prediction variance of Turkish group was greater than that of Iranian group. The study highlights the significance of professional self-esteem in education and offers strategies for teachers and authorities to combat burnout for better teacher productivity.

  11. European teachers and new educational technology

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    Manuela Repetto


    Full Text Available Analysis of the current status on initial and in-service teachers' use of ICT for education in Europe. The paper describes the results of an analysis conducted in uTeacher, a European project devoted to developing a European Framework on teachers' skills in using new technologies for education.

  12. The Image of the Teacher in Film. (United States)

    Epstein, Yakov M.; And Others

    A study examined the way teachers have been portrayed in nine films spanning a 50-year time period. Thirty-seven teachers attending a graduate education course completed a 27-item questionnaire to rate each of nine films. Results indicated that although the teachers portrayed in the films were distinctly different from each other, overall, the…

  13. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding School Principals' Coaching Skills (United States)

    Yirci, Ramazan; Özdemir, Tuncay Yavuz; Kartal, Seçil Eda; Kocabas, Ibrahim


    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' perceptions about school principals' coaching skills. The study was carried out within qualitative research methods. The study group included 76 teachers in Elazig and 73 teachers in Kahramanmaras provinces of Turkey. All the data were processed using Nvivo 9 software. The results indicate that…

  14. Are Emotionally Intelligent EFL Teachers More Satisfied Professionally?

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    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatzadeh


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Intelligence Quotient (IQ is an important factor in one’s success in terms of working environment, it is believed that emotional quotient or EQ plays a more important role. With that in mind, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of English as Foreign Language (EFL teachers who work at private language institutes in Iran/Shiraz. Furthermore, this study tried to answer whether there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of Iranian’s EFL teachers in terms of gender.  A 90-item Bar-On questionnaire was used to measure the teachers’ emotional intelligence; also, a modified version of Karavas’s (2010 job satisfaction scale was used to see how satisfied our teachers are with their teaching career. To answer the research question, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical test was run. The results showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of EFL teachers in Iran/Shiraz. Furthermore, the results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence between EFL male and female teachers, but there was no statistically significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ job satisfaction in terms of gender. Based on our findings, it is suggested that some preparatory courses aiming at enhancing the important psychological traits such as emotional intelligence should be incorporated in educational programs designed for novice teachers so that it will contribute to pedagogical improvement.Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Job satisfaction, EFL teachers

  15. Teacher students' dilemmas when teaching science through inquiry (United States)

    Krämer, Philipp; Nessler, Stefan H.; Schlüter, Kirsten


    Background: Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) is suitable to teach scientific contents as well as to foster scientific skills. Similar conclusions are drawn by studies with respect to scientific literacy, motivational aspects, vocabulary knowledge, conceptual understandings, critical thinking, and attitudes toward science. Nevertheless, IBSE is rarely adopted in schools. Often barriers for teachers account for this lack, with the result that even good teachers struggle to teach science as inquiry. More importantly, studies indicate that several barriers and constraints could be ascribed to problems teacher students have at the university stage. Purpose: The purpose of this explorative investigation is to examine the problems teacher students have when teaching science through inquiry. In order to draw a holistic picture of these problems, we identified problems from three different points of view leading to the research question: What problems regarding IBSE do teacher students have from an objective, a subjective, and a self-reflective perspective? Design & method: Using video analysis and observation tools as well as qualitative content analysis and open questionnaires we identified problems from each perspective. Results: The objectively stated problems comprise the lack of essential features of IBSE especially concerning 'Supporting pupils' own investigations' and 'Guiding analysis and conclusions.' The subjectively perceived problems comprise concerns about 'Teachers' abilities' and 'Pupils' abilities,' 'Differentiated instruction' and institutional frame 'Conditions' while the self-reflectively noticed problems mainly comprise concerns about 'Allowing inquiry,' 'Instructional Aspects,' and 'Pupils' behavior.' Conclusions: Each of the three different perspectives provides plenty of problems, partially overlapping, partially complementing one another, and partially revealing completely new problems. Consequently, teacher educators have to consider these

  16. Relationship among science teacher personality characteristics and degree of teacher classroom implementation after in-service workshop (United States)

    Sechler, Phares Lochiel Coleman

    State departments of public instruction require that teachers periodically update their licenses throughout their teaching careers. Various professional development events such as in-service workshops, university offerings, and special innovative programs provide opportunities for novice and experienced teachers to grow professionally. The "Team Science" workshop was designed from models supported by research that described guidelines for successful workshop strategies. In evaluating the workshop, the question was asked "Why did not all teachers implement the ideas from the workshop in their science classrooms?" This study investigates the possible relationship between teacher personality characteristics and implementation of technology innovations. Team Science was an extensive workshop program planned to develop science teachers' expertise in using computer and video technology to teach in physical science, chemistry, and physics classrooms in rural school in North Carolina. Upon evaluating the four-year effort, it was found that the 23 participants implemented the technological strategies at various levels. At the higher end of the range of technology use, some teachers exhibited complete integration of the computers and interfacing devices into both the laboratory work and the classroom inquiry. At the lower end of the range, some teachers used the technology very little. The resulting question emerged from the data collected: Do specific teacher personality characteristics (independent variables) correlate with the degree of implementation (dependent variable) of the innovative ideas and tools used in the teacher's science classroom after the in-service workshop? To determine if there were any significant personality traits, each teacher was given five personality tests. The tests were Hunt's Conceptual Development Test, the Paragraph Completion Test; James Rest's Defining Issues Test; Simmons Personal Survey, an emotional tendency test; the Myers-Briggs Type

  17. Promoting Teacher Adoption of GIS Using Teacher-Centered and Teacher-Friendly Design (United States)

    Hong, Jung Eun


    This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how…

  18. A Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis of the Utterances of Three South African Physical Sciences Teachers (United States)

    Jawahar, Kavish; Dempster, Edith R.


    In this study, the sociocultural view of science as a language and some quantitative language features of the complementary theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics are employed to analyse the utterances of three South African Physical Sciences teachers. Using a multi-case study methodology, this study provides a sophisticated description of the utterances of Pietermaritzburg Physical Sciences teachers in language contexts characterised by varying proportions of English Second Language (ESL) students in each class. The results reveal that, as expected, lexical cohesion as measured by the cohesive harmony index and proportion of repeated content words relative to total words, increased with an increasing proportion of ESL students. However, the use of nominalisation by the teachers and the lexical density of their utterances did not decrease with an increasing proportion of ESL students. Furthermore, the results reveal that each individual Physical Sciences teacher had a 'signature' talk, unrelated to the language context in which they taught. This study signals the urgent and critical need for South African science teacher training programmes to place a greater emphasis on the functional use of language for different language contexts in order to empower South African Physical Sciences teachers to adequately apprentice their students into the use of the register of scientific English.

  19. Teacher as Researcher: Teacher Action Research in Teacher Education (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana


    Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…

  20. Investigating Elementary Teachers' Thinking About and Learning to Notice Students' Science Ideas (United States)

    Luna, Melissa Jo

    Children naturally use observations and everyday thinking to construct explanations as to why phenomena happen in the world. Science instruction can benefit by starting with these ideas to help children build coherent scientific understandings of how the physical world works. To do so, science teaching must involve attending to students' ideas so that those ideas become the basis for learning. Yet while science education reform requires teachers to pay close attention to their students' ideas, we know little about what teachers think this means in practice. To examine this issue, my dissertation research is two-fold. First, I examine teacher thinking by investigating how teachers understand what it means to pay attention to students' science ideas. Specifically, using new digital technology, three participating teachers captured moments of student thinking in the midst of instruction. Analysis of these moments reveals that teachers capture many different kinds of moments containing students' ideas and think about students' science ideas in different ways at different times. In particular, these three teachers most often think about students' ideas as being (a) from authority, (b) from experience, and (c) under construction. Second, I examine teacher learning through the development of an innovative science teaching video club model. The model differs from previous research on video clubs in several key ways in an attempt to focus teachers on student thinking in a sustained way. I investigate the ways in which this model was effective for engaging teachers in noticing and making sense of their students' science ideas during one implementation. Results indicate that teachers talked about student thinking early, often, and in meaningful ways. Science education leaders have recognized the potential of science teaching video clubs as a form of professional development, and the model presented in this work promotes the conditions for successful teacher learning. This

  1. Develop, Discuss, and Decide: How New Science Teachers Use Technologies to Advance Their Practice (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua Alexander

    For decades, there has been a nationwide demand to increase the number of science teachers in K-12 education (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983; National Research Council [NRC], 2007). This demand is in large part due to increases in state science graduation requirements. Teacher preparation programs have been preparing new science teachers on pace with the resulting increase in demand (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2010), however, shortages have continued as up to 50% of these new teachers leave the profession within their first five years of teaching (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004), creating a "revolving door" phenomenon as districts scramble to address this early attrition with yet more beginning teachers. We need to address what Ingersoll (2012) describes as the "greening" of the teaching force: the fact that an increasingly large segment of the teaching force is comprised of beginning teachers who are at a high risk of leaving the profession. The three related studies that comprise this dissertation focus on the role of technological interventions for in-service and pre-service science teachers. The context for the first two studies is TIN, an online induction program for beginning secondary science teachers. These two studies consider the impact of technological supports on the reflective practice of participating teachers. The design interventions included VideoANT (an online video annotation tool) and Teachers as Leaders roles (a structured response protocol) for the Venture/Vexation online forum activity. The context for the third study is T3-S, a university licensure course for pre-service science teachers designed to explore technology integration in secondary science classrooms. This study investigated the impact of pre-service teacher participation in the creation of an Adventure Learning (AL) environment (Doering, 2006) on their understanding of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) and its role in their future science

  2. Job Satisfaction and Performance of School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chamundeswari


    Full Text Available Teaching is a highly noble profession and teachers are always a boon to the society. The ultimate process of education could be simplified as a meaningful interaction between the teacher and the taught. The teacher thus plays a direct and crucial role in moulding a pupil towards education. Since a teacher is a role model for the students, job satisfaction and eventually performance of teachers become very vital in the fields of education. Thus the researcher felt the need to investigate the job satisfaction and performance of teachers in different categories of schools following different systems of education. From the total population, a sample of 196 teachers from state board schools, 198 teachers from matriculation board schools and 194 teachers from central board schools were drawn. The results of the study indicated that teachers in central board schools were significantly better in their job satisfaction and performance compared to their counterparts in matriculation and state board schools. This may be attributed to the fact that central board school teachers enjoy better infrastructure facilities and congenial working environment than the matriculation and state board teachers. It is for the school authorities, policy makers and society at large to ensure factors contributing to job satisfaction of teachers to the maximum possible extent and thereby enhancing their teaching perforrmance to its optimum.

  3. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund


    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...


    CERN Multimedia


    Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire

  5. Evidence, explanations, and recommendations for teachers' field trip strategies (United States)

    Rebar, Bryan

    their practices. A subset of eight teachers were interviewed using guided conversations in order to shed further light on their use of the aquarium field trip and their pedagogical preparation. Data from all sources were organized by repeating ideas relevant to the questions of interest. The resulting evidence was interpreted to support distinct categories of teacher strategies and experience and related claims about these strategies and experiences. Thus, findings reveal that teachers attempt to link the curriculum to the activities, resources, and content encountered on the trip using a variety of connections. However, these curriculum connections are characterized as products of opportunistic situations and reveal limited depth. Evidence further indicates that teachers treat the aquarium visit as a background experience for their students rather than as an opportunity to introduce new concepts or do an activity that is integrated into the curriculum. Nevertheless, teachers included in this study were leading field trips that created countless learning opportunities for their students. Because training specific to field trips is rarely included in preservice programs, teachers were asked about influences on their field trip practice with specific focus on observed strategies. Findings suggest four categories of training experiences that teachers apply to their practice: (1) informal mentoring; (2) past experience trip leading; (3) outdoor education training; (4) traditional education training. Overall findings along with a review of previous research are suggestive of many ways in which efforts to enhance students' learning opportunities may be developed by means of support for teachers. Foremost among recommendations is the idea that field trip pedagogy be integrated into science methods courses required for preservice teachers (the premise for the final manuscript). Furthermore, the findings of this study may serve as a starting point for museums interested in the

  6. Development of Teachers as Scientists in Research Experiences for Teachers Programs (United States)

    Faber, Courtney; Hardin, Emily; Klein-Gardner, Stacy; Benson, Lisa


    This study examined the teachers' development as scientists for participants in three National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Teachers. Participants included secondary science and math teachers with varying levels of education and experience who were immersed in research environments related to engineering and science topics. Teachers' functionality as scientists was assessed in terms of independence, focus, relationships with mentors, structure, and ability to create new concepts. Hierarchies developed within these constructs allowed tracking of changes in functionality throughout the 6-week programs. Themes were further identified in teachers' weekly journal entries and exit interviews through inductive coding. Increases in functionality as scientists were observed for all teachers who completed both the program and exit interview ( n = 27). Seven of the 27 teachers reached high science functionality; however, three of the teachers did not reach high functionality in any of the constructs during the program. No differences were observed in demographics or teaching experience between those who did and did not reach high functionality levels. Inductive coding revealed themes such as teachers' interactions with mentors and connections made between research and teaching, which allowed for descriptions of experiences for teachers at high and low levels of functionality. Teachers at high functionality levels adjusted to open-ended environments, transitioned from a guided experience to freedom, felt useful in the laboratory, and were self-motivated. In contrast, teachers at low functionality levels did not have a true research project, primarily focused on teaching aspects of the program, and did not display a transition of responsibilities.

  7. Principal Leadership Style and Teacher Commitment among a Sample of Secondary School Teachers in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Alwyn Marshall


    Full Text Available In Barbados, the issue of principal leadership and teacher productivity has occupied the attention of teacher unions and educational authorities alike.  The teachers have been calling for principals to be removed while the principals have been arguing for greater autonomy to discipline teachers. This state of affairs has, understandably, adversely impacted teacher commitment levels.  In the literature there is a clear correlation between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, however, it is important to know whether or not the relationship holds true in the context of Barbadian schools. This author is of the view that if teacher commitment levels are to return to those in evidence in effective schools, then attention must be given to the way in which principals exercise their leadership functions. This study was therefore designed to examine in greater detail the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment.  The author employed purposive sampling to survey a cohort of ninety (90 teachers and eleven (11 principals drawn from eleven secondary schools. Results confirmed the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, and a statistically significant difference in the level of commitment reported by teachers at newer secondary schools and teachers at older secondary schools. Results also indicated that biographical variables moderated the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. Additionally, the regression model indicated that the principal leadership style sub-variables, in combination, accounted for some variance in the commitment demonstrated by teachers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani


    Full Text Available Education corruption displays ample evidence that warrants inefficiencies and absenteeism among teachers. Teachers are the transmitters of knowledge who help to ensure that children learn, they are role models and in most rural communities they are the most educated and respected personages. High teacher absenteeism can exist when teachers have very low levels of motivation to work and little commitment to the profession, and when there is lack of accountability in the education sector. Because of the importance of education to society, international bodies emphasize the need for attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. It is necessary to state that reducing official corruption in the education sector, promoting teacher welfare, designing better systems for monitoring and reducing invalid absences are among the critical measures of combating teacher absenteeism. The survey research design was used for the study and the result supports that education corruption has significant positive relationship with teacher absenteeism

  9. Writing and the Situated Construction of Teachers' Cognition: Portfolios as Complex Performative Spaces (United States)

    Pereira, Íris Susana Pires


    With this paper, I aim to contribute to the understanding of the teaching portfolio as a genre. I analyse the linguistic construction and performative nature of the reflective voice in the portfolio of one pre-service teacher. The results reveal her voice to have been constructed upon the convergence of other voices and to perform diverse…

  10. The Effect of SDLR and Self-efficacy in Preschool Teachers by Using WS Learning (United States)

    Kao, C-P.


    This study examined whether self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) moderates the association between Internet self-efficacy and approaches to learning by web searching (ALWS). A total of 329 valid questionnaires were used for the correlation and path analysis. The results revealed that preschool teachers' SDLR significantly moderated the…

  11. Differences in the Upbringing and Behaviour of Romani Boys and Girls, as Seen by Teachers. (United States)

    Forray, Katalin R.; Hegedus, Andras T.


    Analysis of elementary school teachers' (N=93) questionnaire responses regarding the academic performance and upbringing of Romani boys and girls revealed stereotypes of the same type often found concerning ethnic minorities. Results suggest that there is a need for instructional environments that emancipate girls and boys from sex-based roles…

  12. Teachers' Perception of School Violence in a Sample from Three European Countries (United States)

    Linares, Jose Jesus Gazquez; Diaz, Adolfo Javier Cangas; Fuentes, Maria del Carmen Perez; Acien, Francisca Lucas


    The objective of the present study was to explore, in three European countries (Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic), teachers' perception of the prevalence of different problematic aspects related to coexistence in schools, and of how they are personally affected by these aspects. The results reveal a high prevalence of fights, insults and…

  13. Writing and the Situated Construction of Teachers' Cognition: Portfolios as Complex Performative Spaces (United States)

    Pereira, Íris Susana Pires


    With this paper, I aim to contribute to the understanding of the teaching portfolio as a genre. I analyse the linguistic construction and performative nature of the reflective voice in the portfolio of one pre-service teacher. The results reveal her voice to have been constructed upon the convergence of other voices and to perform diverse…

  14. The Social Cognitive Model of Job Satisfaction among Teachers: Testing and Validation (United States)

    Badri, Masood A.; Mohaidat, Jihad; Ferrandino, Vincent; El Mourad, Tarek


    The study empirically tests an integrative model of work satisfaction (0280, 0140, 0300 and 0255) in a sample of 5,022 teachers in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The study provided more support for the Lent and Brown (2006) model. Results revealed that this model was a strong fit for the data and accounted for 82% of the variance in work…

  15. Motivating Pre-Service Teachers in Technology Integration of Web 2.0 for Teaching Internships (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Jang, Hwan Young


    The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of pre-service teachers' use of Web 2.0 tools during a teaching internship, after a course that emphasized the use of the tools for instructional activities. Results revealed that integrating Web 2.0 tools during their teaching internship was strongly predicted by participants' perceived…

  16. Teacher quality: a comparison of National Board-certified and non-Board-certified teachers of deaf students. (United States)

    Scheetz, Nanci A; Martin, David S


    THE STUDY was designed to identify specific components of teacher excellence, focusing initially on the characteristics of the small number of teachers of the deaf who are certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), then comparing those with the characteristics of other teachers identified as master teachers by university faculty in teacher preparation in deafness. Classroom observation, written lesson plans, teacher questionnaires on beliefs, and content analysis of interactive electronic focus groups were used to compare the two groups of teachers. Results indicated similarities between Board-certified and non-Board-certified master teachers in regard to teacher behaviors and commitment to well-founded pedagogical principles. Differences were found in classroom priorities and in the greater level of interconnectivity expressed by Board-certified teachers as the result of becoming Board certified. Recommendations are made for preparing teachers of deaf students.

  17. What Is Your Teacher Rubric? Extracting Teachers' Assessment Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejeong Jeong


    Full Text Available Rubrics not only document the scales and criteria of what is assessed, but can also represent the assessment construct of the developer. Rubrics display the key assessment criteria, and the simplicity or complexity of the rubric can illustrate the meaning associated with the score. For this study, five experienced teachers developed a rubric for an EFL (English as a Foreign Language descriptive writing task. Results show that even for the same task, teachers developed different formats and styles of rubric with both similar and different criteria. The teacher rubrics were analyzed for assessment criteria, rubric type and scale type. Findings illustrate that in terms of criteria, all teacher rubrics had five areas in common: comprehension, paragraph structure, sentence structure, vocabulary, and grammar. The criteria that varied were mechanics, length, task completion, and self-correction. Rubric style and scales also were different among teachers. Teachers who valued global concerns (i.e., comprehension in writing designed more general holistic rubrics, while teachers who focused more on sentence-level concerns (i.e., grammar developed analytic rubrics with more details. The assessment construct of the teacher was shown in the rubric through assessment criteria, rubric style, and scale.

  18. Questioning Strategies of Literature Teachers among Grade 8 Filipino Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Ocbian


    Full Text Available Questioning is a useful and relevant tool to facilitate classroom discussion in a literature class. This study identified the levels of questions teachers use in their literature class, determined the different question strategies they utilized and proposed activities to enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Video analysis was the main instrument used. These videos were provided during the conduct of class observations by the researchers. There were eight respondents in the study selected through total enumeration. They are teachers from Gubat Cluster of secondary schools of Sorsogon Province. To identify the levels of questions and questioning strategies, question tally form and percentage were used. Results revealed that knowledge was the most used level of questions followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The most used question technique is the participation, followed by proving, sequencing, wait time, balance and student questions. It was recommended that literature teachers vary their level of questions when discussing literary pieces. They may utilize different question techniques to develop critical thinking skills of their students. The use of the proposed activities may enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Likewise, school heads and program supervisors may utilize video analysis technique as a mode for classroom observation.

  19. Teacher Socialization of EFL Teachers at Public School Levels in Central Mexico


    M. Martha Lengeling; Irasema Mora Pablo; Blanca Lucía Barrios Gasca


    This study aimed at exploring the processes of teacher socialization and identity formation of nine English as a foreign language teachers at public schools in central Mexico. These teachers began their careers in the National English Program in Basic Education. Qualitative research and narrative inquiry were used as a basis for this research. The data revealed that the teachers’ socialization was somewhat informal in that little was required from them to gain entrance into the program. Once ...

  20. The effects of the SUN project on teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer are significant and long-lasting: results of a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave


    Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post-SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed.

  1. Public schools’ characteristics and teacher turnover in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairuddin Idris


    Full Text Available Teachers are the backbone of the educational systems and their turnover may threaten the whole educational system in any country. In Oman, teacher turnover is a neglected area of study and this article may help in shedding some light on teacher turnover phenomenon in Oman. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of school characteristics (e.g., school size, gender, time-shift, education type, and school location on the turnover intentions of teachers in public schools in Oman. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from 214 public schools in Oman. 142 schools from all educational regions in Oman were participated in this study. Data analyses tools for this study were descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, in addition to independents t-test and analysis of variance. The study revealed that teacher intentions to transfer to other schools are influenced by almost all the studied school characteristics. Policy makers and human resource recruiters in Ministry of Education should be aware of teachers’ preferences for certain schools to avoid teachers’ shortage in non-preferred schools. Further studies about the influence of school time-shift and teachers’ intentions to quit or transfer are needed to affirm the results in this study. This is the first study about the influence of school characteristics on teacher turnover in public schools in Oman. Thus, the value of this study stems from the uniqueness of this study which may serve as an eye opening indicator about teacher turnover in Oman.

  2. Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy (United States)

    Cox, Elena K.

    The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

  3. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia


    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : Please send applications with CVs to

  4. Teacher's PAT?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter; Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Raanan


    This article aims to contribute to current theoretical debates about political power and agency relationships in education and other public sector settings. In a recent clarion call for a major redirection of political principal-agent theories (PAT), Terry Moe has argued that standard information...... implications for our understanding of the political power of public school teachers and bureaucrats more generally....

  5. Preservice teacher knowledge of basic language constructs in Canada, England, New Zealand, and the USA. (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S; Joshi, R Malatesha; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Arrow, Alison


    The present study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) knowledge of basic language constructs across four different English-speaking teacher preparations programs. A standardized survey was administered to participants from Canada (n = 80), England (n = 55), New Zealand (n = 26), and the USA (n = 118). All participants were enrolled in undergraduate university programs that led to teacher certification for general education in the primary grades. Our data reveal that preservice teachers from all four countries show patterns of relative strength in areas that were targeted to be crucial within their national initiatives. Nevertheless, in general, PSTs demonstrated a lack of knowledge of certain constructs needed to teach early reading skills. The results are discussed in relation to research reports and initiatives regarding beginning reading instruction from each of the four countries.

  6. Attitudes of elementary, middle and high school teachers toward mainstreaming: implications for job satisfaction. (United States)

    Lombardo, E; Lombardo, V


    Little attention has been paid to the job satisfaction experienced by human services personnel, including classroom teachers. This study examines teacher's response to postal questionnaires seeking information about job satisfaction and attitudes to the mainstreaming of children with special needs. Results suggest that teachers at secondary or high school level experience lower job satisfaction than those working in middle or elementary schools. Comparison between teachers with or without experiences of mainstreaming reveals further differences between these groups with regard to their attitude toward the value of special educator involvement in the classroom; the importance of special assessments; discipline; the role of mainstreaming in enhancing peer relationships; and appreciation of school administrators' awareness of the implications of mainstreaming.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Recent changes on the Science and Tehnology (ST curriculum have required using alternative evaluation methods in learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to determine the ST teachers’ problems while using the alternative evaluation methods during their courses. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 ST teachers from different parts of Trabzon during the academic year 2008-2009. The data, analyzed qualitatively, reveals that the teachers have important difficulties in determining, using and evaluating these methods. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that besides the lack of physical infrastructure, labs and libraries, computer and other technologies in their schools, most of the teachers lack the knowledge and skills to implement these methods. The result of the study has shown that ST teachers need an adaptation process to appropriate the aims and importance of alternative evaluation methods effectively.

  8. Ontario, Canada, high school teachers as enforcers in the war on drugs: what their students see and say. (United States)

    Warner, J; Albanes, R; Amitay, O


    This paper examines how high school teachers interact with students on the subject of marijuana. Results, based on 49 focus groups with 278 high school students in Ontario, Canada, reveal three basic assumptions of the students: 1) only some teachers can actually tell when a student is high on marijuana; 2) many teachers have tried marijuana or continue to use it; and 3) individual teachers vary in how they respond to students who are high. Results suggest that changes in the relationship between marijuana and authority account in large part for the seeming reluctance of so many teachers to exercise their mandate to discipline students who use marijuana. The reasons for this are twofold: 1) many teachers do not see use of marijuana of and by itself as a threat to their authority; and 2) teachers who choose to confront users run the risk of having their authority and independence of action undermined once they report infractions to administrators who have authority over teachers and students alike.

  9. Teachers as mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike


    Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal...

  10. How an Orientation to Learning Influences the Expansive-Restrictive Nature of Teacher Learning and Change (United States)

    Feeney, Eric J.


    This study examined teachers' learning situated in a school to reveal factors that support and hinder learning in the workplace. The investigation analyzed teachers' orientation to learning, examining beliefs, practices, and experiences about teachers' learning in relation to change in the workplace. A hypothesis is that teacher learning and…

  11. Teacher Subcultures of Democratic Practice amidst the Oppression of Educational Reform (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey A.; Galligan, Hugh T.; Albano, Caitlyn M.; O'Connor, Kathleen


    Teachers' voices explore and document what is at stake when they are excluded from power-brokering conversations that mandate how teachers practice and model democracy in classrooms. Case study vignettes, interviews, classroom observations, and reflections of teachers in urban and suburban schools reveal four significant teacher subcultures of…

  12. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.


    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  13. Initiating Teachers' Action Research: Empowering Teachers' Voices (United States)

    Bognar, Branko


    The role of a teacher as an action researcher in Croatia is still insufficiently appreciated and promoted in initial teachers' training, school students learning and in the employed teachers' professional post-qualification development. In this country, teachers are most frequently perceived as mediators or technicians whose task is to prepare and…

  14. Child-care chaos and teachers' responsiveness: The indirect associations through teachers' emotion regulation and coping. (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K


    Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies. The sample consisted of 1129 preschool-aged classroom teachers in day care and public pre-K programs across the US. We first found that child-care chaos was directly associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic child-care settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn, was associated with lower levels of positive responsiveness to children. Teachers reporting a higher degree of chaos used more suppression strategies, which in turn, was associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions and fewer expressive encouragement reactions to children's emotions. Results of this exploratory study suggest that it is important to prepare teachers to handle chaotic environments with clear guidelines and rules. In order to encourage teachers' supportive responses to children, intervention programs are needed to address teachers' coping and emotion regulation strategies in early childhood education.

  15. The effect of multimedia cases on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers in Kenya (United States)

    Nthiga, Peter Rugano

    This study examined the effects of multimedia cases on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers in Kenya using mixed methods in data collection and analysis. Collaborating with two teacher educators at Central University, I designed and implemented two multimedia case-based intervention lessons, one with prospective chemistry teachers and the other with prospective physics teachers. I determined the changes in self-efficacy beliefs using a pretest and posttest with the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI) for N=41 participants. I also collected data using a worksheet during the intervention lesson. When the prospective teachers went for their field practice, I sampled eight of them for in depth interviews to determine what they drew on from the intervention lesson during their classroom teaching. I used Roth McDuffie's et al. (2014) framing to categorize the comments that the prospective teachers made on the worksheet into the four lenses of teacher, students, task or power and participation. I used paired sample t-test to determine the changes in self-efficacy beliefs and then developed profiles of the prospective teachers from the in depth interviews. The results revealed that prospective teachers paid more attention to the actions of the teacher and paid less attention to students' activities. Their attention to the task was predominantly about the cognitive level of the task and almost always focused on the errors they noted. The prospective teacher noticing using the power and participation lens was not clearly delineable from the teacher lens, because most instructional activities that led to more participation were teacher actions. Science teaching efficacy beliefs has two constructs: personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) and science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE). The PSTE scores were very high at 4.46 out of five on the pretest, and 4.41 on posttest. There was a decrease in the mean scores, but the change was

  16. Attracting and Retaining Teachers: A Question of Motivation (United States)

    Muller, Karin; Alliata, Roberta; Benninghoff, Fabienne


    Attracting and retaining competent teachers is a key concern when it comes to managing the supply and demand for teachers. This article examines the motivation that prompts people to enter or leave the teaching profession with the aim of identifying a decision framework for defining teacher policies. The results are based on the teacher workforce…

  17. Using Clinical Supervision Techniques with Student Art Teachers. (United States)

    Susi, Frank D.


    Contends that the student teaching experience and the cooperating teacher are the most significant aspects of the teacher education process. Describes the features and the implementation of clinical supervision in art education. Concludes that cooperating teachers also benefit as a result of their experiences with student teachers. (CFR)

  18. Multilingualism in an EFL Practicum: Increasing Student Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge (United States)

    Olivero, María Matilde


    Research in second language teacher education has demonstrated that novice teachers have difficulty in using their pedagogical knowledge, which partly results from a heavy focus on theory offered in teacher training programs (e.g., Bartels, 2005, 2009; Tarone & Allwright, 2005). In order to better equip student teachers with the knowledge…

  19. Quality of Work Life: Perceptions of Jordanian Special Education Teachers (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman K.; Al_Dababneh, Khuloud A. H.; Ahmad, Jamal


    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the level of quality of work life QOWL of Jordanian special education teachers. Participants of the study were 133 special education teachers. Results showed that special education teachers cited average level of QOWL. Furthermore, teachers rated administrators' and colleagues' respect as the…

  20. An empirical investigation on college teachers'foreign language anxiety

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    The author adopted an empirical quantitative method by employing Horwitz's Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (TFLAS)to determine the anxiety level of ninety teacher participants from Tianjin Foreign Studies University.SPSS11.5 was used for data analysis and the results showed that no one experienced high level's anxiety and student teachers were commonly more anxious than in-service teachers.

  1. Knowledge foundations for beginning reading teachers in EFL. (United States)

    Goldfus, Carol


    This study examined the knowledge that teachers need in order to become successful early reading teachers in English as a foreign language. The findings showed that in-service teachers had better content knowledge than pre-service teachers, although the results indicated overall low performance and insufficiently developed concepts about the structure of language, spelling rules, and academic terminology in both groups.

  2. Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practice of Self-Regulated Learning (United States)

    Spruce, Robin; Bol, Linda


    This study examined teacher beliefs, knowledge, and classroom practice of self-regulated learning for ten elementary and middle school teachers. Using Zimmerman's SRL model to frame our method and results, we administered questionnaires, observed classrooms and conducted interviews with these teachers. Teachers had positive beliefs about the role…

  3. Level of Internet Use Among Science Teachers Involved in a Professional Development Project (United States)

    Wiesenmayer, Randall L.; Koul, Ravinder


    This study examined the level of instructional use of Internet among science teachers involved with an in-service professional development project. An instrument on Level of Use of innovation was modified for the study. A criterion sample of teachers to be interviewed via telephone was randomly selected from a pool of 347 K-12 teachers. Somers' d and contingency coefficients were determined to see whether any relationship exists between a teacher's Level of Use and the following categories: (a) amount of experience with the Internet; (b) availability of resources support and access to the Internet in classroom and at home; (c) number of teacher and student users at school, (d) gender; and (e) type of school. Results of step-wise multiple regression indicate that classroom access, instructional experience of using Internet with students, availability of resource support and number of teacher users at school are the best predictors of teacher's Level of Use. Chi square test for comparisons between groups of completers and noncompleters of On-Line West Virginia K-12 RuralNet courses also revealed that a lack of classroom access to Internet and lack of resource/technical support at school contributed significantly to lower level of use among noncompleters.

  4. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.


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    Paulo Sérgio Garcia


    Full Text Available This study investigated teachers’ objectives for using videoconferencing (VC, their forms of use, and advantages and difficulties faced in the context of public schools. It was also analyzed VC contribution to teacher education and the skills that teachers require to use it. It was used interviews with 17 teachers who participated in projects. The data analyzed qualitatively revealed that teachers had objectives related to the expansion of the content, the study of other cultures, the creation of new teaching methods and techniques, the encouragement of the students in decision-making, and the motivation of the students. Forms of use were associated with lectures and talks delivered by experts. Among the main difficulties were the lack of support and time for teacher planning his activities, and lack of technical support. The VC can contribute with teacher education in updating teacher knowledge, and in the process of learning how to use new technologies. Among the competencies required are: master the use of technologies, control physical space, and master the strategies of dynamics of the use. The results promote further discussions on teaching practices and classroom management, both in pre-service and in-service education.

  6. Motivation and engagement in mathematics: a qualitative framework for teacher-student interactions (United States)

    Durksen, Tracy L.; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette; Anderson, Judy; Skilling, Karen; Martin, Andrew J.


    We started with a classic research question (How do teachers motivate and engage middle year students in mathematics?) that is solidly underpinned and guided by an integration of two theoretical and multidimensional models. In particular, the current study illustrates how theory is important for guiding qualitative analytical approaches to motivation and engagement in mathematics. With little research on how teachers of mathematics are able to maintain high levels of student motivation and engagement, we focused on developing a qualitative framework that highlights the influence of teacher-student interactions. Participants were six teachers (upper primary and secondary) that taught students with higher-than-average levels of motivation and engagement in mathematics. Data sources included one video-recorded lesson and associated transcripts from pre- and post-lesson interviews with each teacher. Overall, effective classroom organisation stood out as a priority when promoting motivation and engagement in mathematics. Results on classroom organisation revealed four key indicators within teacher-student interactions deemed important for motivation and engagement in mathematics—confidence, climate, contact, and connection. Since much of the effect of teachers on student learning relies on interactions, and given the universal trend of declining mathematical performance during the middle years of schooling, future research and intervention studies might be assisted by our qualitative framework.

  7. ICT Competency Level of Teacher Education Professionals in the Central Visayas Region, Philippines

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    Dave E. Marcial


    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT plays a vital role in teaching and learning. This paper presents the landscape of ICT competency of faculty in the teacher education institutions in the central region of the Philippines. Specifically, the study investigates the ICT competency level in institutions of higher learning offering teacher education programs in the four provinces in Central Visayas, Philippines. A total of 383 survey responses was analyzed in the study. Respondents are all faculty handling any professional and/or specialization courses in the teacher education. The ICT competency level is measured empirically in terms of work aspects described in the UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. The instrument used in data gathering was a survey questionnaire.This study reveals that the ICT competency level of the respondents is in the knowledge deepening level. The result implies that the teacher educators are integrative, student-centered and collaborative using the necessary tools. It is concluded that there is a slight technology infusion into the teaching instruction among teacher educators in Region 7. There is a need to improve the level of competency among the teacher educators, particularly skills in using complex and pervasive ICT tools to achieve innovative teaching and learning.

  8. The Impact of Lifelong Learning Teacher Education in Secondary School Results El Impacto de la Formación Permanente del Profesorado de Educación Secundaria en los Resultados Escolares.

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    Paula González-Vallinas


    Full Text Available Studies dealing with factors which have an influence on students outcomes are reviewed, teacher variables and teacher training are among their most common findings to influence school achievement. This study analyses the variable in-service teacher training on students? academic achievement. The analysis levels are departments and schools, being department the level where the relation among variables is more significative. There are significative correlations between the in-service teacher training in their own subject and the subject pedagogy in 50% of the analysed departments. In-service teacher training is recommended to be organized, taking into account these differences (context, teacher variables, in- service teacher training variables among departments, schools and districts to compensate the unequal school variables. Existe evidencia sobre la influencia de algunos factores en el rendimiento escolar de los centros y entre ellos de manera consistente aparecen las características del profesorado y su formación. Este estudio analiza la formación del profesorado con los resultados escolares de los centros de educación secundaria en Asturias. De las variables de formación, es únicamente la formación en la asignatura y su didáctica la que se asocia a los resultados en la asignatura. Se realizan análisis en dos niveles de agregación, departamento y centro, observándose que es en los niveles de departamento donde existen las correlaciones más significativas. Se aporta evidencia para la organización de una formación del profesorado que asigne recursos de formación en los diferentes niveles en base a sus desigualdades de origen (contexto, variables del profesorado y de formación y que garantice una efectiva igualdad de oportunidades para el conjunto de la población escolar de la Comunidad Autónoma.

  9. Becoming a teacher educator: experiences with a special induction programme for beginning teacher educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kools, Quinta; Schildwacht, Rita; Veraa, Marije; Gootzen, Marly; Bouckaert-den Draak, Marina; Seezink, Audrey


    Literature reveals that beginning teacher educators are dealing with organisational and professional difficulties in their induction period. At the Teacher Education Institute of Fontys University of Applied Sciences in Tilburg, The Netherlands, a special induction programme was developed for the in

  10. Infusing Science, Technology, and Society Into an Elementary Teacher Education Program: The Impact on Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Henning, Mary Beth; Peterson, Barbara R.; King, Kenneth Paul


    In an effort to improve science and social studies instruction, preservice teachers developed original science, technology, and society units to teach in elementary and middle school classrooms during their clinical field experience. Data revealed that the preservice teachers fell into categories of being skeptics, open-minded instructors, or…

  11. Toward Reconstructing the Narrative of Teacher Education: A Rhetorical Analysis of "Preparing Teachers" (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.


    Drawing on insights from literary critic and theorist Kenneth Burke, this rhetorical analysis of "Preparing Teachers" (2010), a publication of the National Research Council, reveals then critiques' key assumptions that are shaping policies and current reform efforts in teacher education, including changes in U.S. teacher…

  12. "Lion Tamers and Baby Sitters": First-Year English Teachers' Perceptions of Their Undergraduate Teacher Preparation. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Bill


    Personal narratives from first-year English teachers reveal that the social system of the schools in which they teach, the instructional system and its accompanying curriculum requirements and restraints, and the nature of the student population become dominant in determining teachers' behavior and their attitudes toward teaching. (HOD)

  13. Official Policies and Teachers' Tendency to Act: Exploring the Discrepancies in Teachers' Perceptions (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Gilat, Israel Z.


    The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of the "official policies" and their "tendency to act," based on their ethical decision-making. A qualitative analysis of 60 Israeli teachers' questionnaires consisting of critical ethical incidents revealed multifaceted ethical…

  14. Student teachers' conceptions of how to recognise a ``Good'' primary science teacher: Does two years in a teacher education program make a difference? (United States)

    Skamp, Keith


    Several studies have suggested that preservice teacher education has little impact on student teacher conceptions about various facets of teaching and learning. Most of these studies refer to generic teaching and learning, and very few have related to primary science in particular. To explore this area eight primary student teachers were interviewed on six occasions during the first two years of their Bachelor of Teaching degree. This paper reports the findings from part of these interviews. It describes the (sometimes changing) conceptions which these eight students held about how they would recognise a “good” teacher of science and the people and experiences they believed influenced the formation of these views. The differential impact of past and present teachers and the teacher education program revealed possible implications for practica and science curriculum units in particular, if teacher education is going to have an influence on preservice teachers' conceptions about teaching and learning.

  15. Organization a Culture of Self-Education of Music Teachers (United States)

    Dyganova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Yavgildina, Ziliya Mukhtarovna


    The article discusses the culture of self-education of music teacher as a professionally necessary quality of a modern specialist in the field of music education. The author proposes finalized definitions of basic concepts; consistently reveals the essence, structure, criteria and indicators of self-culture of music teacher; reveals the potential…

  16. Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers (United States)

    Gardner, Cynthia Crompton

    Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of

  17. The Effect of Tertiary Teachers' Goal Orientations for Teaching on Their Commitment: The Mediating Role of Teacher Engagement (United States)

    Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenlan


    This study explored the effect of tertiary teachers' goal orientations for teaching on their commitment, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher engagement. The results of a survey of 597 Chinese tertiary teachers indicated that teacher commitment was positively predicted by ability approach, mastery and relational goals, but was…

  18. Teachers' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter: The Case of Zambian Pre-Service Science Teachers (United States)

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mbewe, Simeon


    This study assessed Zambian Junior High School pre-service science teachers' understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample comprised 30 pre-service science teachers at a teacher training college. Data was collected through a questionnaire adopted from Ozmen and Kenan (2007). Results show that most teachers had correct views on the…

  19. Priorities and Program Effectiveness in Teacher Education: A Study of the Perceptions of Teachers in Training and Their Tutors. (United States)

    Newton, E. H.; Brathwaite, W. E.


    This study solicited opinions of teachers in a postgraduate teacher education program and teacher educators at the University of the West Indies (Barbados) on program effectiveness and the importance of specific teaching skills. Eighty-two teachers and 20 faculty members participated. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  20. Teacher Efficacy and Career Indecision among Pre-Service Teachers: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects (United States)

    Slone, Mary Beth; Hancock, Mary D.


    The present study investigates, through path analytic techniques, the influence of teacher efficacy on the career indecision of pre-service teachers. The sample consists of 305 students enrolled in Teacher Education programs at two southeastern universities. Results indicate that general teacher efficacy and career self-efficacy have significant…

  1. Using authentic intellectual assessment to determine level of instructional quality of teacher practice of new elementary school teachers based on teacher preparation route (United States)

    Cassidy, Kimberly E.

    This study was designed to determine whether or not differences existed in the effectiveness between teachers from traditional and alternative teacher preparation routes. The NCLB requirement of having a highly qualified teacher in every classroom has brought close attention to the assessment of teacher effectiveness and the preparation of teacher candidates. The study population included elementary school teachers, within their first three years of teaching who taught science, from five southeastern Virginia schools. For this study, an authentic intellectual assessment rubric created by Newmann, Bryk, and Nagaoka (1997) was utilized to measure teacher effectiveness in terms of the level of instructional quality of new teachers. Chi-square and t test analyses were conducted to investigate the difference between scores of science lesson assignments of new elementary teachers based on type of teacher preparation route the teachers completed. The critical finding of the study was that whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the science assignment scores between traditionally and alternatively prepared teachers, there were significant weaknesses in all teacher participants in the areas of construction of knowledge and connection to students' lives. The results of this study have implications for teachers, teacher preparation routes, teacher development coordinators of school divisions, and those in charge of instructional policies.

  2. Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization (United States)

    Hawthorne, Casey Wayne

    Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive

  3. Pedagogical Mentorship as an In - Service Training Resource: Perspectives From Teachers in Guatemalan R ural and Indigenous Schools

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    Katy de la Garza


    Full Text Available Rural and Indigenous populations have the lowest educational achievement indicators and teachers with the least years of training. Global education movements have led to an increase in access to schooling by rural and Indigenous populations but high drop-out rates persist and education policies, curricular contents, and teacher trainings have progressively become urban-biased and insensitive to context. Using a case from Guatemala, this study offers policy knowledge on rural and Indigenous teacher professionalization by analyzing the potential of pedagogical mentorship as an in-service teacher training resource that can consider contextual and sociocultural realities. It also offers to improve our understandings of the challenges faced by teachers to provide quality education in rural and Indigenous settings. The data is drawn from a qualitative and multisite research study. Results demonstrate that main challenges faced by rural teachers include economic hardships, malnutrition, inadequate and superficial teacher training in intercultural bilingual education, and the persistent absence of basic government social programs. The data also reveal a positive demand for pedagogical mentorship on behalf of all the interviewed teachers; particularly to enhance their knowledge and skills on bilingual intercultural education. Pedagogical mentorship offers a powerful opportunity for governments to enhance quality and context-sensitive education; but it is not enough. Multi sectorial efforts are necessary to tackle poverty, hunger and education and move towards the implementation of the long overdue right for rural and Indigenous peoples to access quality education that includes healthy students and relevant curricula.

  4. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.


    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  5. Secondary School Teachers’ Perception of “Teacher Professional Development”: A Case Study of Teachers from Five Districts of Uganda.

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    Alice Merab Kagoda


    Full Text Available Teacher professional development (TPD is important in keeping teachers abreast with changes that characterise the 21st century schools. However, TPD will only be valuable if teachers perceive it as important. Moreover the varying perceptions of teacher professional development by teachers are likely to affect their view of TPD. Using data collected from secondary school teachers, this study explored teachers’ understanding of the concept “teacher professional development, TPD approaches used by teachers and barriers/constraints they face. Results show that teachers have narrow understanding of the concept, and that to many TPD meant subject content upgrading by going back to teacher training college, while others view it as attending workshops and seminars. Barriers mentioned included shortage of time, lack of funds, lack of motivation and support by head teachers and government as a whole. Researchers recommend that teacher education should incorporate a component of professional teacher development in the initial teacher training. The head teachers and Ministry of Education and Sports should support in-service teachers in their endeavour to develop professionally. Teachers with low selfesteem should be motivated through attendance of conferences, workshops and group activities at local level.

  6. Effective Teachers/Inspired Students: The Critical Role of Teachers in "Yeshiva" High Schools (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Chana


    Teachers are thought to be the backbone of any high school. Data indicating how students perceive their teachers was gathered from a questionnaire completed by 355 recent Yeshiva high-school graduates. Results show that Yeshiva High School teachers are thought of as open minded and tolerant (51.9%), caring (73.2%), and interested in developing the…

  7. Head Start Mentor Teachers Impact Child Outcomes in Protege Teachers' Classrooms (United States)

    Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha; VandeWiele, Laura


    This study describes the results of an evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention, a mentoring program for early childhood educators. This mentoring program includes 3 components: Mentor Teacher Seminar, Mentor teachers supporting professional development of Protege teachers throughout the school year, and Mentor coordinator meetings…

  8. Supporting Emerging Teacher Identities: Can We Identify Teacher Potential among Students? (United States)

    Lofstrom, Erika; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Hannula, Markku S.; Mathews, Samuel R.


    The research focuses on Estonian university students' emerging teacher identity and their interest in becoming teachers. Five hundred and sixty-five first, third and fifth year students participated in the survey. The results suggest that pedagogical reasons for entering teacher education and clear motives for studying are significant indicators…

  9. Perceived Learning and Satisfaction in a Blended Teacher Education Program: An Experience of Malaysian Teacher Trainees (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku


    Blended learning, as a new approach to education, is rapidly being adopted by educational institutions for the purpose of teacher education or teacher training. This study reports the results of a survey exploring the relationships between perceived learning and satisfaction in a blended teacher education program among three different groups of…

  10. Relationship between Teacher Self-Efficacy and the Teacher Evaluation Process (United States)

    Pisciotta, Summer


    Changes in state laws led the education system personnel in Arizona to reconsider how they assess students, teachers, and administrators. Higher expectations for teacher and student performance and a budget deficit at schools resulted in evaluations being a focal point in teacher contract renewal. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to…

  11. Teacher Pension Systems, the Composition of the Teaching Workforce, and Teacher Quality. Working Paper 72 (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Podgursky, Michael


    Teacher pension systems target retirements within a narrow range of the career cycle by penalizing individuals who separate too soon or remain employed too long. The penalties result in the retention of some teachers who would otherwise choose to leave, and the premature exit of some teachers who would otherwise choose to stay. We examine how the…

  12. Teacher Pension Systems, the Composition of the Teaching Workforce, and Teacher Quality (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Podgursky, Michael; Shi, Shishan


    Teacher pension systems concentrate retirements within a narrow range of the career cycle by penalizing individuals who separate too soon or remain employed too long. The penalties result in the retention of some teachers who would otherwise choose to leave, and the premature exit of some teachers who would otherwise choose to stay. We examine the…


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    The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on

  14. Teacher Self-Concept and Teacher Effectiveness as Perceived by Teachers of English and Students of Senior High Schools

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    Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-concept of EFL teachers influenced their effectiveness in teaching English as a foreign language, as perceived by both teachers and students. The study involved 275 EFL teachers and 88 senior high school students in South Sumatra. Variables of education, teaching experience, and age were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, and specific hypotheses were tested to see whether the addition of the other independent variables could add to the effectiveness of the teacher. The results showed significant relationships between self-concept and all the four factors used to define teacher effectiveness. The combination of self-concept and experience serves as the first salient factor influencing the four factors of teacher effectiveness in addition to self-concept alone. Education was also found to be a factor which influenced teacher effectiveness

  15. Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

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    Dr. Etem YEŞİLYURT


    Full Text Available This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Keleşoğlu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selçuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was conducted on 312 teacher candidates. The data of this study was obtained by “academic selfefficacy scale” which was developed by Jerusalem and Schwazer (1981 and translated into Turkish by Yılmaz, Gürçay, and Ekici (2007 and its reliability value was determined as .79. However, Cronbach Alfa reliability value of this scale became .76 with the result of the data analysis of the study. SPSS package program was used to analyze the data; and the data analysis, frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc tests (LSD test were used. When the findings of the research were considered in general, the result showed that the academic self-efficacy perception level of the candidates was at desired level. However, teachers' views about the level of academic self-efficacy perception showed that most of them preferred a lower level option "suits me", instead of "totally suits me" option that was the highest degree of participation of four likert-type scale. This illustrated that their perception about this issue was not at a very high level. When independent variables were taken into account, among the academic perception levels of teacher candidates, a significant difference was detected in terms of working as a teacher or not and academic achievement variables but it revealed no significant difference in terms of gender and type of education program variables.

  16. Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Year 1 Impact Findings from an RCT


    Steven Glazerman; Sarah Dolfin; Martha Bleeker; Amy Johnson; Eric Isenberg; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Mary Grider; Edward Britton


    Comprehensive teacher induction provides novice teachers with carefully selected and trained full-time mentors, as well as a curriculum of intensive and structured support. This report presents the first round of results from a large-scale randomized controlled study of the effects of two comprehensive teacher induction programs. Intensive mentoring and professional development for teachers just entering the profession did not increase teacher retention or generate any significant improvement...

  17. Literacy Study of TCFL Teacher Competencies

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    Full Text Available TCFL teachers competencies are a new and popular field of research in the Chinese language. These competencies will relate to the knowledge and skills that TCFL teachers should have, such as the knowledge in linguistics and Chinese linguistics, theory of the second language, learning strategies and teaching methodologies. Besides that, teacher should have a good awareness, psychological and emotional control. This article summarizes the results of literacy study of TCFL teachers competencies. At first, these seem difficult to achieve, but by consistently accumulating teachers' knowledge and skills, its can help to give new TCFL teachers a clearer understanding of their role in education and help them make preparations. Accumulating knowledge and skills, controlling the role of psychology and emotions are very important that TCFL teachers must have as their lifestyle.

  18. The Prevalence of Cyberbullying and the Views of 5-12 Grade Pupils and Teachers on Cyberbullying Prevention in Lithuanian Schools


    Baraldsnes, Dziuginta


    This article analyses the views of cyberbullying prevention among 5-12 grade pupils and teachers in Lithuanian schools. It defines the concept of cyberbullying in the context of school pupils, and analyses the theoretical grounds for prevention of this form of bullying. The article also presents the results of the survey (which was conducted in 2009-2010) and reveals the views of 2064 pupils of 5 -12 grade and their 1062 teachers towards the prevention of cyberbullying...

  19. Personal and Job Related Predictors of Teacher Stress and Job Performance among School Teachers

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    Rubina Hanif


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out role of personal and job related variables in teacher stress and job performance of school teachers. Furthermore, levels and sources of stress and their relationship with job performance among teachers were also explored. The measures used in this study were indigenously developed i.e., Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI-Urdu, Teachers Job Performance Scale and personal and job related Information sheet. Two independent samples were selected from Government and Private Schools of Islamabad (Pakistan. Sample I was comprised of 400 teachers (men and women from Primary and secondary schools. For the evaluation of teachers’ job performance another sample of 1200 students from the classes of teachers of sample I was selected. Three students were randomly selected from each teacher’s class. The students were requested to evaluate their respective teachers’ job performance. The findings revealed that negative significant relationship exists between teachers stress and job performance. The step-wise regression analysis revealed school system, gender, job experience, number of family members, and number of students as significant predictors of teacher stress and gender, school system, family members, job experience and age as significant predictors of teachers’ job performance.

  20. Bully Busters Modified: The Effect of a Brief Universal Intervention on Elementary School Teacher Efficacy, Skills and Knowledge, and Reports of Student Victimization of Peers (United States)

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Kristin K.; Lounsbery, Karyl L.; Behrend, Bonni Nickens; Keller, Elizabeth A.


    An assessment of a brief, but intensive modified Bully Busters universal prevention program on measures of teacher efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, teacher skills and knowledge about peer victimization, and teacher-reports of students' peer victimization was conducted with 30 elementary school teachers. Paired-samples "t" tests revealed clinically…

  1. Buffering Role of Locus of Control on Stress among the College/University Teachers of Bahawalpur

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    Aqeel Ahmad Khan (Corresponding author


    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to ascertain the role of locus of control in mediating or coping on various degree/levels of stress among the college/university teachers of Bahawalpur. For that purpose a sample of N=200 male/female college/university teacherswas selected by convenient sampling. Research tools, Locus of control by Julian Rotter (1966 and Stress questionnaire by International Stress Management Association UK, (2009 were administered for data collection. After the collection of data it was analyzedby SPSS. The results shows that the teachers identified with internal locus of control reveal low level of stress as contrast to the teachers with external locus of control. The study also confirms that high internal locus of control determines high coping andmediating ability of stress among the teachers. The study also pointed out that the teachers with external locus of control were more incline or prone to stress. Furthermore, Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation results at significant level of .000 show that bothvariables are highly correlated. Similarly, overall Mean of locus of control and Coefficient of variation reveals the high consistency role in relation with stress.

  2. The dilemma of giving mathematics homework from the perspective of pre-service elementary teachers

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    Von Anthony Gayas Torio


    Full Text Available Homework is defined as an additional task that a student does outside of the school. This added activity is in recognition of the necessity to spend additional time for subjects such as Mathematics. The dilemma comes in the form of the advantages and disadvantages that can be derived from homework. Studies have revealed varying effects of homework to students on academic and non-academic areas. Teachers are at the forefront of the decision towards the giving or not of homework. Pre-service teachers at the elementary level represent the future leaders of the educational system and should be acquainted and involved at the onset of the dilemma. The main objective of this study is to determine the perspective of pre-service elementary teachers towards homework. The anatomy of their belief can be a key towards addressing the issue via teacher training. The descriptive method of research was used through case studies. Constant comparative method was used to analyze results. Salient results revealed that the subjects favor the giving homework on the following grounds: it helps add knowledge, confidence and satisfaction. Those who do not favor homework find it as an additional burden and a source of additional stress. Difficulties in complying with homework are usually associated with limited time, bad influence of peers and teacher factor. Students usually spend late nights to comply with homework and are unable to perform at the best of their potentials.

  3. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge about Early Language and Literacy: Practical Implications and Considerations (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.


    This study examined 1 tool for evaluating Head Start teachers' knowledge about early language and literacy. Results indicated that teachers varied in their knowledge. Teachers with more knowledge had more education, as did teachers who received language and literacy professional development. Teachers with greater knowledge also demonstrated higher…

  4. "Don't Sweat the Small Stuff:" Understanding Teacher Resilience at the Chalkface (United States)

    Mansfield, Caroline F.; Beltman, Susan; Price, Anne; McConney, Andrew


    This study investigates how graduating and early career teachers perceive resilient teachers. Informed by survey data from 200 graduating and early career teachers, the study's results indicate that graduating and early career teachers perceive that resilience for teachers comprises characteristics that are multi-dimensional and overlapping, and…

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of the Effect of Their Attire on Middle-School Students' Behavior and Learning (United States)

    Sampson, Elizabeth Clemons


    Teachers were once held to a professional dress code. This code has become lax, resulting in teachers dressing in more casual attire. A local middle school in rural Georgia was experiencing complaints about teachers' unprofessional attire from other teachers, administrators, and parents. Teachers play an integral role in modeling cultural and…

  6. Antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach. (United States)

    Becker, Eva S; Keller, Melanie M; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C; Taxer, Jamie L


    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students' motivation and discipline and teachers' enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers' subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2-3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students' motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers' enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers' anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers' subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers' enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students' motivation and discipline level on teachers' emotions were partially mediated by teachers' appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers' emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.

  7. Framing the debate over teacher unions

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    William C. Smith


    Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections.  The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally.  Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993, I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania.  The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers.  To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.

  8. Reconceptualizing context from a situated perspective: Teacher beliefs and the activity of teaching within the context of science reform (United States)

    Smith, Leigh K.

    An increasing interest in illuminating the relationships between context and educational reform has led researchers to examine the various interconnected factors that constitute different teaching contexts and the relationships between these elements and teachers' beliefs. The challenge is to identify those aspects of context that facilitate change in teachers' thinking and the way they approach science instruction. This study investigated the relationships between elementary teachers' science-related beliefs and the external forces within the context of their teaching. Using a situated perspective from which to view context, the activity of teaching and the related beliefs of 2 elementary teachers was examined in an effort to better understand the role of context in teachers' thinking about what science is, what it means to teach and learn science, what is involved in reform-based practices, and what science instruction might look like in their classrooms based on their interpretation of reform. Comparative case studies were developed and analyzed using a constant comparative method of analysis. Cross-ease analyses revealed a number of major themes: (a) teachers' science-related beliefs vary in level of commitment; (b) more deeply held beliefs about what it means to teach and learn science, or guiding beliefs, are profoundly resistant to change and are derived primarily from teachers' personal histories both in and outside of schools; (c) guiding beliefs are also shaped by science methods courses, teacher development, and practical classroom experience; (d) less deeply held beliefs, or perceptions of control, are teachers' beliefs about their ability to teach science according to their guiding beliefs in the presence of physical, social, or structural factors within the context of their teaching; (e) guiding beliefs are likely to override perceptions of control, enabling teachers to adapt their teaching contexts; and (f) although all aspects of context impact

  9. Vocational teachers taking the lead: VET teachers and the career services for teachers reform in Sweden

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    Daniel Alvunger


    Full Text Available In 2013 the Swedish government launched a reform on career services for teachers that introduced first-teachers as a new category of teachers. Since this reform still is in the process of being rolled out, we know fairly little of its impact, especially concerning VET teachers that are appointed first-teachers. This paper explores and analyses two cases of VET first-teachers with focus on the implications on educational leadership practices in their work with school improvement where 'distributed leadership' is used as a lens for understanding the characteristic features of leader-ship practices. The results show that the VET first-teachers consider themselves to represent an important educational leadership being process leaders for creating a culture built on mutual trust, turning the focus of school improvement from a 'top-down' perspective to change 'from below'. They become 'brokers' and a link between school management and their colleagues, even if there are some difficulties. Moreover they visualise different practices and foster a new awareness - concerning e.g. assessment and the relationship between school and work-place - that seem to influence collegial discourse.

  10. Quantum science in secondary chemistry: Influence of teachers' beliefs and knowledge on the use of interactive computer models (United States)

    Robblee, Karen M.

    Current science education reform efforts promote inquiry-based learning, a goal that requires appropriate tools and instructional approaches. This study investigated the influence of the beliefs and knowledge of four experienced secondary chemistry teachers in their use of new instructional software that generates models of atoms and molecules based on quantum mechanics. The software, which was developed through a National Science Foundation funded project, Quantum Science Across Disciplines (QSAD), was designed to promote inquiry learning. Qualitative research methods were used for this multiple case study. Data from surveys, interviews, and extended classroom observations revealed a close correlation between a teacher's model of the learner and his or her model of teaching. Combined models of learner and teacher had the greatest influence on their decisions about implementing QSAD software. Teachers who espoused a constructivist model of learning and related models of teaching used the software to promote student investigations and inductive approaches to learning. Other factors that appeared to support the use of inquiry methods included sufficient time for students to investigate phenomena, the extent of the teacher's pedagogical content knowledge, and the amount of training using QSAD software. The Views-On-Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) instrument was used to compare the informants' beliefs about the epistemology of science to their classroom practices. Data related to the role of teachers' beliefs about scientific knowledge were inconclusive, and VOSTS results were inconsistent with the informants' stated beliefs. All four cases revealed that the teachers acted as agents of the school culture. In schools that promoted development of critical thinking, questioning, and self-direction in students, teachers were more likely to use a variety of instructional methods and emphasize construction of knowledge. These findings suggest that educational reform

  11. Teacher-student interactions and domain-specific motivation: The relationship between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and motivation in middle school science (United States)

    Smart, Julie Brockman


    This study examined interactions between middle school science students' perceptions of teacher-student interactions and their motivation for learning science. Specifically, in order to better understand factors affecting middle school students' motivation for science, this study investigated the interactions between middle school students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior in their science classroom and their efficacy, task value, mastery orientations, and goal orientation for learning science. This mixed methods study followed a sequential explanatory model (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases, with quantitative data in the first phase informing the selection of participants for the qualitative phase that followed. The qualitative phase also helped to clarify and explain results from the quantitative phase. Data mixing occurred between Phase One and Phase Two (participant selection) and at the interpretation level (explanatory) after quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. Results from Phase One indicated that students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors were predictive of their efficacy for learning science, task value for learning science, mastery orientation, and performance orientation. These results were used to create motivation/perception composites, which were used in order to select students for the qualitative interviews. A total of 24 students with high motivation/high perceptions, low motivation/low perceptions, high motivation/low perceptions, and low motivation/high perceptions were selected in order to represent students whose profiles either supported or refuted the quantitative results. Results from Phase Two revealed themes relating to students' construction of their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and dimensions of their efficacy and task value for science. Students who reported high motivation and high perceptions of teacher

  12. Research Results Research Results (United States)


    A Highly Efficient Route for Selective Phenol Hydrogenation to Cyclohexanone A Novel Mechanism Employed by KSHV to Maintain the Latent Infection was Revealed Breakthrough in the Synthesis of Interconnected NW/NT and NT/NW/NT Heterojunctions with Branched Topology GABA Transporter-1 Activity Modulates Hippocampal Theta Oscillation and Theta Burst Stimulation-Induced Long-Term Potentiation Meta-analysis of Vitamin D, Calcium and the Prevention of Breast Cancer New Findings on the Origin of TrpRS PKCd Regulates Cortical Radial Migration by Stabilizing the Cdk5 Activator P35 PKU Research Team Publishes Papers on Inhalation Exposure to Pollutant and Cancer Risk Progress of the Research on Arbitrarily Elliptical Invisibility Cloaks An Advance in Complete Oxidation of Formaldehyde at Low Temperatures

  13. Differences in observers' and teachers' fidelity assessments. (United States)

    Hansen, William B; Pankratz, Melinda M; Bishop, Dana C


    As evidence-based programs become disseminated, understanding the degree to which they are implemented with fidelity is crucial. This study tested the validity of fidelity ratings made by observers versus those made by teachers. We hypothesized that teachers' reports about fidelity would have a positivity bias when compared to observers' reports. Further, we hypothesized that there would generally be low correspondence between teachers' and observers' ratings of fidelity. We examined teachers' and observers' ratings as they were related to mediating variables targeted for change by the intervention. Finally, we examined the role that years of teaching experience played in achieving fidelity. Eighteen teachers and four research assistants participated in this project as raters. Teachers made video recordings of their implementation of All Stars and completed fidelity assessment forms. Trained observers independently completed parallel forms for 215 sampled classroom sessions. Both teachers and observers rated adherence, quality of delivery, attendance, and participant engagement. Teachers made more positive fidelity ratings than did observers. With the exception of ratings for attendance, teachers and observers failed to agree on fidelity ratings. Observers' ratings were significantly related to students' pretest assessments of targeted program mediators. That observers' ratings were related to students' pretest scores, suggests it is easier to teach well when students are predisposed to program success. Teachers' ratings were infrequently related to mediators, but when they were, the relationship was counterintuitive. Experienced teachers taught with greater fidelity than novice teachers. While possibly inflated and inaccurate, gathering fidelity assessments from teachers may sensitize them to issues of fidelity as a result of requiring form completion. Assessing fidelity through observers' ratings of video recordings has significant merit. As a longterm investment

  14. The Implications of Teacher Effectiveness Requirements for Initial Teacher Education Reform

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    S. G. Pretorius


    Full Text Available Problem statement: School effectiveness research shows that teacher effectiveness is the single most important school-based factor in student success. The effects of poor teaching linger and can be measured for at least three years after students have left the classroom. It is too late to wait until secondary school level for backlogs to be eradicated. Education systems, such as the South African system, which grapple with large numbers of dysfunctional schools, should look anew at teacher effectiveness in all school phases. The urgent need for highly effective teachers in every classroom requires that education systems develop a comprehensive definition of teacher effectiveness and create training programmes to develop it. Thus, the problem investigated is: What are the characteristics, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers and what is the best way in which schools of education can adapt initial teacher education to meet the challenges of today’s classrooms? Approach: A mixed method approach was adopted. In addition to an in-depth literature review, open-ended questionnaires, probing perceptions of teacher effectiveness issues were distributed to teachers, school principals, policy officials and teacher educators. Interviews were conducted with a variety of educational experts. Classroom observations of experienced and novice teachers were conducted in a variety of contexts using open-ended classroom observation checklists. Results: Based on the findings of the research a synthesis of the characteristics, knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers was developed. Conclusion: If teachers are to be effective their initial training will have to be effective. This study has identified the characteristics and behaviours associated with effective teachers. These indicators are broad guidelines for schools of education to stimulate teacher education reform. Covering the curriculum

  15. State Teacher Evaluation and Teacher Education (United States)

    Marchant, Gregory J.; David, Kristine A.; Rodgers, Deborah; German, Rachel L.


    Current accountability trends suggest an increasing role in state mandates regarding teacher evaluation. With various evaluation models and components serving as the basis for quality teaching, teacher education programs need to recognize the role teacher evaluation plays and incorporate aspects where appropriate. This article makes that case and…

  16. The Teaching Profession as Seen by Pre-Service Teachers: A Comparison Study of Israel and Turkey (United States)

    Markovits, Zvia; Kartal, Sadik


    608 pre-service teachers from Israel and from Turkey, in their first year and in their fourth (and last) year of study, were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to explore the reasons that led them to choose teaching as their career and to reveal their beliefs regarding several aspects of the status of the teaching profession. Results show…

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Short Anger Management Group for Special Education Teachers in Greece: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsiligiannis, Georgia


    This study investigated the efficacy of a psychoeducational group for Greek special education teachers, all but one of whom reported experiencing anger in class. An anger management program was designed, which included a short, four-session package to be given within two weeks. The results of a pretest-posttest comparison revealed reductions in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Navarro Patón


    Full Text Available This research aims to know the current situation of first aid teaching at Elementary School as a Physical Education content. The research population consisted of active teachers who taught Physical Education in Elementary School, in the Lugo province schools. The sample consisted of 36 teachers (N=36. An ad hoc questionnaire with 22 questions about the interest topic was applied to obtain data. The statistical program SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze data. The results reveal a poor use of first aid as a classroom programming content in Elementary School.

  19. Why do workaholics experience depression? A study with Chinese University teachers. (United States)

    Nie, Yingzhi; Sun, Haitao


    This study focuses on the relationships of workaholism to job burnout and depression of university teachers. The direct and indirect (via job burnout) effects of workaholism on depression were investigated in 412 Chinese university teachers. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap method were used. Results revealed that workaholism, job burnout, and depression significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap test indicated the partial mediation role of job burnout on the relationship between workaholism and depression. The findings shed some light on how workaholism influenced depression and provided valuable evidence for prevention of depression in work.



    HİSMANOGLU, Murat; HİSMANOGLU, Sibel; Hismanoglu, Murat; HISMANOGLU, Sibel


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of English teacher candidates at formal and distance higher education contexts toward ICT and reveal whether there was a significant difference between these two groups in terms of their attitudes toward ICT. The sample of the study consisted of 175 prospective English teachers at two different higher education contexts. The participants were randomly selected among forth-year students at the ELT departments of Euopean University of L...



    Hismanoglu, Murat; HISMANOGLU, Sibel


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of English teacher candidates at formal and distance higher education contexts toward ICT and reveal whether there was a significant difference between these two groups in terms of their attitudes toward ICT. The sample of the study consisted of 175 prospective English teachers at two different higher education contexts. The participants were randomly selected among forth-year students at the ELT departments of Euopean University of L...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Setiawati


    Full Text Available Abstract: The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners,  most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk  and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also  interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students

  3. Secondary Science Teachers' Beliefs and Persistence: A Longitudinal Mixed-Methods Study (United States)

    Wong, Sissy S.; Luft, Julie A.


    While many studies focus on why teachers leave the classroom, there remains a need to study why teachers persist in teaching. One area to study is the beliefs of teachers, which may impact persistence in the field. This 5-year mixed-methods study explored whether 35 beginning secondary science teachers' beliefs were related to their persistence in teaching. Quantitative analysis of the teachers' responses to annual semi-structured interviews revealed that teachers with more student-centered beliefs were more likely to persist at the end of the third year of teaching. Additionally, the teaching beliefs of teachers were more teacher-centered, while the learning beliefs of teachers were more student-centered. A case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted beliefs about teaching and learning. Bruce, who had extensive inquiry-based school experiences, believed in teaching via student-centered methods. Oscar, who underwent mostly direct instruction during his school experiences, believed in teacher-centered instruction and focused on classroom management. This longitudinal study contributes to the field of science education by examining beginning secondary science teacher persistence over time. Implications from this study call for challenging teacher beliefs during the induction period, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and understanding the impact of prior experiences on teachers' beliefs.

  4. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    years (2008 and 2013). Additionally, a classroom observation was conducted with one of the interviewed teachers in 2013. Qualitative analyses were conducted following the constant comparative method and were facilitated by ATLAS.ti v. 6.2, a qualitative analysis software program. Qualitative findings identified themes at the district level that influenced teachers' use of Teaching SMARTRTM strategies. All the themes were classified as obstacles to sustainability: economic downturn, turnover of teachers and lack of hiring, new reform policies, such as Race to the Top, Student Success Act, Common Core State Standards, and mandated blocks of time for specific content. Results from the survey data showed no statistically significant difference through time in perceived instructional practices except for a perceived decrease in the use of hands-on instructional activities from 2008 to 2013. Analyses conducted at the individual teacher level found change scores were statistically significant for a few teachers, but overall, teachers reported similarly on the teacher survey at both time points. This sustainability study revealed the lack of facilitating factors to support the continuation of reform practices; however, teachers identified strategies to continue to implement some of the reform practices through time in spite of a number of system-wide obstacles. This sustainability study adds to the literature by documenting obstacles to sustainability in this specific context, which overlap with what is known in the literature. Additionally, the strategies teachers identified to overcome some of the obstacles to implement reform practices and the recommendations by district level administrators add to the literature on how stakeholders may support sustainability of reform through time.

  5. Social and psychological characteristics of the class teacher interaction with students

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    E.B. Petrushikhina


    Full Text Available We summarize the results of socio-psychological studies of classroom management, performed on the basis of a theoretical model of value exchange, developed by R.L.Krichevsky. Classroom management is understood as a kind of management activity of a teacher, aimed at organizing group of students. Factor analysis revealed two major factors of the effectiveness of classroom management: the nature of the relationship between the students and their relations to the class teacher. As teacher’s activity characteristics, we considered manifestations of his attitudes toward students, leadership style, characteristics of individual interaction with students. It is shown that the activity of the class teacher, aimed at meeting the critical social needs of students, has two major dimensions: taking care about students and development of their motivation. We analyze the impact of social and perceptual characteristics of the teacher on the effectiveness of his interaction with students. We reveal the features of self-assessment and reflective evaluation of personality and activity of a class teacher, the specifics of causal attributions of success and failure of students in different areas of school life.

  6. Pre-service physics teachers' understanding level about electric flux (United States)

    Dinçer, Tuǧbanur; Özcan, Özgür


    In order to get some information about students' knowledge structure regarding to a particular concept, the examination of understanding level is an important issue. This qualitative study investigates the understanding level of pre-service physics teachers about the subject of electric flux. 21 pre-service physics teachers, who have already taken the electric and magnetism course I, participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The collected data were analyzed by using the content analysis method and the understanding level of the participants about the electric flux was revealed. According to the results the pre-service physics teachers' understanding levels were determined as; two participants were in "Sound Understanding", one participant was in "Partial Understanding", 10 participants were in "Partial Understanding with Specific Alternative Conception" levels. Additionally, three participants' understanding level was determined as "No Understanding" level, because of their incorrect, irrelevant or unclear responses toward the questions. On the other hand, five participants had also some alternative conceptions about the subject of electric flux. The alternative conceptions that the pre-service physics teachers had, were mostly about the relationship between the surface and electric flux.

  7. Beginning Chemistry Teachers Use of the Triplet Relationship During their First Three Years in the Classroom (United States)

    Adams, Krista

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been described as the knowledge teachers' use in the process of designing and implementing lessons to a particular group of students. This includes the most effective representations that make the content understandable to students, together with the preconceptions and misconceptions that students hold. For chemistry, students have been found to have difficulty with the discipline due to its reliance upon three levels of representation called the triplet: the macro, the submicro, and the symbolic. This study examines eight beginning chemistry teachers' depiction of the chemistry content through the triplet relationship and modifications as a result of considering students' understanding across the teacher's first three years in the classroom. The data collected included classroom observations, interviews, and artifacts for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that beginning chemistry teachers utilized the abstract components, submicro and symbolic, primarily in the first year. However, the teachers began to engage more macro representations over time building a more developed instructional repertoire. Additionally, teachers' developed an awareness of and responded to their students' understanding of learning atomic structure during the second and third year teaching. The results of this study call for preservice and induction programs to help novice chemistry teachers build a beginning repertoire that focuses on the triplet relationship. In so doing, the teachers enter the classroom with a repertoire that allows them to address the needs of their students. Finally, the study suggests that the triplet relationship framework should be revisited to include an additional component that frames learning to account for socioscientific issues and historical contributions.

  8. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey. (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay


    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.

  9. · Attitude towards Computers and Classroom Management of Language School Teachers

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    Sara Jalali


    Full Text Available Computer-assisted language learning (CALL is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more learner-centered and conducive language learning environment. The current study explored the relationship between computer attitudes and behavior and instructional classroom management approaches implemented by English institute teachers. In so doing, a total of 105 male (n = 27 and female (n = 78 EFL teachers participated in this study. A computer attitude questionnaire adapted from Albirini (2006 and a Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS adopted from Martin and Sass (2010 were benefitted from for the purpose of collecting the data. The results of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient revealed that there were no significant relationships between attitude and behavior and instructional management across gender. However, it was found that the more male teachers experience tendency toward using computers in their classes, the more teacher-centered their classes become. In addition, the more female teachers are prone to use computers in their classes, the more student-centered and lenient their classes become.


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    Zhanna Viktorovna Vodenitskaya


    Full Text Available The article highlights the working efficiency of teachers of pre-school educational institutions. Professional work of teachers is one of the most psychologically intense social activities. Lack of uniform requirements from the administration, complex relationships between colleagues, external restraint of emotions lead to increased emotional stress, which adversely affects the health. The traces of stressful experiences of teachers manifest themselves in teachers’ negative attitude to work, constant fatigue, distraction, reduced work efficiency, and dissatisfaction with professional activity. The article describes the reduced efficiency (fatigue, monotony, mental satiation, stress as a factor manifesting the emotional burnout of teachers of kindergartens and analyzes the causes of the syndrome of "emotional burnout". The article presents the results of the empirical research of decreased performance of teachers of preschool educational institutions in the conditions of implementing the Federal state educational standards, which allow not only to reveal the interdependence of the factors of burnout symptoms of kindergarten teachers, but also to provide them timely with psychological support, knowledge of the laws of preservation and strengthening of mental health in pedagogical work, and the ability to manage their own negative emotions.

  11. Teachers' perceptions of the benefits and the challenges of integrating educational robots into primary/elementary curricula (United States)

    Khanlari, Ahmad


    Twenty-first century education systems should create an environment wherein students encounter critical learning components (such as problem-solving, teamwork, and communication skills) and embrace lifelong learning. A review of literature demonstrates that new technologies, in general, and robotics, in particular, are well suited for this aim. This study aims to contribute to the literature by studying teachers' perceptions of the effects of using robotics on students' lifelong learning skills. This study also seeks to better understand teachers' perceptions of the barriers of using robotics and the support they need. Eleven primary/elementary teachers from Newfoundland and Labrador English Schools District participated in this study. The results of this study revealed that robotics is perceived by teachers to have positive effects on students' lifelong learning skills. Furthermore, the participants indicated a number of barriers to integrate robotics into their teaching activities and expressed the support they need.

  12. Processes of negotiation of meanings on algebraic thinking in a community of practice of pre-service mathematics teacher education

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    Márcia Cristina de Costa Trindade Cyrino


    Full Text Available We presented in this paper results of a research which aimed to investigate how the community of practice context of pre-service mathematics teacher education collaborates for learning on algebraic thinking by these future teachers. We analyzed, taking into account the Social Theory of Learning developed by Wenger (1998 as a theoretical frame, processes of negotiation of meanings present in participants' algebraic thinking in the development of tasks in one of the actions of the project "Mathematical Education of Teachers of Mathematics" inside the program "Universidade sem Fronteiras". This analysis allowed us to define some forms of member participation and explicit reification of algebraic thinking, due to some interactions in the processes of negotiation of meanings, which revealed changes in the identity of participants in become teachers of mathematics.

  13. A randomized trial examining the effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in rural schools: Student outcomes and the mediating role of the teacher-parent relationship. (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M; Witte, Amanda L; Holmes, Shannon R; Coutts, Michael J; Dent, Amy L; Kunz, Gina M; Wu, ChaoRong


    The results of a large-scale randomized controlled trial of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) on student outcomes and teacher-parent relationships in rural schools are presented. CBC is an indirect service delivery model that addresses concerns shared by teachers and parents about students. In the present study, the intervention was aimed at promoting positive school-related social-behavioral skills and strengthening teacher-parent relationships in rural schools. Participants were 267 students in grades K-3, their parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwest rural schools. Results revealed that, on average, improvement among students whose parents and teachers experienced CBC significantly outpaced that of control students in their teacher-reported school problems and observational measures of their inappropriate (off-task and motor activity) and appropriate (on-task and social interactions) classroom behavior. In addition, teacher responses indicated significantly different rates of improvement in their relationship with parents in favor of the CBC group. Finally, the teacher-parent relationship was found to partially mediate effects of CBC on several student outcomes. Unique contributions of this study, implications of findings for rural students, study limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Family Background, Entry Selectivity and Opportunities to Learn: What Matters in Primary Teacher Education? An International Comparison of Fifteen Countries (United States)

    Blomeke, Sigrid; Suhl, Ute; Kaiser, Gabriele; Dohrmann, Martina


    First findings of IEA's "Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)" had revealed differences in the demographic background, opportunities to learn (OTL), and outcomes of teacher education between student teachers from different countries. Two hypotheses are examined: OTL and teacher background are significant predictors of…

  15. The Paradox of Teacher Professional Development Programs for Behaviour Management: Comparing Program Satisfaction alongside Changes in Behaviour Management Practices (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Hayes, Louise


    A teacher professional development program using applied behavioural techniques was delivered to primary school teachers. Teachers (N = 78) rated the program highly and reported improved knowledge and skills in managing disruptive student behaviour. Objective measures of teacher (n = 32) pre- and post-workshop data revealed significant changes in…

  16. Student Teachers Speak Out! (United States)

    Berridge, Gina G.; Goebel, Vella


    The high teacher attrition and early-career exodus of beginning teachers suggest that traditional methods fall short of providing the support needed by beginning teachers. This qualitative study examined the challenges encountered by student teachers during their practicum experience. Findings suggest that the attrition rate may be at least…

  17. Should Teachers Be Authentic? (United States)

    Bialystok, Lauren


    Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be "authentic"? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical…

  18. Involving students in a blended course via teacher's initiation in Web-enhanced collaborative learning. (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen


    Teachers of application software in Taiwan have traditionally applied disjointed and out-of-context examples in their teaching, which usually result in ineffective learning outcomes. A Web-enhanced, collaborative learning approach was therefore adopted to help students become involved in a course more positively. Additionally, the teacher provided initiation, establishing the essential knowledge and required skills for students at the beginning of the course in order to help students climb the learning curve. The results showed that students who received Web-enhanced collaborative learning with initiation were significantly more involved than those who did not receive the initiation. Moreover, findings also revealed that the initiation contributed to significant increases in students' involvement at the end of the course. The implications for teachers, schools, and scholars who plan to provide Web-based learning for their students are also discussed.

  19. Teacher Candidates' Communication Skills and Communicator Styles


    Cem ÇUHADAR; Özgür, Hasan; Akgün, Fatma; GÜNDÜZ, Şemseddin


    The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the communication skills and the communicator styles of teacher candidates. This research was conducted among the senior class students, studying at Trakya University, Faculty of Education in the fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. 205 women and 110 men, in a total of 315 teacher candidates participated in the research. As a result, it has been observed that the teacher candidates bear animated/expressive features the...

  20. Teacher Interrupted

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    Rosie Mulholland


    Full Text Available A sample of 399 secondary school teachers (156 males, 243 females, 18 schools responded to a survey questionnaire containing one measure of stress and two measures of strain. The Stressors in Teaching Scale (SITS, developed specifically to place work stress within the Scottish “teaching” context (Mulholland, 2005, gauged work stress. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30; Goldberg, 1972 and Glasgow Symptom Checklist (GSC; Mahmood, 1999 presented a unique opportunity to compare teachers’ perception of strain with a “general” and “clinical” population. Positive correlations were observed between work stress and strain. Perceptions of work stress and strain differed significantly according to teaching role. Quantitative job demands (e.g., “workload” was the main predictor of strain, and middle managers, who held leadership and classroom teaching responsibilities, reported this feature of work and “changing demands” specifically, as significantly more stressful than senior managers. Middle managers’ experiences of work were reflective of a “pile-up” of stressors, indicative of quantitative and qualitative overload. Crucially, 22% of middle managers recorded strain scores (GHQ-30 case indicative of psychiatric morbidity, and approximately 67% had experienced feelings of “personal ineffectiveness” and “depression” (GSC, normally associated with a “clinical” population. The unique interaction of “stressors” associated with teacher role, job demands, and job resources highlighted a range of risk factors (e.g., “workload,” “teaching-learning interface,” “professional ethos,” “change,” and “role” that have the potential to affect health in the long term.

  1. Teaching and nature: Middle school science teachers' relationship with nature in personal and classroom contexts (United States)

    Ball, Nadine Butcher


    This qualitative study describes three middle-school science teachers' relationship-with-nature in personal and classroom contexts. Participating teachers had more than 7 years experience and were deemed exemplary practitioners by others. Interview data about personal context focused on photographs the teacher took representing her/his relationship-with-nature in daily life. Interview data for classroom context explored classroom events during three or more researcher observations. Transcripts were analyzed using a multiple-readings approach to data reduction (Gilligan, Brown & Rogers, 1990; Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 14, 141). Readings generated categorical information focused on portrayals of: nature; self; and relationship-with-nature. Categorical data were synthesized into personal and teaching case portraits for each teacher, and cross case themes identified. Participants indicated the portraits accurately represented who they saw themselves to be. Additional readings identified sub-stories by plot and theme. Narrative data were clustered to highlight elements of practice with implications for the relationship-with-nature lived in the classroom. These individual-scale moments were compared with cultural-scale distinctions between anthropocentric and ecological world views. Cross case themes included dimensions of exemplary middle-school science teaching important to teacher education and development, including an expanded conception of knowing and skillful use of student experience. Categorical analysis revealed each teacher had a unique organizing theme influencing their interpretation of personal and classroom events, and that nature is experienced differently in personal as opposed to teaching contexts. Narrative analysis highlights teachers' stories of classroom pets, dissection, and student dissent, illustrating an interplay between conceptual distinctions and personal dimensions during moments of teacher decision making. Results suggest teachers

  2. Sustained programs in physics teacher education (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel


    more (or fewer) components do not produce larger (or smaller) numbers of teachers. This result further supports the finding that the presence of the champion and corresponding institutional motivation and commitment are the key features of successful physics teacher education programs.

  3. Critical issues in educational innovation and teachers' professional profile

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    Francesca Oddone


    Full Text Available Recent studies carried out at national and international levels indicate that ICT use in the Italian school system is lagging in a number of ways. Observation of the situation in lower secondary schools has prompted us to conduct an investigation focusing on three different areas: teachers’ knowledge and use of technology, sharing of contents and processes, and the adoption of collaborative strategies for learning and teaching. This paper combines the quantitative data collected from different research studies into digital technologies in the Italian school system with the results of a survey we conducted into the professional profile of teachers in the Liguria region. The aim is to reveal the actual level of technology usage and to bring to light critical issues involved. This ultimate goal of this undertaking is to support the sharing and uptake of innovative practices through teacher-centred professional development that promotes inclusive education.

  4. A Mixed Methods Approach to Determining the Impact of a Geoscience Field Research Program upon Science Teachers' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Instructional Practices (United States)

    Luera, Gail; Murray, Kent


    A mixed methods research approach was used to investigate the impact of a geosciences research institute upon 62 science teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and teaching practices related to teaching the geosciences. Pre- and postinstitute quantitative and qualitative assessments revealed mixed results. Results of a quantitative measure found a…

  5. Especially for High School Teachers (United States)

    Howell, J. Emory


    Writing Across the Curriculum The notion that student learning is enhanced through writing is widely accepted at all educational levels if the product is fairly assessed and the learner is provided with feedback. Finding the time to critically evaluate student papers is difficult at best and competes with time needed to prepare laboratory investigations. A few weeks ago a teacher who has extensive extracurricular responsibilities that include extensive interaction with parents and community members shared with me his frustration in not being able to grade written reports. This teacher is the head football coach at his school, but many readers experience the same difficulties due to a variety of duties. There are no easy or completely satisfying answers to this problem, but this issue contains an account of a successful approach (Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool, pp 1399-1403). Although they are based on experience in college courses, several ideas described in the article could be applied in high school chemistry courses. In another article, the author of Precise Writing for a Precise Science (pp 1407-1408) identifies 20 examples of familiar, but incorrect, grammatical constructions and explains how to phrase each one correctly. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning The results from research on how students learn have greatly increased our understanding of cognition in recent years. However, the results are often published in the science education research literature and are not readily accessible to the classroom teacher. Additionally, the research reports are couched in specialized terminology. This issue contains a Viewpoints article (pp 1353-1361) that bridges the gap between research results and classroom application. It was written by two veteran chemical educators, Dudley Herron and Susan Nurrenbern. The shift from behaviorism to constructivism as the dominant theory of learning is described briefly to provide a context

  6. Practice Teachers’ Role in Teacher Education – Individual Practices across Educational Curricula

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    Kirsten Elisabeth Thorsen


    teachers as equal participants in teacher education, this article examines how they perceive their roles and tasks with respect to the intentions. The study is based on a survey of 45 practice teachers and in-depth interviews with eight others.The main results reveal that the role of practice teachers as mentors is based on signifi­cant experience as school teachers and that general teacher activities are more focused than the claims of the educational programs. Practice teachers seem to legitimate their role out­side of the context of teacher education. The study also seems to confirm what international research strongly indicates: the need to involve and cooperate with practice teachers to increase coherence in theoretical studies and school practice.Four years after the implementation of the reform, there are reasons to question the degree to which the reform intentions have been realized. The discussion is related, in particular, to the professionalization of the role of the practice teachers and their role as cooperating participants in teacher education.   Keywords: teacher education, teacher educators, practice teachers, theory-practice relation­ship

  7. Science museums, centers and professional development: Teachers' self reflection on improving their practice (United States)

    Ogbomo, Queen O.

    The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to ascertain the significance of the professional development programs workshops organized by a science museum and a science center in two Midwestern cities. The research investigated the effect the workshops had on the instructional practice of the participating elementary science teachers. More specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: How do the professional development programs at museums help teachers change the way they teach and consider science in their classroom? The core of this study consists of case studies of six elementary school teachers who were identified as a result of their participation in the museum and science center workshops and an instructor from the museum and another instructor from the science center. Teachers' self-efficacy regarding the teaching of science was sought through a Likert-style survey and triangulated with classroom observations and interviews of individual teachers. The findings of this study revealed two overarching themes: one, that the workshops were beneficial and two, that it did not improve instructional practice. The following are the factors identified as reasons for the workshops being beneficial: (1) the opportunity to build their content knowledge, (2) opportunity to experience and discuss the materials: (3) opportunity to collaborate with colleagues: (4) workshop materials and resources are linked to state goals: and (5) that they promote teacher confidence. The teachers who thought the workshops did not improve their instructional practice gave the following reasons: (1) they already had a strong background in science: (2) there was no follow-up activity: (3) the loss of a full day of teaching: and (4) the time constraint to implement what was learned. Though this study utilized a small sample of teachers, those involved in this study felt they acquired knowledge that would be either beneficial to them or to their students

  8. Toward the design and implementation of stem professional development for middle school teachers: An interdisciplinary approach (United States)

    Neil-Burke, Merah Bell

    The aim of this qualitative study was to determine how professional development might be designed to meet the needs of teachers delivering interdisciplinary STEM instruction in an urban middle school. This study was framed and guided by three bodies of literature: literature in support of the theory of change, adult learning theory, and effective STEM professional development. The study, designed to be collaborative in nature, employed an action research variation of participatory classroom action research, (CAR) to find out how STEM professional development could be designed to meet the needs of teachers delivering interdisciplinary STEM instruction. A sample of five middle school teachers from grades six through eight was interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview technique to identify their perceived needs. Observational techniques were utilized to determine how STEM teachers' instructional practices change as a result of exposure to STEM professional development for interdisciplinary instruction. Data from these interviews were used to design the professional development. Planning and implementation of the professional development were accomplished using the CAR model with data being collected in all phases of the CAR cycle for teaching interdisciplinary STEM. The findings suggest that interdisciplinary STEM professional development that is collaborative, along with a curriculum that supports the process of discipline integration, is an effective approach to meeting teachers' needs for the teaching of interdisciplinary STEM instruction. Lastly, the findings imply that certain barriers such as limited time to collaborate, plan, reflect, and practice could impede teachers' ability to use an interdisciplinary approach to classroom instructional practices. However, these barriers may become diminished when teachers, support each other through communication and collaboration. Thus, the essential elements included in the design and implementations of this

  9. The Development of Teacher and Teacher-Librarian Collaboration Scale and the Examination Structures of Collaboration Models

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    Hai-Hon Chen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to construct the Collaboration Scale for primary and secondary school teacher and teacher-librarian of Taiwan. Teachers and teacher-librarians were selected from five municipals in the south of Taiwan. Fifty-nine teacher-librarians, 76 teachers and 2 principals from 60 primary and secondary schools participated in this study for the testing of scale quality. Results indicated as follows: 1. The Collaboration Scale consisted of 22 items, divided into three factors, which were integrated instruction, teacher-librarian as resource, and traditional role of teacher-librarian. 2. The Collaboration Scale had reasonable coefficient of internal consistency reliability and content validity. 3. Exploratory factor analysis showed that The Collaboration Scale had acceptable construct validity. Three factors explained variance 60.23%and had high correlations of the Collaboration Scale separately. The second purpose was to examine the facets of teacher and teacher-librarians collaboration. Results indicated that teacher and teacher-librarians had low-end collaboration, most of the cooperation existed in teacher-librarians provided materials or resources for the teachers; high-end collaboration, integrated instruction appear to be less prevalent among participants in this study.

  10. Socialization Through Teacher Talk In An English Bilingual Class


    Blerta Xheko


    This paper analyses the language practices of a teacher in an English bilingual class. The children were learning English in Year One of elementary school. The teacher consistently spoke English with the children. The description of the teacher's talk shows how she used English for classroom management, for instructions, for teaching subject content and for personal exchanges. The analysis reveals the significance of ongoing classroom activities for language learning. English was spoken in co...

  11. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

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    Pechko O.M.


    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

  12. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Reflection on Narrative Images of Inquiry (United States)

    Dietz, Christine M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.


    Preservice elementary teachers face challenges in learning to teach science. Educative curriculum materials, designed to promote teacher learning, can provide support for overcoming these challenges. The educative curriculum materials used in this study provide narrative vignettes describing a teacher’s decision making with regard to lesson plans. As part of an elementary science methods course, 40 preservice teachers were asked to reflect on and respond to the narratives. Results suggest that descriptions of teaching situated in lesson plans can promote productive reflection for preservice teachers. This study informs the design of educative curriculum materials and elementary science teacher education experiences and helps improve the pedagogical content knowledge of elementary science teacher educators.

  13. The Plerionic Supernova Remnant G21.5-0.9 Powered by PSR J1833-1034: New Spectroscopic and Imaging Results Revealed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (United States)

    Matheson, Heather; Safi-Harb, Samar


    In 1999, the Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed a 150'' radius halo surrounding the 40'' radius pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G21.5-0.9. A 2005 imaging study of G21.5-0.9 showed that the halo is limb-brightened and suggested that this feature is a candidate for the long-sought supernova remnant (SNR) shell. We present a spectral analysis of SNR G21.5-0.9, using the longest effective observation to date (578.6 ks with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and 278.4 ks with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC)) to study unresolved questions about the spectral nature of remnant features, such as the limb brightening of the X-ray halo and the bright knot in the northern part of the halo. The Chandra analysis favors the non-thermal interpretation of the limb. Its spectrum is fit well with a power-law model with a photon index Γ = 2.13 (1.94-2.33) and a luminosity of Lx (0.5-8 keV) = (2.3 ± 0.6) × 1033 erg s-1 (at an assumed distance of 5.0 kpc). An srcut model was also used to fit the spectrum between the radio and X-ray energies. While the absence of a shell in the radio still prohibits constraining the spectrum at radio wavelengths, we assume a range of spectral indices to infer the 1 GHz flux density and the rolloff frequency of the synchrotron spectrum in X-rays and find that the maximum energy to which electrons are accelerated at the shock ranges from ~60 to 130 TeV (B/10 μG)-1/2, where B is the magnetic field in units of μG. For the northern knot, we constrain previous models and find that a two-component power-law (or srcut) + pshock model provides an adequate fit, with the pshock model requiring a very low ionization timescale and solar abundances for Mg and Si. Our spectroscopic study of PSR J1833-1034, the highly energetic pulsar powering G21.5-0.9, shows that its spectrum is dominated by hard non-thermal X-ray emission with some evidence of a thermal component that represents ~9% of the observed non-thermal emission and that suggests non-standard rapid

  14. How Portuguese and American teachers plan for literacy instruction. (United States)

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Lopes, Joao; Oliveira, Celia; Zibulsky, Jamie


    This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers (N = 186) completed Portuguese versions of a background questionnaire and LAAG electronically, in Survey Monkey; American teachers (N = 102) completed identical English measures using paper and pencil. Results showed that teachers in both groups usually addressed comprehension and reading fluency on their LAAGs and that they also allocated the most time to these two areas. However, American teachers were more likely to include teacher-directed fluency activities, whereas Portuguese teachers were more likely to include fluency activities that were not teacher directed. Significantly more American than Portuguese teachers addressed phonics in their planning, whereas significantly more Portuguese than American teachers addressed writing processes such as revision. Both groups of educators demonstrated large variability in planning, with many teachers omitting important components of literacy identified by researchers, for writing as well as reading. The study highlights the importance of providing teachers with comprehensive, research-based core literacy curricula as well as professional development on key components of literacy. Study findings also suggest significant relationships between orthographic transparency and teachers' instructional planning.

  15. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

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    Shmeleva E.A.


    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  16. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

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    Marzouq Nasser Alsulayyi


    Full Text Available This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents’ speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by native and non-native speakers of English. To this end, the study employs a Discourse Completion Task (DCT that consists of 10 situations designed to test how the respondents would react if they imagine that they belong to different types of social status whether higher, lower or equal. In addition, social distance and power have been taken into consideration in designing the ten situations included in the test used in this study. The results reveal that Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID is the most used apology strategy by the Saudi respondents followed by downgrading responsibility (DR, upgrader, offer of repair, taking on responsibility and then verbal redress. The results also reveal that gender has a great impact on the use of apology strategies in various ways. For instance, the IFID strategy and the upgrader strategy are used by males more than their female counterparts, whereas females use the DR strategy more than their male counterparts. It has been argued that some of the respondents’ answers to the test were influenced by their mother tongue, as reported in previous studies conducted on apology strategies. The study discusses the results elicited via the DCT and compares them with those of previous studies on apology strategies and other speech acts. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: pragmatics, apology strategies, Saudi EFL teachers, interlanguage pragmatics, target culture

  17. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire. (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R


    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed.

  18. Does Initial Teacher Education Make a Difference? The Impact of Teacher Preparation on Student Teachers' Attitudes towards Educational Inclusion (United States)

    Sosu, Edward M.; Mtika, Peter; Colucci-Gray, Laura


    This paper examines the extent to which student teachers' attitudes towards inclusion change over the course of a four-year Bachelor of Education programme in Scotland. Using a mixed methods design, the study employed a quantitative survey, a qualitative interview and survey to obtain data from two cohorts of student teachers. Results indicate…

  19. A science teacher's reflections and knowledge growth about STS instruction after actual implementation (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The major purpose of this study was to describe a science teacher's views of STS (Science-Technology-Society) instruction and what she acquired after implementing a two-semester STS-oriented science course in a high school of Taiwan. Upon analysis of the teacher's journals, interview data, concept maps, and relevant student questionnaire responses, this study revealed the following findings. The teacher believed that STS instruction was a potential way of practicing so-called constructivist teaching and her pedagogical knowledge about STS showed a considerable growth. As a result of STS instruction, her epistemological views of science seemed to progress toward more constructivist-oriented views of science. The heavy content load of Taiwan's national curriculum, regular cross-class standard tests, the lack of peers' or administrative support, the resource limitations in Chinese language, and the cultural impacts were identified as major factors that inhibited her implementation of STS instruction.

  20. The effect of teachers' memory-relevant language on children's strategy use and knowledge. (United States)

    Grammer, Jennie; Coffman, Jennifer L; Ornstein, Peter


    Building on longitudinal findings of linkages between aspects of teachers' language during instruction and children's use of mnemonic strategies, this investigation was designed to examine experimentally the impact of instruction on memory development. First and second graders (N = 54, M(age) = 7 years) were randomly assigned to a science unit that varied only in teachers' use of memory-relevant language. Pretest, posttest, and 1-month follow-up assessments revealed that although all participating children learned new information as a result of instruction, those exposed to memory rich teaching exhibited greater levels of strategic knowledge and engaged in more sophisticated strategy use in a memory task involving instructional content than did students exposed to low memory instruction. The findings provide support for a causal linkage between teachers' language and children's strategic efforts.

  1. Science Teachers' Thinking About the Nature of Science: A New Methodological Approach to Its Assessment (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; García-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, María Antonia; Bennàssar-Roig, Antoni


    This paper describes Spanish science teachers' thinking about issues concerning the nature of science (NOS) and the relationships connecting science, technology, and society (STS). The sample consisted of 774 in-service and pre-service teachers. The participants responded to a selection of items from the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology & Society in a multiple response model. These data were processed to generate the invariant indices that are used as the bases for subsequent quantitative and qualitative analyses. The overall results reflect moderately informed conceptions, and a detailed analysis by items, categories, and positions reveals a range of positive and negative conceptions about the topics of NOS dealt with in the questionnaire items. The implications of the findings for teaching and teacher training on the themes of NOS are discussed.

  2. Critical Reflectivity and the Development of New Culturally Relevant Teachers (United States)

    Durden, Tonia R.; Truscott, Diane M.


    Three case studies present how preservice teachers use reflections while learning to teach. Interviews and document analysis reveal that critical reflections evidence greater understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy and offer a platform for critical consciousness. Using critical reflectivity to develop teachers' understandings of culturally…

  3. School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Instructional Practices (United States)

    Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn


    This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…

  4. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography" (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa


    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were sought in…

  5. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography" (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa


    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were…

  6. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education (United States)

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge


    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  7. Linguistic Acts Teachers Use in the Classroom: Verbal Stimuli (United States)

    Karaduz, Adnan


    Utterances made by teachers to meet various educational aims in the classroom have a certain effect on student learning. The quality of teachers' linguistic acts influences efficiency in all aspects of the methods, techniques and strategies used in the instructional process. This study has been conducted to reveal the verbal behaviors that…

  8. Road Map or Roadblock? Science Lesson Planning and Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Strangis, Diane E.; Pringle, Rose M.; Knopf, Herman T.


    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of, and processes when, designing instruction. Participants were 47 juniors and seniors enrolled in science methods courses. Qualitative methods and analysis of written reflections and interviews revealed the beliefs and views the preservice teachers had about planning. Findings are as…

  9. Preservice String Teachers' Lesson-Planning Processes: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Schmidt, Margaret


    This yearlong qualitative study is an examination of 10 undergraduate preservice teachers' lesson planning for the classes and/or individual lessons they taught in a university string project. Data analysis revealed that these preservice teachers held differing views of lesson planning from each other and from their supervisor. Five themes…

  10. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin


    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  11. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence


    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with courses…

  12. An observational study of excellence in science teaching based on a sample of outstanding science teachers: Methods of teaching excellence in science (United States)

    Mazmanian, Victor

    The aim of this study was to document the teaching and learning strategies utilized by a group of science teachers, who were recipients of the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science and Math Teaching (PAESMT). Six science teachers were observed in their classrooms while they were teaching. Thirty-six lessons were analyzed using a framework of categories of analysis to determine the special traits and common exceptional methods that these teachers had. The findings confirmed the ones predicted by theoretical frameworks of cognitive science and current models of constructivism in teaching. The results of the study supported the importance of the role of the teacher as an active agent in construction of knowledge while also providing sufficient student freedom of exploration and self-realization as needed to grow intellectually and develop skills in metacognition (e.g., reflective critical thought, and learning how to learn). Further, the analyses revealed the complementarity between the teacher's methodology and the processes of student cognition. Some misconceptions that commonly appeared among the observed science students were also documented. The study also explored possible methods to rectify these misconceptions, based in part on prior publications and also on observations of the PAESMT teachers' strategies. The results of this study showed the unique methods of teaching employed by PAESMT recipients to an extent that reached beyond the results of previous research, which published traits and characteristics of such teachers. This study determined the common traits among these teachers and identified their common methods of teaching science. The teacher's role as a facilitator was documented repeatedly among these award-winning teachers and was determined to be an integral tool for the students' successful knowledge construction and development of accurate scientific ways of thinking.

  13. Elementary school teachers and successful science fairs (United States)

    Cook, Helen Mounce

    The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge, skills and attitudes of elementary school teachers who have led their students to successful experiences in science fairs. Six research questions guided the study: (1) What knowledge, skills and attitudes do the five selected elementary school teachers draw upon to enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? (2) How do the five selected elementary school teachers enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? (3) Why are the five selected elementary school teachers capable of enabling their students to have a successful science fair experience? (4) How do the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the five selected elementary school teachers compare to the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) recommend for science teachers? (5) What are the commonalities in the knowledge, skills and attitudes among the five selected elementary school teachers who enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? (6) What are the differences in the knowledge, skills and attitudes among the five selected elementary school teachers who enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? A qualitative multiple-case research design was used to focus on five elementary school teachers who have a history of leading their students to successful experiences in science fairs. Data sources included classroom observations, formal and informal interviews, focus groups, science fair visitations and perusal of documents related to the teachers' science fair preparation of their students. In addition, questionnaires were given to the teachers and their students assessing their views about science and science fairs. A cross-case analysis revealed that the teachers had become knowledgeable about science fairs and science by non-traditional means including attending staff development workshops

  14. Applying Knowledge Management in Teacher Evaluation Systems (United States)

    Essandoh, Albert


    Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…

  15. Preservice Teachers: A Profile of Cognitive Development. (United States)

    Silverman, Fredrick L.; Creswell, John L.


    Research was undertaken to determine whether a profile using logical reasoning ability, attitude toward mathematics, and grade point average would distinguish between concrete and formal operational thinking in preservice teachers. Study results provided evidence that preservice elementary and secondary teachers were functioning at different…

  16. Vocational Teachers between Educational Institutions and Workplaces (United States)

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka


    The aim of this study is to analyze discursively how the relationship between educational institutions and workplaces materializes in the position of a vocational teacher. Several studies have pointed out that the role of vocational teachers is changing as a result of current educational reforms, which can be understood in terms of bringing…

  17. Retrenchment: Alternatives for Teacher Education Programs. (United States)

    Kossack, Sharon W.; Greenberg, Barry


    Faced with declining enrollments, teacher education institutions must seek new approaches that either maintain present programs or encourage new programs in nontraditional areas. Results of a study of retrenchment strategies presently in use are reported. Implications for the quality of teacher education programs are also discussed. (PP)

  18. Self-Efficacy, Taiwan Elementary Teachers Perspective (United States)

    Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin


    This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It promotes the position that the success Taiwan has experienced in…

  19. Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting


    Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated…

  20. Teacher Self-Evaluation and Power (United States)

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Tan, Kelvin


    Positive claims are made for the adoption of practices that permit greater levels of involvement in teacher appraisals. The assumption is that when teachers are more involved in observing and evaluating their teaching, corresponding increases in empowerment and autonomy occur as a direct result. This paper challenges this claim by arguing that…

  1. Teacher Professional Development Approach:Action Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang


    Theory and practice, researchers and practitioners are usually isolated in traditional education research, so much so that the research results can not solve the problems that teachers encounter in their teaching practice. As a new mode, action research provides a bridge linking theory and teaching practice as well as a way to promote teacher development.

  2. What Should Teachers Know about Spelling? (United States)

    Adoniou, Misty


    This article describes essential teacher knowledge for teaching spelling, along with a description of how this knowledge may convert to effective classroom pedagogy. The article is the result of a study of 14 beginning teachers who were participants in a broader study of their experience of teaching literacy in the first year in the classroom…

  3. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron


    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  4. Musician and Teacher: Employability and Identity (United States)

    Garnett, James


    This article reports on a study into factors that contribute to the employability of music graduates as teachers. By considering the results of a survey that covered a range of contexts, as well as interviews with secondary school head teachers, it considers the relationship between self-identity and employability. It finds that, in developing…

  5. Globalization and Its Challenges for Teacher Education (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Odell, Sandra J.


    There are serious implications of the global economy for teacher education. In this paper, the authors identify some of the influences of the global economy on education and teacher education, point out responses to these, and discuss some of the resultant challenges from the vantage point of the United States.

  6. Environmental Education in Wisconsin: A Teacher Survey. (United States)

    Lane, Jennie; And Others


    Reports a study which assessed (n=915) Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Results implied that lack of training in environmental education is a major reason teachers do not infuse these concepts. (Contains 43 references.) (Author/MKR)

  7. Views on Values Education: From Teacher Candidates to Experienced Teachers (United States)

    Iscan, Canay Demirhan


    This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Setiawati


    Full Text Available The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners, most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students.

  9. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara


    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  10. Making the transition to middle schooling: A case study of experienced science teachers coping with change (United States)

    Strong, Donna Dorough

    The increasing popularity of the middle school movement necessitates a need for more interpretive research in middle level education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore science teachers' perceptions of the transition to a new middle school and the meanings they attached to this new experience. The participants were three eighth grade science teachers, each with 20 plus years of teaching experience. The primary data for analysis was a series of five interviews with each participant. Data collection also included weekly participant observation of team meetings. Findings revealed that the science teachers all had positive feelings attached to the ability to keep track of students' academic progress and behavior problems as a result of teaming. The changes associated with the first year were very stressful for all three, primarily the loss of the traditional junior high departmentalized structure. The two participants who transferred directly from the junior high school were very skeptical of any benefits from an interdisciplinary curriculum, the appropriateness of the middle school philosophy for eighth grade students, and the move to heterogeneously grouped science classes. In contrast, the former junior high teacher who had spent the past ten years teaching sixth grade at the elementary school had positive beliefs about the potential benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum and heterogeneous grouping. Teacher stress associated with a change in the school setting and the science teachers' constraints to actualizing a meaningful middle schooling experience are illuminated. Teachers' lack of ownership in the reform decision making process, loss of time with their science teacher peers, diminished compliments from high school counterparts, and need for more empirical evidence supporting proposed changes all served as barriers to embracing the reform initiatives. The participants found taking a very slow approach to be their most useful means of

  11. Why Do Secondary School Chemistry Teachers Engage in Long-Term Outreach Partnership with a University? (United States)

    Glover, S. R.; Harrison, T. G.; Shallcross, D. E.


    While the effects of outreach with secondary school pupils has been researched the reasons teachers engage or the impacts on the teachers engaging in long-term relationships with a university department have not. Detailed interviews with chemistry teachers associated with outreach at Bristol ChemLabS have revealed many reasons for prolonged…

  12. Differences in Elementary School Achievement between Girls and Boys: Does the Teacher Gender Play a Role? (United States)

    Burusic, Josip; Babarovic, Toni; Seric, Maja


    Elementary schools in many countries record an unequal representation of male and female teachers with female teachers in huge majority. At the same time, numerous studies reveal that girls generally outmatch boys in the majority of school subjects. Consequently, possible effects of teacher-pupil gender interaction are becoming an important topic…

  13. Student Performance and Attitudes under Formative Evaluation by Teacher, Self and Peer Evaluators (United States)

    Ozogul, Gamze; Sullivan, Howard


    This study investigated the effects of teacher, self and peer evaluation on preservice teachers' performance, knowledge and attitudes. Earlier research by the same authors revealed that students made significant improvements in their lesson plans under all three of these conditions, but the teacher-evaluation improved significantly more than the…

  14. No More Cutting Class? Reducing Teacher Absence and Providing Incentives for Performance


    Rogers, F. Halsey; Vegas, Emiliana


    Expanding and improving basic education in developing countries requires, at a minimum, teachers who are present in the classroom and motivated to teach, but this essential input is often missing. This paper describes the findings of a series of recent World Bank and other studies on teacher absence and incentives for performance. Surprise school visits reveal that teachers are absent at ...

  15. Pedagogies of Censorship, Injury, and Masochism: Teacher Responses to Homophobic Speech in Physical Education (United States)

    Sykes, Heather


    I examine how physical education teachers respond to homophobic name-calling, as revealed in life history interviews with 'lesbian', 'gay', and 'heterosexual' teachers in Canada and the USA. Censoring homophobic name-calling in schools is discussed as an important, but insufficient, response. Several 'lesbian' and 'gay' teachers responded with…

  16. Personal Characteristics of Teachers, Situational Variables and Deliberations in Planning Instruction. (United States)

    Kremer, Lya

    This study reveals possible relationships among teachers' personality traits, situational variables, and deliberation characteristics in planning instruction. Dogmatism and locus of control perceptions were the personality traits studied, and the situations compared student teachers with elementary and secondary school teachers. Both groups were…

  17. Teachers' Use of Technology and Its Influencing Factors in Korean Elementary Schools (United States)

    Shin, Won sug


    Until now, research on technology integration in K-12 settings focused on revealing factors that influence technology use in the classroom by teachers has not paid much attention to what teachers recognise and why they incorporate technology in the classroom. Thus, this study aims to investigate how teachers recognise important factors that…

  18. An Evaluation of a Media Literacy Program Training Workshop for Late Elementary School Teachers (United States)

    Scull, Tracy Marie; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth


    The present study examined the efficacy of a media literacy education, substance abuse prevention training workshop for late elementary school teachers. Analyses revealed that the randomly assigned intervention (n = 18) and control (n = 23) teachers were similar in demographic characteristics and pre-training beliefs and knowledge. Teachers who…

  19. Which Teachers Choose a Defined Contribution Pension Plan? Evidence from the Florida Retirement System (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.


    Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…

  20. Leadership Styles and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in Tanzanian Public Secondary Schools (United States)

    Nyenyembe, Fabian W.; Maslowski, Ralf; Nimrod, Beatrice S.; Peter, Levina


    This study explores the relationship between leadership styles applied by school heads and teachers' job satisfaction in Tanzanian secondary schools. Using a questionnaire, data in this study was collected from 180 teachers in ten secondary schools in Songea District in Tanzania. The most salient finding of this study revealed that teachers were…

  1. Exploring the importance of teacher-student interaction in EFL graduates'oral English class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes teacher-student interaction situation in one foreign studies university graduate students' oral English class and seeks to investigate students' opinions of role of teacher-student interaction. The author has designed six interview questions for the study. Answers to the interviews have revealed that most students regard teacher-student interaction as important and necessary for postgraduates' oral English class.

  2. Acquiring and Participating in the Use of Academic Spanish: Four Novice Latina Bilingual Education Teachers' Stories. (United States)

    Guerrero, Michael D.


    Interviews with four U.S.-born, Latina, novice bilingual teachers revealed their lack of real opportunities to acquire the academic Spanish so crucial to their development as bilingual teachers. Educational policy governing Spanish-English bilingualism and biliteracy for the bilingual teacher education "pipeline" is at best incidental…

  3. Attitudes towards Teachers' Motivation, and Classroom Strategy, in English Language Classrooms (United States)

    Pahlavanpoorfard, Samira; Soori, Afshin


    This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Iranian EFL students towards teachers' motivation and classroom strategy in English classroom. The subjects of the study included a sample of 235 students in their classes. The findings of this study revealed that teachers' motivation and classroom strategy used by teachers have effects on the…

  4. Is American Teacher Education Fully up to the Common Core Requirements? (United States)

    Murray, Frank B.


    This narrative considers how well equipped today's teacher education students and faculty are to meet the demands of the new Common Core State Standards. Data from the Teacher Education Accreditation Council's national evaluation of teacher education programs gives a mixed picture that, while mostly encouraging, also reveals that some…

  5. The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Teacher Transfer Rates in Urban High-Poverty Schools (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard


    Data in this report reveals that collectively bargaining agreements are not the source of the teacher quality problem in urban school districts. The data shows that collective bargaining agreements are associated with reduced teacher transfer activity, especially in high-poverty schools, and less reliance on first-year teachers to staff…

  6. How Distributed Leadership Can Make a Difference in Teachers' Organizational Commitment? A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert


    The present study explores the relation between distributed leadership and teachers' organizational commitment. Semi-structured interviews with teachers and school leaders of secondary schools were conducted. A comparative analysis of four schools with high and four schools with low committed teachers was carried out. Findings revealed differences…

  7. Professional Integration of Immigrant Teachers in the School System: A Literature Review (United States)

    Niyubahwe, Aline; Mukamurera, Joséphine; Jutras, France


    This literature review article investigates the professional integration of teachers recently immigrated to Canada and other western countries. Its findings reveal a number of obstacles to the integration of immigrant teachers into the teaching profession. The review summarizes different initiatives facilitating or hampering immigrant teachers'…

  8. Non-Music Specialist Trainee Primary School Teachers' Confidence in Teaching Music in the Classroom (United States)

    Seddon, Frederick; Biasutti, Michele


    Prior research has revealed that non-music specialist trainee primary school teachers lack confidence in teaching music in spite of changes to teacher training and the introduction of music in the National Curriculum in England. The current study investigated the effects on non-music specialist trainee primary teachers' confidence to teach music…

  9. K-12 Teacher Professional Development (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay


    For many school subjects, teachers enlist in professional development activities to fulfill certification requirements to update themselves on recent developments in their field. For astronomy, in addition to certification, many teachers need to acquire basic knowledge and skills since their background is often deficient. Thus, a main goal of professional development workshops is to enhance the knowledge base of the participants. But their needs go beyond what can be acquired in a book or lecture. In response to guidelines of the National Science Education Standards (1996), the participants should actively investigate phenomena and interpret results, be introduced to resources that expand their knowledge, build on their current understanding, and incorporate reflection on the process and outcomes of understanding science through inquiry. Examples of how these elements are incorporated into workshops that emphasize activities and teacher-to-teacher interaction over lecture are offered in this presentation. Setting realistic goals for workshops of different lengths (from one day to one month) and evaluating the results are also components of teacher professional development.

  10. Cigarette smoking, knowledge, attitude and prediction of smoking between male students, teachers and clergymen in Tehran, Iran, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari


    Conclusions: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking among male students and teachers was higher than general population and clergymen who equally smoked. Also, level of knowledge and attitude of students were lower than teachers and clergymen.

  11. Easing the transition for queer student teachers from program to field: implications for teacher education. (United States)

    Benson, Fiona J; Smith, Nathan Grant; Flanagan, Tara


    Tensions exist between what some queer student teachers experience in the university setting, their lives in schools during field placements, and upon graduation. We describe a series of workshops designed for queer student teachers and their allies that were conducted prior to field placement. Participants revealed high degrees of satisfaction with the program and increased feelings of personal and professional self-efficacy. Participants reported high levels of experienced homophobia in their academic programs; as such, the workshops were a valuable "safe space." These workshops appear to fill a significant gap for queer students and their allies in teacher preparation programs.

  12. Training of adult education teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne


    the study, as indicated by the teachers’ completed logs, and supplemented by the data from the focus group interviews, show a different picture. Two months into the project, the teachers were using CL on a large scale. The average level of their use did not increase during the academic year. By two months......The background of the study was that a group of teachers should develop competences in order to apply a new pedagogical approach, cooperative learning (CL), in a skilled manner. The total competence development process included theoretical knowledge about the method, practical training in its use......, and ongoing and extensive coaching related to the teachers' experiences of implementing CL. It was assumed that the competence development process would result in a higher usage of CL as well as an increasingly professional and more reflected application of the teaching method over the year. The results from...

  13. Training of Adult Education Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne


    the study, as indicated by the teachers’ completed logs, and supplemented by the data from the focus group interviews, show a different picture. Two months into the project, the teachers were using CL on a large scale. The average level of their use did not increase during the academic year. By two months......The background of the study was that a group of teachers should develop competences in order to apply a new pedagogical approach, cooperative learning (CL), in a skilled manner. The total competence development process included theoretical knowledge about the method, practical training in its use......, and ongoing and extensive coaching related to the teachers' experiences of implementing CL. It was assumed that the competence development process would result in a higher usage of CL as well as an increasingly professional and more reflected application of the teaching method over the year. The results from...

  14. Expression proteomics of UPF1 knockdown in HeLa cells reveals autoregulation of hnRNP A2/B1 mediated by alternative splicing resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavolan Mihaela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to acting as an RNA quality control pathway, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD plays roles in regulating normal gene expression. In particular, the extent to which alternative splicing is coupled to NMD and the roles of NMD in regulating uORF containing transcripts have been a matter of debate. Results In order to achieve a greater understanding of NMD regulated gene expression we used 2D-DiGE proteomics technology to examine the changes in protein expression induced in HeLa cells by UPF1 knockdown. QPCR based validation of the corresponding mRNAs, in response to both UPF1 knockdown and cycloheximide treatment, identified 17 bona fide NMD targets. Most of these were associated with bioinformatically predicted NMD activating features, predominantly upstream open reading frames (uORFs. Strikingly, however, the majority of transcripts up-regulated by UPF1 knockdown were either insensitive to, or even down-regulated by, cycloheximide treatment. Furthermore, the mRNA abundance of several down-regulated proteins failed to change upon UPF1 knockdown, indicating that UPF1's role in regulating mRNA and protein abundance is more complex than previously appreciated. Among the bona fide NMD targets, we identified a highly conserved AS-NMD event within the 3' UTR of the HNRNPA2B1 gene. Overexpression of GFP tagged hnRNP A2 resulted in a decrease in endogenous hnRNP A2 and B1 mRNA with a concurrent increase in the NMD sensitive isoforms. Conclusions Despite the large number of changes in protein expression upon UPF1 knockdown, a relatively small fraction of them can be directly attributed to the action of NMD on the corresponding mRNA. From amongst these we have identified a conserved AS-NMD event within HNRNPA2B1 that appears to mediate autoregulation of HNRNPA2B1 expression levels.

  15. Conceptual Change and Science Achievement Related to a Lesson Sequence on Acids and Bases Among African American Alternative High School Students: A Teacher's Practical Arguments and the Voice of the "Other" (United States)

    Wood, Lynda Charese

    The study of teaching and learning during the period of translating ideals of reform into classroom practice enables us to understand student-teacher-researcher symbiotic learning. In line with this assumption, the purpose of this study is threefold:(1) observe effects of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM), a conceptual change inquiry model of teaching and learning, on African American students' conceptual change and achievement; (2) observe the shift in teacher's practical arguments; and (3) narrate the voice of "the Other" about teacher professional learning. This study uses retrospective data from a mixed-method approach consisting of Phenomenography, practical arguments and story-telling. Data sources include audio-recordings of a chemistry teacher's individual interviews of her students' prior- and post-intervention conceptions of acids and bases; results of Acid-Base Achievement Test (ABA-T); video-recordings of a chemistry teacher's enactment of CKCM acid-base lesson sequence; audio-recordings of teacher-researcher reflective discourse using classroom video-clips; teacher interviews; and teacher and researcher personal reflective journals. Students' conceptual changes reflect change in the number of categories of description; shift in language use from everyday talk to chemical talk; and development of a hierarchy of chemical knowledge. ABA-T results indicated 17 students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher scores than 22 students in the control group taught by traditional teaching methods. The teacher-researcher reflective discourse about enactment of the CKCM acid-base lesson sequence reveals three major shifts in teacher practical arguments: teacher inadequate preparedness to adequate preparedness; lack of confidence to gain in confidence; and surface learning to deep learning. The developing story uncovers several aspects about teaching and learning of African American students: teacher caring for the uncared; cultivating

  16. Prospective Teacher Concerns: A Comparative Study of Departments of English Language Teaching and Language and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

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    Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT, linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012 call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012, the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012 to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the

  17. Prospective Teacher Concerns: A Comparative Study of Departments of English Language Teaching and Language and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mustafa naci kayaoğlu


    Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT, linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012 call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012, the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012 to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the

  18. Factors Affecting Teachers' Competence in the Field of Information Technology (United States)

    Tambunan, Hamonangan


    The development of learning technology today, have a direct impact on improving teachers' information technology competence. This paper is presented the results of research related to teachers' information technology competence. The study was conducted with a survey of some 245 vocational high school teachers. There are two types of instrument…

  19. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.


    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  20. The INSTRUCT Project: Web Professional Development for Mathematics Teachers. (United States)

    Shotsberger, Paul G.


    Reports on implementation of a World Wide Web site for teacher professional development. Presents results of pilot project involving four high school and middle school mathematics teachers. Highlights three specific ways in which teachers can benefit from Web: (1) consistent opportunities for reflection and sharing; (2) shortened cycle for…