Kisiel, James Francis
The purpose of this investigation was to identify the motivations and strategies that comprise teachers' agendas when leading a student fieldtrip to a museum or similar site. Two data collection methods were used. A survey regarding field trip experiences and rationale was mailed to upper elementary teachers, resulting in a variety of open-ended responses that were analyzed and coded to identify recurring themes. In addition, ten teachers accompanying students during a school trip to a natural history museum were interviewed and observed. Data collected from these in-depth studies were used to verify findings from the survey instrument and to refine and enhance the definitions and descriptions of actual practice. Eight fieldtrip motivations were identified including to connection with the classroom curriculum, to provide a general learning experience, to encourage lifelong learning, to enhance interest and motivation, to provide exposure to new experiences, to provide a change in setting or routine, for enjoyment, and to meet school expectations. Fieldtrip strategies used by teachers could be divided into pre-visit, during-visit or post-visit strategies. The commonly reported pre-visit strategies included familiarization and supervision preparation. During-visit strategies focused on structured student engagement strategies (such as worksheets or guided tours) and unstructured strategies (such as interpretation, connecting, facilitation, label-reading, advance organizers and free exploration), as well as event documentation and supervision tactics (such as keeping track and refocusing). Post-visit strategies included review and discussion, documentation , and assessment. Comparison of stated motivations and observed strategies revealed few links. However, results indicated that connecting to the classroom curriculum was an important consideration, even though teachers had different interpretations of what this meant. Providing hands-on experiences was also critical
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Conclusion Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.
Radford, Linda; Aitken, Avril
This paper discusses pre-service teachers' use of multi-modal tools to produce three-minute films in light of critical moments in their teaching practice. Two cases are considered; each centers on a film, a "little epic" that was produced by a future teacher who attempts to work within an anti-racist framework for social justice.…
Sharon Moynihan; Leena Paakkari; Raili Välimaa; Didier Jourdan; Patricia Mannix-McNamara
peer-reviewed THE LINK TO THE DATA SET FOR THIS ARTICLE IS: URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10344/4736 Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic f...
Passow, M. J.; Weissel, J. K.; Cormier, M.; Newman, K. R.
Scientists are passionate about the research problems they investigate, and wish to share their discoveries as widely as possible. Similarly, classroom teachers who are passionate about their subject can better foster student learning. One way to enhance such passions involves bringing teachers and scientists together to discuss cutting-edge discoveries and develop curricular materials based on the respective strengths of educators and investigators. Our presentation describes one example of this approach based on research about gas blowout structures offshore Virginia and North Carolina. Methane venting processes along continental margins may have important climatic, geotechnical, hazard, and resource implications. In 2000, shipboard surveys documented that large structures offshore VA-NC resulted from massive gas expulsion. Gas appears to be trapped in shelf edge deltas and stresses resulting from downslope creep is favoring its release. Scientists undertook a new expedition in 2004 to determine if there is present-day discharge of methane-rich fluids through the floors or walls of the blowouts or whether these seepage sites are relict features, and to gain insight into the origin of the vented methane. In July 2005, 12 teachers from New York and New Jersey met with the co-PIs (Weissel and Cormier), graduate student (Newman), and educational specialist (Passow) over a 2-day workshop to learn about how scientific problems are identified, how a research cruise is organized, what was learned through the measurements and analysis, and what might be possible significant impacts from such understandings. Based on what they learned, participants began development of classroom activities, Internet-based investigations, and constructed-response assessment items utilizing data and concepts from the project and other sources. The resulting curriculum units are designed for use in middle and high school chemistry, physics, earth science, and technology courses. Curricular
Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…
Nahm, A.; Villalobos, J. I.; White, J.; Smith-Konter, B. R.
A workshop for high school and middle school Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers was held this summer (2012) as part of an ongoing collaboration between the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and El Paso Community College (EPCC) Departments of Geological Sciences. This collaborative effort aims to build local Earth science literacy and educational support for the geosciences. Sixteen teachers from three school districts from El Paso and southern New Mexico area participated in the workshop, consisting of middle school, high school, early college high school, and dual credit faculty. The majority of the teachers had little to no experience teaching geoscience, thus this workshop provided an introduction to basic geologic concepts to teachers with broad backgrounds, which will result in the introduction of geoscience to many new students each year. The workshop's goal was to provide hands-on activities illustrating basic geologic and scientific concepts currently used in introductory geology labs/lectures at both EPCC and UTEP to help engage pre-college students. Activities chosen for the workshop were an introduction to Google Earth for use in the classroom, relative age dating and stratigraphy using volcanoes, plate tectonics utilizing the jigsaw pedagogy, and the scientific method as a think-pair-share activity. All activities where designed to be low cost and materials were provided for instructors to take back to their institutions. A list of online resources for teaching materials was also distributed. Before each activity, a short pre-test was given to the participants to gauge their level of knowledge on the subjects. At the end of the workshop, participants were given a post-test, which tested the knowledge gain made by participating in the workshop. In all cases, more correct answers were chosen in the post-test than the individual activity pre-tests, indicating that knowledge of the subjects was gained. The participants enjoyed participating in these
Mcmahon, Susan D.; Martinez, Andrew; Espelage, Dorothy; Rose, Chad; Reddy, Linda A.; Lane, Kathleen; Anderman, Eric M.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Jones, Abraham; Brown, Veda
Teachers in U.S. schools report high rates of victimization, yet previous studies focus on select types of victimization and student perpetrators, which may underestimate the extent of the problem. This national study was based on work conducted by the American Psychological Association Classroom Violence Directed Against Teachers Task Force and…
Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students.A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance.Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools.
Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max
To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigates whether established in-patient therapy for teachers with burnout results in long-acting success and whether gender gaps and differences between teachers of different school levels exist. According to our knowledge, our study is the most extensive inpatient intervention study on the burnout of a defined occupational group, i.e., teachers. Methods 200 teachers participated, 150 took part in a later performed katamnestic survey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used and work-related data were recorded. The days of incapacity for work and the percentage of teachers endangered by burnout decreased, which supports the long-term success of the treatment. Results Significant differences between males and females and between teacher levels were found. However, the differences between teacher levels only showed up before treatment. Because males only underwent treatment at a more severe stage, further efforts in persuading males to start therapy earlier are needed. Conclusions The proven and long-term success of the performed intervention could have greater effects if people, especially males, undergo treatment more frequently. Our results are based on selectively high proposition of teachers of advanced age. Thus it is possible that the long term effect of the intervention, particularly on retirement age, is greater when the intervention is started earlier. Regular burnout tests could help to identify risk cases among teachers at an early stage and to offer a therapeutic intervention.
Nyaumwe, Lovemore; Buzuzi, George
This study investigated teachers' attitudes towards proofs in the secondary school mathematics curriculum. The study was motivated by a desire to fill a gap existing in the literature in relation to teachers' attitudes towards proofs. Thirty-four secondary school mathematics teachers' responses to a Likert type questionnaire and interviews were summarised using the five themes of utility, positive attitudes, methods of proof, negative attitudes, and suitability of level of students to perform proofs. The teachers expressed neutral attitudes on technology as a method of proof and disagreed that verbal proof was a valid method for proving the viability of mathematical claims. The implications of the results are discussed using the context of Zimbabwean classrooms with a view to promote debate on how teachers could implement learner-centred reform.
Patchen, Terri; Crawford, Teresa
This study examines the relationship between epistemological beliefs and perceptions of practice through the analysis of teacher-generated metaphors. In a multilevel qualitative examination of the self-descriptive metaphors of 32 working teachers, the authors uncovered a dissonance between teachers' metaphors and their epistemological positions.…
Saban, Ahmet; Kocbeker, Beyhan Nazli; Saban, Aslihan
This study investigated the metaphors that prospective teachers in Turkey (N = 1,142) formulated to describe the concept of "teacher". Participants completed the prompt "A teacher is like...because..." by focusing on only one metaphor to indicate their conceptualization of teaching and learning. Altogether 64 valid personal metaphors were analyzed…
This paper focuses on what research has shown about the impact of teacher quality on student achievement, the connection between quality and observable teacher characteristics and traits, and what all this might mean for teacher policy. Teacher quality is the largest factor contributing to student achievement in schools, but teacher…
Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Narayan, Ratna
This study examined elementary preservice teachers' beliefs about the role/image of a science teacher and science teaching and how these beliefs change during an elementary science methods course; this examination was conducted through an analysis of their metaphor writing. Data included personal metaphors and rationale papers for supporting them collected from 106 participants at the start and end of the semester. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and also quantified for statistical analysis. Results indicate that most participants came to the course with traditional views and developed more constructivist views during the course. However, they tended to keep their traditional views and added new constructivist perspectives into their original belief systems. This study suggests that metaphor writing can be used as both a reflection tool for preservice teachers to clarify and refine their beliefs about science teaching and learning and a diagnostic assessment tool for teacher educators to understand their students for tailoring a methods course accordingly.
Atar, Hakan Yavuz
teachers NOS conceptions. Developing desired understanding of nature of science conceptions and having an adequate experience with inquiry learning is especially important for science teachers because science education literature suggests that the development of teachers' nature of science conceptions is influenced by their experiences with inquiry science (Akerson et. al. 2000) and implementation of science lessons reflect teachers' NOS conceptions (Abd-EL-Khalick & Boujaoude, 1997; Matson & Parsons, 1998; Rosenthal, 1993; Trowbridge, Bybee & Powell, 2000; Turner & Sullenger, 1999). Furthermore, the impediments to successful integration of inquiry based science instruction from teachers' perspective are particularly important, as they are the implementers of inquiry based science education reform. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices in their classrooms and how this relationship impedes or contributes to the implementation of inquiry based science education reform efforts. The participants of this study were in-service teachers who were accepted into the online Masters Program in science education program at a southern university. Three online courses offered in the summer semester of 2005 constituted the research setting of this study: (1) Special Problems in the Teaching of Secondary School Science: Nature of Science & Science Teaching, (2) Curriculum in Science Education, and (3) Colloquium. Multiple data sources were used for data triangulation (Miles & Huberman, 1984; Yin, 1994) in order to understand the relationship between participants' NOS views and their conceptions and beliefs about inquiry-based science teaching. The study revealed that the relationship between the teachers' NOS conceptions and their inquiry beliefs and practices is far from being simple and linear. Data suggests that the teachers' sophistication of NOS conceptions influence their perception of
The transition from education to work is a challenge for early childhood teachers. In this study, competence self-ratings of 348 German early childhood teachers were investigated one year before, at the end of and four months after early childhood teacher education at universities and vocational schools. Perceived competence was assessed by means…
Elfers, Ana M.; Plecki, Margaret L.
Investment in state incentive policies to support National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) prompt consideration of their distribution and retention. This study examines the results of a state's incentive program for NBCTs, including a targeted bonus for those working in high-poverty schools. A quantitative analysis was conducted of state…
Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret
The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…
Fanni, F.; Rega, I.; Cantoni, L.
The aim of this article is twofold. First, the final results of two research projects, which investigated the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on primary schools teachers in disadvantaged areas in Brazil (BET k-12) and South Africa (MELISSA), are presented and discussed. Second, the Self-Efficacy construct is proposed as a…
Rice*, Diana C.
In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected from a total of 414 preservice and 67 inservice teachers during first-day discussions in elementary science methods courses. Both groups outperformed average citizens on the 10 survey questions. However, three other questions used to introduce discussion of why students may find learning science difficult revealed lack of conceptual understanding of basic physical and biological phenomena commonly found in most elementary science curricula. Results and implications are discussed in the context of increasing expectations for subject matter competence demanded of ‘highly qualified teachers’ under provisions of the 2001 US Elementary and Secondary Education Act (‘No Child Left Behind Act’).
Akaygun, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has been an integral part of many countries' educational policies. In last decade, various practices have been implemented to make STEM areas valuable for 21st century generation. These actions require reconsideration of both pre- and in-service teacher education because those who…
Rule, Audrey C.; Harrell, Mary H.
A new method of analyzing mathematics attitudes through symbolic drawings, situated within the field of Jungian-oriented analytical psychology, was applied to 52 preservice elementary teachers before and after a mathematics methods course. In this triangulation mixed methods design study, pretest images related to past mathematics experiences…
Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza
In a national contest of story writing in Israel, first-year teachers from all educational sectors were invited to write a story that mirrors their first year of teaching experience. The narrative analysis of the stories sheds light on the hostile and adverse sides of teaching, surfacing novices' sense of impotence in their capacity to act. The…
White, Susan; Tyler, John
This report examines teachers' self-assessed preparedness to teach physics, their membership in professional organizations, and where they turn for help when they have questions. Almost every teacher reports feeling at least adequately prepared to teach basic physics knowledge and the application of physics to everyday experience. The smallest…
Antoniou, Panayiotis; Kyriakides, Leonidas
This paper argues that Educational Effectiveness Research (EER) should establish closer links with research on teacher professional development. A dynamic integrated approach (DIA) to teacher professional development is proposed. The methods and results of a study comparing the impact of the DIA and the Holistic Approach (HA) to teacher…
Chapman, Mimi V.; Hall, William J.
Objective: This study reports results from the outcome evaluation of "Yo Veo," a visual intervention with schoolteachers, which structures conversations about challenges that teachers face teaching Latino/Latina immigrant students. Method: The intervention was delivered to teachers at two middle schools in the southeastern United States,…
Policymakers are increasingly adopting "pay-for-performance" policies in which teachers are compensated based on their performance as measured by classroom evaluations and/or student achievement test results. Prior research has produced largely inconclusive findings concerning support among teachers for these policies and their effects on…
DeJong, Brian P.; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga
The research experiences for teachers program at Central Michigan University was initiated to team in-service and pre-service teachers with undergraduate engineering students and engineering faculty, in an engineering research setting. During the six-week program, teachers learn engineering concepts and develop high-school instructional material…
Smith, Elizabeth Ettema; Guthrie, James W.
Teacher pensions are fast becoming a significant issue in education policy. Mounting unfunded pension financial liability, likely larger numbers of retiring teachers, increasing mobility among existing teachers, and unfavorable comparisons with less generous private sector pension plans all contribute to putting pedagogues pensions in the public…
Deustua, Susana; Ros, Rosa
Since 2009, the Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE) has held 55+ workshops in countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America, training more than 1200 teachers and potentially reaching one million or more students. Like modern professional development programs, NASE’s emphasis is on interactive, hands-on learning. However, our emphasis is on “low-tech” tools that are readily available, and, inexpensive. Teachers are led through a series of activities that cover a wide range of topics in astronomy, more or less equivalent to that covered in the typical 1st year astronomy course in US colleges.In 2014 we adopted the Astronomy Diagnostic Test as pre- and post- workshop tests to guage the change in teachers’ knowledge as a result of participation in this intervention. In this paper we discuss the first results using the Astronomy Diagnostic Test in astronomy workshops in Peru during March 2014 and February 2015. NASE workskhops were held at the facilities of the Observatorio de Radio de Sicaya of the Instituto Geofisico del Peru, in Chupaca, a farming community approximately 20 km from the Andean city, Huancayo. Sponsors of the Chupaca workshop were the IGP, NASE and the UGEL (regional school district). The second workshop was held at the University of Ica, in the coastal city of Ica, 250 km south of Lima, sponsored by the Instituto Geofisico del Peru and the University, and the 3rd workshop in Lima.We will discuss our results, which for the most part do indeed show a positive change in knowledge, but in a couple of areas the change is either null or negative.
This study analyzed data from a statewide professional development (PD) program to investigate whether gender difference towards technology usage was mitigated after participation in the program. Teachers responded to pre- and post-questionnaires regarding their perceptions and use of technology before and after participating in PD courses.…
Full Text Available In this paper we present a second part of the study on information security of children and adolescents according to parents and teachers. This part of the study focuses at empirical research results aimed in studying the so-called "naive theories" about information security. 136 people (aged 21 to 62 years attended the study. We based on the following hypotheses : 1 the group of parents and teachers understand similarly the issue of information threat for children and adolescents, yet they have different understandings of the dangerous effects of information on children and adolescents: parents underestimate the seriousness of the effects compared with teachers; 2 according to parents and teachers, the formers are primarily responsible for information security of children; while teachers expect parents to monitor, prohibit, restrict the access to information for children and adolescents. Parents, in turn, expect teachers to train children and teenagers to observe the safety procedures, as well as use Internet safely. Our assumptions are confirmed partly, and study results are discussed in terms of the theory of social representations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might
Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas
In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.
This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…
Miller, Allyson Laura
Kindergarten teachers are being asked to deliver differentiated small-group literacy instruction. The problem is managing the independent work being done by the rest of the class during the literacy period. Research on early childhood development and literacy indicates that the classroom environment plays an important role in supporting student…
Andrew J. Wayne
Full Text Available When discussing the teacher quality gap, policy makers have tended to focus on teacher certification, degrees, and experience. These indicators have become key benchmarks for progress toward equality of educational opportunity, in part for lack of additional teacher quality indicators. This article turns attention to teachers' academic skills. National data on teachers' entrance examination scores and college selectivity reveal substantial disparities by school poverty level. The findings commend attention to the gap in academic skills in the formulation of future policy and research on the teacher quality gap.
The purpose of this study was to investigate which teachers' characteristics have an impact on teachers' sense of efficacy. In addition, the relationship between mathematics and science fifth grade teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement was examined. Two characteristics related to teachers were examined: teachers' years of teaching experience and teachers' highest degree. Participants included 62 mathematics and science teachers from three school districts in Northwest Arkansas. When comparing fifth grade mathematics and science teachers' efficacy beliefs based on their highest degree, a significant difference in teachers' efficacy beliefs was found based on their degrees. Teachers with a Bachelor degree have higher total efficacy than teachers who hold Master's degrees. Moreover, an investigation to determine if there is a difference in mathematics and science teachers' efficacy beliefs in the three subscale of teachers' efficacy (for classroom management, for student engagement, and for instructional strategies) revealed a significant difference in teachers' efficacy for two of the three constructs. However, when examining teachers' sense of efficacy based on their teaching experience, no differences in teachers' efficacy were found. A correlation was conducted and the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between fifth grade teachers' sense of efficacy and students' achievement in the benchmark test in mathematics and science. The recommendations from this study should be used to inform other scholars and administrators of the importance of teachers' sense of efficacy in order to improve students' achievement gains.
Smith, Kimberly Ennico
On July 14, 2015, after a 9.5 year trek across the solar system, NASAs New Horizons spacecraft successfully flew by the dwarf planet Pluto and its system of moons, taking imagery, spectra and in-situ particle data. Data obtained by New Horizons will address numerous outstanding questions on the geology and composition of Pluto and Charon, plus measurements of Plutos atmosphere, and provide revised understanding of the formation and evolution of Pluto and Charon and its smaller moons. This data set is an invaluable glimpse into the outer Third Zone of the Solar System. Data from the intense July 14th fly-by sequence will be downlinked to Earth over a period of 16 months, the duration set by the large data set (over 60 GBits), tempered by limited transmission bandwidth rates (1-2 kbps) and sharing the three 70m DSN assets. This presentation summarizes the New Horizons mission and early science results.
Page, Tina M.
Over the last decade, the introduction of professional standards and competences in initial teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany has provided the cornerstone of education reform in all three countries. The precise number and specific content of a measurable set of skills for teachers have offered challenges for…
Porras-Hernandez, Laura Helena; Salinas-Amescua, Bertha
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a framework to understand and foster teachers' knowledge for efficient technology integration has the value of unveiling new types of knowledge and departing from technocentric approaches. In this article, we consider two approaches to advance this framework. One of these opens the discussion…
Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal
In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…
Full Text Available This paper examines sentiments, attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs of prospective and in-service teachers to implement inclusive education. The study is based on a mixed methods design, which included a questionnaire study and group discussions. As part of the study the questionnaire was translated from English into German. The Data indicate that the students show rather positive attitudes and largely high teacher efficacy beliefs. In addition they experienced positive changes in the course of their teacher education. Group discussions provide a range of further insights and contribute to identify factors of attitudes and teacher efficacy beliefs to implement inclusive education.
Lehrkrafte und Unterricht aus Schulersicht. Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung im Fach Mathematik (Teachers and Teaching from the Students' Perspective. Results of a Study Carried Out in Math Instruction).
Presents results of a survey among ninth graders, focusing on their perception of mathematics instruction and their mathematics teachers. Shows that their perception of teachers is related to the characteristics of the quality of instruction. Discusses including survey responses of students on school instruction in scholastic systems of quality…
collaboration with the University of Trento dealing with the effectiveness of the service as well as the usability of the graphic user interface (GUI). The present work aims to illustrate the essential features of the service I-cleen and the results achieved during the last three years of operation. It will be display and interpret for the first time data with web traffic, and other data from downloading and publishing documents of the teaching resources and the main outcomes of the above mentioned tests. The purpose of this contribution is to highlight strengths and weaknesses of this experience and potentially able to provide valuable information on the role of today's web based services and online communities to help support teachers in earth and climate sciences subjects.
Wang, Mian; Zan, Fei; Liu, Jiaqiu; Liu, Chunling; Sharma, Umesh
A survey study was conducted to a total of 323 in-service teachers (110 special education teachers and 213 general education teachers) in Shanghai regarding their self-efficacy and concerns about inclusive education. Multivariate analysis results reveal that special teachers have significantly higher self-efficacy about inclusive education than…
Glazerman, Steven; Dolfin, Sarah; Bleeker, Martha; Johnson, Amy; Isenberg, Eric; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Grider, Mary; Britton, Edward; Ali, Melanie
In practice, teacher induction is common, but induction that is intensive, comprehensive, structured, and sequentially delivered in response to teachers' emerging pedagogical needs is less so. Congressional interest in formal, comprehensive teacher induction has grown in recent years. The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional…
Raufelder, Diana; Bukowski, William M.; Mohr, Sonja
Complexities of essential aspects of the teacher-student relationship were identified in a group of German adolescents and their teachers through participant observation. It is already known that the determinants of the teacher-student relationship cannot be simply categorized and analyzed as univariate features. Using Clifford Geertz?s concept of…
Santau, Alexandra O.; Secada, Walter; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Cone, Neporcha; Lee, Okhee
The study examined US elementary teachers' knowledge and practices in four key domains of science instruction with English language learning (ELL) students. The four domains included: (1) teachers' knowledge of science content, (2) teaching practices to promote scientific understanding, (3) teaching practices to promote scientific inquiry, and (4) teaching practices to support English language development during science instruction. The study was part of a larger five-year research and development intervention aimed at promoting science and literacy achievement of ELL students in urban elementary schools. It involved 32 third grade, 21 fourth grade, and 17 fifth grade teachers participating in the first-year implementation of the intervention. Based on teachers' questionnaire responses and classroom observation ratings, results indicated that (1) teachers' knowledge and practices were within the bounds of acceptability but short of reform-oriented practices and (2) grade-level differences existed, especially between Grades 3 and 5.
Tryon, Lisa A.
American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.
Naredo, ee.; Møller, I.; Moragues, C.;
, tendon lesions, bursitis, and power Doppler signal. Afterwards they compared the ultrasound findings and re-examined the patients together while discussing their results. RESULTS: Overall agreements were 91% for joint effusion/synovitis and tendon lesions, 87% for cortical abnormalities, 84% for...... tenosynovitis, 83.5% for bursitis, and 83% for power Doppler signal; kappa values were good for the wrist/hand and knee (0.61 and 0.60) and fair for the shoulder and ankle/foot (0.50 and 0.54). The principal differences in scanning method and diagnostic criteria between experts were related to dynamic...
Tarlow, Lynn D.
This study documents the change in teaching practices of a group of mathematics teachers in urban middle schools as they participated in a program of professional development to promote standards-based learning environments. The teachers made a shift in their classroom practice from a traditional, didactic lecture approach towards a role of…
Isenberg, Eric; Glazerman, Steven; Bleeker, Martha; Johnson, Amy; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Grider, Mary; Dolfin, Sarah; Britton, Edward
One of the main policy responses to the problems of turnover and inadequate preparation among beginning teachers is to support them with a formal, comprehensive induction program. Congressional interest in formal, comprehensive teacher induction has grown in recent years. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), which reauthorized the…
Murphy, R. J. L.
This investigation studied the relationship between both GCE O-level examination grades and teachers' estimates of A-level examination grades, and actual A-level grades obtained by a sample of university applicants. Moderate levels of correlation were reported in both cases, although teachers' estimates appeared to be slightly better predictors.…
Holden, Heather; Ozok, Ant; Rada, Roy
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the current usage and acceptance of classroom technologies by secondary math/science education teachers in one community. Design/methodology/approach: Forty-seven secondary education math and science teachers in one American city responded to a survey about their use and perceptions of technology in…
Pavlis, G. L.; Wang, Y.
A significant number of P and S wave tomography models have been produced in the past decade using various subsets of data from the Earthscope USArray and different inversion algorithms. We focus here on published tomography results that span large portions of the final footprint of the USArray. We use 3D visualization techniques to search for common features in different tomography models. We also compare tomography results to features seen in our current generation wavefield images. Recent innovations of our plane wave migration method have yielded what is arguably the highest resolution image ever produced of the mantle in the vicinity of the transition zone. The new results reveal a rich collection of coherent, dipping structures seen throughout the upper mantle and transition zone. These dipping interfaces are judged significant according to a coherence metric. We treat these surfaces as strain markers to assess proposed models for geometry of the 3D geometry of the Farallon Slab under North America. We find the following geologic interpretations are well supported by independent results: 1. The old Farallon under eastern North America and below the base of transition zone is universally seen as a high velocity anomaly. 2. All results support a simple, 3D kinematic model of the updip limit of the Farallon slab window that follows a track from Cape Mendocino, across Nevada, and northern Arizona and New Mexico. 3. All models show a strong low-velocity mantle under the southwestern U.S. 4. A low-velocity features is universally seen related to the Yellowstone-Snake River system. Shorter wavelength features observed in different tomography models are inconsistent showing that the theme of this session is very important to understand what features are in current results are real. Isopach maps of the thickness of the transition show a systematic difference in transition zone thickness in the western and eastern US. The transition zone thickens in the eastern US in
Colin, Estelle; Daniel, Jens; Ziegler, Alban; Wakim, Jamal; Scrivo, Aurora; Haack, Tobias B; Khiati, Salim; Denommé, Anne-Sophie; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Charif, Majida; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal; Aleck, Kyrieckos A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Herper, Claudia Lena; Kaiser, Charlotte Sophia; Nabbout, Rima; N'Guyen, Sylvie; Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Assmann, Birgit; Christ, Stine; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Prokisch, Holger; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Hoffmann, Georg F; Lenaers, Guy; Bomont, Pascale; Liebau, Eva; Bonneau, Dominique
Via whole-exome sequencing, we identified rare autosomal-recessive variants in UBA5 in five children from four unrelated families affected with a similar pattern of severe intellectual deficiency, microcephaly, movement disorders, and/or early-onset intractable epilepsy. UBA5 encodes the E1-activating enzyme of ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1), a recently identified ubiquitin-like protein. Biochemical studies of mutant UBA5 proteins and studies in fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed that UBA5 mutations impair the process of ufmylation, resulting in an abnormal endoplasmic reticulum structure. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockout of uba-5 and of human orthologous genes in the UFM1 cascade alter cholinergic, but not glutamatergic, neurotransmission. In addition, uba5 silencing in zebrafish decreased motility while inducing abnormal movements suggestive of seizures. These clinical, biochemical, and experimental findings support our finding of UBA5 mutations as a pathophysiological cause for early-onset encephalopathies due to abnormal protein ufmylation. PMID:27545681
Full Text Available Exposure to nicotine during smoking causes a multitude of metabolic changes that are poorly understood. We quantified and analyzed 198 metabolites in 283 serum samples from the human cohort KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg. Multivariate analysis of metabolic profiles revealed that the group of smokers could be clearly differentiated from the groups of former smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, 23 lipid metabolites were identified as nicotine-dependent biomarkers. The levels of these biomarkers are all up-regulated in smokers compared to those in former and non-smokers, except for three acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines (e.g. plasmalogens. Consistently significant results were further found for the ratios of plasmalogens to diacyl-phosphatidylcolines, which are reduced in smokers and regulated by the enzyme alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (alkyl-DHAP in both ether lipid and glycerophospholipid pathways. Notably, our metabolite profiles are consistent with the strong down-regulation of the gene for alkyl-DHAP (AGPS in smokers that has been found in a study analyzing gene expression in human lung tissues. Our data suggest that smoking is associated with plasmalogen-deficiency disorders, caused by reduced or lack of activity of the peroxisomal enzyme alkyl-DHAP. Our findings provide new insight into the pathophysiology of smoking addiction. Activation of the enzyme alkyl-DHAP by small molecules may provide novel routes for therapy.
J.J. Beishuizen; E. Hof; C.M. van Putten; S. Bouwmeester; J.J. Asscher
Examined what students think about good teachers. 198 students of 4 age groups (7, 10, 13, and 16 yrs old) and teachers from primary and secondary schools were asked to write an essay on the good teacher. The correspondence between conceptual items in the essays was investigated. The analysis reveal
Redmon, Robert J.
A cohort of students in a teacher preparation program completed questionnaires measuring their feelings of teacher self efficacy at three points in the program. Results suggest that pre-service teachers' feelings of self efficacy do improve as a result of their participation in such programs. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table. Teacher Efficacy…
Adopting the position that maximizing learner involvement is conducive to second language acquisition, this paper aims to explore the relationship between teacher talk and learner opportunities in language classrooms in senior schools through classroom observation techniques. Four excellent high school teachers from Zhejiang province in China are involved in this research. The results reveal that such features as minimal teacher talking time, referential questions, extended wait time,discoursal feedback can increase potential of learning opportunities through classroom interaction in language classrooms in high schools.
Affective and Cognitive Characteristics of Nigerian Student-Teachers : Towards Developing an Effective Teacher Education Framework
Adeosun, Oyenike; Oni, Soji; Oladipo, Bayo
The study analyzes the affective and cognitive traits of teacher trainees in higher educational institutions in Nigeria. This is with the view to develop an effective teacher education framework by using inputs from the trainees, in-service teachers and teacher educators and incorporate their ideas into the structuring and organization of not only the educational programmes but also the admission processes into such programmes. Using inputs from classroom teachers, teacher trainees, teacher e...
Serpati, Lauren; Loughan, Ashlee R.
Pickering and Howard-Jones (2007) reported educators' enthusiasm for NeuroEducation from a sample of teachers attending neuroscience professional development courses. Their results revealed teachers: (1) are enthusiastic about the role of neuroscience in education; (2) believe an understanding of the brain for educational program development is…
Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of organizational antecedents of teachers' fostering of students' effort in two quite different accountability regimes: one management regime with an external-accountability system and one with no external accountability devices. The methodology involves cross-sectional surveys from two different management systems: (1 teachers working under assessment-based accountability (N = 236 and (2 folk–high school teachers who work without tests and examinations and, thereby, without external accountability devices (N = 366. The purpose of the study is to estimate the path coefficients in structural equation modeling in the two regimes and compare the significance of relationships between concepts in the structural models. Through this comparison, inferences are drawn suggesting how accountability repercussions and other leadership organizational antecedents may influence teachers' fostering of students' efforts and how qualitative aspects among school professionals may influence the fostering of effort. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.Christopherson, K, Elstad, E, & Turmo, A. (2012. Antecedents of teachers fostering effort within two different management regimes: an assessment-based accountability regime and regime without external pressure on results. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership 7(6. Retrieved from www.ijepl.org.
Andrew J. Wayne
Full Text Available An investigation of primary research studies on public school teacher supply and demand revealed four surprises. Projections show that enrollments are leveling off. Relatedly, annual hiring increases should be only about two or three percent over the next few years. Results from studies of teacher attrition also yield unexpected results. Excluding retirements, only about one in 20 teachers leaves each year, and the novice teachers who quit mainly cite personal and family reasons, not job dissatisfaction. Each of these findings broadens policy makers' options for teacher supply.
Richards, Eric W.
The purpose of this study was to investigate specific social and musical objectives or experiences school music teachers anticipate their students will achieve as a result of attending a summer music camp. A survey instrument was developed to collect demographic data and responses to questions regarding 14 specific musical and social variables.…
Lomibao, Laila S
The efficiency and effectivity of the learning experience is dependent on the teacher quality, thus, enhancing teacher's quality is vital in improving the students learning outcome. Since, the usual top-down one-shot cascading model practice for teachers' professional development in Philippines has been observed to have much information dilution, and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization demanded the need to develop mathematics teachers' quality standards through the Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics Teachers (SEARS-MT), thus, an intensive, ongoing professional development model should be provided to teachers. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of Lesson Study on Bulua National High School mathematics teachers' quality level in terms of SEARS-MT dimensions. A mixed method of quantitative-qualitative research design was employed. Results of the analysis revealed that Lesson Study effectively enhanced mathematics teachers' quality and promoted teachers professional development. Teachers positively perceived Lesson Study to be beneficial for them to become a better mathematics teacher.
Lomibao, Laila S
The efficiency and effectivity of the learning experience is dependent on the teacher quality, thus, enhancing teacher's quality is vital in improving the students learning outcome. Since, the usual top-down one-shot cascading model practice for teachers' professional development in Philippines has been observed to have much information dilution, and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization demanded the need to develop mathematics teachers' quality standards through the Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics Teachers (SEARS-MT), thus, an intensive, ongoing professional development model should be provided to teachers. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of Lesson Study on Bulua National High School mathematics teachers' quality level in terms of SEARS-MT dimensions. A mixed method of quantitative-qualitative research design was employed. Results of the analysis revealed that Lesson Study effectively enhanced mathematics teachers' quality and promoted teachers professional development. Teachers positively perceived Lesson Study to be beneficial for them to become a better mathematics teacher. PMID:27652163
Danch, J. M.; Aker, K.
A high school curriculum allowing students previously involved in a 3-year Science Research Program to continue into a 4th year was developed in 2013 and implemented in 2014. The goals of this curriculum were to allow 3-year students to utilize their expertise in research methods and data acquisition technology to mentor both incoming research students and their teachers in the development and implementation of original scientific research. Student responsibilities involved the mentorship of both 8th Grade Honors Geoscience students and 9th grade Science Research students during the development and implementation of original research. Science Research 4 students also conducted teacher training sessions facilitating the use of electronic sensors and data acquisition devices in the classroom for general education and scientific research applications. The development, testing and presentation via teacher workshops, of the utilization of the Daily Inquiry method of promoting original scientific research in the middle school and high school classroom were also undertaken. Mentored students successfully completed and presented original research projects and teachers involved in training sessions reported increased and effective utilization of data acquisition technology and Daily Inquiry methods in the classroom.
Lillard, Angeline S.
There are two major types of Montessori teacher education in the United States: (1) AMI-USA (the American branch of the Association Montessori Internationale, founded by Dr. Montessori to carry on her work); and (2) AMS (American Montessori Society, founded by Nancy Rambusch to represent Montessori in America). This article presents the results…
The educational standards in geography in the German-speaking world separately refer to the areas of competence of judgment and evaluation and thus attach outstanding importance to reflective value orientation in geography classes. The tasks and challenges that arise from that for geography teachers will be investigated in a…
Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami
Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…
Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta
The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…
Myers, Joy; Scales, Roya Q.; Grisham, Dana L.; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Dismuke, Sherry; Smetana, Linda; Yoder, Karen Kreider; Ikpeze, Chinwe; Ganske, Kathy; Martin, Susan
This small scale, exploratory study reveals how writing instruction is taught to preservice teachers across the United States in university-based preservice teacher education programs based on online survey results from 63 teacher educators in literacy from 50 institutions. Despite the growing writing demands and high stakes writing sample testing…
Moos, Daniel C.; Pitton, Debra
Cognitive load theory (CLT) can explain the challenges faced by student teachers. This study, guided by the CLT, included 26 pre-service teachers. Participants completed a cognitive load self-report questionnaire and were interviewed at two points during their student teaching. Results revealed that student teachers decreased mental effort related…
Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D
Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers.
Full Text Available Polycystin-1 (PC-1, the product of the PKD1 gene, mutated in the majority of cases of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD, is a very large (approximately 520 kDa plasma membrane receptor localized in several subcellular compartments including cell-cell/matrix junctions as well as cilia. While heterologous over-expression systems have allowed identification of several of the potential biological roles of this receptor, its precise function remains largely elusive. Studying PC-1 in vivo has been a challenging task due to its complexity and low expression levels. To overcome these limitations and facilitate the study of endogenous PC-1, we have inserted HA- or Myc-tag sequences into the Pkd1 locus by homologous recombination. Here, we show that our approach was successful in generating a fully functional and easily detectable endogenous PC-1. Characterization of PC-1 distribution in vivo showed that it is expressed ubiquitously and is developmentally-regulated in most tissues. Furthermore, our novel tool allowed us to investigate the role of PC-1 in brain, where the protein is abundantly expressed. Subcellular localization of PC-1 revealed strong and specific staining in ciliated ependymal and choroid plexus cells. Consistent with this distribution, we observed hydrocephalus formation both in the ubiquitous knock-out embryos and in newborn mice with conditional inactivation of the Pkd1 gene in the brain. Both choroid plexus and ependymal cilia were morphologically normal in these mice, suggesting a role for PC-1 in ciliary function or signalling in this compartment, rather than in ciliogenesis. We propose that the role of PC-1 in the brain cilia might be to prevent hydrocephalus, a previously unrecognized role for this receptor and one that might have important implications for other genetic or sporadic diseases.
Croom, D. Barry
Results of the Maslach Burnout Inventory completed by 164 secondary agriculture teachers revealed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization in relationships, and a high degree of personal accomplishment. Gender, degree, contract length, preservice versus lateral entry method, school/department size, and community…
Full Text Available Somatic mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and TET2 result in impaired TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. The observation that WT1 inactivating mutations anticorrelate with TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML led us to hypothesize that WT1 mutations may impact TET2 function. WT1 mutant AML patients have reduced 5hmC levels similar to TET2/IDH1/IDH2 mutant AML. These mutations are characterized by convergent, site-specific alterations in DNA hydroxymethylation, which drive differential gene expression more than alterations in DNA promoter methylation. WT1 overexpression increases global levels of 5hmC, and WT1 silencing reduced 5hmC levels. WT1 physically interacts with TET2 and TET3, and WT1 loss of function results in a similar hematopoietic differentiation phenotype as observed with TET2 deficiency. These data provide a role for WT1 in regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and suggest that TET2 IDH1/IDH2 and WT1 mutations define an AML subtype defined by dysregulated DNA hydroxymethylation.
Greta E Weiss
Full Text Available During blood stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, merozoites invade uninfected erythrocytes via a complex, multistep process involving a series of distinct receptor-ligand binding events. Understanding each element in this process increases the potential to block the parasite's life cycle via drugs or vaccines. To investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions, they were systematically blocked using a combination of genetic deletion, enzymatic receptor cleavage and inhibition of binding via antibodies, peptides and small molecules, and the resulting temporal changes in invasion and morphological effects on erythrocytes were filmed using live cell imaging. Analysis of the videos have shown receptor-ligand interactions occur in the following sequence with the following cellular morphologies; 1 an early heparin-blockable interaction which weakly deforms the erythrocyte, 2 EBA and PfRh ligands which strongly deform the erythrocyte, a process dependant on the merozoite's actin-myosin motor, 3 a PfRh5-basigin binding step which results in a pore or opening between parasite and host through which it appears small molecules and possibly invasion components can flow and 4 an AMA1-RON2 interaction that mediates tight junction formation, which acts as an anchor point for internalization. In addition to enhancing general knowledge of apicomplexan biology, this work provides a rational basis to combine sequentially acting merozoite vaccine candidates in a single multi-receptor-blocking vaccine.
Full Text Available Faced with the perceived need to redefine education for more economic utilitarian purposes, as well as to encourage compliance with government policies, Australia, like many other Anglophone nations, has engaged in numerous policy shifts resulting in performativity practices becoming commonplace in the educational landscape. A series of interviews with teachers from Queensland, Australia, in which they revealed their experiences of professionalism are examined archaeologically to reveal how they enact their roles in response to this performative agenda. Findings suggest that while there is some acceptance among teachers of the performative discourse, there is increasing resistance, which permits the construction of alternative or counter-discourses to the currently internationally pervasive performative climate.
Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.; Gluud, C.;
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries...... analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA......(30%)), 15% (TSA(15%)), or a risk reduction suggested by low-bias risk trials of the meta-analysis corrected for heterogeneity (TSA(LBHIS)). RESULTS: A total of 174 meta-analyses were eligible; 79 out of 174 (45%) meta-analyses were statistically significant (P
Full Text Available Women are underrepresented in leadership positions in Turkish work life as well as in other countries. There are some social and personal barriers preventing women from managerial positions. One of the area in which women are underrepresented is school leadership. The main purpose of this study is to describe the attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions in schools. In accordance with the main purpose of the study it was investigated whether there were any differences between the attitudes and the views of the primary teacher and the primary pre-service teachers. The attitudes and the views about the barriers facing female teachers in school leadership were also compared according to gender and the grades of the primary pre-service teachers. Data were collected from 114 primary teachers working in primary schools in Çayeli district and 192 primary pre-service teachers attending primary school teacher training program in the Faculty of Education in Rize University.The attitudes and the views of the primary teachers and primary pre-service teachers related to the barriers preventing female teachers from attaining leadership positions were described in two dimensions, personal attitudes and views, and social attitudes and views. Study results revealed that the attitudes and views differentiated significantly due to gender and position (teacher or pre-service teacher in both dimensions. Moreover, it was indicated that gender and the position of the primary teachers and the primary pre-service teachers have significant joint effects on the personal attitudes and views whereas joint effects of the gender and positions on the social attitudes and views were not observed at statistically significant level. As a conclusion, study results indicated that female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers have not
Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick
The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.
Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick
The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...
The nature of crustal and lithospheric mantle evolution of the Archean shields as well as their subse-quent deformation due to recent plate motions and sustained intraplate geodynamic activity, has been a subject of considerable interest. In view of this, about three decades ago, a new idea was put forward suggesting that out of all shield terrains, the Indian shield has an extremely thin lithosphere (w100 km, compared to 250e350 km, elsewhere), apart from being warm, non-rigid, sheared and deformed. As expected, it met with scepticism by heat flow and the emerging seismic tomographic study groups, who on the contrary suggested that the Indian shield has a cool crust, besides a coherent and thick lithosphere (as much as 300e400 km) like any other shield. However, recently obtained integrated geological and geophysical findings from deep scientific drillings in 1993 Killari (Mw: 6.3) and 1967 Koyna (Mw: 6.3) earthquake zones, as well as newly acquired geophysical data over other parts of Indian shield terrain, have provided a totally new insight to this debate. Beneath Killari, the basement was found consisting of high density, high velocity mid crustal amphibolite to granulite facies rocks due to exhumation of the deeper crustal layers and sustained granitic upper crustal erosion. Similar type of basement appears to be present in Koyna region too, which is characterized by considerably high upper crustal temperatures. Since, such type of crust is depleted in radiogenic elements, it resulted into lowering of heat flow at the surface, increase in heat flow contribution from the mantle, and upwarping of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Consequently, the Indian shield lithosphere has become unusually thin and warm. This study highlights the need of an integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical approach in order to accurately determine deep crust-mantle thermal regime in continental areas.
Wischow, Emily D.; Bryan, Lynn; Bodner, George M.
Nanoscale science is a rapidly-developing, multidisciplinary field of science and research that combines engineering, chemistry, physics, biology, and information technology pushes and the boundary between the science and the technology required to conduct it. Nanoscale science involves investigating and working with matter on the scale of 1-100 microns and has broad societal implications for new technologies. It is estimated that the worldwide workforce necessary to support the field of nanoscale science and nanotechnology will be close to 2 million by 2015 (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2005). With such rapid developments in nanoscale science and technology, it is becoming more incumbent upon K-12 science teachers to provide the learning experiences necessary for students to understand the principles that govern behavior at the nanoscale and develop the skills needed to apply these concepts to improve everyday life. While onlya limited amount of nanoscale curricular materials are available for K-12 and undergraduate education many important unanswered questions exist, including: How do science teachers learn to teach nanoscale science?
This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study investigating which factors inside and outside the classroom result in feelings of stress for TESOL teachers working at private language schools in South Africa. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, the findings reveal three main areas that cause stress for TESOL teachers: the job of…
This study focuses on how preservice science teachers integrated educational technology into secondary science instruction during student teaching. Data includes interviews, classroom observations, lesson plans and artifacts, and surveys. The results revealed that preservice science teacher participants had the capacity, intent and opportunity to…
This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…
The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…
Full Text Available This study attempts to explore the differences and similarities between native English speaker (NES teachers and non-native English speaker (NNES teachers in their oral evaluation ratings of the same university level English language learners. To this effect, the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test Independent Speaking Rubric and a questionnaire were employed. The results reveal that NES teachers are more lenient in their oral evaluation ratings than NNES teachers. In regards to the questionnaire employed, it was found that NES teachers take into consideration the aspects of fluency and pronunciation more so than NNES teachers when orally assessing students, while NNES teachers take more into consideration the aspects of grammatical accuracy and vocabulary. Further research is required in the area of oral assessment specifically pertaining to nationality, age, work experience, and knowledge of a second language.
Nowadays, effective teaching has become an important phrase in English language teaching, and causes great attention. As a result of the emergence of teacher-led initiatives, the need of teacher effectiveness has been given renewed focus. This essay outlines what roles teachers play in effective teaching, and what personal qualities teachers maintain that qualify them as effective teachers.
Full Text Available By the beginning of the 21st century, media education on topics such as video games and strategies founded on the concept of Game-Based Learning has become an essential issue in school educational contexts. Continually rising standards in gameplay as well as recent developments in technology, in the gaming community, in the concepts and expectations of the potentials of gaming, have successively changed the perspectives on who is playing what, when and for what purpose, as well as on the consequences, opportunities and problems of gaming itself. The authors of this article designed a seminar at the Faculty of Education at Leipzig University, in which different scenarios of playing computer games in school pedagogical contexts could be tried out, discussed and reflected on. The course was developed, tested and evaluated in cooperation with the Computer Gaming School Leipzig (ComputerSpielSchule Leipzig before and during the summer semester of 2014. The aim was to create a situation in which future teachers and seminar instructors would be able to reflect critically on the opportunities, obstacles and challenges of a sensible integration of entertainment software (such as video games in pedagogical teaching concepts. Theoretical and critical introductions to some selected issues concerning Game-Based Learning and computer games in general as well as hands-on gaming experience (gained in three practical sessions provided the basis for discussion in the seminar.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: examine junior high school pre-service science teachers' chemical reasoning; and establish the extent to which the pre-service science teachers' chemical abilities explain their chemical reasoning. A sample comprised 165 junior high school pre-service science teachers at Mufulira College of Education in Zambia. There were 82 males and 83 females. Data were collected using a Chemical Concept Reasoning Test (CCRT). Pre-service science teachers' chemical reasoning was established through qualitative analysis of their responses to test items. The Rasch Model was used to determine the pre-service teachers' chemical abilities and item difficulty. Results show that most pre-service science teachers had incorrect chemical reasoning on chemical concepts assessed in this study. There was no significant difference in chemical understanding between the Full-Time and Distance Education pre-service science teachers, and between second and third year pre-service science teachers. However, there was a significant difference in chemical understanding between male and female pre-service science teachers. Male pre-service science teachers showed better chemical understanding than female pre-service science teachers. The Rasch model revealed that the pre-service science teachers had low chemical abilities, and the CCRT was very difficult for this group of pre-service science teachers. As such, their incorrect chemical reasoning was attributed to their low chemical abilities. These results have implications on science teacher education, chemistry teaching and learning, and chemical education research.
Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment
Full Text Available In recent years, the learning of English as a Foreign Language in Japanese high schools has become the focus of new educational policies applied at the national level. One of these is The Course of Study issue by the Ministry of Education, in which teachers are, for the first time in a long series of curriculum guidelines, adjured to develop students' "positive attitudes towards communicating in English." Another is the JET program, which has put thousands of native English speaking assistant language teachers (ALTs into Japanese secondary classrooms for the purpose of team teaching with Japanese teachers. Data resulting from a survey project of 876 Japanese high school English teachers was used to provide empirical evidence of teachers' levels of approval of communicative, audiolingual and traditional (yakudoku activities. Teachers were also asked to rate the strengths of a variety of influences on their instruction, including university entrance exams, and pre- and in-service teacher education programs. Teachers' perceptions of both activities and instructional influences were examined in light of teachers' length of career, type of school (private versus public, academic versus vocational, and level of contact with an ALT. The data revealed the complexities of imposing broad, national educational policies on a diverse group of teachers, and in an educational culture which likely precludes teachers' use of communicative activities.
Full Text Available Are Quebec’s future teachers ready to integrate information and communication technologies (ICT into the scholastic context? To answer this question, a study was conducted with some 2,065 future teachers, 410 associate professors and 90 supervisors of teaching practices from nine French-speaking Quebec universities offering a beginning teacher-training program. The results show that these prospective teachers have access to the equipment needed to become familiar with ICT, and that they use basic technology skills well. Furthermore, the data collected revealed that teachers in training use ICT regularly and reflectively to plan their classes, communicate, search for information, prepare didactic materials, solve problems, or improve themselves professionally. Although the profile shown is promising, the study results also indicate a very low proportion of future teachers who use ICT in the classroom.
Richard Buddin; Gena Zamarro
Teacher quality is a key element of student academic success, but little is known about how specific teacher characteristics influence classroom outcomes. This research examines whether teacher licensure test scores and other teacher attributes affect elementary student achievement. The results are based on longitudinal student-level data from Los Angeles. California requires three types of teacher licensure tests as part of the teacher certification process; a general knowledge test, a subje...
AL-Qahtani, Hind M.
The study attempts to reveal the attitudes' of the English teachers toward teachers' professional development, to identify the needs of English teachers for Teachers' professional development, to clarify the challenges that faced by English teachers throughout their teachers' professional development. The study uses a descriptive methods to…
Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius
The article comprises the result of a research project conducted among Mongolian teachers in a period of transition. The study is based on quantitative as well as on qualitative data. The study is carried out as part of research activities in an educational development programme.......The article comprises the result of a research project conducted among Mongolian teachers in a period of transition. The study is based on quantitative as well as on qualitative data. The study is carried out as part of research activities in an educational development programme....
Knut-Andreas Christophersen; Eyvind Elstad; Are Turmo
This article focuses on the comparison of organizational antecedents of teachers' fostering of students' effort in two quite different accountability regimes: one management regime with an external-accountability system and one with no external accountability devices. The methodology involves cross-sectional surveys from two different management systems: (1) teachers working under assessment-based accountability (N = 236) and (2) folk–high school teachers who work without tests and examinatio...
Naama Benny; Ron Blonder
The current study aims at better understanding the factors that promote and hinder chemistry teachers in teaching a gifted student in their regular chemistry class. In addition, it provides evidence of ways that teachers perceive a professional development course dealing with a gifted student in a mixed-abilities science classroom. Eighty-four photonarratives were collected from 14 chemistry teachers that participated in the course about teaching a gifted student in a regular classroom (41 pr...
Fisanick, Laura M.
This descriptive study explores three aspects of teacher behavior related to student participation in science fair competitions: teacher attitudes, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and teacher motives for required student participation. Teacher motives for required student participation may stem from curriculum and standardized test requirements, school administrators' expectations, teacher preference for a competitive student-learning mode, and teacher attitudes towards science fair competitions. Survey data collected for this study included teacher attitudes about science fair competitions, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and demographic data about middle school teachers who sponsor students in PJAS science fair competitions. The theoretical framework in this study is the theory of planned behavior proposed by Ajzen. The results from the analysis of data in this study showed that the majority of the teachers in this sample held positive attitudes towards science fair competitions and required their students to conduct science fair projects but did not require their students to participate in science fair competitions. The middle school science teachers in the sample would involve their students in PJAS competitions even if their districts did not require them to participate. The teachers in this study preferred the cooperative and individualistic student-learning modes. Teacher gender did not influence a preference for a particular student-learning mode. Using the theoretical framework from this study revealed teachers who required their students to participate in science fair competitions also required their students to conduct science fair projects.
Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI
Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960. This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.
Opperman, Julianne Radkowski
Committed elementary teachers of science and engineering, members of a professional learning community called Collaborative Conversations in STEM, were studied to elicit their perceptions of experiences that influenced their commitment to, and their pedagogical content knowledge of, STEM teaching and learning. The hermeneutic phenomenological interviews enabled the teachers to express their beliefs in their own words. Data analysis employed a theoretical framework that investigated teacher epistemology and knowledge in light of their experiences. Findings revealed a web of lifelong experiences unique to each individual, and evidential of the committed elementary scientist-teachers' present day values, teaching epistemology, lifelong learning, and emotional and intellectual engagement. Scientist-teachers are individuals whose teaching and learning characteristics reflect those of scientists and engineers. Evidence indicated that no single transformative learning experience resulted in those elementary teachers' commitment to STEM teaching and learning, but recent professional development activities were influential. Formal K-16 STEM learning was not uniformly or positively influential to the teachers' commitment to, or knowledge of, STEM. Findings suggest that ongoing professional development for STEM teaching and learning can influence elementary teachers to become committed to actively teaching STEM. The Collaborative Conversations in STEM provided intellectual and emotional engagement that empowered the teachers to provide STEM teaching and learning for their students and their colleagues overcoming impediments encountered in a literacy-focused curriculum. Elementary teachers actively committed to teaching science and engineering can undergo further transformation and emerge as leaders.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine primary school teachers’ tendencies towards being administrators. 145 teachers from 12 schools, chosen constituted the study sample. Scale previously devised by Aksu (2004 was used as a tool for data collection. SPSS 13 was used in the analysis of the data. Scale consisted of two dimensions entitled as individual tendency and general tendency. As for the general tendency scale, teachers revealed low and moderate levels of tendency. However, as for the individual tendency, teachers were found to have moderate level of tendency towards being school administrators. Results of the study revealed that both women and men have moderate level of tendency towards being school administrators. T test conducted on gender variable showed that women teachers’ individual tendency values appeared to be higher than that of men’s individual tendency scores. Analysis on experience variable revealed that tendency values of teachers within difference experience groups did not differ significantly.
Shockley, Robert; Watlington, Eliah; Felsher, Rivka
This paper summarizes a qualitative meta-analysis of the empirical research on the effectiveness of teacher induction programs over the last decade for the purpose of identifying the essential elements that make them effective in reducing teacher attrition. The study used Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation as the theoretical framework for…
Marquez, Brion; Vincent, Claudia; Marquez, Jessie; Pennefather, Jordan; Smolkowski, Keith; Sprague, Jeffrey
Classroom management remains a challenge for many teachers. The approach and delivery of professional development (PD) in classroom management may determine how well teachers are able to apply evidence-based approaches in their classrooms. We use existing literature to identify the key features that make in-service PD effective and present them as…
Buli-Holmberg, Jorun; Nilsen, Sven; Skogen, Kjell
This article aims to throw light on how the intentions behind inclusive and individually adapted education in Norwegian compulsory schools are followed up in practice with regard to central aspects of the roles of headteachers, teachers and curriculum planning. The study was carried out as a postal survey of compulsory school teachers in two…
Nolan, Barbara; Palazzolo, Laura
This study explored how untenured teachers define the concept of "teacher leadership" and how this understanding is evidenced in day-to-day practice. Results suggest that new teachers view "teacher leadership" as activities necessary for promotion to higher-level administrative roles. Much less consideration was given to the notion of teacher…
This study examined teachers' perceptions of principals' authentic leadership and the relationship of authentic leadership to teachers' psychological capital in Taiwan. A total of 1,429 elementary and secondary school teachers were surveyed. The results showed that teachers perceived their principals' authentic leadership as moderate and that the…
Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir
This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…
Koc, Ebru Melek
This study aimed to develop and investigate the validity and reliability of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (MTRI). A total of 1843 student teachers in the Distance English Teacher Training Program participated in the study. The 58 items of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory underwent principal factor analysis, which revealed nine factors…
Results of a comparative case study of four states (Illinois, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Texas) revealed the existence of identifiable sociopolitical systems (policy domains), at the state level, for determining teacher education standards. State systems for the governance of teacher education are described with regard to participants and how…
This study investigates perceived emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to burnout syndrome and job satisfaction in primary special education teachers from Greece. EI was measured by the EIS developed by Schutte et al. (1998). Factor analysis revealed that four factors can be identified in the EIS. Results showed that Greek teachers reported…
Jahnke, Isa; Kumar, Swapna
This research presents five examples of how teachers integrated iPads into their classrooms, as part of a larger study of 15 Danish classrooms. Classroom observations and interviews with teachers revealed the use of multiple apps and a focus on creativity, production, and collaboration in the learning process. We discuss the results in the context…
Kiray, Seyit Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…
Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.
The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…
Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the effects of physical environment in pre-school education on teacher-child communication. The sample of the study is composed of 42 nursery classes and their teachers in primary schools affiliated with Konya Provincial Directorate of National Education. The study was conducted in survey model. In the study, “The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- the sub-dimensions of Classroom Space and Furnishings” was used to assess physical environment and “Teacher-Child Communication Questionnaire” which was developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher-child communication. The relation between physical environment and teacher-child communication was tested with Spearman Correlation. The results of the study revealed that teacher-child communication is a significantly related with ECER-S daily care, play and learning space sub-scale and furnishings for relaxation and comfort sub-scale.
Curricula in concentrated educational systems are prepared from an upper-stream reference and hand over teachers’ disposal. Curricula in Iran are compiled in the so-called math curriculum development office and then put at the disposal of teachers. The researches in this regard show that such plans provide some resistance against executing it which are named teacher - proof programs, even it changed to some extent for accept ion, its execution is suspeciable. This research first explains how ...
Full Text Available Teacher has an important role in the formation of subjects that society needs. Therefore teacher training programs should be continuously reviewed and improved to have well-trained teachers. This study aimed to investigate master's non-thesis program in education faculty according to student teachers' opinions. A questionnaire included one open-ended question was administered to 36 student teachers in Secondary School Mathematics Education. Data were examined and qualitatively analyzed for the common themes by means of qualitative analysis software. The results revealed that while relations between student teachers and lecturers were considered as positive by student teachers, there were some problems in courses, courses' organizations and given homework.
Niyosha Morshedi Hendehjan
Full Text Available The current study attempted to identify the level of (ICT usage among ESL teachers, the difference between the level of ICT usage based on gender and age, the teachers’ perception towards ICT usage and the barriers faced by teachers. This study was a quantitative study using the descriptive survey approach. The total number of participants was 90 ESL student teachers. Data collection involved the use of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that the level of ICT among teachers was moderate to high. The findings also revealed that females used ICT more than males and younger teachers used ICT more than older teachers. In addition, the level of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness was moderate to high and high respectively. The findings also indicated that the level of barrier among teachers was low.
The teacher educator is always also a teacher, and as a role model may have an important impact on student teachers' views on teaching. However, what is the impact of these teacher educator's own role models on their teaching views and practices? Do teacher educators simply imitate the positive role
Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F
This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…
Mahadeo, Jonathan V.; Manthey, Seth R.; Brewe, Eric
High School Modeling Workshops are designed to improve high school physics teachers' understanding of physics and how to teach using the Modeling method. The basic assumption is that the teacher plays a critical role in their students' physics education. This study investigated teacher impacts on students' Force Concept Inventory scores, (FCI), with the hopes of identifying quantitative differences between teachers. This study examined student FCI scores from 18 teachers with at least a year of teaching high school physics. This data was then evaluated using a General Linear Model (GLM), which allowed for a regression equation to be fitted to the data. This regression equation was used to predict student post FCI scores, based on: teacher ID, student pre FCI score, gender, and representation. The results show 12 out of 18 teachers significantly impact their student post FCI scores. The GLM further revealed that of the 12 teachers only five have a positive impact on student post FCI scores. Given these differences among teachers it is our intention to extend our analysis to investigate pedagogical differences between them.
This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…
Bell, T. H.; Fay, C.
Excellent inclusion trails in a sample containing both staurolite and andalusite porphyroblasts are used to demonstrate techniques that allow the intimate relationships between deformation and porphyroblast growth to be recognized, described in detail and understood. This approach reveals three main phases of growth of both mineral phases, some of which was demonstrably synchronous, during three tectonic events. Each main period of growth occurred during the early stages of three deformations that were successively near orthogonal. However, extra periods are distinguishable in andalusite in some of these events because this phase occurs as clusters of large crystals that vary in orientation by 2° to > 10°. All foliations defined by all inclusion trails within every porphyroblast inflect/intersect about an axis trending at 025° (called a FIA). This indicates that the direction of the horizontal component of bulk shortening was identical for the first and third of the three deformations recorded by porphyroblast growth. Portions of sigmoidal to slightly spiral-shaped inclusion trails in most porphyroblast clusters locally diverge in opposite directions due to overprinting orthogonal bulk shortening typical of that which forms millipede geometries. These microstructures confirm the role of coaxial bulk shortening in initiating porphyroblast growth in an environment that locally becomes strongly non-coaxial as the deformation intensifies in the same event. In this sample, increasing non-coaxiality as the deformation intensified resulted in the same asymmetry for each of the three events and thus an overall spiral-like shape. Differing stages in the development of these bulk-shortening geometries preserved in adjacent or touching phases negate any role for porphyroblast rotation during ductile deformation. Andalusite and staurolite grew without any inter-reaction in locations where they lie in contact. This multiply repeated growth behaviour initiated within zones of
Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.
Boomgard, Monica C.
A growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who display complex learning needs present challenges to educators who struggle to meet their educational needs. Teaching is stressful and additional instructional challenges may increase teacher vulnerability to burnout, leading to a greater likelihood of attrition. Increasing…
Burruss, Linda D.
Teachers are often disillusioned because most of the professional development that they receive is inadequate (Chappuis, Chappuis, & Stiggins, 2009; Borko, 2004). With that in mind, reform efforts have placed attentive measures on the classroom and the way teachers can improve their instructional practices. The purpose of this study was to explore biology and chemistry teachers' and facilitators' perceptions of the Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) professional development experience. Furthermore, the researcher conducted this study to determine whether or not ASIM had an impact on teachers' classroom instruction. The results of this study were significant in that it allows for policy makers to analyze the effect that the ASIM experience has on reforming and restructuring science education. A mixed-method research design was utilized. Data was gathered from teachers and facilitators via survey and focus group interview responses. The population consisted of teachers who were trained with ASIM modules and facilitators who trained teachers in the area of biology and chemistry. A statistical data analysis was employed using the Pearson r correlation coefficient test (Pearson r). The results of this study revealed that effective professional development has an impact on teachers' classroom instruction. Teachers and facilitators believed that ASIM made them more effective as a teacher and contributed strongly to their students' understanding of biology and chemistry. Moreover, teachers and facilitators believed that the ASIM modules assisted them in the implementation of the standards on the Alabama Course of Study.
@@ My name is Yanjiaai. I am 14 years old. I study in YuYing School. My Chinese teacher and English teacher is Miss Du, she is tall and thin, and she is very strict. My math teacher is Miss Zhang, she is short and strong, she is very strick too. But they are very nice, I love my teachers!
Twemlow, S. W.; Fonagy, P.; Sacco, F. C.; Brethour, J. R.
Objective: The study examined teachers' perceptions of bullying by other teachers to see what causes and characteristics were attributed to such bullying teachers, and how often teachers were themselves bullied by students.Method: 116 teachers from seven elementary schools completed an anonymous questionnaire reflecting their feelings and perceptions about their own experiences of bullying, and how they perceive colleagues over the years.Results: Results confirmed that teachers who experience...
Bergqvist, Anna; Drechsler, Michal; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
Researchers have shown a growing interest in science teachers' professional knowledge in recent decades. The article focuses on how chemistry teachers impart chemical bonding, one of the most important topics covered in upper secondary school chemistry courses. Chemical bonding is primarily taught using models, which are key for understanding science. However, many studies have determined that the use of models in science education can contribute to students' difficulties understanding the topic, and that students generally find chemical bonding a challenging topic. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' knowledge of teaching chemical bonding. The study focuses on three essential components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): (1) the students' understanding, (2) representations, and (3) instructional strategies. We analyzed lesson plans about chemical bonding generated by 10 chemistry teachers with whom we also conducted semi-structured interviews about their teaching. Our results revealed that the teachers were generally unaware of how the representations of models they used affected student comprehension. The teachers had trouble specifying students' difficulties in understanding. Moreover, most of the instructional strategies described were generic and insufficient for promoting student understanding. Additionally, the teachers' rationale for choosing a specific representation or activity was seldom directed at addressing students' understanding. Our results indicate that both PCK components require improvement, and suggest that the two components should be connected. Implications for the professional development of pre-service and in-service teachers are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper looks at a feature of teacher collaboration within Achinstein’s (2002 micropolitics of collaboration but from an intrapersonal perspective. Results discussed feature issues of conflict, borders, and ideologies within each participating teacher rather than between teachers. Unresolved or unacknowledged intrapersonal conflict might lead to interpersonal conflict of the type that does not enrich collaborative efforts. Findings from this study reveal that participating teachers did experience intrapersonal conflicts that fit within Achinstein’s micropolitical framework. These intrapersonal conflicts were not regarded as aberrant or pathological behavior, but as a natural effect of collaboration and growth.
In the article,the author consciously compared American educational systems and the students' expectation of their teachers with their Chinese equivalents.An investigation about students' expectations towards their teachers is done among college freshmen she was teaching.The result is both exciting and worrying.Through careful analysis and summary she has made,the author hopes it will arouse concerns of both teachers and students.
Seago, Nanette M.; Jacobs, Jennifer K.; Heck, Daniel J.; Nelson, Courtney L.; Malzahn, Kristen A.
The main goal of the Learning and Teaching Geometry project is to build professional development materials that provide opportunities for teachers to learn about mathematical similarity through the use of videocases, in which specific and increasingly complex mathematical ideas are presented within the dynamics of classroom practice. The central…
Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…
Kildan, Abdullah Oguzhan; Incikabi, Lutfi
This study aimed to present early childhood teacher candidates' experiences preparing digital stories and to reveal the resulting changes, if any, in self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This study was quasi-experimental and indicated that teacher candidates' evaluations of digital storytelling were affected by their…
Gong, Tao; Zimmerli, Laurie; Hoffer, Harry E.
This article examines the effects of transformational leadership of supervisors and the sense of calling on job burnout among special education teachers. A total of 256 special education teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and rated their supervisors on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results reveal that transformational…
Mir, Imran Anwar
This qualitative case study presents the reasons of teachers' job dissatisfaction in the government educational institutes in Pakistan. This case study is based on the two factor theory of Herzberg. The results of this case study reveal four core factors that cause job dissatisfaction among teachers in the public sector universities in developing…
Lowery, Maye Norene Vail
The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of how preservice teacher construct teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of elementary mathematics and science and to determine the extent of that knowledge in a school-based setting. Preservice teachers, university instructors, inservice teachers, and other school personnel were involved in this context-specific study. Evidence of the preservice teachers' knowledge construction (its acquisition, its dimensions, and the social context) was collected through the use of a qualitative methodology. Collected data included individual and group interviews, course documents, artifacts, and preservice teaching portfolios. Innovative aspects of this integrated mathematics and science elementary methods course included standards-based instruction with immediate access to field experiences. Grade-level teams of preservice and inservice teachers planned and implemented lessons in mathematics and science for elementary students. An on-site, portable classroom building served as a mathematics and science teaching and learning laboratory. A four-stage analysis was performed, revealing significant patterns of learning. An ecosystem of learning within a constructivist learning environment was identified to contain three systems: the university system; the school system; and the cohort of learners system. A mega system for the construction of teacher knowledge was revealed in the final analysis. Learning venues were discovered to be the conduits of learning in a situated learning context. Analysis and synthesis of data revealed an extensive acquisition of teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge through identified learning components. Patience, flexibility, and communication were identified as necessities for successful teaching. Learning components included: collaboration with inservice teachers; implementation of discovery learning and hands-on/minds-on learning; small groupwork; lesson planning
Mustafa Zülküf Altan
Full Text Available To facilitate student-teachers’ transition from internship to permanent positions, they are advised to meticulously learn from real experiences of practicum process as it might form their future teaching practices. To help promote the effectiveness of this process, investigating student-teaching from stakeholder perspectives could be enriching. Research on the cooperating teacher has mainly dealt with the perspective of student-teachers; however, this study focuses on student teaching process from the perspective of both cooperating teachers and the pupils in student-teacher’s classes of EFL in a Turkish teaching context. We administered open-ended questionnaires to 21 teachers and 114 pupils and carried out inductive qualitative content analysis to analyze the data. The study elaborates on the cooperating teachers’ and pupils’ perceptions of the student-teachers as well as the impact of their teaching. Results reveal that the arrival of student-teachers was highly welcomed by most of the students and some of the cooperating teachers even though some expectations from student-teachers were not met.
Cathrine Edelhard Tømte
In this study we explored how teacher education institutions handle the use of ICT in teacher education. A qualitative approach conducted as a multiple case study design involved three teacher education institutions. Two case studies where conducted in 2009 and one in 2012. Findings revealed that teachers appear to have become more aware of the use of ICT in education in 2011 compared to 2009. Still, teacher students remain to be sufficiently well prepared on how to use ICT for pedagogical pu...
Henderson, M.; Wight, D; Raab, G M; Abraham, C.; Parkes, A; Scott, S.; Hart, G.
Objective To assess the impact of a theoretically based sex education programme (SHARE) delivered by teachers compared with conventional education in terms of conceptions and terminations registered by the NHS.Design Follow-up of cluster randomised trial 4.5 years after intervention.Setting NHS records of women who had attended 25 secondary schools in east Scotland.Participants 4196 women (99.5% of those eligible) Intervention SHARE programme (intervention group) v existing sex education (con...
Wright, D; Raab, G M; Abraham, C.; Scott, S.; Hart, G.
Objective: To assess the impact of a theoretically based sex education programme (SHARE) delivered by teachers compared with conventional education in terms of conceptions and terminations registered by the NHS. Design Follow-up of cluster randomised trial 4.5 years after intervention. Setting: NHS records of women who had attended 25 secondary schools in east Scotland. Participants: 4196 women (99.5% of those eligible). Intervention: SHARE programme (intervention group) v ...
McCormick, Meghan P; O'Connor, Erin E; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G
A robust body of research finds positive cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between teacher-child relationships and children's academic achievement in elementary school. Estimating the causal effect of teacher-child relationships on children's academic achievement, however, is challenged by selection bias at the individual and school level. To address these issues, we used two multilevel propensity score matching approaches to estimate the effect of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math and reading achievement during children's transition to first grade. Multi-informant data were collected on 324 low-income, Black and Hispanic students, and 112 kindergarten and first-grade teachers. Results revealed significant effects of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math achievement in first grade. No significant effects of teacher-child relationships were detected for reading achievement. Implications for intervention development and public policy are discussed. PMID:24060063
Charles Tiago dos Santos Soares
Full Text Available This study aims to understand teachers’ strategies of planning students’ visits to science museums and how they intend to relate this visit to formal science teaching. The study was conducted with 21 teachers of Science, Physics, Chemistry and Biology, randomly identified among visitors to a science museum, who were accompanying their students. Interviews and written records of teachers about teachers strategies were analyzed using the textual discursive analysis revealed five levels of control (or choice adopted by teachers for planning and tracking of students' visits to the museum. The results showed that most teachers surveyed use control elements, requesting notes for reports to be retrieved in school. The evaluation mechanisms planned by teachers after the visit showed an intention for preserving and contextualization of the museum experience in other contexts, like in school.
Full Text Available In A high level of satisfaction with a job influences the effectiveness and increases the quality of performed tasks. In the case of physical education teachers it is connected not only with a higher commitment to passing knowledge and skills but also with instilling passion in their students. The aim of the study was to analyse how school community perceives job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The research included 148 teachers and 171 students who were divided into three groups by means of random-purposive sampling. The groups were as follows: physical education teachers (n=22, teachers of other subjects (n=22 and students (n=22. The results obtained from these respondents (n=66 were subjected to further analysis. In the study a modified Polish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS prepared by Juczyński (2001 was used. It made it possible to diagnose the job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The analyses revealed that the subjects assess the job satisfaction of a physical education teacher at an average or low level. This assessment showed significant differences between physical education teachers and teachers of other subjects. The study also revealed differences between groups with regard to two out of five scores in the SWLS.
Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and
Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.
The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-SFR*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. They extend the dynamical range in SFR and Ms of our compilation of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4
Hawkins, Margaret R.
Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…
Gray, Ron E.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine scientific arguments constructed by secondary science teachers during instruction. The analysis focused on how arguments constructed by teachers differed based on the mode of inquiry underlying the topic. Specifically, how did the structure and content of arguments differ between experimentally and historically based topics? In addition, what factors mediate these differences? Four highly experienced high school science teachers were observed daily during instructional units for both experimental and historical science topics. Data sources include classroom observations, field notes, reflective memos, classroom artifacts, a nature of science survey, and teacher interviews. The arguments were analyzed for structure and content using Toulmin's argumentation pattern and Walton's schemes for presumptive reasoning revealing specific patterns of use between the two modes of inquiry. Interview data was analyzed to determine possible factors mediating these patterns. The results of this study reveal that highly experienced teachers present arguments to their students that, while simple in structure, reveal authentic images of science based on experimental and historical modes of inquiry. Structural analysis of the data revealed a common trend toward a greater amount of scientific data used to evidence knowledge claims in the historical science units. The presumptive reasoning analysis revealed that, while some presumptive reasoning schemes remained stable across the two units (e.g. 'causal inferences' and 'sign' schemes), others revealed different patterns of use including the 'analogy', 'evidence to hypothesis', 'example', and 'expert opinion' schemes. Finally, examination of the interview and survey data revealed five specific factors mediating the arguments constructed by the teachers: view of the nature of science, nature of the topic, teacher personal factors, view of students, and pedagogical decisions. These
Duc, Pierre-Alain; Serra, Paolo; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Ferriere, Etienne; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M
The mass assembly of galaxies leaves imprints in their outskirts, such as shells and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of such fine structures depend on the main acting mechanisms - secular evolution, minor or major mergers - and on the age of the last substantial accretion event. We use this to constrain the mass assembly history of two apparently relaxed nearby Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) selected from the Atlas-3D sample, NGC 680 and NGC 5557. Our ultra deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope reach 29 mag/arcsec^2 in the g-band. They reveal very low-surface brightness (LSB) filamentary structures around these ellipticals. Among them, a gigantic 160 kpc long tail East of NGC 5557 hosts gas-rich star-forming objects. NGC 680 exhibits two major diffuse plumes apparently connected to extended HI tails, as well as a series of arcs and shells. Comparing the outer stellar and gaseous morphology of the two ellipticals with that predicted from models of colliding galax...
Ouzounov, Dimitar; Davidenko, Dmitry
We analyze retrospectively/prospectively the transient variations of three different physical parameters of atmosphere during the time of M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal: outgoing earth radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC and the thermodynamic proprieties in the lower atmosphere. We found that in mid March 2015 a rapid augment of satellite observed earth radiation in atmosphere and the anomaly located in close vicinity to the future M7.8 epicenter reached the maximum on April 21-22. Our continuous satellite analysis revealed prospectively the new strong anomaly on May 3th, which was the reason to contemplate another large event in the area. On May 12, 2015 a large aftershock of M7.3 occurred. The analysis of air temperature from weather ground station near Katmandu shows analogous patterns with offset 1-2 days earlier to the satellite anomalies. The GPS/TEC data analysis indicates an augment and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value during April 22-24 period. A strong negative TEC anomaly in the crest of ...
Fontana, D; Abouserie, R
The study reports an investigation of stress levels, gender and personality dimensions in a sample of school teachers. The Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS) was used to assess teachers' stress levels and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was used to define their personality dimensions (Extroversion-Introversion, Neuroticism-High Psychoticism-Low Psychoticism). The study sample consisted of 95 teachers, 51 females and 44 males. Results revealed that the majority of teachers sampled, 72.6 per cent, were experiencing moderate levels of stress, and 23.2 per cent serious levels. T-test results showed no significant difference between male and female teachers in stress levels. Correlation analysis between stress level and personality dimensions revealed significant positive correlation between stress and psychoticism. A significant negative correlation emerged between stress and extroversion, and a significant positive correlation between stress and neuroticism. A multiple regression analysis revealed that extroversion and neuroticism were the best predictors of stress levels. Overall, the results therefore indicated that personality dimensions appear to contribute more to stress levels than do the variables of either age or gender.
The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student
Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.
This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…
Meagher, Thomas Francis
To gain insight into the world of mentoring new science teachers it is imperative to examine how a veteran science teacher is influenced through his or her work mentoring a new teacher. The impacts of mentoring new teachers have been extensively researched within the literature, documenting many of the factors that may enhance the teaching abilities of new teachers (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez & Tomlinson, 2008; Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004; Wang & Odell, 2002). A thorough search of the literature reveals an unbalanced representation of research focusing on the many influences mentoring may bring to a new teacher while ignoring the impact on the mentor. It is when the activity of mentoring a new teacher is examined within the theoretical frame work of social cognitive learning, it is apparent that not only are two individuals participating in working together, but also that research needs to investigate both sides of the relationship. Also, since the mentoring relationship is situated within a community of practice, it becomes important to utilize a situated learning theoretical framework in tandem with social cognitive learning to provide the clearest picture of this dynamic social relationship. This case study seeks to share the impacts experienced by mentors through their work with new teachers and provide balance to the other side of research into the social partnership of mentoring. Five science teachers mentoring new teachers online, through the University of Minnesota's Science Engineering, Math Mentoring Program (STEMMP) and Science Teacher Induction Network (TIN), participated in this study that explores their experiences through a phenomenographic lens and follows an interpretive research approach. Four main themes emerged that identified how science teacher mentors were impacted from mentoring which included: (1) impacts to their teaching practice, (2) perceptions influenced from feedback, (3) enhanced reflection, and (4) enhancement of self-efficacy. The
Full Text Available In this qualitative research study, the purpose was to analyze the reflective journal entries of the 26 pre-service teachers attending the teacher education department of a state university. These teacher candidates were asked to write their reflections on a weekly basis during the “school experience” course in the fall semester. Twelve weekly entries and the end of the year reflection reports of these pre-service teachers (338 documents all together were analyzed according to the contents; similar issues were coded; common themes were found; in the second phase, the findings were analyzed again in the light of reflective practice research to find out about the learning experiences of the pre-service teachers and to analyze in which stage of reflective practice their entries mostly fell into. The results revealed that pre-service teachers benefitted from keeping reflective journals and their reflections mostly fell under the “interpersonal stage” and did not have many comments reflecting the other stages which were procedural and conceptual. The results show that in order for the pre-service teachers to gain more awareness through reflective writing, they need to be trained on how to write reflections effectively and on the different stages related to the reflective practice.
Karen J. DeAngelis
Full Text Available A number of recent policy initiatives, including NCLB's highly qualified teacher provisions, have sought to improve the qualifications of teachers and their distribution across schools. Little is known, however, about the impact of these policies. In this study, we use population data on teachers and schools in Illinois to examine changes in the level and distribution of teacher qualifications from 2001 to 2006. We find that schools in Chicago, especially those serving the highest percentages of low-income and minority students, experienced the greatest improvements in teacher qualifications during the period. In addition, high-poverty schools in most other locales in the state registered small to moderate improvements, which narrowed the gap in teacher qualifications between high- and low-poverty schools across Illinois. Improvements in the certification status of experienced teachers and the recruitment of new teachers with stronger academic qualifications both contributed to these gains. The results reveal a tradeoff for disadvantaged schools seeking to improve both teacher qualifications and teacher experience levels, thereby calling into question the near-term feasibility of NCLB provisions that aim to simultaneously eliminate inequities across schools in both.
Goddard, J. Tim; Foster, Rosemary Y.
Interviewed beginning teachers to examine their experiences and the extent to which their preservice programs adequately prepared them for teaching. Results revealed six conceptual and temporal states through which they passed during their initial experiences: archetype; approaching the gates; clearing the gates; the gloss wears off;…
Dikmentepe, Emel; Yakar, Zeha
The aim of this study is to investigate the views of pre-service science teachers on Science-Technology-Society (STS). In the research, a descriptive research method was used and data were collected using the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) Questionnaire. In general, the results of this study revealed that pre-service science teachers…
Boyes, Edward; And Others
Survey results reveal trainee primary teachers are well informed about the nature and location of the ozone layer and appreciated that it screens the earth from ultraviolet (UV) rays, although some thought that it protects the earth from acid rain. Identifies themes in students' thinking and groups of students with different concepts. (LZ)
目的 了解高校教师的健康状况,以开展有针对性的健康干预,提高教师生活质量.方法 对宝鸡文理学院2012年教职工健康检查中B超检查结果资料按年龄、性别、岗位等进行分类统计.结果 脂肪肝、胆结石、子宫肌瘤、前列腺增生、胆囊息肉等为教职工高发病,其中60岁以上组为各种疾病的高发年龄组,且男性发病率高于女性.结论 教职工整体健康状况令人担忧,不良的生活方式、体育锻炼较少、膳食营养摄入不均衡是导致疾病的主要因素,应进行积极的健康干预.%[Objective] To learn the health condition of university teachers,carry out effective health intervention,and improve the life quality of teachers.[Methods] The results of B-ultrasound examination of teachers were collected from physical examination in Baoji University of Arts and Sciences in 2012,and the data were analyzed according to age,gender and post.[Results]The fatty liver,gall stone,hysteromyoma,prostatic hyperplasia and gallbladder polyps were commonly encountered diseases among teachers.Teachers over 60 years old had higher incidence rates,and the incidence rate in males was higher than that in females.[Conclusion] The health condition of teachers is facing a challenge.The main reasons for this problem include unhealthy life style,lack of exercise and unbalanced dietary,so it is necessary to carry out the health intervention actively.
Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah
with their environments (Biesta & Tedder, 2007). In this chapter, we outline the latter conception of agency, developing a conceptual model for teacher agency that emphasizes the temporal and relational dimension of the achievement of agency. Why does this matter? Recent curriculum policy in many countries heralds a [re......]turn to the centrality of the teacher in school-based curriculum development. In many cases, this renewed emphasis on teachers is explicitly tied to change agendas, with teachers described as agents of change. And yet such change agentry (Fullan, 2003) and teacher agency more broadly are often circumscribed by features...
. The question is how teacher preparation leads to effective teachers. The study Expert in Teaching paid special attention to the intention of connecting coursework more directly to practice in pre-service teacher education. The overall objective of the study was to strengthen the relationship between theory...... and practice through development of better models for bridging the teaching at college and the internship teaching. The study was a longitudinal research and development project that followed teacher students during their first three years of a four year teacher education program after the teacher education...... reform of 2007. The study included four teacher training colleges at two university colleges and about 100 students. In the reform and in the study focus was on professional development. Each of the colleges implemented a number of actions in order to see whether they had potential for bridging the gap...
Carlos Alberto García Sánchez
Full Text Available This research report aims at sharing the findings that emerged from a qualitative research study by a student-teacher, under the supervision of two practicing teacher-researchers. The study focused on the impact of teacher-student relationships in English as a foreign language learning according to the collective perceptions of a group of university students. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews, as well as the concurrent analysis of the data, based on aspects of grounded theory. The results of this inquiry revealed that university students’ sense of well-being, attitudes, and willingness to learn are improved when teachers demonstrate empathy, interest in student development, and respect.
Edwin G. Ralph
Full Text Available This study reports the aggregate results of the evaluations of the teaching performance of 17 cohorts of teacher-candidates (n = 374, who completed their extended practicum during their pre-service teacher-education program at one Western Canadian university. Over a 15-year period, one of the researchers served as the College Supervisor for these cohorts in their respective four-month internship in schools in a variety of locations throughout the province. The teacher-candidates’ final evaluations on nine categories of teaching performance revealed varying levels of strength among the skill areas. Implications of the findings are drawn: (a for the undergraduate program administrators, faculty members, and practicum-program personnel at the university connected to this study, and (b for other teacher-education institutions interested in making use of this information to help inform their deliberations in assessing/improving their own pre-service and practicum initiatives.
Hasan Basri Gündüz
Full Text Available The purpose of this is study is to reveal how the anxiety that the teachers who work in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul experience, due to the supervision process, predict their organizational cynicism levels. With this respect, the study was conducted on 274 teachers with the relational screening model. The “Supervision Anxiety Scale” and the “Organizational Cynicism Scale” were used to collect the data. The SPSS 22.0 software was used to analyze the data and arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Analysis and regression analyses were conducted. According to the study findings, there is a positive, moderate level and statistically significant level relationship between supervision anxiety and organizational cynicism levels of teachers. The regression analysis results suggest that supervision anxiety of teachers is a significant predictor of their organizational cynicism levels.
Panagiota G. Karkaletsi
Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the concept of reflection as an integral component of professional English Foreign Language teacher education. Many scholars have acknowledged its paramount importance in teachers’ training and development and the relevant literature reveals that reflection may herald the beginning of a true learning process towards professional growth, productive change and professional autonomy. Thus, it appears as an imperative need to evaluate whether teacher preparation programmes develop reflective abilities in their trainees. It is primarily for this reason that the study seeks to investigate whether the compulsory, induction training programme offered by the Greek State for the newly appointed English Foreign Language teachers (P.E.K. induction training programme grants them sufficient space, time and support to engage in reflective thought and action consciously and creatively. The research that is conducted employs the questionnaire as its methodological tool with a view to collecting sufficient data, whose analysis will lead to valuable conclusions. The results show that the training programme under investigation bears a great weakness since it marginalises the role of reflection leaving its rich potential unexploited. The findings provide a strong case for assigning greater value to reflective practices and for enhancing the quality of reflection in the specific induction training programme through the adoption of various promising techniques.
The paper explores the issue of teachers' professional vulnerability using a range of messages from an online teachers' community on the Chinese mainland. The study reveals how macro changes at policy level impact on teachers' professional relationships and in turn their professional identities in teacher discussants' perceptions. Furthermore, the…
Freedenthal, Stacey; Breslin, Lindsey
Teachers are widely considered key gatekeepers to mental health services for students at risk for suicide. Using data from 120 teachers at two Denver-area high schools, this study investigated teachers' experiences with suicidal students. Analyses revealed that the majority of teachers (58.8%) reported that at least one student had disclosed…
Alshalaan, Nasser A.
Studies indicate that many teachers have negative beliefs about science, which translates into low teacher efficacy, resulting in avoidance of science teaching or in ineffective science teaching behaviors. Highly efficacious teachers have been found to be more likely to use inquiry and student-centered teaching strategies, while teachers with a low sense of science-teaching efficacy are more likely to use teacher-directed strategies, such as didactic lectures and reading from the textbook (Czemiak, 1990). The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy changes and their correlation to teaching environment factors during the student teaching semester. Moreover, it explains how teaching environment factors and preservice teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy beliefs may relate to their use of teaching strategies in the science classroom during their student teacher training at teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia. The population of this study is consisted of 184 middle and elementary preservice science teachers who were doing their student teaching at nine teachers' colleges (i.e., teachers' colleges of Riyadh, Dammam, Alrras, Almadinah, Alihsa, Jeddah, Makah, Altaief, and Abha) in Saudi Arabia during the spring semester of 2005. Three instruments were used to collect data for this study: (1) to measure science teaching self-efficacy, the researcher adapted the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument form B designed specifically for preservice teachers (STEBI-B); (2) to measure the school environment, the researcher adapted the Organizational Health Inventory (OHI), developed by Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp (1991); and (3) to measure the type and frequency of instructional strategies that preservice science teachers use in the classroom, the researcher adapted the teaching practice subscale from The Local Systemic Change through Teacher Enhancement Science K-8 Teacher Questionnaire (Horizon Research, Inc., 2000
Andrew J Parker
Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.
Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke
This study relates trust at the level of both the teacher and the faculty to teachers' job satisfaction. Teaching experience is explored as a moderator of the trust-satisfaction relationship. Multilevel analyses on data of 2091 teachers across 80 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) revealed positive associations between teacher trust in…
This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to
Bertram, K. B.
The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments
This study aimed to find out difference in teacher effectiveness of degree and B.Ed. college teachers of Rajasthan. The Teacher Effectiveness Scale by Dr.Shallu Puri and Prof. S.C. Gakhar was used to assess the teacher effectiveness of degree and B.Ed. college teachers of Rajasthan. The scale was administered on 160 degree and B.Ed. college teachers. The present study revealed that there is no significant difference in teacher effectiveness of degree and B.Ed. college teachers.
Rak, Rosemary C.
The turnover of high school science teachers is an especially troubling problem in urban schools with economically disadvantaged students. Because high teacher turnover rates impede effective instruction, the persistence of teacher attrition is a serious concern. Using an online survey and interviews in a sequential mixed-methods approach, this study investigates the perceptions of high school science teachers regarding factors that contribute to their employment decisions. The study also compares first-career and second-career science teachers' perceptions of retention and attrition factors and identifies conditions that urban school leaders can establish to support the retention of their science teachers. A purposeful sample of 138 science teachers from urban area New England public high schools with 50% or more Free and Reduced Price Lunch-eligible students participated in the survey. Twelve survey respondents were subsequently interviewed. In accord with extant research, this study's results suggest that school leadership is essential to fostering teacher retention. The findings also reveal the importance of autonomy, professional community, and adequate resources to support science instruction. Although mentoring and induction programs receive low importance ratings in this study, career-changers view these programs as more important to their retention than do first-career science teachers. Second-career interviewees, in particular, voice the importance of being treated as professionals by school leaders. Future research may examine the characteristics of mentoring and induction programs that make them most responsive to the needs of first-career and second-career science teachers. Future studies may also investigate the aspects of school leadership and professional autonomy that are most effective in promoting science teacher retention. Keywords: career-changers; school leaders; science teachers; second-career teachers; teacher retention; teacher turnover
This study examined low and high level teachers' questioning patterns and classroom implementations within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, which addresses issues on negotiation, argumentation, learning, and teaching. The level of the teachers was determined by the students' writing scores. This study was conducted in Turkey with seven teacher for preliminary study. Because scoring writing samples examines the students' negotiation level with the different sources and students learn scientific process, as negotiation, which they may transfer into their writing, in classroom, two teachers were selected to represent low and high level teachers. Data collection involved classroom observation through video recordings. The comparative qualitative method was employed throughout the data analysis process with including quantitative results. The research questions that guided the present study were: (1) How are low and high level teachers, determined according to their students' writing scores, questioning patterns different from each other during classroom discourse? (2) Is there a relationship between students' writings and teachers' questioning styles in the classroom? Analysis of Qualitative data showed that teachers' classroom implementations reveal big differences based on argumentation patterns. The high level teacher, whose students had high scores in writing samples, asked more questions and the cognitive levels of questions were higher than the low level teacher. Questions promote an argumentative environment and improve critical thinking skills by discussing different ideas and claims. Asking more questions of teacher influences students to initiate (ask questions) more and to learn the scientific process with science concepts. Implicitly, this learning may improve students' comparison in their writing. Moreover, high level teacher had a more structured and organized classroom than low level teacher.
Kang, Seok; Berliner, David C.
The federal School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) were used to examine the impacts of induction activities on beginning teacher turnover. This study excluded those teachers who moved or left schools for unavoidable and involuntary reasons, a confounding factor in previous research. This analysis revealed that three…
Denzine, Gypsy M.; Cooney, John B.; McKenzie, Rita
Background: Research on teacher self-efficacy has revealed substantive problems concerning the validity of instruments used to measure teacher self-efficacy beliefs. Although claims about the influence of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs on student achievement, success with curriculum innovation, and so on, may be true statements, one cannot make…
Full Text Available Objective: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs.Methods: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results.Results: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010, emotional exhaustion (p=0.005 and depersonalization (p<0.001; however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children.Conclusions: Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to
Mah Zhi Jian
Full Text Available This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison between male and female teachers, optionist and non-optionist teachers and teachers from different types of schools are also analyzed.
Full Text Available This research in general aims to determine the relationship between teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching who are trained in Science and Art Faculties taking pedagogical formation and the level of importance that a contemporary teacher place on the necessary qualifications required for a teacher. In order to achieve this aim, whether overall teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching and the level of importance that a contemporary teacher place on the necessary qualifications required for a teacher change according to teacher candidates’ gender, age, graduation, marital status, working for a wage, graduation grade point averages, working sector, the predominant reason their taking pedagogical formation and the educational level of their parents have been investigated. This study adopted correlational research design which is survey and relational example of descriptive research. Data were collected from 269 prospective teachers by scales called “Attitudes towards Teaching (ATT” and “Contemporary Teacher Qualifications” (CTQ. The ATT included 17 items with 5-point Likert-scale responses such as: (1 Strongly disagree, (2 disagree, (3 neutral, (4 agree, (5 strongly agree. Exploratory factor analysis managed for he ATT scale revealed that KMO was .945 and Bartlett test (,000 was significant. According to this result, it can be said that the data of ATT was factorable. Factor loadings of the ATT’s items ranged from ,568 to ,87; and item-total correlation values ranged from ,514 to ,834. Due to the ATT explained 53.9% of total variance it is suitable to use ATT as a unidimensional. The ATT has an internal consistency coefficient alpha of ,86. Accordingly, it is possible to say that the ATT is valid and reliable. The CTQ included 18 items with 5-point Likert-scale responses such as: (1 Never, (2 rarely, (3 average, (4 much, (5 very much. Exploratory factor analysis managed for he CTQ scale revealed that KMO was .930 and
Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David
As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.
Miller, G V F; Travers, C J
This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. PMID:16194811
Miller, G V F; Travers, C J
This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.
Park, HyunJu; Byun, Soo-yong; Sim, Jaeho; Han, Hyesook; Baek, Yoon Su
This study examined teachers' perceptions and practices of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education in South Korea, drawing on a survey of teachers in STEAM model schools. Results showed that the majority of Korean teachers, especially experienced teachers and male teachers, had a positive view on the role of STEAM…
Franklin, Marshalynn Morgan
This study investigated teacher impact on the academic achievement of students of poverty. Teacher impact was analyzed based on two factors: (1) teacher emotional empathy and (2) teacher professional development experiences. The results of this study indicate a non-correlative relationship between teachers' overall emotional empathy and…
Yin, Hong-biao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Jin, Yu-le; Zhang, Zhong-hua
This study explores the impact of teachers' perception of trust in colleagues on their sense of empowerment in Mainland China, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher efficacy. The results of a survey of 1646 teachers indicate that although teachers scored positively on trust in colleagues, efficacy and empowerment, they had…
Bosma, Tirza; Hessels, Marco G. P.; Resing, Wilma C. M.
This study surveyed a sample of 188 elementary teachers with respect to their preference for information regarding educational planning, in particular information captured with dynamic testing procedures. The influence of teachers' experience and sense of efficacy on teachers' preferences was also investigated. Results indicated teachers'…
Druken, Bridget Kinsella
Lesson study, a teacher-led vehicle for inquiring into teacher practice through creating, enacting, and reflecting on collaboratively designed research lessons, has been shown to improve mathematics teacher practice in the United States, such as improving knowledge about mathematics, changing teacher practice, and developing communities of teachers. Though it has been described as a sustainable form of professional development, little research exists on what might support teachers in continuing to engage in lesson study after a grant ends. This qualitative and multi-case study investigates the sustainability of lesson study as mathematics teachers engage in a district scale-up lesson study professional experience after participating in a three-year California Mathematics Science Partnership (CaMSP) grant to improve algebraic instruction. To do so, I first provide a description of material (e.g. curricular materials and time), human (attending district trainings and interacting with mathematics coaches), and social (qualities like trust, shared values, common goals, and expectations developed through relationships with others) resources present in the context of two school districts as reported by participants. I then describe practices of lesson study reported to have continued. I also report on teachers' conceptions of what it means to engage in lesson study. I conclude by describing how these results suggest factors that supported and constrained teachers' in continuing lesson study. To accomplish this work, I used qualitative methods of grounded theory informed by a modified sustainability framework on interview, survey, and case study data about teachers, principals, and Teachers on Special Assignment (TOSAs). Four cases were selected to show the varying levels of lesson study practices that continued past the conclusion of the grant. Analyses reveal varying levels of integration, linkage, and synergy among both formally and informally arranged groups of
Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses. The attitude scale consists of 28 items. The scale has been applied for the total 255 teacher candidates attending the third and fourth grades in the department of the classroom teaching of the educational faculty at Onsekiz Mart University in the academic year 2009-2010. According to the results, the attitudes of classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkishlanguage I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined to have revealed significant differences according to gender, age and education type and success grade. On the other hand, the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates regarding Turkish language I: Phonetics and morphology courses have been determined not to have revealed a significant difference according to the region where they are from, the high school and class type they attend.
Adriana de Carvalho Kuerten Dellagnelo
Full Text Available Researchers in teacher education have paid increasing attention to teacher reflectivity and its relevance for teaching/learning practices. However, to our knowledge, there has been no investigation of teacher reflectivity from the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL. In this paper we draw mainly on SFL to examine aspects of the relationship between teachers and learners as construed in self-evaluative reports written by 4 Brazilian teacher-trainees. These reports – self-reflections on the trainees’ own teaching practices – were collected as part of work developed in a Teaching Practicum Course taken by these trainees. In addition to SFL, in our discussion of results we also draw on research related to teacher education/reflectivity (e.g., Freeman & Johnson, 1998; Richards & Lockart, 1996. The linguistic structures described and interpreted in order to unravel the roles these trainees ascribe to themselves and their students reveal a selfcentered positioning of the trainees as social participants whose practices are shaped by conceptions traditionally established by a culture of schooling which maintains the emphasis of teaching on the transmission of knowledge. Results also reveal asymmetry between teachers and students inasmuch as the latter are construed as playing a secondary role, with little responsibility in the process of teaching/learning a foreign language. The study may contribute to enhance the search for awareness of contrasts between new views of language teaching/learning and traditional perceptions such as the ones conveyed in the reports analyzed. Researchers in teacher education have paid increasing attention to teacher reflectivity and its relevance for teaching/learning practices. However, to our knowledge, there has been no investigation of teacher reflectivity from the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL. In this paper we draw mainly on SFL to examine aspects of the relationship
Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim
Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y
The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...
Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y
The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...
Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo
The study presented in this paper integrates data from four combined research studies, which are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The studies describe freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning. These freshmen intend to become teachers in Germany in one of four science teaching domains (secondary biology, chemistry, and physics, respectively, as well as primary school science). The qualitative data from the first study are based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in teaching situations. It was formulated using Grounded Theory to test three scales: Beliefs about Classroom Organisation, Beliefs about Teaching Objectives, and Epistemological Beliefs. Three further quantitative studies give insight into student teachers' curricular beliefs, their beliefs about the nature of science itself, and about the student- and/or teacher-centredness of science teaching. This paper describes a design to integrate all these data within a mixed methods framework. The aim of the current study is to describe a broad, triangulated picture of freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning within their respective science teaching domain. The study reveals clear tendencies between the sub-groups. The results suggest that freshman chemistry and-even more pronouncedly-freshman physics student teachers profess quite traditional beliefs about science teaching and learning. Biology and primary school student teachers express beliefs about their subjects which are more in line with modern educational theory. The mixed methods approach towards the student teachers' beliefs is reflected upon and implications for science education and science teacher education are discussed.
Ireland, Joseph E.; Watters, James J.; Brownlee, Jo; Lupton, Mandy
This study explored practicing elementary school teacher's conceptions of teaching in ways that foster inquiry-based learning in the science curriculum (inquiry teaching). The advocacy for inquiry-based learning in contemporary curricula assumes the principle that students learn in their own way by drawing on direct experience fostered by the teacher. That students should be able to discover answers themselves through active engagement with new experiences was central to the thinking of eminent educators such as Pestalozzi, Dewey and Montessori. However, even after many years of research and practice, inquiry learning as a referent for teaching still struggles to find expression in the average teachers' pedagogy. This study drew on interview data from 20 elementary teachers. A phenomenographic analysis revealed three conceptions of teaching for inquiry learning in science in the elementary years of schooling: (a) The Experience-centered conception where teachers focused on providing interesting sensory experiences to students; (b) The Problem-centered conception where teachers focused on engaging students with challenging problems; and (c) The Question-centered conception where teachers focused on helping students to ask and answer their own questions. Understanding teachers' conceptions has implications for both the enactment of inquiry teaching in the classroom as well as the uptake of new teaching behaviors during professional development, with enhanced outcomes for engaging students in Science.
The defectiveness of the effectiveness of the Hungarian general education revealed in the PISA survey appears in the higher education as well. The "Introduction to Informatics" subject has one of the lowest exam results among the students of the College of Nyíregyháza majoring in Computer Program Designer and Teacher of Computer Science.…
Tardif, Eric; Doudin, Pierre-André; Meylan, Nicolas
Many so-called brain-based educational approaches have been strongly criticized for their lack of empirical support and occasionally for their use of pseudoscientific concepts. As a result, several use the term neuromyths to refer to false beliefs or misinterpretations regarding neuroscientific facts. We surveyed both teachers and student teachers…
Mok, Yan Fung
This article examines teaching concerns at successive life stages among teachers with up to twenty years' or more teaching experience. Three concern stages are discerned. Nine common concern factors were found from factor-analysing thirty-three concern items. Results show that student discipline, relations with students, and students' learning and…
Collaborative teaching, between special education and general education teachers working together, came about as a result of the No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts. Despite the positive intentions of those acts, teachers are not always ready to teach collaboratively. Guided by the theories of fundamental change and inclusion, this study was based on a lack of understanding about collaborative teaching at 3 high schools. The research questions focused on the benefits, process, and concerns related to collaborative teaching. The perspectives of 4 special education and 8 regular education teachers in 3 urban, public high schools were collected through interviews and observations. Data were analyzed descriptively and inductively using coding, reconstruction, and interpretation of the underlying meanings. The findings revealed that teachers benefitted from being in these classrooms by having a reduced work load and shared responsibility; however, they needed more time for collaboration and modifying instruction, professional development, and stronger support. Students in these classrooms benefitted from social interactions with other students and by getting direct answers to questions. Based on these findings, a professional development training was created based on how collaborative teachers can work together to promote successful learning. This project study can have a positive impact by assisting collaborative teachers with support, communication, strategies for modifications and accommodations, and an enhanced experience, and additionally by improving the academic outcomes for their students.
The following master's thesis is composed of two manuscripts describing STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering within the context of the Science Learning through Engineering Design (SLED) partnership. The framework guiding both studies was science teaching orientations, a component of pedagogical content knowledge. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, multi-day classroom observations, pre- and post-observation interviews, implementation plans, and written reflections. Data sources were analyzed to generate two orientations to science teaching through engineering design for each participant. The first manuscript illustrates a single case study conducted with a sixth grade STEM teacher. Results of this study revealed a detailed picture of the teacher's goals, practices, assessments, and general views when teaching science through engineering design. Common themes across the teacher's instruction were used to characterize her orientations to science teaching through engineering design. Overall, the teacher's orientations showed a shift in her practice from didactic to student-centered methods of teaching as a result of integrating engineering design-based curriculum. The second manuscript describes a comparative case study of two sixth grade SLED participants. Results of this study revealed more complex and diverse relationships between the teachers' orientations to teaching science through engineering design and their instruction. Participants' orientations served as filters for instruction, guided by their divergent purposes for science teaching. Furthermore, their orientations and resulting implementation were developed from knowledge gained in teacher education, implying that teacher educators and researchers can use this framework to learn more about how teachers' knowledge is used to integrate engineering and science practices in the K-12 classroom.
This paper reports on the results of seven questions asked to secondary level department chairmen regarding the unit tests which accompany textbook materials. Nearly 1,500 responses were received from teachers of French, German, and Spanish. The results indicate that most teachers do not use publishers tests when they are available. The…
Demographic changes within the US are bringing significant changes in the cultural make-up of the classrooms in our schools. Results from national and state assessments indicate a growing achievement gap between the science scores of white students and students from minority communities. This gap indicates a disconnect somewhere in the science classrooms. This study examines the teacher's perspective of the changing learning environment. The study focuses on senior teachers with traditional Midwestern backgrounds and little multicultural experience assuming these teachers had little or no education in multicultural education. Senior teachers are also more likely to have completed their science education within a traditional Universalist perspective of science and likewise have little or no education in multicultural science. The research method was comparative case studies of a purposeful sample of nine science teachers within a community experiencing significant demographic change, seven core senior teachers and two frame of reference teachers. The interviews examined the teachers' awareness of their own cultural beliefs and the impact of those beliefs on classroom practices, the teachers' understanding of cultural influences on the students' academic performance, and the relationships between the teachers' understanding of the cultural aspects of the nature of science and their classroom practices. Analysis of the interview data revealed that the teachers maintain a strong, traditional Midwestern worldview for classroom expectations and they are generally unaware of the impact of those standards on the classroom environment. The teachers were supportive of minority students within their classroom, changing several practices to accommodate student needs, but they were unaware of the broader cultural influences on student learning. The teachers had a poor understanding of the nature of science and none of them recognized a cultural element of NOS. They maintained a
This paper will review the various curricula underpinning teacher education for elementary school teachers in Cyprus and describe the variations of the indented teacher profile from the English colonial period to the present day. We will discuss how and why the intended teacher profile has shifted from a clear, concise and consistent ethnocentric perspective to a more vague and ambiguous approach that resulted from the allocation of the responsibility for teacher training, from the state to t...
The purpose of this study was to determine if educators were capitalizing on bilingual learners' use of their biliterate abilities to acquire scientific meaning and discourse that would formulate a scientific biliterate identity. Mixed methods were used to explore teachers' use of biliteracy and Funds of Knowledge (Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N., 1992; Gonzales, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) from the students' Latino heritage while conducting science inquiry. The research study explored four constructs that conceptualized scientific biliteracy. The four constructs include science literacy, science biliteracy, reading comprehension strategies and students' cultural backgrounds. There were 156 4th-5th grade bilingual and general education teachers in South Texas that were surveyed using the Teacher Scientific Biliteracy Inventory (TSBI) and five teachers' science lessons were observed. Qualitative findings revealed that a variety of scientific biliteracy instructional strategies were frequently used in both bilingual and general education classrooms. The language used to deliver this instruction varied. A General Linear Model revealed that classroom assignment, bilingual or general education, had a significant effect on a teacher's instructional approach to employ scientific biliteracy. A simple linear regression found that the TSBI accounted for 17% of the variance on 4th grade reading benchmarks. Mixed methods results indicated that teachers were utilizing scientific biliteracy strategies in English, Spanish and/or both languages. Household items and science experimentation at home were encouraged by teachers to incorporate the students' cultural backgrounds. Finally, science inquiry was conducted through a universal approach to science learning versus a multicultural approach to science learning.
Full Text Available Teacher self-disclosure (TSD as a communication behavior can influence students' learning by increasing their engagement and class participation as well as helping them establish effective interpersonal relationships. Owning to its context-sensitive and culture-dependent nature, however, TSD topics, purposes, and considerations may vary cross-culturally. This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD as well as to investigate whether there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD. To this end, the Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure Scale was distributed among 68 Iranian EFL teachers (34 females and 34 males from six language institutes. The results of the study indicated the extent to which the Iranian EFL teachers perceived TSD topics, purposes, and considerations to be appropriate or inappropriate. Furthermore, the study found convergence and divergence between male and female teachers' perceptions in terms of the topics used in TSD, the purposes TSD serves in classroom, and considerations the teachers take into account when practicing TSD. The results of the study suggest that Iranian EFL teachers can practice TSD as a pedagogical tool to enhance learning although they should be wary of its consequences in some aspects as TSD is contingent upon context and culture.
Beverly A. King Miller
Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.
Rodgers-Jenkinson, Fay; Chapman, David W.
This study investigated correlates of job satisfaction among public (N=190) and private (N=100) Jamaican elementary school teachers. Emphasis was on the identification of factors that could be affected through administrative intervention. Results indicated that the quality of school working conditions and respondents' relationships with other teachers were significantly related to satisfaction for both public and private school teachers. School prestige and parental encouragement were also significant predictors for public school teachers; leadership style, organizational structure, and teacher-parent relationships predicted job satisfaction for private school teachers. Implications of these findings for Jamaican education are discussed.
Pakhomova Irina Yurevna
Full Text Available This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication. Objective: To define the notion of "communicative competence of future teachers' Methodology of work: competence approach. Scope of the results: the preparation of future teachers at the Pedagogical University. Results: This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication.
Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chai, Ching Sing; Lee, Min-Hsien
The application of information and communication technology in instruction is highly emphasized in the contemporary education of science teachers. This paper hence aims to explore science teachers' perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) addressing teachers' perceptions of the affordances of technology application in instruction. A total of 222 pre- and in-service science teachers in Singapore were surveyed. Structural equation models analysis was utilized to examine the model of TPACK involving the seven factors of technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), content knowledge (CK), technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), as well as synthesized knowledge of technology, pedagogy, and content (TPC). The results confirm the seven-factor model and indicate that the science teachers' perceived TPC significantly and positively correlated with all the other TPACK factors. This paper further reveals the relationships between the science teachers' perceptions of TPACK and their demographic characteristics such as teaching experience, gender, and age. The findings indicate that female science teachers perceive higher self-confidence in pedagogical knowledge but lower self-confidence in technological knowledge than males. Further, female in-service science teachers' perceptions of TK, TPK, TCK, and TPC significantly and negatively correlate with their age.
Full Text Available Information behaviour studies have the potential to inform the design of effective information services that incorporate the information needs, information-seeking and preferences for information sources of target users; hence a doctoral study was conducted on the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho with the aim of guiding the design and implementation of an information service model for these teachers. This paper focuses on the analysis of the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho as a contribution of original knowledge on geography teachers’ information behaviour. The analysis established the information behaviour of geography teachers using the information behaviour concept that encompasses information needs, information-seeking and information sources. Data were collected and analyzed through focus group discussions and conceptual content analysis respectively.The analysis reveals that these geography teachers need current and accurate information covering a variety of aspects in teaching and learning, such as content, pedagogy, classroom management and learners’ assessment. Owing to the increasing number of orphans in schools as a result of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, most teachers expressed the need for information on social assistance for orphans and vulnerable children. Recommendations include information literacy training for teachers and access to the Internet in schools, including the use of open access journals on the Internet by the teachers.
Cathrine Edelhard Tømte
Full Text Available In this study we explored how teacher education institutions handle the use of ICT in teacher education. A qualitative approach conducted as a multiple case study design involved three teacher education institutions. Two case studies where conducted in 2009 and one in 2012. Findings revealed that teachers appear to have become more aware of the use of ICT in education in 2011 compared to 2009. Still, teacher students remain to be sufficiently well prepared on how to use ICT for pedagogical purposes, even if their technical skills are improved over the years.
Full Text Available As we enter the twenty-first century, the outcomes, consequences, and results of teacher education have become critical topics in nearly all of the state and national policy debates about teacher preparation and licensure as well as in the development of many of the privately and publicly funded research agendas related to teacher and student learning. In this article, I argue that teacher education reform over the last fifty years has been driven by a series of questions about policy and practice. The question that is currently driving reform and policy in teacher education is what I refer to as "the outcomes question." This question asks how we should conceptualize and define the outcomes of teacher education for teacher learning, professional practice, and student learning, as well as how, by whom, and for what purposes these outcomes should be documented, demonstrated, and/or measured. In this article, I suggest that the outcomes question in teacher education is being conceptualized and constructed in quite different ways depending on the policy, research, and practice contexts in which the question is posed as well as on the political and professional motives of the posers. The article begins with an overview of the policy context, including those reforms and initiatives that have most influenced how outcomes are currently being constructed, debated, and enacted in teacher education. Then I identify and analyze three major "takes" on the outcomes question in teacher educationoutcomes as the long-term or general impacts of teacher education, outcomes as teacher candidates' scores on high stakes teacher tests, and outcomes as the professional performances of teacher candidates, particularly their demonstrated ability to influence student learning. For each of these approaches to outcomes, I examine underlying assumptions about teaching and schooling, the evidence and criteria used for evaluation, units of analysis, and consequences for the
Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária
Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.
Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk
Full Text Available In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL, teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs on promoting SRL, as well as their predictive value on teachers’ promotion of SRL in the classroom. Forty-seven primary school teachers completed questionnaires on knowledge and beliefs towards both components of the promotion of SRL: strategy instruction and a constructivist learning environment. In addition, teachers had to answer open-ended questions on their understanding of SRL, as well as their implementation of SRL in their classroom. The results show that teachers are more positive towards constructivist than towards SRL (teacher beliefs, and most teachers mentioned characteristics of constructivist learning environments, while only few teachers addressed strategy instruction when being asked about their understanding of SRL (teacher knowledge. Moreover, teacher beliefs are the only predictor for teacher behavior. The results indicate how teacher education could support teachers to learn how to promote SRL effectively.
Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…
Fowler, Samantha R.; Meisels, Gerry G.
A survey of Florida teachers reveals many differences in comfort level with teaching evolution according to the state's science teaching standards, general attitudes and beliefs about evolution, and the extent to which teachers are criticized, censured, disparaged, or reprehended for their beliefs about the teaching of evolution.
Forrest, Michelle; Keener, Terrah; Harkins, Mary Jane
The use of stories in teacher education is ubiquitous; yet, the question regarding how stories help teachers make sense of their professional lives is more complex than it first appears. The authors draw from Adriana Cavarero's understanding of narrative relations as the political site where one's unique singularity is revealed in the desire to…
Silvia Arizmendi Tejeda
Full Text Available This research report shares the findings that emerged from a qualitative study in which the main objective was to discover whether or not novice English as a foreign language teachers regulate their negative emotions during their initial teaching practice, and if so, how they do this. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews and observations, and analyzed by microanalysis and constant comparative analysis. The participants were five novice teachers who study English at the same university, and who were giving classes as part of their internship. The results from this research revealed that these particular novice English as a foreign language teachers use different emotional strategies to regulate their negative emotions.
Kloep, Marion; Tarifa, Fatos
For the first time in Albania, a large-scale study investigating teachers' working conditions was conducted. 349 teachers from many parts of the country and from all school levels answered an extensive questionnaire, providing a comprehensive description of their working situation. As data for parts of the study exist from the USA, Germany, Singapore, England, and Poland, results could be discussed in comparison to the conditions in these countries, showing that self-reported job satisfaction and engagement in effective classroom practices is relatively high among Albanian teachers, while the economic and physical conditions are bad. Stepwise regression analyses reveal that the items measuring professional autonomy account for a considerable part of the variance of the job satisfaction measure; while work efficiency is mainly predicted by items measuring social support and, again, professional autonomy.
Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Lloret-Segura, Susana; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo
Based on Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), this study examines the relationships among teacher support resources, psychological need satisfaction, engagement and burnout in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher psychological needs were identified based on the study of Bess and on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the constructs selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by structural equation modeling. The results reveal a good model fit to the data (NNFI = .88; CFI = .90; GFI = .90; RMSEA = .061). The analyses indicate a positive and significant effect of latent variable Psychological Need Satisfaction on engagement (β = .74, p model fit: Δχ2(2) = 2.428, p = .29). Finally, practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.
It is not uncommon to find media reports on the failures of science education, nor uncommon to hear prestigious scientists publicly lament the rise of antiscience attitudes. Given the position elementary teachers have in influencing children, antiscience sentiment among them would be a significant concern. Hence, this article reports on an investigation in which preservice elementary teachers responded to the Thinking about Science survey instrument. This newly developed instrument addresses the broadrelationship of science to nine important areas of society and culture and is intended to reveal the extent of views being consistent with or disagreeing with a commonly held worldview of science portrayed in the media and in popular science and science education literature. Results indicate that elementary teachers discriminate with respect to different aspects of culture and science but they are not antiscience.
Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.
Zirkel, Perry A.
In a case involving a somewhat sarcastic elementary teacher, a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court reversed the state commissioner of education's affirmation of her dismissal based on persistent negligence. Results of teachers' alleged verbal abuse of students depends on the nature of the claim, not just specific evidence. (MLH)
During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science
Full Text Available Abstract Generally, the relationship between the teacher educators' qualities and the quality of teacher education has not been discussed extensively in the literature. At the same time, various studies can be found in the eastern literature examining the characteristics of faculty members at the education faculties. The effect of teacher educators over teacher candidates has not been explored, and in this sense, there is limited number of studies examining faculty members at education faculties in Turkey. Mostly employing quantitative research designs, these studies have focused on faculty members in terms of various characteristics However, which qualities that faculty members should have as a whole have not been studied. However, faculty members, as well as teachers who are a matter of debate in terms of the qualities they are supposed to have should be examined in research studies. In this context, this study aims to identify the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have from the perspective of education faculty students as future teachers. The current research is a qualitative study in phenomenology design. The participants of the study are third and fourth year 214 pre-service teachers from the departments of Science and Technology Teaching, Pre-School Teacher Education, Classroom Teacher Education, Social Studies Teaching and Turkish Language Teaching. Criterion sampling was used for participant selection. The data gathering tool consisted of an open-ended question that would reveal the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have based on teacher candidates’ views. Junior and senior teacher candidates’ views were asked and the data were analyzed according to content analysis approach. As a result, the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have been gathered under five main themes including ‘professional roles and responsibilities, professional values, personal characteristics, professional ethic
Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta resultados obtidos por meio da pesquisa realizada entre 2005 e 2006, intitulada Uso dos resultados do SARESP: o papel da avaliação nas políticas de formação docente, cujo propósito foi analisar possibilidades e limites da utilização dos resultados obtidos pelos alunos no Sistema de Avaliação do Rendimento Escolar do Estado de São Paulo (SARESP para a formulação e o direcionamento de políticas de formação de professores. As preocupações recaíram sobre os programas de formação em língua portuguesa para o ensino fundamental. Foram visitadas quatro das treza diretorias regionais de ensino da capital do Estado de São Paulo a fim de conhecer o trabalho de formação docente realizado e analisar em que medida ele se relacionava aos dados obtidos no SARESP. O estudo qualitativo teve como principal estratégia a enquete exploratória, com uso de roteiros de entrevista e de observação semiestruturados. O referencial teórico sintetizou contribuições de Dennis Palumbo (1998 e de Marcus Figueiredo e Argelina Figueiredo (1986 para a compreensão do conceito e das etapas da política pública, assim como de Elba Barreto e Regina Pinto (2001, Blaine Worthen, James Sanders e Jody Fitzpatrick (2004 e Almerindo Afonso (1998 a respeito da discussão da avaliação de programas, entre outros. Concluiu-se que, apesar de a documentação dos programas de formação e o SARESP declararem que há relação entre os resultados da avaliação e os programas propostos, a concretização desse propósito depende do engajamento dos profissionais presentes nas diretorias de ensino. As ações formais da Secretaria da Educação para induzir esse uso de resultados não se mostraram suficientes para assegurar o pretenso vínculo entre avaliação e formação docente.This work presents results of a study conducted between 2005 and 2006 entitled The use of the results of the SARESP Exam: the role of assessment in teacher
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out: (1 how the junior high school English teachers in Bengkulu city exploited the commercially published textbooks for classroom use; (2 if there was a difference in the way the experienced and the inexperienced English language teachers exploited the commercially published textbooks in the classroom; and (3 whether the teachers adapted textbooks or produced their own materials for classroom use. Twelve English teachers (6 experienced and 6 inexperienced teachers from four different junior high schools or SMPs (2 favourite and 2 non-favourite in Bengkulu city were the participants in this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, classroom observations, and sample lesson plans. The results of the study revealed that: first, the junior high school English language teachers (ET and IT; (1 used the commercially prescribed textbooks to a large extent; (2 there was not much difference between the way experienced teachers and inexperienced teachers exploited the textbooks; (3 both groups of teachers adapted the textbooks or produced their own teaching materials.
Petersen, Karen Bjerg
language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning......, locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...... of virtual e-learning, interviews with teachers and 10 learner participants in a virtual classroom setting, and discourse analysis of curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course The research has taken place in the context of a study of e-learning and virtual teaching of Danish as a Second...
Ahmet Naci Çoklar, Hakki Bagci
Full Text Available Metaphors in qualitative research methods have been used as a data collection technique, which can’t be obtained directly ensure that data is obtained indirectly. In this research, the training of teachers in using technology to determine what role they are estimated at. In this context, Afyon Kocatepe University, a total of 131 teacher candidates from six different sections to the question directed at the metaphor and the data were analyzed with content analysis. Responses to the metaphor of the six different themes have been obtained: being important / useful, assistant / guide, user, producer / designer, learner and attitude. Evaluation of teacher candidates was their most important roles of the time / to be useful, help / guide and user issues have been. As a result of the analysis according to the department of prospective teachers according to the department the role they differ in their evaluation of the results have been revealed
Bobis, Janette; Way, Jennifer; Anderson, Judy; Martin, Andrew J.
This study explored the beliefs about student engagement in mathematics of three Year 5 and 6 teachers, focusing on the shifts that occurred during a 10-week intervention. Data obtained from teacher surveys, interviews, video-recorded workshop observations and artefacts from teachers' classrooms reveal variations in their reactions to the…
The purpose of the study was to reveal the main factors of teachers' professional well being. Theoretically constructed model was tested on large scale data belong to 72.190 teachers working at lower secondary level. Theoretical model included teachers' individual, professional and organizational characteristics. Professional well-being…
Blum, Albert A.; And Others
A study of the National Union of Teachers' officers in Israel revealed that the key indicators of militancy among teachers were sex (male), perceptions of too much centralization in the union structure, dissatisfaction with union attainment of goals, and extent of sensitivity to public hostility toward teachers. (Author/WD)
This article examines the discursive construction of the authoritative identity of teachers in relation to a number of issues in the classroom context, including identity negotiation, pedagogic discourse and teacher-student power relationship. A variety of classroom teacher talks are analyzed from a discourse analytical perspective, revealing the…
The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…
Steele, Timothy Charles
This phenomenological study examined the perceptions of teachers and their involvement with positive behavior support (PBS) plans in a school district in Southern California. Three sub-questions emerged revealing the perceptions of the teachers: (a) how had the teachers been involved in preparing for the use of PBS plans; (b) What experiences have…
Bui, Chi Binh
The study describes and analyzes teachers' micropolitics to serve two purposes: to understand how teachers make sense with the way change is led and to interpret if the way they make sense can influence the change process. This empirical study revealed the following: Teachers felt that their professional development was affected because of…
Students cannot learn in chaotic, badly managed classrooms. In the first years of teaching experiences, teachers revealed that novice teachers came to recognize the importance of discipline skills and classroom management for effective instruction. The purpose of the study was (i) to develop Science teachers' views towards classroom management…
Kenealy, Pamela; And Others
Ratings of the physical attractiveness of 11-to-12-year-old children were obtained, and the association between physical attractiveness and teachers' judgements of these children were examined. Teachers revealed a systematic tendency to rate girls higher than boys, and significant sex differences were observed in teachers' ratings of…
Full Text Available Distance education is used for teacher training at different levels and fields in Turkey. Launched in the 2000-2001 academic year and still applied by Anadolu University, the Pre-School Teacher Training Program is one of those programs offered by distance education. This study aims to evaluate Anadolu University’s Preschool Teacher Training Program in Turkey by obtaining student opinions. A total of 1,026 senior students enrolled in the Preschool Education major at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University participated in the survey. A questionnaire to determine the opinions of students on the program was used as a means of data collection. Means (X and standard deviations (SD were employed to analyze the survey data. The results showed that although the teacher candidates study at a good level, they do not have a good record of watching the television programs. The results also revealed that the opinions of teacher candidates about the textbooks, television programs, teaching practices, and academic assistance services are positive.
Keely, Charles B.; And Others
An attempt to develop a predictive model of teacher militancy using the Automatic Interaction Detection technique is described. By employing teacher background characteristics and attitudes toward teaching, the resulting model explains a significant amount of the variation in the degree of teacher militancy in a medium size, midwestern city with…
Belvis, Esther; Pineda, Pilar; Armengol, Carme; Moreno, Victoria
Teacher education based on "reflective practice" consists of observing, analysing and reflecting on teacher performance in order to improve professional practice. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a programme on mathematics teaching carried out using reflective practice. It was targeted at 284 teachers in various…
Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind
This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…
Hong, Jung Eun
This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how…
Mohammad Hossein Hekmatzadeh
Full Text Available Despite the fact that Intelligence Quotient (IQ is an important factor in one’s success in terms of working environment, it is believed that emotional quotient or EQ plays a more important role. With that in mind, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of English as Foreign Language (EFL teachers who work at private language institutes in Iran/Shiraz. Furthermore, this study tried to answer whether there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of Iranian’s EFL teachers in terms of gender. A 90-item Bar-On questionnaire was used to measure the teachers’ emotional intelligence; also, a modified version of Karavas’s (2010 job satisfaction scale was used to see how satisfied our teachers are with their teaching career. To answer the research question, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical test was run. The results showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of EFL teachers in Iran/Shiraz. Furthermore, the results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence between EFL male and female teachers, but there was no statistically significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ job satisfaction in terms of gender. Based on our findings, it is suggested that some preparatory courses aiming at enhancing the important psychological traits such as emotional intelligence should be incorporated in educational programs designed for novice teachers so that it will contribute to pedagogical improvement.Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Job satisfaction, EFL teachers
Krämer, Philipp; Nessler, Stefan H.; Schlüter, Kirsten
Background: Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) is suitable to teach scientific contents as well as to foster scientific skills. Similar conclusions are drawn by studies with respect to scientific literacy, motivational aspects, vocabulary knowledge, conceptual understandings, critical thinking, and attitudes toward science. Nevertheless, IBSE is rarely adopted in schools. Often barriers for teachers account for this lack, with the result that even good teachers struggle to teach science as inquiry. More importantly, studies indicate that several barriers and constraints could be ascribed to problems teacher students have at the university stage. Purpose: The purpose of this explorative investigation is to examine the problems teacher students have when teaching science through inquiry. In order to draw a holistic picture of these problems, we identified problems from three different points of view leading to the research question: What problems regarding IBSE do teacher students have from an objective, a subjective, and a self-reflective perspective? Design & method: Using video analysis and observation tools as well as qualitative content analysis and open questionnaires we identified problems from each perspective. Results: The objectively stated problems comprise the lack of essential features of IBSE especially concerning 'Supporting pupils' own investigations' and 'Guiding analysis and conclusions.' The subjectively perceived problems comprise concerns about 'Teachers' abilities' and 'Pupils' abilities,' 'Differentiated instruction' and institutional frame 'Conditions' while the self-reflectively noticed problems mainly comprise concerns about 'Allowing inquiry,' 'Instructional Aspects,' and 'Pupils' behavior.' Conclusions: Each of the three different perspectives provides plenty of problems, partially overlapping, partially complementing one another, and partially revealing completely new problems. Consequently, teacher educators have to consider these
Sechler, Phares Lochiel Coleman
State departments of public instruction require that teachers periodically update their licenses throughout their teaching careers. Various professional development events such as in-service workshops, university offerings, and special innovative programs provide opportunities for novice and experienced teachers to grow professionally. The "Team Science" workshop was designed from models supported by research that described guidelines for successful workshop strategies. In evaluating the workshop, the question was asked "Why did not all teachers implement the ideas from the workshop in their science classrooms?" This study investigates the possible relationship between teacher personality characteristics and implementation of technology innovations. Team Science was an extensive workshop program planned to develop science teachers' expertise in using computer and video technology to teach in physical science, chemistry, and physics classrooms in rural school in North Carolina. Upon evaluating the four-year effort, it was found that the 23 participants implemented the technological strategies at various levels. At the higher end of the range of technology use, some teachers exhibited complete integration of the computers and interfacing devices into both the laboratory work and the classroom inquiry. At the lower end of the range, some teachers used the technology very little. The resulting question emerged from the data collected: Do specific teacher personality characteristics (independent variables) correlate with the degree of implementation (dependent variable) of the innovative ideas and tools used in the teacher's science classroom after the in-service workshop? To determine if there were any significant personality traits, each teacher was given five personality tests. The tests were Hunt's Conceptual Development Test, the Paragraph Completion Test; James Rest's Defining Issues Test; Simmons Personal Survey, an emotional tendency test; the Myers-Briggs Type
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-324
This report presents selected findings from the school teacher data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school…
Andrew J Parker
The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cogn...
Andrew J Parker
The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cogn...
Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: firstname.lastname@example.org or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire
Full Text Available Teaching is a highly noble profession and teachers are always a boon to the society. The ultimate process of education could be simplified as a meaningful interaction between the teacher and the taught. The teacher thus plays a direct and crucial role in moulding a pupil towards education. Since a teacher is a role model for the students, job satisfaction and eventually performance of teachers become very vital in the fields of education. Thus the researcher felt the need to investigate the job satisfaction and performance of teachers in different categories of schools following different systems of education. From the total population, a sample of 196 teachers from state board schools, 198 teachers from matriculation board schools and 194 teachers from central board schools were drawn. The results of the study indicated that teachers in central board schools were significantly better in their job satisfaction and performance compared to their counterparts in matriculation and state board schools. This may be attributed to the fact that central board school teachers enjoy better infrastructure facilities and congenial working environment than the matriculation and state board teachers. It is for the school authorities, policy makers and society at large to ensure factors contributing to job satisfaction of teachers to the maximum possible extent and thereby enhancing their teaching perforrmance to its optimum.
Ellis, Joshua Alexander
For decades, there has been a nationwide demand to increase the number of science teachers in K-12 education (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983; National Research Council [NRC], 2007). This demand is in large part due to increases in state science graduation requirements. Teacher preparation programs have been preparing new science teachers on pace with the resulting increase in demand (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2010), however, shortages have continued as up to 50% of these new teachers leave the profession within their first five years of teaching (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004), creating a "revolving door" phenomenon as districts scramble to address this early attrition with yet more beginning teachers. We need to address what Ingersoll (2012) describes as the "greening" of the teaching force: the fact that an increasingly large segment of the teaching force is comprised of beginning teachers who are at a high risk of leaving the profession. The three related studies that comprise this dissertation focus on the role of technological interventions for in-service and pre-service science teachers. The context for the first two studies is TIN, an online induction program for beginning secondary science teachers. These two studies consider the impact of technological supports on the reflective practice of participating teachers. The design interventions included VideoANT (an online video annotation tool) and Teachers as Leaders roles (a structured response protocol) for the Venture/Vexation online forum activity. The context for the third study is T3-S, a university licensure course for pre-service science teachers designed to explore technology integration in secondary science classrooms. This study investigated the impact of pre-service teacher participation in the creation of an Adventure Learning (AL) environment (Doering, 2006) on their understanding of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) and its role in their future science
Luna, Melissa Jo
Children naturally use observations and everyday thinking to construct explanations as to why phenomena happen in the world. Science instruction can benefit by starting with these ideas to help children build coherent scientific understandings of how the physical world works. To do so, science teaching must involve attending to students' ideas so that those ideas become the basis for learning. Yet while science education reform requires teachers to pay close attention to their students' ideas, we know little about what teachers think this means in practice. To examine this issue, my dissertation research is two-fold. First, I examine teacher thinking by investigating how teachers understand what it means to pay attention to students' science ideas. Specifically, using new digital technology, three participating teachers captured moments of student thinking in the midst of instruction. Analysis of these moments reveals that teachers capture many different kinds of moments containing students' ideas and think about students' science ideas in different ways at different times. In particular, these three teachers most often think about students' ideas as being (a) from authority, (b) from experience, and (c) under construction. Second, I examine teacher learning through the development of an innovative science teaching video club model. The model differs from previous research on video clubs in several key ways in an attempt to focus teachers on student thinking in a sustained way. I investigate the ways in which this model was effective for engaging teachers in noticing and making sense of their students' science ideas during one implementation. Results indicate that teachers talked about student thinking early, often, and in meaningful ways. Science education leaders have recognized the potential of science teaching video clubs as a form of professional development, and the model presented in this work promotes the conditions for successful teacher learning. This
Duggan-Haas, Don Andrew
Great problems exist in science teaching from kindergarten through the college level (NRC, 1996; NSF, 1996). The problem may be attributed to the failure of teachers to integrate their own understanding of science content with appropriate pedagogy (Shulman, 1986, 1987). All teachers were trained by college faculty and therefore some of the blame for these problems rests on those faculty. This dissertation presents three models for describing secondary science teacher preparation. Two Programs, Two Cultures adapts C. P. Snow's classic work (1959) to describe the work of a science teacher candidate as that of an individual who navigates between two discrete programs: one in college science and the second in teacher education. The second model, Scientists Are from Mars, Educators Are from Venus adapts the popular work of John Gray to describe the system of science teacher education as hobbled by the dysfunctional relationships among the major players and describes the teacher as progeny from this relationship. The third model, The Ecosystem of Science Teacher Preparation reveals some of the deeper complexities of science teacher education and posits that the traditional college science approach treats students as a monoculture when great diversity in fact exists. The three models are described in the context of a large Midwestern university's teacher education program as that program is construed for future biology teachers. Four undergraduate courses typically taken by future biology teachers were observed and described: an introductory biology course; an introductory teacher education course; an upper division course in biochemistry and a senior level science teaching methods course. Seven second semester seniors who were biological Science majors were interviewed. All seven students had taken all of the courses observed. An organization of scientists and educators working together to improve science teaching from kindergarten through graduate school is also
and opportunities exist to make major discoveries (in other words, science isn't dead). The scientists made the following observations regarding participation by the teachers: (1) they assisted in the laboratory, and got a taste of scientific research; (2) conversations revealed what they know, and how they convey it to students, and thus how scientists may assist in the educational process; (3) the teachers did not hesitate to ask basic questions, a healthy exercise, because it required the scientists to re-examine and re-explain some of their fundamental assumptions; (4) the presence of the teachers encouraged the scientists to describe their results in a manner that is more accessible to a wider audience; and (5) the teachers increased awareness among the scientists by reminding them about their responsibilities to the broader world, beyond their particular subdisciplines. Suggestions for enhancing the experience, for both the teachers and the scientists, will be presented.
their practices. A subset of eight teachers were interviewed using guided conversations in order to shed further light on their use of the aquarium field trip and their pedagogical preparation. Data from all sources were organized by repeating ideas relevant to the questions of interest. The resulting evidence was interpreted to support distinct categories of teacher strategies and experience and related claims about these strategies and experiences. Thus, findings reveal that teachers attempt to link the curriculum to the activities, resources, and content encountered on the trip using a variety of connections. However, these curriculum connections are characterized as products of opportunistic situations and reveal limited depth. Evidence further indicates that teachers treat the aquarium visit as a background experience for their students rather than as an opportunity to introduce new concepts or do an activity that is integrated into the curriculum. Nevertheless, teachers included in this study were leading field trips that created countless learning opportunities for their students. Because training specific to field trips is rarely included in preservice programs, teachers were asked about influences on their field trip practice with specific focus on observed strategies. Findings suggest four categories of training experiences that teachers apply to their practice: (1) informal mentoring; (2) past experience trip leading; (3) outdoor education training; (4) traditional education training. Overall findings along with a review of previous research are suggestive of many ways in which efforts to enhance students' learning opportunities may be developed by means of support for teachers. Foremost among recommendations is the idea that field trip pedagogy be integrated into science methods courses required for preservice teachers (the premise for the final manuscript). Furthermore, the findings of this study may serve as a starting point for museums interested in the
Faber, Courtney; Hardin, Emily; Klein-Gardner, Stacy; Benson, Lisa
This study examined the teachers' development as scientists for participants in three National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Teachers. Participants included secondary science and math teachers with varying levels of education and experience who were immersed in research environments related to engineering and science topics. Teachers' functionality as scientists was assessed in terms of independence, focus, relationships with mentors, structure, and ability to create new concepts. Hierarchies developed within these constructs allowed tracking of changes in functionality throughout the 6-week programs. Themes were further identified in teachers' weekly journal entries and exit interviews through inductive coding. Increases in functionality as scientists were observed for all teachers who completed both the program and exit interview ( n = 27). Seven of the 27 teachers reached high science functionality; however, three of the teachers did not reach high functionality in any of the constructs during the program. No differences were observed in demographics or teaching experience between those who did and did not reach high functionality levels. Inductive coding revealed themes such as teachers' interactions with mentors and connections made between research and teaching, which allowed for descriptions of experiences for teachers at high and low levels of functionality. Teachers at high functionality levels adjusted to open-ended environments, transitioned from a guided experience to freedom, felt useful in the laboratory, and were self-motivated. In contrast, teachers at low functionality levels did not have a true research project, primarily focused on teaching aspects of the program, and did not display a transition of responsibilities.
John N. N. Ugoani
Full Text Available Education corruption displays ample evidence that warrants inefficiencies and absenteeism among teachers. Teachers are the transmitters of knowledge who help to ensure that children learn, they are role models and in most rural communities they are the most educated and respected personages. High teacher absenteeism can exist when teachers have very low levels of motivation to work and little commitment to the profession, and when there is lack of accountability in the education sector. Because of the importance of education to society, international bodies emphasize the need for attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. It is necessary to state that reducing official corruption in the education sector, promoting teacher welfare, designing better systems for monitoring and reducing invalid absences are among the critical measures of combating teacher absenteeism. The survey research design was used for the study and the result supports that education corruption has significant positive relationship with teacher absenteeism
Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike;
and cultural influences on practice. Yet the teachers observed moved smoothly between goal-oriented behaviours in a continuous and comfortable style, easily and without reflecting any tensions between them. Thus, this article elaborates an account of situated English teaching.......Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal...
Full Text Available Despite repeated attempts to reform schools, teachers' work has remained surprisingly stable. The purpose of this study was to investigate implementation of a state-funded restructuring initiative that intended broad changes in teachers' professional roles. Sponsors of the founding legislation reasoned that changes in teachers' roles would contribute to higher student achievement. This study examined the question of whether and how this program of comprehensive whole-school change promoted changes in teachers' roles in school governance, collegial relations, and the classroom. Further, the study traced the relationship of these changes to one another, and weighed the likelihood that they had the capacity to affect core educational practices. Theoretically, this study is situated in the available literature on teachers' collegial relations; participation in shared decision making; and classroom roles, relationships and practice. Three elementary schools served as the sites for intensive qualitative data collection completed over a two-year period. The schools differed in geographic location (two urban, one rural, but all enrolled a racially, ethnically and linguistically diverse population of students, and more than half of the students in each school qualified for free or reduced price lunch. The study resulted in multiple types and sources of data on teachers' professional roles, including: observations in classrooms, collegial interactions, and governance situations; interviews with teachers (including teacher leaders, parents, administrators, and students; and documents pertaining to the restructuring plans and process. Findings show that changes in the three areas were achieved unevenly in the three schools. All three schools introduced changes in classroom practice and roles, ranging from the adoption of multi-age classrooms to more modest innovations in curriculum or instruction. In only one case were changes in professional roles outside
Kim, Hye Jeong; Jang, Hwan Young
The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of pre-service teachers' use of Web 2.0 tools during a teaching internship, after a course that emphasized the use of the tools for instructional activities. Results revealed that integrating Web 2.0 tools during their teaching internship was strongly predicted by participants' perceived…
Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Chung-Chih
Documents the benefits of teaching chemistry through history. The experimental group consisted of seniors enrolled in a teacher preparation program in which they learned how to teach chemistry through the history of science. The results of the analysis of covariance revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on an…
Linares, Jose Jesus Gazquez; Diaz, Adolfo Javier Cangas; Fuentes, Maria del Carmen Perez; Acien, Francisca Lucas
The objective of the present study was to explore, in three European countries (Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic), teachers' perception of the prevalence of different problematic aspects related to coexistence in schools, and of how they are personally affected by these aspects. The results reveal a high prevalence of fights, insults and…
Pereira, Íris Susana Pires
With this paper, I aim to contribute to the understanding of the teaching portfolio as a genre. I analyse the linguistic construction and performative nature of the reflective voice in the portfolio of one pre-service teacher. The results reveal her voice to have been constructed upon the convergence of other voices and to perform diverse…
The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to email@example.com
Larsen, Lea Lund
as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...
Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva
Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508
Magdalena M. Ocbian
Full Text Available Questioning is a useful and relevant tool to facilitate classroom discussion in a literature class. This study identified the levels of questions teachers use in their literature class, determined the different question strategies they utilized and proposed activities to enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Video analysis was the main instrument used. These videos were provided during the conduct of class observations by the researchers. There were eight respondents in the study selected through total enumeration. They are teachers from Gubat Cluster of secondary schools of Sorsogon Province. To identify the levels of questions and questioning strategies, question tally form and percentage were used. Results revealed that knowledge was the most used level of questions followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The most used question technique is the participation, followed by proving, sequencing, wait time, balance and student questions. It was recommended that literature teachers vary their level of questions when discussing literary pieces. They may utilize different question techniques to develop critical thinking skills of their students. The use of the proposed activities may enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Likewise, school heads and program supervisors may utilize video analysis technique as a mode for classroom observation.
Stinson, John Kevin
It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments, rarely includes a disciplinary focus. In this exploratory, descriptive study the results of a web-based survey containing both closed and open-ended items were used in an inquiry into teacher leaders working with the discipline of science. Data from Ohio teachers responding to the survey were used first to create a standard profile for science teacher leaders. Descriptive statistics and correlations were then performed on quantitative survey data to explore science teacher leader tasks and factors that influence task performance. Analysis of data included descriptions of sense of purpose for their role held by these science teacher leaders. Results indicate that science teacher leaders appear to embrace their role as advocates for science and have great potential for implementing science education reform as well as other science-related school initiatives. Aligning performance, administrative oversight, impact on student achievement and teacher training concerning tasks science teacher leaders are expected to perform would enhance this potential. However, science teacher leaders face challenges to realizing that potential due to ambiguity of their leadership role, the breadth of tasks they tend to perform and lack of alignment between task and outcomes.
Full Text Available Teachers are the backbone of the educational systems and their turnover may threaten the whole educational system in any country. In Oman, teacher turnover is a neglected area of study and this article may help in shedding some light on teacher turnover phenomenon in Oman. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of school characteristics (e.g., school size, gender, time-shift, education type, and school location on the turnover intentions of teachers in public schools in Oman. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from 214 public schools in Oman. 142 schools from all educational regions in Oman were participated in this study. Data analyses tools for this study were descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, in addition to independents t-test and analysis of variance. The study revealed that teacher intentions to transfer to other schools are influenced by almost all the studied school characteristics. Policy makers and human resource recruiters in Ministry of Education should be aware of teachers’ preferences for certain schools to avoid teachers’ shortage in non-preferred schools. Further studies about the influence of school time-shift and teachers’ intentions to quit or transfer are needed to affirm the results in this study. This is the first study about the influence of school characteristics on teacher turnover in public schools in Oman. Thus, the value of this study stems from the uniqueness of this study which may serve as an eye opening indicator about teacher turnover in Oman.
Washburn, Erin K; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S; Joshi, R Malatesha; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Arrow, Alison
The present study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) knowledge of basic language constructs across four different English-speaking teacher preparations programs. A standardized survey was administered to participants from Canada (n = 80), England (n = 55), New Zealand (n = 26), and the USA (n = 118). All participants were enrolled in undergraduate university programs that led to teacher certification for general education in the primary grades. Our data reveal that preservice teachers from all four countries show patterns of relative strength in areas that were targeted to be crucial within their national initiatives. Nevertheless, in general, PSTs demonstrated a lack of knowledge of certain constructs needed to teach early reading skills. The results are discussed in relation to research reports and initiatives regarding beginning reading instruction from each of the four countries.
Full Text Available Recent changes on the Science and Tehnology (ST curriculum have required using alternative evaluation methods in learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to determine the ST teachers’ problems while using the alternative evaluation methods during their courses. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 ST teachers from different parts of Trabzon during the academic year 2008-2009. The data, analyzed qualitatively, reveals that the teachers have important difficulties in determining, using and evaluating these methods. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that besides the lack of physical infrastructure, labs and libraries, computer and other technologies in their schools, most of the teachers lack the knowledge and skills to implement these methods. The result of the study has shown that ST teachers need an adaptation process to appropriate the aims and importance of alternative evaluation methods effectively.
Full Text Available While being a teacher-educator is a complex task, the mode to train teacher-educators is yet unclear. This question is even more relevant because education colleges thriving for academic accreditation recruit PhDs with no field experience. The present study examines students and faculty perceptions on the strengths and weaknesses of the learning process of student-teachers. Using qualitative research tools we found that developing a professional identity is not seen by most of the disciplineoriented lecturers as part of their role, and they also do not know how to perform it. The results emphasize the importance of an appropriate balance between the theoretical foundation and practical learning in order to provide novice teachers with the mental flexibility enabling them to act correctly and productively in complex situations that arise in the act of teaching. Further, the study offers guidelines for teacher-educators' professional training.
Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.
In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…
Warner, J; Albanes, R; Amitay, O
This paper examines how high school teachers interact with students on the subject of marijuana. Results, based on 49 focus groups with 278 high school students in Ontario, Canada, reveal three basic assumptions of the students: 1) only some teachers can actually tell when a student is high on marijuana; 2) many teachers have tried marijuana or continue to use it; and 3) individual teachers vary in how they respond to students who are high. Results suggest that changes in the relationship between marijuana and authority account in large part for the seeming reluctance of so many teachers to exercise their mandate to discipline students who use marijuana. The reasons for this are twofold: 1) many teachers do not see use of marijuana of and by itself as a threat to their authority; and 2) teachers who choose to confront users run the risk of having their authority and independence of action undermined once they report infractions to administrators who have authority over teachers and students alike.
Friedman, Audrey A.; Galligan, Hugh T.; Albano, Caitlyn M.; O'Connor, Kathleen
Teachers' voices explore and document what is at stake when they are excluded from power-brokering conversations that mandate how teachers practice and model democracy in classrooms. Case study vignettes, interviews, classroom observations, and reflections of teachers in urban and suburban schools reveal four significant teacher subcultures of…
Feeney, Eric J.
This study examined teachers' learning situated in a school to reveal factors that support and hinder learning in the workplace. The investigation analyzed teachers' orientation to learning, examining beliefs, practices, and experiences about teachers' learning in relation to change in the workplace. A hypothesis is that teacher learning and…
Susi, Frank D.
Contends that the student teaching experience and the cooperating teacher are the most significant aspects of the teacher education process. Describes the features and the implementation of clinical supervision in art education. Concludes that cooperating teachers also benefit as a result of their experiences with student teachers. (CFR)
Al-Zboon, Eman K.; Al_Dababneh, Khuloud A. H.; Ahmad, Jamal
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the level of quality of work life QOWL of Jordanian special education teachers. Participants of the study were 133 special education teachers. Results showed that special education teachers cited average level of QOWL. Furthermore, teachers rated administrators' and colleagues' respect as the…
The author adopted an empirical quantitative method by employing Horwitz's Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (TFLAS)to determine the anxiety level of ninety teacher participants from Tianjin Foreign Studies University.SPSS11.5 was used for data analysis and the results showed that no one experienced high level's anxiety and student teachers were commonly more anxious than in-service teachers.
This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…
Nthiga, Peter Rugano
This study examined the effects of multimedia cases on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers in Kenya using mixed methods in data collection and analysis. Collaborating with two teacher educators at Central University, I designed and implemented two multimedia case-based intervention lessons, one with prospective chemistry teachers and the other with prospective physics teachers. I determined the changes in self-efficacy beliefs using a pretest and posttest with the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI) for N=41 participants. I also collected data using a worksheet during the intervention lesson. When the prospective teachers went for their field practice, I sampled eight of them for in depth interviews to determine what they drew on from the intervention lesson during their classroom teaching. I used Roth McDuffie's et al. (2014) framing to categorize the comments that the prospective teachers made on the worksheet into the four lenses of teacher, students, task or power and participation. I used paired sample t-test to determine the changes in self-efficacy beliefs and then developed profiles of the prospective teachers from the in depth interviews. The results revealed that prospective teachers paid more attention to the actions of the teacher and paid less attention to students' activities. Their attention to the task was predominantly about the cognitive level of the task and almost always focused on the errors they noted. The prospective teacher noticing using the power and participation lens was not clearly delineable from the teacher lens, because most instructional activities that led to more participation were teacher actions. Science teaching efficacy beliefs has two constructs: personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) and science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE). The PSTE scores were very high at 4.46 out of five on the pretest, and 4.41 on posttest. There was a decrease in the mean scores, but the change was
Dave E. Marcial
Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT plays a vital role in teaching and learning. This paper presents the landscape of ICT competency of faculty in the teacher education institutions in the central region of the Philippines. Specifically, the study investigates the ICT competency level in institutions of higher learning offering teacher education programs in the four provinces in Central Visayas, Philippines. A total of 383 survey responses was analyzed in the study. Respondents are all faculty handling any professional and/or specialization courses in the teacher education. The ICT competency level is measured empirically in terms of work aspects described in the UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. The instrument used in data gathering was a survey questionnaire.This study reveals that the ICT competency level of the respondents is in the knowledge deepening level. The result implies that the teacher educators are integrative, student-centered and collaborative using the necessary tools. It is concluded that there is a slight technology infusion into the teaching instruction among teacher educators in Region 7. There is a need to improve the level of competency among the teacher educators, particularly skills in using complex and pervasive ICT tools to achieve innovative teaching and learning.
Beaver, Melanie S.
This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
Of concern is an international trend of students’ increasing reluctance to choose science courses in both their final years of secondary school and tertiary levels of education. Research into the phenomenon indicates an influencing factor to be the ‘uninteresting curriculum’ (OECD 2006) of school science. This paper presents an exploration of what biotechnology key ideas students and teachers consider to be interesting. A survey was constructed and completed by 500 Australian students and their 35 teachers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of students and teachers. The Chi-square statistics revealed a significant difference between the student and teacher survey responses in four of the six a priori factors. A rank ordering of the key ideas, based on whole group mean scores, indicates only a small overlap in modern biotechnology key ideas of interest to both the students and teachers. The results suggest the key ideas teachers are interested in and incorporate into their curriculum, are not the key ideas students are interested in learning about. This mismatch is particularly prevalent and problematic in situations where curriculum choice is available within a mandated framework or syllabus, which is the case for these teachers and students. The study also found students withdrawing from biology courses in post compulsory settings due to lack of interest and perceived lack of relevance of the course.
C. Kirabo Jackson; Jonah E. Rockoff; Staiger, Douglas O.
The emergence of large longitudinal data sets linking students to teachers has led to rapid growth in the study of teacher effects on student outcomes by economists over the past decade. One large literature has documented wide variation in teacher effectiveness that is not well explained by observable student or teacher characteristics. A second literature has investigated how educational outcomes might be improved by leveraging teacher effectiveness through processes of recruitment, assignm...
Personal narratives from first-year English teachers reveal that the social system of the schools in which they teach, the instructional system and its accompanying curriculum requirements and restraints, and the nature of the student population become dominant in determining teachers' behavior and their attitudes toward teaching. (HOD)
Henning, Mary Beth; Peterson, Barbara R.; King, Kenneth Paul
In an effort to improve science and social studies instruction, preservice teachers developed original science, technology, and society units to teach in elementary and middle school classrooms during their clinical field experience. Data revealed that the preservice teachers fell into categories of being skeptics, open-minded instructors, or…
Several studies have suggested that preservice teacher education has little impact on student teacher conceptions about various facets of teaching and learning. Most of these studies refer to generic teaching and learning, and very few have related to primary science in particular. To explore this area eight primary student teachers were interviewed on six occasions during the first two years of their Bachelor of Teaching degree. This paper reports the findings from part of these interviews. It describes the (sometimes changing) conceptions which these eight students held about how they would recognise a “good” teacher of science and the people and experiences they believed influenced the formation of these views. The differential impact of past and present teachers and the teacher education program revealed possible implications for practica and science curriculum units in particular, if teacher education is going to have an influence on preservice teachers' conceptions about teaching and learning.
Dillehay, Glenn Woodrow, III.
Teacher absenteeism is expensive, disrupts the continuity of educational activities, and results in students attending classes with less qualified substitute teachers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships among teacher variables, teacher absenteeism, student achievement, and school district policy governing teacher…
Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mbewe, Simeon
This study assessed Zambian Junior High School pre-service science teachers' understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample comprised 30 pre-service science teachers at a teacher training college. Data was collected through a questionnaire adopted from Ozmen and Kenan (2007). Results show that most teachers had correct views on the…
Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenlan
This study explored the effect of tertiary teachers' goal orientations for teaching on their commitment, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher engagement. The results of a survey of 597 Chinese tertiary teachers indicated that teacher commitment was positively predicted by ability approach, mastery and relational goals, but was…
Hitt, Kathleen Milligan
The purpose of this two-year study was to investigate why two female elementary teachers became exemplary science teachers, despite conditions which do not promote such achievement. Each teachers' progress was examined using life history methodology. The study's theoretical grounding included females' academic and attitudinal success in science education. Purposeful sampling of peers, administrators, and college professors produced two research participants. Both teachers participated in interviews, observations, and member checks lasting over one year. Data were analyzed inductively, resulting in two life histories. Comparing the life stories using confluence theory (Feldman, 1986) indicated four major categories for consideration: risk-taking; life-long learning; gender equity; and mentors. Risk-taking is necessary for female elementary teachers because of their often poor educational background. Few female role models support efforts for achievement. Life-long learning, including extensive reading and graduate-level classes, supports female teachers' personal and professional growth. Exposure to new ideas and teacher practices encourages curricular change and refinement in science education. Gender inequity and the male-packaging of science is an issue to be resolved by female elementary teachers. Mentors can provide interaction and feedback to refine science instructional practices. Professors, peers, and mentor teachers support instructional and content knowledge efforts. Recommendations for science education in classroom practices, preservice teacher education and continuing professional development include female-friendly approaches to science instruction. Decreased competitive practices through cooperative learning and gender inclusive language encourages female participation and achievement in classrooms. Hands-on, inquiry-based instruction and verbalization encourages female students' achievement in science education. Preservice teachers must receive
Dyganova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Yavgildina, Ziliya Mukhtarovna
The article discusses the culture of self-education of music teacher as a professionally necessary quality of a modern specialist in the field of music education. The author proposes finalized definitions of basic concepts; consistently reveals the essence, structure, criteria and indicators of self-culture of music teacher; reveals the potential…
Gardner, Cynthia Crompton
Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of
Kelly-Jackson, Charlease Plushette
In many of our nations' schools, African American students are experiencing inequitable opportunities to quality science. Since science teachers are one of the most influential factors on science learning and they are charged with instructing African American students, their beliefs and practices are vital to the understanding of this paradox. This mixed method study sought to investigate science teachers' beliefs about the importance of culturally relevant teaching in the classroom and their beliefs about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching. Two research questions guided the conceptualization and implementation of this study: (1) Do science teachers believe culturally relevant teaching is an important part of their instruction; (2) What are science teachers' perceptions about critical issues and practices of culturally relevant teaching? The study was conducted in three phases. Survey data in Phase One revealed that 100% of the respondents believed culturally relevant teaching is important when working with culturally diverse students. Data also showed a significant consensus among the following pluralist statements; 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, and 17. The statement, "culturally relevant practice is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" was endorsed (75%) by the respondents while 25% strongly agreed with the statement. Similarly, respondents strongly agreed (75%) with the statement "encouraging respect for cultural diversity is essential for creating an inclusive classroom environment" while 25% agreed. Interview results in Phase Two revealed that teachers had a general idea about culturally relevant pedagogy. Data further showed that three of the four teachers supported culturally relevant teaching in theory, but their support was not reflected in their daily classroom instruction. Misconceptions and/misunderstandings about culturally relevant teaching fell under several common themes: knowledge, teacher beliefs
Staples, Kimberly Ardena
This study investigated the differential effects of experiences in nontraditional and traditional undergraduate science courses on the science teaching and learning of undergraduate education majors, elementary classroom teachers, and students. The ability for teachers to demonstrate knowledge through inquiry, critical analysis, and synthesis of the subject is clearly articulated as a requirement in the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and the National Accreditation of Teacher Education (2000). To meet this goal, science instruction in higher education requires reform to effectively prepare elementary undergraduate education majors in science content. The research study included a sample of 264 participants from a single university that represented undergraduate education majors, college science instructors, elementary classroom teachers, and elementary classroom students. Short term and long term learning outcomes of undergraduate education majors and classroom teachers were evaluated for the effect of experiences in a nontraditional college science course. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through questionnaires, standardized tests, surveys, oral and written interviews, and observations of undergraduate and elementary science lessons. A triangulation of the data results revealed that modeling, active engagement, project-based activities, and cooperative learning positively affected undergraduate education majors' science teaching efficacy, science content mastery, and elementary teacher performance in science classroom instruction. Standardized test scores revealed higher achievement in science among elementary students of teachers experienced in a nontraditional science course than students of teachers experienced only in traditional learning environments. The results of this study support the call for reform in college science teaching. The standards based context in which science content was delivered
Luft, Julie A.; Bang, EunJin; Roehrig, Gillian H.
The focus of this article is the more immediate way to help new science teachers, which comes from the experienced and professionally active teacher--you! As science teacher educators who work with and study the development of beginning teachers, the authors found the support offered knowingly and unknowingly by the teacher next door was a…
In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…
The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on 04.50.40.82...
Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.
Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.
Teachers unfavorable working conditions-large classrooms with poor acoustics, background noise and the great distance between teacher and pupils often are the main reasons for teachers voice problems. For pupils, the same circumstances simultaneously create unfavorable listening conditions. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is by making use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores whether voice amplification usage: (1) diminishes the teachers subjective symptoms of vocal fatigue; (2) makes it easier for pupils to listen and follow lessons; and (3) reveals other benefits and/or disadvantages of the usage of amplification in classrooms. Thirty-three teachers with their students (total 791), from grade school to university level, volunteered as subjects. The teachers used amplification in class for at least a week. At the end of the research period, the participants answered questionnaires, except the pupils between 6-9 years of age who were asked two questions. The results showed: (1) the majority of teachers found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue using vocal amplification; (2) the students found it easier to hear the teacher through class chatter and to follow the lessons; (3) the disadvantages mentioned were mainly technical problems.
Katy de la Garza
Full Text Available Rural and Indigenous populations have the lowest educational achievement indicators and teachers with the least years of training. Global education movements have led to an increase in access to schooling by rural and Indigenous populations but high drop-out rates persist and education policies, curricular contents, and teacher trainings have progressively become urban-biased and insensitive to context. Using a case from Guatemala, this study offers policy knowledge on rural and Indigenous teacher professionalization by analyzing the potential of pedagogical mentorship as an in-service teacher training resource that can consider contextual and sociocultural realities. It also offers to improve our understandings of the challenges faced by teachers to provide quality education in rural and Indigenous settings. The data is drawn from a qualitative and multisite research study. Results demonstrate that main challenges faced by rural teachers include economic hardships, malnutrition, inadequate and superficial teacher training in intercultural bilingual education, and the persistent absence of basic government social programs. The data also reveal a positive demand for pedagogical mentorship on behalf of all the interviewed teachers; particularly to enhance their knowledge and skills on bilingual intercultural education. Pedagogical mentorship offers a powerful opportunity for governments to enhance quality and context-sensitive education; but it is not enough. Multi sectorial efforts are necessary to tackle poverty, hunger and education and move towards the implementation of the long overdue right for rural and Indigenous peoples to access quality education that includes healthy students and relevant curricula.
Alice Merab Kagoda
Full Text Available Teacher professional development (TPD is important in keeping teachers abreast with changes that characterise the 21st century schools. However, TPD will only be valuable if teachers perceive it as important. Moreover the varying perceptions of teacher professional development by teachers are likely to affect their view of TPD. Using data collected from secondary school teachers, this study explored teachers’ understanding of the concept “teacher professional development, TPD approaches used by teachers and barriers/constraints they face. Results show that teachers have narrow understanding of the concept, and that to many TPD meant subject content upgrading by going back to teacher training college, while others view it as attending workshops and seminars. Barriers mentioned included shortage of time, lack of funds, lack of motivation and support by head teachers and government as a whole. Researchers recommend that teacher education should incorporate a component of professional teacher development in the initial teacher training. The head teachers and Ministry of Education and Sports should support in-service teachers in their endeavour to develop professionally. Teachers with low selfesteem should be motivated through attendance of conferences, workshops and group activities at local level.
The researcher investigated teachers' perceptions of their interactions with students in their 6th grade science classrooms and the effects of gender equity training on teachers' interactions with students. Teacher perceptions were measured at pretest and posttest using the Gender Equity Teacher-Student Interaction Questionnaire (GETSIQ). The outcomes from one day of gender equity training, using the Gender Equity Video and Instructional Guide, were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow-up using the INTERSECT scale. A non-random sample of twenty 6th grade science teachers from five middle schools participated in the study. Ten teachers were assigned to each of the control or experimental groups. The first hypothesis posited that teacher perceptions of and actions toward male and female students in sixth grade science classrooms would be different as reflected by scores on the GETSIQ. The hypothesis was partially supported. Teachers reported significantly different amounts of acknowledgment, attention in general, and attention to questions, responses, and comments for boys and girls, and different evaluations based on their expectations for a student. Following training, teachers from the experimental group obtained somewhat higher scores, though the differences were not statistically significant. Hypothesis 2 stated that gender equity training would increase equitable teacher interactions with male and female students as demonstrated by scores on the INTERSECT Checklist. This hypothesis was partially supported. A comparison of the Intersect checklist (praise, acceptance, remediation, criticism) revealed that teachers were observed to more equally give praise to boys and girls following training, male teachers engaged in more acceptance responses with girls, and female teachers had more equitable distribution of acceptance. Male teachers increased the amount of remediation to girls, and female teachers continued to provide more remediation to boys. The
Koedel, Cory; Podgursky, Michael
Teacher pension systems target retirements within a narrow range of the career cycle by penalizing individuals who separate too soon or remain employed too long. The penalties result in the retention of some teachers who would otherwise choose to leave, and the premature exit of some teachers who would otherwise choose to stay. We examine how the…
Koedel, Cory; Podgursky, Michael; Shi, Shishan
Teacher pension systems concentrate retirements within a narrow range of the career cycle by penalizing individuals who separate too soon or remain employed too long. The penalties result in the retention of some teachers who would otherwise choose to leave, and the premature exit of some teachers who would otherwise choose to stay. We examine the…
Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia
This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of…
This article reports findings from a 3-year qualitative study exploring the experiences of African American preservice teachers as they prepared for the Praxis "basic skills" teacher-licensure exam, a gatekeeper to many teacher-education programs. Using the construct of self-efficacy, results illustrate how students assess their Praxis…
Teachers are thought to be the backbone of any high school. Data indicating how students perceive their teachers was gathered from a questionnaire completed by 355 recent Yeshiva high-school graduates. Results show that Yeshiva High School teachers are thought of as open minded and tolerant (51.9%), caring (73.2%), and interested in developing the…
Teacher’s Colleges and universities are places for trainingqualified personnel of all-round development of morality, intelligence, physique, aesthetics and labour The aim of school physical education is to attain the objective of all-round physical fitness development through planned and purposeful physical education teaching. By analyzing the results of the physical fitness tests in students of the Neijiang Teachers University enrolled in 1997-1999, the students’physical fitness level is known so as to purposefully carry out competency education in teaching and promote the complete improvement of the students’physical fitness level.%高等师范院校是培养德、智、体、美、劳全面发展人才的场所，学校体育通过有计划，有目的的体育教学，达到身体素质全面发展的目的。通过对内江师范学院97~99级学生身体素质测试结果分析，了解学生身体素质状况，在教学中有的放矢地贯彻素质教育，促进学生身体素质全面提高。
Full Text Available Studies dealing with factors which have an influence on students outcomes are reviewed, teacher variables and teacher training are among their most common findings to influence school achievement. This study analyses the variable in-service teacher training on students? academic achievement. The analysis levels are departments and schools, being department the level where the relation among variables is more significative. There are significative correlations between the in-service teacher training in their own subject and the subject pedagogy in 50% of the analysed departments. In-service teacher training is recommended to be organized, taking into account these differences (context, teacher variables, in- service teacher training variables among departments, schools and districts to compensate the unequal school variables. Existe evidencia sobre la influencia de algunos factores en el rendimiento escolar de los centros y entre ellos de manera consistente aparecen las características del profesorado y su formación. Este estudio analiza la formación del profesorado con los resultados escolares de los centros de educación secundaria en Asturias. De las variables de formación, es únicamente la formación en la asignatura y su didáctica la que se asocia a los resultados en la asignatura. Se realizan análisis en dos niveles de agregación, departamento y centro, observándose que es en los niveles de departamento donde existen las correlaciones más significativas. Se aporta evidencia para la organización de una formación del profesorado que asigne recursos de formación en los diferentes niveles en base a sus desigualdades de origen (contexto, variables del profesorado y de formación y que garantice una efectiva igualdad de oportunidades para el conjunto de la población escolar de la Comunidad Autónoma.
Katja Posnic; Katja Košir
The main purpose of our study was to investigate how basic school pupils and teachers perceive and understand bullying. The participants in the study were 58 teachers and 396 pupils in basic school. The results indicate that both teachers and pupils perceive verbal bullying as the most frequent form of bullying compared to physical and relational bullying. Pupils report perceiving more bullying than teachers. Both pupils and teachers perceive physical and verbal bullying as more serious forms...
Full Text Available TCFL teachers competencies are a new and popular field of research in the Chinese language. These competencies will relate to the knowledge and skills that TCFL teachers should have, such as the knowledge in linguistics and Chinese linguistics, theory of the second language, learning strategies and teaching methodologies. Besides that, teacher should have a good awareness, psychological and emotional control. This article summarizes the results of literacy study of TCFL teachers competencies. At first, these seem difficult to achieve, but by consistently accumulating teachers' knowledge and skills, its can help to give new TCFL teachers a clearer understanding of their role in education and help them make preparations. Accumulating knowledge and skills, controlling the role of psychology and emotions are very important that TCFL teachers must have as their lifestyle.
This article analyses the views of cyberbullying prevention among 5-12 grade pupils and teachers in Lithuanian schools. It defines the concept of cyberbullying in the context of school pupils, and analyses the theoretical grounds for prevention of this form of bullying. The article also presents the results of the survey (which was conducted in 2009-2010) and reveals the views of 2064 pupils of 5 -12 grade and their 1062 teachers towards the prevention of cyberbullying...
Nicoll, Kathy; Harrison, Roger
Textual analysis of course materials from a distance-delivered teacher development course reveals how they construct the concept of a good teacher. Standards of competence become normative and prescriptive discourses that limit critically reflective practice. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Newgent, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Kristin K.; Lounsbery, Karyl L.; Behrend, Bonni Nickens; Keller, Elizabeth A.
An assessment of a brief, but intensive modified Bully Busters universal prevention program on measures of teacher efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, teacher skills and knowledge about peer victimization, and teacher-reports of students' peer victimization was conducted with 30 elementary school teachers. Paired-samples "t" tests revealed clinically…
Von Anthony Gayas Torio
Full Text Available Homework is defined as an additional task that a student does outside of the school. This added activity is in recognition of the necessity to spend additional time for subjects such as Mathematics. The dilemma comes in the form of the advantages and disadvantages that can be derived from homework. Studies have revealed varying effects of homework to students on academic and non-academic areas. Teachers are at the forefront of the decision towards the giving or not of homework. Pre-service teachers at the elementary level represent the future leaders of the educational system and should be acquainted and involved at the onset of the dilemma. The main objective of this study is to determine the perspective of pre-service elementary teachers towards homework. The anatomy of their belief can be a key towards addressing the issue via teacher training. The descriptive method of research was used through case studies. Constant comparative method was used to analyze results. Salient results revealed that the subjects favor the giving homework on the following grounds: it helps add knowledge, confidence and satisfaction. Those who do not favor homework find it as an additional burden and a source of additional stress. Difficulties in complying with homework are usually associated with limited time, bad influence of peers and teacher factor. Students usually spend late nights to comply with homework and are unable to perform at the best of their potentials.
Sampson, Elizabeth Clemons
Teachers were once held to a professional dress code. This code has become lax, resulting in teachers dressing in more casual attire. A local middle school in rural Georgia was experiencing complaints about teachers' unprofessional attire from other teachers, administrators, and parents. Teachers play an integral role in modeling cultural and…
本田, 優子; 島本, 揚子; 植村, 佳子; 福富, 敦子; 米村, 健一; ホンダ, ユウコ; シマモト, ヨウコ; ウエムラ, ヨシコ; フクトミ, アツコ; ヨネムラ, ケンイチ; Honda, Yuuko; Shimamoto, Youko; UEMURA, YOSHIKO; Fukutomi, Atsuko; Yonemura, Ken'ichi
We carried out a questionnaire survey in a faculty of education-affiliated junior high school to clarify what kinds of factors are related to formulate the impressions of a school nurse-teacher in the students. The students (n=319) subjected to the present study were first asked about the frequency of utilizing their school health room, the treatments they received and the feelings they perceived from the school nurse-teacher, at the most impressive occasion of utilization of the school healt...
Claudio H. Díaz Larenas
Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on perceptions of teacher training. The study design is transactional and descriptive, for which an ad hoc survey of two groups was developed: the school sysrtem teachers and academics in the region of Bio Bio in Chile. Its aim is to analyze the perception of these groups on six themes: evaluation, learning, innovation, research, development and relationship university / school / community. The main results show a high evaluation of assessment practices, introducing innovations in the classroom and refinement. The reasearch is carried out by both teachers and university profressors in the school system, although at different frequencies. The university / school / community relations are considered relevant but are not consolidarted. Finally some thoughts arise that link the themes discussed in terms of improving teacher education.
Smith, Leigh K.
An increasing interest in illuminating the relationships between context and educational reform has led researchers to examine the various interconnected factors that constitute different teaching contexts and the relationships between these elements and teachers' beliefs. The challenge is to identify those aspects of context that facilitate change in teachers' thinking and the way they approach science instruction. This study investigated the relationships between elementary teachers' science-related beliefs and the external forces within the context of their teaching. Using a situated perspective from which to view context, the activity of teaching and the related beliefs of 2 elementary teachers was examined in an effort to better understand the role of context in teachers' thinking about what science is, what it means to teach and learn science, what is involved in reform-based practices, and what science instruction might look like in their classrooms based on their interpretation of reform. Comparative case studies were developed and analyzed using a constant comparative method of analysis. Cross-ease analyses revealed a number of major themes: (a) teachers' science-related beliefs vary in level of commitment; (b) more deeply held beliefs about what it means to teach and learn science, or guiding beliefs, are profoundly resistant to change and are derived primarily from teachers' personal histories both in and outside of schools; (c) guiding beliefs are also shaped by science methods courses, teacher development, and practical classroom experience; (d) less deeply held beliefs, or perceptions of control, are teachers' beliefs about their ability to teach science according to their guiding beliefs in the presence of physical, social, or structural factors within the context of their teaching; (e) guiding beliefs are likely to override perceptions of control, enabling teachers to adapt their teaching contexts; and (f) although all aspects of context impact
Robblee, Karen M.
Current science education reform efforts promote inquiry-based learning, a goal that requires appropriate tools and instructional approaches. This study investigated the influence of the beliefs and knowledge of four experienced secondary chemistry teachers in their use of new instructional software that generates models of atoms and molecules based on quantum mechanics. The software, which was developed through a National Science Foundation funded project, Quantum Science Across Disciplines (QSAD), was designed to promote inquiry learning. Qualitative research methods were used for this multiple case study. Data from surveys, interviews, and extended classroom observations revealed a close correlation between a teacher's model of the learner and his or her model of teaching. Combined models of learner and teacher had the greatest influence on their decisions about implementing QSAD software. Teachers who espoused a constructivist model of learning and related models of teaching used the software to promote student investigations and inductive approaches to learning. Other factors that appeared to support the use of inquiry methods included sufficient time for students to investigate phenomena, the extent of the teacher's pedagogical content knowledge, and the amount of training using QSAD software. The Views-On-Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) instrument was used to compare the informants' beliefs about the epistemology of science to their classroom practices. Data related to the role of teachers' beliefs about scientific knowledge were inconclusive, and VOSTS results were inconsistent with the informants' stated beliefs. All four cases revealed that the teachers acted as agents of the school culture. In schools that promoted development of critical thinking, questioning, and self-direction in students, teachers were more likely to use a variety of instructional methods and emphasize construction of knowledge. These findings suggest that educational reform
Smart, Julie Brockman
This study examined interactions between middle school science students' perceptions of teacher-student interactions and their motivation for learning science. Specifically, in order to better understand factors affecting middle school students' motivation for science, this study investigated the interactions between middle school students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior in their science classroom and their efficacy, task value, mastery orientations, and goal orientation for learning science. This mixed methods study followed a sequential explanatory model (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases, with quantitative data in the first phase informing the selection of participants for the qualitative phase that followed. The qualitative phase also helped to clarify and explain results from the quantitative phase. Data mixing occurred between Phase One and Phase Two (participant selection) and at the interpretation level (explanatory) after quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. Results from Phase One indicated that students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors were predictive of their efficacy for learning science, task value for learning science, mastery orientation, and performance orientation. These results were used to create motivation/perception composites, which were used in order to select students for the qualitative interviews. A total of 24 students with high motivation/high perceptions, low motivation/low perceptions, high motivation/low perceptions, and low motivation/high perceptions were selected in order to represent students whose profiles either supported or refuted the quantitative results. Results from Phase Two revealed themes relating to students' construction of their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and dimensions of their efficacy and task value for science. Students who reported high motivation and high perceptions of teacher
S. G. Pretorius
Full Text Available Problem statement: School effectiveness research shows that teacher effectiveness is the single most important school-based factor in student success. The effects of poor teaching linger and can be measured for at least three years after students have left the classroom. It is too late to wait until secondary school level for backlogs to be eradicated. Education systems, such as the South African system, which grapple with large numbers of dysfunctional schools, should look anew at teacher effectiveness in all school phases. The urgent need for highly effective teachers in every classroom requires that education systems develop a comprehensive definition of teacher effectiveness and create training programmes to develop it. Thus, the problem investigated is: What are the characteristics, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers and what is the best way in which schools of education can adapt initial teacher education to meet the challenges of todays classrooms? Approach: A mixed method approach was adopted. In addition to an in-depth literature review, open-ended questionnaires, probing perceptions of teacher effectiveness issues were distributed to teachers, school principals, policy officials and teacher educators. Interviews were conducted with a variety of educational experts. Classroom observations of experienced and novice teachers were conducted in a variety of contexts using open-ended classroom observation checklists. Results: Based on the findings of the research a synthesis of the characteristics, knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors associated with effective teachers was developed. Conclusion: If teachers are to be effective their initial training will have to be effective. This study has identified the characteristics and behaviours associated with effective teachers. These indicators are broad guidelines for schools of education to stimulate teacher education reform. Covering the curriculum
Al-Kharboush, Soliman Saleh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward science and science teaching of Saudi pre-service elementary science teachers at male and female teachers' colleges by using an Arabic translation of the Science Teaching Attitudes Scale (STAS-II) constructed by Moore and Foy (1997). It also used an Inquiry-based Science Instruction Questionnaire (ISIQ) constructed by the researcher to explore the relationship between self-reported inquiry-based science instructional experiences that the pre-service elementary science teachers had during their science preparation, their intention to practice inquiry-based science instruction in their future careers, and their attitudes toward science and science teaching. The sample size of the study was 300 Saudi male and female pre-service elementary science teachers at two teachers' colleges in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the first three hypotheses because the study has two independent (gender and grade level) and two dependent (attitudes toward science and attitudes toward science teaching) variables. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient Procedure was used to test the other hypotheses. In addition, all tests were conducted at alpha = 0.05. One of the findings of the study revealed that both Saudi male and female preservice elementary science teachers had positive attitudes toward science and toward science teaching, but females had more favorable attitudes toward science than males. The result of the MANOVA showed that there was a significant mean difference between males and females in regard to pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science (p = .002), but no difference between grade levels, or in the interaction between grade levels and gender. The result of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Procedure showed that there were significant (moderate positive) correlations between pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes
Dunn, Julie; Stinson, Madonna
For more than 30 years drama has been promoted as a valuable teaching tool for language learning. Recent research results have reinforced this position. However, these and other earlier studies reveal that the overall success of the work is dependent, at least in part, upon the artistry of the teacher and the quality of the pretext materials used…
Markovits, Zvia; Kartal, Sadik
608 pre-service teachers from Israel and from Turkey, in their first year and in their fourth (and last) year of study, were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to explore the reasons that led them to choose teaching as their career and to reveal their beliefs regarding several aspects of the status of the teaching profession. Results show…
Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsiligiannis, Georgia
This study investigated the efficacy of a psychoeducational group for Greek special education teachers, all but one of whom reported experiencing anger in class. An anger management program was designed, which included a short, four-session package to be given within two weeks. The results of a pretest-posttest comparison revealed reductions in…
Nie, Yingzhi; Sun, Haitao
This study focuses on the relationships of workaholism to job burnout and depression of university teachers. The direct and indirect (via job burnout) effects of workaholism on depression were investigated in 412 Chinese university teachers. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap method were used. Results revealed that workaholism, job burnout, and depression significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap test indicated the partial mediation role of job burnout on the relationship between workaholism and depression. The findings shed some light on how workaholism influenced depression and provided valuable evidence for prevention of depression in work.
Ruben Navarro Patón
Full Text Available This research aims to know the current situation of first aid teaching at Elementary School as a Physical Education content. The research population consisted of active teachers who taught Physical Education in Elementary School, in the Lugo province schools. The sample consisted of 36 teachers (N=36. An ad hoc questionnaire with 22 questions about the interest topic was applied to obtain data. The statistical program SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze data. The results reveal a poor use of first aid as a classroom programming content in Elementary School.
Full Text Available Abstract: The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners, most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students
Cotner, Bridget A.
years (2008 and 2013). Additionally, a classroom observation was conducted with one of the interviewed teachers in 2013. Qualitative analyses were conducted following the constant comparative method and were facilitated by ATLAS.ti v. 6.2, a qualitative analysis software program. Qualitative findings identified themes at the district level that influenced teachers' use of Teaching SMARTRTM strategies. All the themes were classified as obstacles to sustainability: economic downturn, turnover of teachers and lack of hiring, new reform policies, such as Race to the Top, Student Success Act, Common Core State Standards, and mandated blocks of time for specific content. Results from the survey data showed no statistically significant difference through time in perceived instructional practices except for a perceived decrease in the use of hands-on instructional activities from 2008 to 2013. Analyses conducted at the individual teacher level found change scores were statistically significant for a few teachers, but overall, teachers reported similarly on the teacher survey at both time points. This sustainability study revealed the lack of facilitating factors to support the continuation of reform practices; however, teachers identified strategies to continue to implement some of the reform practices through time in spite of a number of system-wide obstacles. This sustainability study adds to the literature by documenting obstacles to sustainability in this specific context, which overlap with what is known in the literature. Additionally, the strategies teachers identified to overcome some of the obstacles to implement reform practices and the recommendations by district level administrators add to the literature on how stakeholders may support sustainability of reform through time.
Wong, Sissy S.; Luft, Julie A.
While many studies focus on why teachers leave the classroom, there remains a need to study why teachers persist in teaching. One area to study is the beliefs of teachers, which may impact persistence in the field. This 5-year mixed-methods study explored whether 35 beginning secondary science teachers' beliefs were related to their persistence in teaching. Quantitative analysis of the teachers' responses to annual semi-structured interviews revealed that teachers with more student-centered beliefs were more likely to persist at the end of the third year of teaching. Additionally, the teaching beliefs of teachers were more teacher-centered, while the learning beliefs of teachers were more student-centered. A case study of one persisting teacher and one non-persisting teacher revealed that personal experiences and knowledge impacted beliefs about teaching and learning. Bruce, who had extensive inquiry-based school experiences, believed in teaching via student-centered methods. Oscar, who underwent mostly direct instruction during his school experiences, believed in teacher-centered instruction and focused on classroom management. This longitudinal study contributes to the field of science education by examining beginning secondary science teacher persistence over time. Implications from this study call for challenging teacher beliefs during the induction period, proper placement of new teachers into their first teaching positions, and understanding the impact of prior experiences on teachers' beliefs.
Dacey, John S.; And Others
Boston College Conflict Prevention Program techniques for relaxation and self-control were taught to middle-school students in two Boston schools. Preliminary results from teacher interviews revealed that students spontaneously used these methods to calm their "fight-or-flight" reactions in real conflicts. Results also indicated that females…
Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David
Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.
The author of this book summarizes his philosophy of teacher education in four chapters. The first chapter, "Some Problems of Teacher Education," discusses the difficulties teacher training institutions have in implementing their new ideas in the schools, and attributes the difficulty to the middle class values and clannishness of teachers, which…
Wimberly, Ronald C.; And Others
Describes a study of teacher effectiveness in college departments of sociology, anthropology, and social work. Five types of teacher effectiveness were found to be potentially useful for student, faculty, and administrative purposes. They include teacher task responsiveness, respect for students, teacher capability, student development, and…
Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be "authentic"? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical…
This paper explores the concept of instrumental/vocal learning when studying the same instrument or voice with more than one concurrent teacher. In this context, teachers may be working as a team, or one or both teachers may not know of the other's contribution to a student's learning. Qualitative data from music students and teachers at the…
Surveyed and interviewed secondary school teachers and their students to examine the incidence of teachers' feeling unsafe, describing the extent to which those feelings related either to students' antisocial behavior, teachers' profiles, and school profiles. Teachers' feelings of unsafety were rarely affected by the incidence of students'…
Fenner, Marilyn; Rothberg, Robert
To help struggling teachers, principals have recourse to the Institute for Professional Development, a program operated by the University of Central Florida. Functioning as a help-line for at-risk teachers, the program offers teaching tips and conducts informal evaluations of teachers seeking help. Teachers gain skills and confidence, and the…
Scripted instruction (SI) programs, which direct teachers to teach, even to talk, from a standardized written script, are roundly criticized for inhibiting teacher creativity and teacher learning. In fact, such programs utilize scripting for exactly that reason: to reduce teacher interference with (and presumed weakening of) the prescribed…
Full Text Available We summarize the results of socio-psychological studies of classroom management, performed on the basis of a theoretical model of value exchange, developed by R.L.Krichevsky. Classroom management is understood as a kind of management activity of a teacher, aimed at organizing group of students. Factor analysis revealed two major factors of the effectiveness of classroom management: the nature of the relationship between the students and their relations to the class teacher. As teacher’s activity characteristics, we considered manifestations of his attitudes toward students, leadership style, characteristics of individual interaction with students. It is shown that the activity of the class teacher, aimed at meeting the critical social needs of students, has two major dimensions: taking care about students and development of their motivation. We analyze the impact of social and perceptual characteristics of the teacher on the effectiveness of his interaction with students. We reveal the features of self-assessment and reflective evaluation of personality and activity of a class teacher, the specifics of causal attributions of success and failure of students in different areas of school life.
This qualitative case study examined how middle school science teachers conducted collaborative inquiry and reflection about students' conceptual understanding, and how individual teachers in the middle school science group acted and made reflections in response to their collaborative inquiry. It also examined external influences that affected the teachers' ability to engage in collaborative inquiry. Observational, written, and interview data were collected from observations of teachers' face-to-face meetings and reflections, individual interviews, a focus group interview, and online reflections. The results of this study revealed that collaborative inquiry is a form of professional development that includes answering curricular questions through observation, communication, action, and reflection. This approach was developed and implemented by middle school science teachers. The premise of an inquiry is based on a need with students. Middle school science teachers came to consensus about actions to affect students' conceptual understanding, took action as stated, and shared their reflections of the actions taken with consideration to current and upcoming school activities. Activities involved teachers brainstorming and sharing with one another, talking about how the variables were merged into their curriculum, and how they impacted students' conceptual understanding. Teachers valued talking with one another about science content and pedagogy, but did find the inquiry portion of the approach to require more development. The greatest challenge to conducting collaborative inquiry and reflection was embedding teacher inquiry within a prescribed inquiry that was already being conducted by the Sundown School District. Collaborative inquiry should be structured so that it meets the needs of teachers in order to attend to the needs of students. A conducive atmosphere for collaborative inquiry and reflection is one in which administrators make the process mandatory and
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been described as the knowledge teachers' use in the process of designing and implementing lessons to a particular group of students. This includes the most effective representations that make the content understandable to students, together with the preconceptions and misconceptions that students hold. For chemistry, students have been found to have difficulty with the discipline due to its reliance upon three levels of representation called the triplet: the macro, the submicro, and the symbolic. This study examines eight beginning chemistry teachers' depiction of the chemistry content through the triplet relationship and modifications as a result of considering students' understanding across the teacher's first three years in the classroom. The data collected included classroom observations, interviews, and artifacts for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that beginning chemistry teachers utilized the abstract components, submicro and symbolic, primarily in the first year. However, the teachers began to engage more macro representations over time building a more developed instructional repertoire. Additionally, teachers' developed an awareness of and responded to their students' understanding of learning atomic structure during the second and third year teaching. The results of this study call for preservice and induction programs to help novice chemistry teachers build a beginning repertoire that focuses on the triplet relationship. In so doing, the teachers enter the classroom with a repertoire that allows them to address the needs of their students. Finally, the study suggests that the triplet relationship framework should be revisited to include an additional component that frames learning to account for socioscientific issues and historical contributions.
Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay
Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252
A. W. Jufri
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the scientific reasoning ability of the prospective student teacher, and to analyze the difference in scientific reasoning ability between students in the study programs. The sample set consisted of 179 students joining the Excellence Program of Mathematics and Science Teacher Education in the Faculty of Teacher Education (FTE in the University of Mataram. The Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (CTSR was translated into Indonesian language and used to measure the student scientific reasoning ability. The results of this study revealed that 95.5% students had low reasoning ability and were categorized as concrete and transitional reasoner. Only few students (4.5% reached the category of formal operational reasoner. In addition, significant differences of the students reasoning ability emerged among the third and the fifth semester students, as well as students in the four study programs.
Zhanna Viktorovna Vodenitskaya
Full Text Available The article highlights the working efficiency of teachers of pre-school educational institutions. Professional work of teachers is one of the most psychologically intense social activities. Lack of uniform requirements from the administration, complex relationships between colleagues, external restraint of emotions lead to increased emotional stress, which adversely affects the health. The traces of stressful experiences of teachers manifest themselves in teachers’ negative attitude to work, constant fatigue, distraction, reduced work efficiency, and dissatisfaction with professional activity. The article describes the reduced efficiency (fatigue, monotony, mental satiation, stress as a factor manifesting the emotional burnout of teachers of kindergartens and analyzes the causes of the syndrome of "emotional burnout". The article presents the results of the empirical research of decreased performance of teachers of preschool educational institutions in the conditions of implementing the Federal state educational standards, which allow not only to reveal the interdependence of the factors of burnout symptoms of kindergarten teachers, but also to provide them timely with psychological support, knowledge of the laws of preservation and strengthening of mental health in pedagogical work, and the ability to manage their own negative emotions.
Spindler, Matthew Kenneth
The integration of career and technical education (CTE) and academic curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for CTE professionals. The research question that was used to guide the current study was: What are CTE teachers' perspectives of and experiences with the process of CTE and science content integration? And more specifically, to generate a grounded theory which explicates the process of CTE and science content integration from the perspective of CTE teachers. The CTE teachers expressed that the process of CTE and science content integration was a process of evolutionizing. From the perspective of the CTE teachers involved integrating CTE and science content resulted in their programs of study being adapted into something different than they were before the process of integration was begun. The CTE teachers revealed that the evolutions in their programs of study and themselves were associated with three other categories within the grounded theory: (a) connecting; (b) enacting; and (c) futuring. The process of CTE and science content integration represents a deep and complex episode for CTE teachers. The process of CTE and science content integration requires connecting to others, putting ideas into action, and an orienting towards the future.
Twenty-first century education systems should create an environment wherein students encounter critical learning components (such as problem-solving, teamwork, and communication skills) and embrace lifelong learning. A review of literature demonstrates that new technologies, in general, and robotics, in particular, are well suited for this aim. This study aims to contribute to the literature by studying teachers' perceptions of the effects of using robotics on students' lifelong learning skills. This study also seeks to better understand teachers' perceptions of the barriers of using robotics and the support they need. Eleven primary/elementary teachers from Newfoundland and Labrador English Schools District participated in this study. The results of this study revealed that robotics is perceived by teachers to have positive effects on students' lifelong learning skills. Furthermore, the participants indicated a number of barriers to integrate robotics into their teaching activities and expressed the support they need.
Márcia Cristina de Costa Trindade Cyrino
Full Text Available We presented in this paper results of a research which aimed to investigate how the community of practice context of pre-service mathematics teacher education collaborates for learning on algebraic thinking by these future teachers. We analyzed, taking into account the Social Theory of Learning developed by Wenger (1998 as a theoretical frame, processes of negotiation of meanings present in participants' algebraic thinking in the development of tasks in one of the actions of the project "Mathematical Education of Teachers of Mathematics" inside the program "Universidade sem Fronteiras". This analysis allowed us to define some forms of member participation and explicit reification of algebraic thinking, due to some interactions in the processes of negotiation of meanings, which revealed changes in the identity of participants in become teachers of mathematics.
Handal, Boris; Herrington, Anthony
This paper discusses the role of mathematics teachers' beliefs and their impact on curriculum reform. It is argued that teachers' beliefs about the teaching and learning mathematics are critical in determining the pace of curriculum reform. Educational change is a complex process in which teachers hold strong beliefs about the quality and the process of innovation. Curriculum implementation may only occur through sufferance as many teachers are suspicious of reform in mathematics education given its equivocal success over the past decades. It is not surprising then that many teachers, when they come to enact the curriculum in their classes, rely more on their own beliefs than on current trends in pedagogy. These beliefs, conservative as they might be, have their own rationality in the practical and daily nature of the teaching profession, and in the compelling influence of educational systems from which these teachers are paradoxically the social product. The literature indicates that many of these teachers hold behaviourist beliefs, a fact that has strong implications for the success of constructivist-oriented curriculum reform. In general, studies of teachers' pedagogical beliefs reveal the extreme complexity of bringing about educational change, and largely explains the failure of many past reform endeavours.
Blomeke, Sigrid; Suhl, Ute; Kaiser, Gabriele; Dohrmann, Martina
First findings of IEA's "Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)" had revealed differences in the demographic background, opportunities to learn (OTL), and outcomes of teacher education between student teachers from different countries. Two hypotheses are examined: OTL and teacher background are significant predictors of…
Ball, Nadine Butcher
This qualitative study describes three middle-school science teachers' relationship-with-nature in personal and classroom contexts. Participating teachers had more than 7 years experience and were deemed exemplary practitioners by others. Interview data about personal context focused on photographs the teacher took representing her/his relationship-with-nature in daily life. Interview data for classroom context explored classroom events during three or more researcher observations. Transcripts were analyzed using a multiple-readings approach to data reduction (Gilligan, Brown & Rogers, 1990; Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 14, 141). Readings generated categorical information focused on portrayals of: nature; self; and relationship-with-nature. Categorical data were synthesized into personal and teaching case portraits for each teacher, and cross case themes identified. Participants indicated the portraits accurately represented who they saw themselves to be. Additional readings identified sub-stories by plot and theme. Narrative data were clustered to highlight elements of practice with implications for the relationship-with-nature lived in the classroom. These individual-scale moments were compared with cultural-scale distinctions between anthropocentric and ecological world views. Cross case themes included dimensions of exemplary middle-school science teaching important to teacher education and development, including an expanded conception of knowing and skillful use of student experience. Categorical analysis revealed each teacher had a unique organizing theme influencing their interpretation of personal and classroom events, and that nature is experienced differently in personal as opposed to teaching contexts. Narrative analysis highlights teachers' stories of classroom pets, dissection, and student dissent, illustrating an interplay between conceptual distinctions and personal dimensions during moments of teacher decision making. Results suggest teachers
Gao, Wei; Mager, Gerald
Conducted in one inclusive teacher education program in the United States, this study explored the trajectory of and the relationships between preservice teachers' sense of efficacy and attitudes toward school diversity through the course of preparation. Findings revealed that, in general, changes of preservice teachers' perceived efficacy,…
more (or fewer) components do not produce larger (or smaller) numbers of teachers. This result further supports the finding that the presence of the champion and corresponding institutional motivation and commitment are the key features of successful physics teacher education programs.
Howell, J. Emory
Writing Across the Curriculum The notion that student learning is enhanced through writing is widely accepted at all educational levels if the product is fairly assessed and the learner is provided with feedback. Finding the time to critically evaluate student papers is difficult at best and competes with time needed to prepare laboratory investigations. A few weeks ago a teacher who has extensive extracurricular responsibilities that include extensive interaction with parents and community members shared with me his frustration in not being able to grade written reports. This teacher is the head football coach at his school, but many readers experience the same difficulties due to a variety of duties. There are no easy or completely satisfying answers to this problem, but this issue contains an account of a successful approach (Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool, pp 1399-1403). Although they are based on experience in college courses, several ideas described in the article could be applied in high school chemistry courses. In another article, the author of Precise Writing for a Precise Science (pp 1407-1408) identifies 20 examples of familiar, but incorrect, grammatical constructions and explains how to phrase each one correctly. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning The results from research on how students learn have greatly increased our understanding of cognition in recent years. However, the results are often published in the science education research literature and are not readily accessible to the classroom teacher. Additionally, the research reports are couched in specialized terminology. This issue contains a Viewpoints article (pp 1353-1361) that bridges the gap between research results and classroom application. It was written by two veteran chemical educators, Dudley Herron and Susan Nurrenbern. The shift from behaviorism to constructivism as the dominant theory of learning is described briefly to provide a context
Murrone, J; Gynther, M D
Information about teachers' implicit notions of children's intelligence was obtained by having 50 student-teachers and 79 teachers with 1 to 4 years of experience rate 150 descriptors on applicability to an hypothetical child described as above average, average, or below average in intellectual functioning. Each teacher-subject was classified by dogmatism score and by years of teaching experience. A factor analysis disclosed that Academic Skills and Interpersonal Competencies summarize the implicit notions. Analysis of variance showed that all levels of hypothesized intelligence only affected teachers' expectations of academic skills and that the effect of intelligence was dependent upon the teachers' dogmatism. There were no clear-cut findings associated with years of experience. Results supported previous observations that people have implicit "theories" of intelligence; however, the specific composition of their ideas varies according to the context within which the rater and the person observed are placed. PMID:1792291
Kirsten Elisabeth Thorsen
teachers as equal participants in teacher education, this article examines how they perceive their roles and tasks with respect to the intentions. The study is based on a survey of 45 practice teachers and in-depth interviews with eight others.The main results reveal that the role of practice teachers as mentors is based on significant experience as school teachers and that general teacher activities are more focused than the claims of the educational programs. Practice teachers seem to legitimate their role outside of the context of teacher education. The study also seems to confirm what international research strongly indicates: the need to involve and cooperate with practice teachers to increase coherence in theoretical studies and school practice.Four years after the implementation of the reform, there are reasons to question the degree to which the reform intentions have been realized. The discussion is related, in particular, to the professionalization of the role of the practice teachers and their role as cooperating participants in teacher education. Keywords: teacher education, teacher educators, practice teachers, theory-practice relationship
This research aims to identify how teaching efficacy is perceived by teachers working at state schools. Having a survey model design, this study hosts a total of 678 primary and secondary school teachers -401 females and 277 males- working in the province of Tokat during the academic year of 2013 and 2014. Research data has been collected through teaching efficacy scale consisting of 28 items and 6 sub-dimensions. Analyses have revealed that teachers mostly regard themselves as efficient espe...
Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.
Ogbomo, Queen O.
The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to ascertain the significance of the professional development programs workshops organized by a science museum and a science center in two Midwestern cities. The research investigated the effect the workshops had on the instructional practice of the participating elementary science teachers. More specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: How do the professional development programs at museums help teachers change the way they teach and consider science in their classroom? The core of this study consists of case studies of six elementary school teachers who were identified as a result of their participation in the museum and science center workshops and an instructor from the museum and another instructor from the science center. Teachers' self-efficacy regarding the teaching of science was sought through a Likert-style survey and triangulated with classroom observations and interviews of individual teachers. The findings of this study revealed two overarching themes: one, that the workshops were beneficial and two, that it did not improve instructional practice. The following are the factors identified as reasons for the workshops being beneficial: (1) the opportunity to build their content knowledge, (2) opportunity to experience and discuss the materials: (3) opportunity to collaborate with colleagues: (4) workshop materials and resources are linked to state goals: and (5) that they promote teacher confidence. The teachers who thought the workshops did not improve their instructional practice gave the following reasons: (1) they already had a strong background in science: (2) there was no follow-up activity: (3) the loss of a full day of teaching: and (4) the time constraint to implement what was learned. Though this study utilized a small sample of teachers, those involved in this study felt they acquired knowledge that would be either beneficial to them or to their students
Full Text Available In-depth interviews were conducted to research the expectations of teacher educators from the prospective teachers and their opinions on the existing facilities provided by the faculty of education. Content analysis, performed on the data collected from a sample of eight teacher educators from different departments in one of the faculties of education, suggested that the expectations from teacher candidates had seven dimensions: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, country specific realities, communication skills, teacher characteristics, scientific knowledge and research skills, and professional development. Regarding the results, implications for teacher education programs were discussed, and suggestions for further research were made
Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R
This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed.
Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R
This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. PMID:25642703
Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the
Reeves, Todd D.
reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.
Strangis, Diane E.; Pringle, Rose M.; Knopf, Herman T.
This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of, and processes when, designing instruction. Participants were 47 juniors and seniors enrolled in science methods courses. Qualitative methods and analysis of written reflections and interviews revealed the beliefs and views the preservice teachers had about planning. Findings are as…
This yearlong qualitative study is an examination of 10 undergraduate preservice teachers' lesson planning for the classes and/or individual lessons they taught in a university string project. Data analysis revealed that these preservice teachers held differing views of lesson planning from each other and from their supervisor. Five themes…
CARR, SARA G.; THOMPSON, ORVILLE E.
THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE PERSONAL VALUES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR TEACHERS. EVIDENCE OF CHANGES IN PERSONAL VALUES AND VALUE PATTERNS WERE SOUGHT IN AN ATTEMPT TO REVEAL IMPACTS FROM TEACHERS, CERTAIN SOCIOECONOMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS, AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES. STUDENTS WERE TESTED AS FRESHMEN,…
Johnson, Bruce; Down, Barry
In this paper, we describe how and why we adopted a socially critical orientation to early career teacher resilience. In re-conceptualising early career teacher resilience, we expose the normative components of resilience by revealing the implicit values, beliefs and assumptions that underpin most traditional conceptions of resilience. We argue…
Johnson, James S.
The relationship between dogmatism and teaching attitudes in student teachers is investigated, revealing that less dogmatic teachers evidence more favorable teaching attitudes, and it is suggested that change in expressed attitudes is positively related to the level of dogmatism possessed at the beginning of the experience. (MJB)
The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were…
Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn
This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a…
Interviews with 16 teachers and 10 children who had been abused in schools revealed a range of levels of awareness and disclosure as well as responses to disclosure of abuse. Difficulties for teachers in delineating acceptable and unacceptable behavior point to a need for improved guidelines and legislation. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)
Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin
Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…
Iscan, Canay Demirhan
This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…
Mumthas, N. S.; Blessytha, Anwar
To be a great teacher, more than content knowledge, teacher also needs practical and technical knowledge that contribute to teacher effectiveness. A teacher with high tacit knowledge is usually considered an expert teacher. The purpose of this study is to find out whether teachers with high tacit knowledge give equal preference to the various…
A Highly Efficient Route for Selective Phenol Hydrogenation to Cyclohexanone A Novel Mechanism Employed by KSHV to Maintain the Latent Infection was Revealed Breakthrough in the Synthesis of Interconnected NW/NT and NT/NW/NT Heterojunctions with Branched Topology GABA Transporter-1 Activity Modulates Hippocampal Theta Oscillation and Theta Burst Stimulation-Induced Long-Term Potentiation Meta-analysis of Vitamin D, Calcium and the Prevention of Breast Cancer New Findings on the Origin of TrpRS PKCd Regulates Cortical Radial Migration by Stabilizing the Cdk5 Activator P35 PKU Research Team Publishes Papers on Inhalation Exposure to Pollutant and Cancer Risk Progress of the Research on Arbitrarily Elliptical Invisibility Cloaks An Advance in Complete Oxidation of Formaldehyde at Low Temperatures
Theory and practice, researchers and practitioners are usually isolated in traditional education research, so much so that the research results can not solve the problems that teachers encounter in their teaching practice. As a new mode, action research provides a bridge linking theory and teaching practice as well as a way to promote teacher development.
Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann
This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…
This study aims to identify the relationship between elementary school teachers' ICT engagement with their attitudes towards technology. To this end, one hundred elementary school students were asked to fill out questionnaires related to their ICT knowledge, usage, and attitude towards technology. The results show that teachers' ICT…
Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin
This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It promotes the position that the success Taiwan has experienced in…
Kossack, Sharon W.; Greenberg, Barry
Faced with declining enrollments, teacher education institutions must seek new approaches that either maintain present programs or encourage new programs in nontraditional areas. Results of a study of retrenchment strategies presently in use are reported. Implications for the quality of teacher education programs are also discussed. (PP)
Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…
Wang, Jian; Odell, Sandra J.
There are serious implications of the global economy for teacher education. In this paper, the authors identify some of the influences of the global economy on education and teacher education, point out responses to these, and discuss some of the resultant challenges from the vantage point of the United States.
This article reports on a study into factors that contribute to the employability of music graduates as teachers. By considering the results of a survey that covered a range of contexts, as well as interviews with secondary school head teachers, it considers the relationship between self-identity and employability. It finds that, in developing…
Grassie, McCrae C.; Carss, Brian W.
The relationships between teachers' perceptions of the structural characteristics of their schools, the leadership quality of their principals, and the extent of the satisfaction they express with their work and their colleagues are examined. The results, as displayed by two groups of teachers, (one of which attaches a high, and the other a low,…
Lane, Jennie; And Others
Reports a study which assessed (n=915) Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Results implied that lack of training in environmental education is a major reason teachers do not infuse these concepts. (Contains 43 references.) (Author/MKR)
Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron
Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…
This article discusses teacher burnout which scholars define as a condition caused by depersonalization, exhaustion, and a diminished sense of accomplishment. A psychological model of how stress leads to burnout describes it as a syndrome resulting from teachers' inability to protect themselves against threats to their self esteem and well-being.…
Full Text Available The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners, most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students.
Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara
Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.
Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.
Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…
Meşincigiller, Sema; Akcan, Sumru
This study explores the preferences of secondary school students studying at private schools with regard to their native and non-native English teachers. The reasons behind their preferences are also investigated in the study. In order to reveal their preferences, 680 students were surveyed through an attitude scale including a question about which group of English teachers they would prefer while learning English, followed by an open ended question seeking the reasons for their preferences. ...
Strong, Donna Dorough
The increasing popularity of the middle school movement necessitates a need for more interpretive research in middle level education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore science teachers' perceptions of the transition to a new middle school and the meanings they attached to this new experience. The participants were three eighth grade science teachers, each with 20 plus years of teaching experience. The primary data for analysis was a series of five interviews with each participant. Data collection also included weekly participant observation of team meetings. Findings revealed that the science teachers all had positive feelings attached to the ability to keep track of students' academic progress and behavior problems as a result of teaming. The changes associated with the first year were very stressful for all three, primarily the loss of the traditional junior high departmentalized structure. The two participants who transferred directly from the junior high school were very skeptical of any benefits from an interdisciplinary curriculum, the appropriateness of the middle school philosophy for eighth grade students, and the move to heterogeneously grouped science classes. In contrast, the former junior high teacher who had spent the past ten years teaching sixth grade at the elementary school had positive beliefs about the potential benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum and heterogeneous grouping. Teacher stress associated with a change in the school setting and the science teachers' constraints to actualizing a meaningful middle schooling experience are illuminated. Teachers' lack of ownership in the reform decision making process, loss of time with their science teacher peers, diminished compliments from high school counterparts, and need for more empirical evidence supporting proposed changes all served as barriers to embracing the reform initiatives. The participants found taking a very slow approach to be their most useful means of
Kelly, Paul; Tejeda-Delgado, Carmen; Slate, John R.
In this study, the researchers investigated the perceived relationships of financial and non-financial incentives on teacher recruitment and retention among public school teachers in the State of Texas from the perspective of 98 public school superintendents. Findings revealed that school districts tended to offer teachers' salaries over the state…
Amos, Yukari Takimoto
This qualitative study investigated the negative impacts minority teacher candidates receive from white teacher candidates in a required multicultural education class. The findings reveal that four teacher candidates of color had difficulty positioning themselves among the overwhelming silencing power of whiteness in the class. The white students…
Scull, Tracy Marie; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth
The present study examined the efficacy of a media literacy education, substance abuse prevention training workshop for late elementary school teachers. Analyses revealed that the randomly assigned intervention (n = 18) and control (n = 23) teachers were similar in demographic characteristics and pre-training beliefs and knowledge. Teachers who…
Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.
Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…
Engel, Mimi; Cannata, Marisa
A wide body of evidence indicates that there is a large inequality in the distribution of teachers across schools. Relatedly, recent research has revealed a number of important dimensions of teacher labor markets in the United States. We review the literature in two of these areas: the geography of teacher labor markets and the decision-making…
McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla
A new model of reflective practice for student teachers on school placement was implemented into a teacher education program. The model aimed to encourage critical reflection that challenged hegemonic assumptions and power relations. In contrast to this, the analysis of the student teachers' reflections revealed a desire to fit in and…
This qualitative study focuses on the potential influence students' English as a second language (ESL) status has on teachers' placement decisions. Specifically, the study examines 21 teachers' responses to and decisions regarding fictional student record cards. Findings reveal that some teachers' placement decisions were influenced by factors…
This paper analyzes teacher-student interaction situation in one foreign studies university graduate students' oral English class and seeks to investigate students' opinions of role of teacher-student interaction. The author has designed six interview questions for the study. Answers to the interviews have revealed that most students regard teacher-student interaction as important and necessary for postgraduates' oral English class.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Bartle, Heidi; Hill, Susan C.; Barnes, Michael D.
Investigated elementary school teachers' perspectives on barriers and enablers to teaching health in the classroom. Data from teacher interviews and focus groups revealed several barriers and few enablers, with three general thematic areas: existing policies or guidelines for instruction, limited instruction time, and teacher preferences. Overall,…
This study reveals possible relationships among teachers' personality traits, situational variables, and deliberation characteristics in planning instruction. Dogmatism and locus of control perceptions were the personality traits studied, and the situations compared student teachers with elementary and secondary school teachers. Both groups were…
Court, Deborah; Merav, Liat; Ornan, Etty
This study investigated 10 Israeli preschool teachers' reasons for choosing their profession and their perceptions of the teacher's role. A narrative approach was chosen because teachers' narratives can reveal their practical knowledge and the meanings they ascribe to their teaching. Data were subjected to content analysis and linguistic analysis.…
Rots, Isabel; Kelchtermans, Geert; Aelterman, Antonia
Reporting on 12 case studies of student teachers, this paper examines how experiences during teacher education affect graduates' decision on job entrance. Interpretative data-analysis reveals that powerful sources of the shift in motivation to enter teaching concern interactions in which the person of the teacher is at stake. These mainly involve…
Wang, Lijia; Lai, Manhong; Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai
In 2009, a reform in teachers' pay, linking remuneration to performance, was implemented in China. The intention was to improve the quality of education by making teachers more diligent and creative and removing the inequality in pay between teachers in different schools. A review of this reform reveals that it has resolved the problem of…
Nyenyembe, Fabian W.; Maslowski, Ralf; Nimrod, Beatrice S.; Peter, Levina
This study explores the relationship between leadership styles applied by school heads and teachers' job satisfaction in Tanzanian secondary schools. Using a questionnaire, data in this study was collected from 180 teachers in ten secondary schools in Songea District in Tanzania. The most salient finding of this study revealed that teachers were…
Ozogul, Gamze; Sullivan, Howard
This study investigated the effects of teacher, self and peer evaluation on preservice teachers' performance, knowledge and attitudes. Earlier research by the same authors revealed that students made significant improvements in their lesson plans under all three of these conditions, but the teacher-evaluation improved significantly more than the…
在中小学校，来自教师的心理伤害比较普遍、隐蔽，不易被人觉察。一旦学生受到心理伤害，往往是长期的，难以消除，直接影响其学习兴趣与人格发展。教师特殊的地位、自身素质、教育理念与心理健康水平等导致其教育教学行为失当、造成学生心理伤害的重要原因。只有通过社会、学校及教师自身的共同努力，改善教育教学条件，有效降低教师压力、提高教师素质等措施，才能有效降低师源性心理伤害的发生。%In primary and secondary school,it is widespread and unware that students get a psychological hurt from teachers’ improper education. The psychological harm usually have a long-term impact and difficult to elimi-nate. It will directly impact on learning interest and personality development. The main reasons of psychological hurt are teacher ’ s special status, their educational philosophy and mental health. To avoiding such psychological harm,it is needed that teacher,school and society work together to improve school instructional conditions,re-duce teacher’ s pressure and improving teachers self-quality.
Conclusions: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking among male students and teachers was higher than general population and clergymen who equally smoked. Also, level of knowledge and attitude of students were lower than teachers and clergymen.
Eden, Sigal; Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit
Schools and teachers nowadays face new difficulties and challenges as a result of the fast growth of cyberbullying. The aim of the study is to examine the perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying, as well as the needs, of a professionally diverse group of teachers. Three-hundred and twenty-eight teachers (88.4% female, 11.6% male)…
Akarawang, Chaiya; Kidrakran, Pachoen; Nuangchalerm, Prasart
The purpose of this study aims to enhance teachers' ICT competency. Three hundred and thirty seven teachers are surveyed through a questionnaire to identify training problems and training needs. Then the blended training model is implemented with teachers. The result showed that it can increase score in cognitive and attitude tests. The post-test…
Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady
The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…
Calandra, Brendan; Sun, Yuelu; Puvirajah, Anton
This article adds to the literature on video-aided professional development for teachers by presenting a schema-based framework for analyzing teachers' video-aided reflection on their own teaching. Qualitative analysis of two novice teachers' video-enhanced reflection was used to demonstrate how the framework could be used. Results emphasized the…
Ding, Meixia; Li, Yeping; Li, Xiaobao; Kulm, Gerald
In this study, we investigated Chinese teachers' attributions and coping strategies for classroom misbehaviour across grade levels. A total of 244 teachers (Grades 1-12) from the Chinese mainland participated in this survey. Results indicated that Chinese teachers first attributed misbehaviour to student characteristics, such as being "lazy, not…
Daniel, Mayra C.; Cowan, John E.
This article presents results of an investigation that documents teachers' perceptions of the contribution of technology use in classrooms of bilingual learners. Study questions asked how teachers perceive teacher-made digital movies impact learning, and what situational factors delimit technology infusion. Data gathered in focus groups and…
Shotsberger, Paul G.
Reports on implementation of a World Wide Web site for teacher professional development. Presents results of pilot project involving four high school and middle school mathematics teachers. Highlights three specific ways in which teachers can benefit from Web: (1) consistent opportunities for reflection and sharing; (2) shortened cycle for…
Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman
The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…
Frase, Larry E.
Implications of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory for teacher reward programs were tested by comparing changes in teachers' (N=38) job-enrichment opportunities and recognition after the teachers had chosen one of two rewards (travel to professional training conferences or cash). Results were consistent with the motivation-hygiene theory. (IAH)
Kass, Efrat; Miller, Erez C.
This study probes the career motives of minority special-education teachers in the Bedouin Arab society of southern Israel. The results, obtained via in-depth interviews of teachers, show that the teachers aspire to become agents of social change in three spheres: In the external sphere, they aim for professional autonomy and independence within…
Avalos, Beatrice; Tellez, Francisco; Navarro, Silvia
The article reviews some of the problems faced by teacher education in general and in Chile specifically, and on this basis, presents the results of a study focused on the effects of six teacher education programmes on future primary level teachers' learning of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy. The study describes the programmes and presents…
Brundage, Gregory C.
Survey study of 53 foreign EFL teachers in Jeonju City, South Korea looks at causes of teacher stress and coping mechanisms between the years of 2004 and 2006. Results show foreign EFL teachers report moderate levels of stress and attribute stresses in roughly equal measures to student misbehavior and school director/administrative sources. Survey…
The development of learning technology today, have a direct impact on improving teachers' information technology competence. This paper is presented the results of research related to teachers' information technology competence. The study was conducted with a survey of some 245 vocational high school teachers. There are two types of instrument…
Lilyquist, J. Gary
New findings suggest that the way in which schools conduct their business is blocking our educational system from improving at a rate required to meet society's needs. A ground theory developed by exploring six organizational dimensions: external and internal environment cultures, leadership, strategy, structure, and results, verified the existence of the teacher's paradox. Implications suggest educational reformers must rethink approaches to school improvement by work within cultural boundaries. The forth coming book, "Are schools really like this?" presents "The Balance Alignment Model and Theory" to improve our schools using system thinking.
The distribution of well-prepared and experienced teacher has been a policy concerns for decades. Research has established that schools serving concentrations of historically underserved students struggle disproportionately to attract and retain teachers, resulting in the most vulnerable students being taught by the least qualified teachers--teachers with minimal professional preparation or experience (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Lankford, Loeb & Wycoff, 2002). These schools have a...
This study examined the knowledge that teachers need in order to become successful early reading teachers in English as a foreign language. The findings showed that in-service teachers had better content knowledge than pre-service teachers, although the results indicated overall low performance and insufficiently developed concepts about the structure of language, spelling rules, and academic terminology in both groups. PMID:22815105
This study examines four induction models and teacher changes in science teaching practices, as a result of several mentoring programs. It explores three different computer-mediated mentoring programs, and a traditional offline induction programâ"in terms of interactivity, inquiry-based teaching, and topics of knowledge. Fifteen elementary science teachersâ"eleven new teachers and four experienced science teachers â"were assigned to and participated in, one of th...
mustafa naci kayaoğlu
Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT, linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012 call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012, the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012 to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the
Daniil K. Romanov
Full Text Available Introduction: the paper is concerned with the problem of increasing the quality of training processes at the university. One of the ways is to increase the efficiency of educational dialogue in the system “teacher – student”. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the problem of communication and interpersonal under standing. The authors highlight the basic functions of the other person’s image and his/her connection with the content of the joint activity. Materials and Methods: the authors used a technique of a free reference for solution of the problem along with application of the method of content analysis and several statistical methods. Sense bearing judgement serves as a unit of analysis that reflects some psychological qualities of a teacher. The study was carried out on the basis of National Research Mordovia State University. 100 students of humanities and natural science specialities took part in this survey: 50 people in each group. Results: the analysis of judgements allowed to define the essential components of a teacher’s image: wide- ness, content and structure. On average students highlight seven qualities in teachers. This tells of a low level of psychological competence. Humanities students have better results than students of natural science and technical specialties. The students perceive the teacher as a whole person. The content of the image includes not only professional skills, but also traits of character, temperament, behaviour and appearance. The analysis allowed to reveal the differences in the image of a teacher based on opinions of humanities students against technical specialties students. Differences in the perception of teacher’s image among students of Russian and Mordovian ethnicity were not found. Discussion and Conclusions: the practical significance of the study – ideas of modern students about a good teacher will lay foundation for determining the directions of teacher professional
Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey
Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26524423
Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey
Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed.
Conceptual Change and Science Achievement Related to a Lesson Sequence on Acids and Bases Among African American Alternative High School Students: A Teacher's Practical Arguments and the Voice of the "Other"
Wood, Lynda Charese
The study of teaching and learning during the period of translating ideals of reform into classroom practice enables us to understand student-teacher-researcher symbiotic learning. In line with this assumption, the purpose of this study is threefold:(1) observe effects of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM), a conceptual change inquiry model of teaching and learning, on African American students' conceptual change and achievement; (2) observe the shift in teacher's practical arguments; and (3) narrate the voice of "the Other" about teacher professional learning. This study uses retrospective data from a mixed-method approach consisting of Phenomenography, practical arguments and story-telling. Data sources include audio-recordings of a chemistry teacher's individual interviews of her students' prior- and post-intervention conceptions of acids and bases; results of Acid-Base Achievement Test (ABA-T); video-recordings of a chemistry teacher's enactment of CKCM acid-base lesson sequence; audio-recordings of teacher-researcher reflective discourse using classroom video-clips; teacher interviews; and teacher and researcher personal reflective journals. Students' conceptual changes reflect change in the number of categories of description; shift in language use from everyday talk to chemical talk; and development of a hierarchy of chemical knowledge. ABA-T results indicated 17 students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher scores than 22 students in the control group taught by traditional teaching methods. The teacher-researcher reflective discourse about enactment of the CKCM acid-base lesson sequence reveals three major shifts in teacher practical arguments: teacher inadequate preparedness to adequate preparedness; lack of confidence to gain in confidence; and surface learning to deep learning. The developing story uncovers several aspects about teaching and learning of African American students: teacher caring for the uncared; cultivating
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund
The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.......The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....
Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…
Habók, Anita; Nagy, Judit
The study analyses teachers' perceptions of methods, teacher roles, success and evaluation in PBL and traditional classroom instruction. The analysis is based on empirical data collected in primary schools and vocational secondary schools. An analysis of 109 questionnaires revealed numerous differences based on degree of experience and type of school. In general, project-based methods were preferred among teachers, who mostly perceived themselves as facilitators and considered motivation and transmission of values central to their work. Teachers appeared not to capitalize on the use of ICT tools or emotions. Students actively participated in the evaluation process via oral evaluation. PMID:26844030
Velthuis, Chantal; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules
This study focuses on the improvement of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy for teaching science by including science courses within the teacher training program. Knowing how efficacy beliefs change over time and what factors influence the development by pre-service primary teachers of positive science teaching efficacy beliefs may be useful for teacher training universities, so that they can adapt their curriculum to accommodate these factors. Participants included 292 pre-service primary teachers, a cross-sectional sample from two different universities in the Netherlands across the four different years of study in the training program. Based upon our results, we conclude that the science teaching self-efficacy of pre-service teachers, in particular, improved during years 1 and 2, and not during years 3 and 4. Higher levels of self-rated subject-matter knowledge and science teaching experience in primary schools both contributed to higher levels of personal self-efficacy for science teaching. Differences at the university level in courses taken during the first year between science content courses and science methods courses also influenced the pre-service teachers' development of science teaching self-efficacy. After their first year, the pre-service teachers from the university with science content courses had significantly higher self-efficacy than pre-service teachers from the university that offered science methods courses. After the second year of teacher training, however, this difference in self-efficacy was no longer present.
In this study, the focus was on determining leadership strategies that promote teacher empowerment among urban middle school science teachers. The purpose of the paper was to determine if leadership strategies are related to teacher empowerment. The emphasis was on various forms of leadership and the empowerment of teachers in context in restructuring the democratic structure. An effective leadership in science education entails empowering others, especially science teachers. In this regard, no published studies had examined this perspective on empowering teachers and school leadership. Therefore, this study determined if a relationship exists between leadership strategy actions and teacher empowerment. The significance of the study is to determine a relationship between leadership strategies and teacher empowerment as a positive approach toward developing successful schools. Empowerment is essential for implementing serious improvements. Empowering others in schools must form a major component of an effective principal's agenda. It is becoming clearer in research literature that complex changes in education sometimes require active initiation. For this study, a quantitative methodology was used. Primary data enabled the research questions to be answered. The reliability and validity of the research were ensured. The results of this study showed that 40% of the administrators establish program policies with teachers, and 53% of teachers make decisions about new programs in schools. Furthermore, the findings, their implications, and recommendations are discussed.
Boyet L. Batang
Reading is done to extend one’s knowledge, to enrich one’s experience and to develop desirable attitudes, habits, skills, and interests in reading. It is the most useful means for learning among students. Employing Metacognitive strategies enable students to comprehend easier and read faster. This research aims to draw the relationship between the awareness on metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension levels of prospective pre-service secondary teachers. Results revealed the responde...
Sezai KOÇYIĞIT; Saban, Ahmet
In Turkey, every child who turned 72 months old are initiated elementary school without considering individual differences and whether or not they had any pre-school education, but is every child who started school mentally, socially-emotionally and physically ready to meet requirements of elementary school? Purpose of this research is to determine skills and abilities required for the “school readiness” according to the Grade 1 teachers and parents and reveal results of this situation relate...
M M Grosser (Mary); Mirna Nel
We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of a group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89). The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a genera...
Lenski, Susan; Larson, Mindy; McElhone, Dot; Davis, Dennis S.; Lauritzen, Carol; Villagómez, Amanda; Yeigh, Maika; Landon-Hays, Melanie; LeJeune, Marie; Scales, W. David
This study reports the results of a survey of a representative sample of 1,206 elementary reading and English Language Arts teachers in Oregon to learn (1) what materials are currently being used, (2) what materials teachers would prefer, and (3) what instructional practices teachers use. Qualitative data included 365 comments and 34 interviews…
This study documents the use of the Draw-a-Science-Teacher-Test as diagnostic tool for both preservice teacher beliefs about science teaching and science methods course effectiveness. Direct comparison of pre-course to post-course images from 50 preservice elementary teachers was undertaken using McNemar's test. Results indicated statistically…
There has been considerable interest in the socialisation of (student) physical education (PE) teachers, the beliefs and values developed as a result of this socialisation and the impact of these on teachers' learning, behaviours and practices and the curriculum. Many studies looking at the beliefs and values of PE teachers have used the values…
Brondyk, Susan; Stanulis, Randi
This is the story of a teacher leader who helped lead change in an urban elementary school by creating a new culture of support for beginning teachers. Specifically, she led focused, collaborative inquiry around discussion-based teaching to improve teaching effectiveness, and she created a school-wide coalition of support for beginning teachers to…
Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka
In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…
Ornstein, Allan C.
Discusses organizational strength, teacher strikes, collective bargaining and negotiations, and political action as forms of teacher militancy that are linked with increasing professionalism. Concludes that teachers have been able to improve their professional status in recent years largely because of growing activism. (Author/GC)
Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…
Zaffini, Erin Dineen
While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…
among various ways of improving adult english teaching,the writer would like to focus on teachers' role in adult english teaching,and have concluded 3 teachers' roles in adult english teaching as below:act as teacher.act as students.act as students' bosom friends.
Tetzlaff, Judie A.; Wagstaff, Imelda
Describes an approach to mentoring new teachers in California's Conejo Valley Unified School District that addresses five phases of new teacher development, explaining that, although it is not as structured nor comprehensive an approach as the California Formative Assessment and Support System for Teachers (CFASST), it has clearly demonstrated…
Britzman, Deborah P.
In this article, the author links the force of Eros to the teacher's world to suggest that, if the teacher is the keeper of the student's heart and mind, then a teacher's open-mindedness made from a willingness to be affected by the lives of others is the best pedagogical resource, and the most difficult to sustain. The author's thoughts on Eros…
During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…
With teacher preparation in the United States under serious scrutiny, there is a growing movement to improve the way teachers are prepared for practice. A key element of that improvement is shifting from instructing candidates about teaching to teaching them how to teach, emphasizing the key activities teachers actually carry out in classrooms and…
Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D
In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools.
Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America
Ariza, Rafael Porlan; del Pozo, Rosa Martin
Examines three studies on Spanish teachers' epistemological and scientific conceptions. Results highlight a majority tendency toward an absolutist view of knowledge and empiricist conceptions of science. The article asserts that this represents an obstacle to constructive, active professional development, noting the need for an epistemological…
Full Text Available Teacher efficacy has a great impact on effective teaching and has been studied in various perspectives. The updating information ability in working memory is always related with many capabilities of cognition. An experiment of N-back task and a questionnaire of teacher efficacy were conducted in this study to test the effect of the ability of information updating in working memory on the teacher efficacy. A significant difference was found in the reaction time between high teacher efficacy group and low teacher efficacy group. The results showed that teachers who scored higher in the teacher efficacy scale tended to react faster than those who scored lower based on the same accuracy. And the updating information ability could serve as a predictor of teacher efficacy.
Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.
Using learning games in education gives rise to a learning situation where game culture meets school culture and the result can be successful or corrupting for both. In this paper I present a case study of school classes and their teachers playing the game ‘Homicide', a game where children play...... present examples of teachers who adopt different roles in the game, and discuss how understanding the background for these roles can help us define the game-based learning situation. Finally I discuss what consequences the problems presented here may have for the design of future learning games....... the roles as forensic experts who solve a series of murder cases. When teachers use this type of games, they have to adapt to new teaching situations and roles. This includes the fictional role in a game, but also the role as a supervisor for a group of students that play the role as professional experts. I...
Gargus, Gerald Vincent
This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support
Wong, Chiu-Yin; Indiatsi, John; Wong, Gary K W
The present case study examined English as a second language (ESL) teacher candidates' views on their preparedness on instructing culturally and linguistically diverse students. A survey was administrated to a group of ESL teacher candidates at the end of the training program. Results revealed that although the participants received training in culture and instructional strategies, lacking adequate knowledge in students' diverse cultures and languages was reported as a major challenge. Personality traits and knowing specific strategies are reported as their strengths. However, there is a mismatch between the data gathered from the self-ranking component and the open-ended questions. Implications and suggestions are discussed. PMID:27439232
An examination of gender discourses within New Labour education policy on the preparation of students for a career in teaching in the UK reveals a contradictory yet, at the same time, complementary position. In the guidelines outlining the Standards that a prospective teacher has to achieve, the ways in which gender informs pupils' educational…
Full Text Available This paper deals with teacher knowledge, with the aim of unveiling, through inferential interpretations, the teacher knowledge of the early childhood teacher when facing pedagogical practice. The investigation involved four early childhood education teachers, employed observations and interviews as data collection and relied on content analysis (BARDIN, 2011 to treat the empirical information. The foundations used in the research involve studies of Tardif (2002, Gauthier et al. (2006 and Gimeno Sacristán (1999. The results show that teacher knowledge originates both from teacher education courses and their personal and professional experiences. The aforementioned moments provide elements that constitute knowledge learning sources that, in turn, go through development processes and are mobilized during teaching practice so as to influence their practice and receive interference from it.
Hello! I am a student in a middle school. I like my school and my teachers. Do you want to know what my teachers look like? My Chinese teacher is fun. He is medium height and a bit heavy, and he has straight short black hair and he wears glasses. He al- ways wears suit. My math teacher is popular. She is tall and medium build, and she has long curly hair but she doesn’t wear glasses. She always wears long skirt. My English teacher speaks English very well. She is tall and thin, she has long straight black h...
Cadima, Joana; Verschueren, Karine; Leal, Teresa; Guedes, Carolina
This study examined the quality of the classroom climate and dyadic teacher-child relationships as predictors of self-regulation in a sample of socially disadvantaged preschool children (N = 206; 52 % boys). Children's self-regulation was observed in preschool at the beginning and at the end of the school year. At the middle of the preschool year, classroom observations of interactions were conducted by trained observers and teachers rated the quality of dyadic teacher-child relationships. Results from multilevel analyses revealed that teacher-child closeness predicted improvements in observed self-regulation skills. Children showed larger gains in self-regulation when they experienced closer teacher-child relationships. Moreover, a moderating effect between classroom instructional quality and observed self-regulation was found such that children with low initial self-regulation skills benefit the most from classrooms with higher classroom quality. Findings have implications for understanding the role of classroom social processes on the development of self-regulation.
Risoleta DE JESUS PINTO
Full Text Available ICT is changing not only ways of life, but also the individuals’ minds and cultures of different social groups. For these reason, it is supposed that schools appear as innovation centers focused on the network society. However, previous research accomplished under the Network of Municipal Observatories for Literacy and Digital Inclusion has revealed that despite teachers in primary schools acknowledge the importance of digital technologies and the Internet, they occasionally use these technologies, justifying this low level of use on a lack of pedagogical skills. Additionally, the single teacher in primary schools has led to cultures of professional isolation that hinder the dynamics of networking, a fundamental dimension to the promotion of digital literacy.Given these facts and the theoretical review about learning in virtual environments, we offered an online teachers training course about ICT to primary schools teachers, in Santarém, Portugal. The results enhance the positive value of joint dynamics among teachers, which contributes to their professional development, as well as leads to the inclusion of ICT in the classroom.
Sandra P Meuer
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that a notable number of teachers are concerned with conditions of auditory impairment such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. Studies focussing on characteristics and interdependencies of single hearing disorders (HD are rare. This explorative study examines tinnitus, hyperacusis, hearing loss, and all possible combinations (tinnitus + hyperacusis; tinnitus + hearing loss; hyperacusis + hearing loss; tinnitus, hyperacusis + hearing loss in German teachers. The impact of single HD on perceived distress, depending on the number and kind of comorbid HD, was of special interest. Information was collected via online survey and includes self-reported data as well as data from the Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ. Results show that most of the 1468 participants (45% suffered from two HD in different combinations, and the fewest (25% were afflicted with only one HD. Considering the seven HD groups, most teachers (30% suffered from all three HD. Across all groups, tinnitus was present in 1096, hyperacusis in 988, and hearing loss in 937 teachers. Multiple intergroup comparisons revealed that self-rated tinnitus-related distress rose significantly with the increasing number of HD. No significant differences were found for distress ratings of hyperacusis between the four groups including hyperacusis and between the four groups with hearing loss. In the Mini-TQ, groups including hyperacusis scored considerably higher than those excluding hyperacusis. The frequent prevalence of HD in German teachers points to a need of better noise prevention in German schools as one priority of occupational safety.
Ove Edvard Hatlevik
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relations between teachers’ experiences with ICT-supportive school leaders, perceived usefulness of computers, perceived learning outcomes for students and teachers' use of computers in their teaching. A total of 386 teachers from a nationwide sample of primary and lower secondary schools participated in the study. The correlation analysis revealed that teachers with higher levels of ICT-supportive leaders reported higher levels of perceived usefulness of computers, perceived learning outcomes for students and more frequent use of computers compared with teachers reporting lower levels of ICT-supportive leaders. Regression analysis indicated that two factors, ICT-supportive school leaders and perceived learning outcomes for students using computers, explained 25 percent of the variation in perceived usefulness of computers. Finally, these two factors, ICT-supportive school leaders and perceived learning outcomes for students using computers, explained 5 percent of the variation in how frequently teachers were using computers for reading and writing. The results indicated a need for further studies in order to examine factors that predict teachers’ use of computers in their teaching.
Barnabe, Clermont; Burns, Mildred
To test the Job Characteristics Model of Motivation, 247 Quebec teachers completed the Job Diagnostic Survey. Results demonstrated the utility of the model and the instrument for the teaching profession. Psychological states influenced the relationship between job characteristics and motivation/satisfaction outcomes. (SK)
Byrd, H.B.; Jennings, R.
This endeavor was comprised of three companion projects. They are interdependent components which together provide a significant enhancement to the existing programs in the School of Education at Norfolk state University.The primary focus of the project was in instructing regular and special education undergraduate students and teachers. As a result of this endeavor, instruction in science and engineering majors was enhanced.
Krell, Moritz; Koska, Johannes; Penning, Fenna; Krüger, Dirk
Background: An elaborated understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) is seen as an important part of scientific literacy. In order to enable teachers to adequately discuss NOS in their lessons, various approaches have recently been employed to improve teachers' understanding of NOS. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of participating in a newly developed Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum at the Freie Universität Berlin (Germany) on pre-service teachers' NOS views. Program description: In the new STEM curriculum, two versions of explicitly teaching NOS, which are discussed in the literature, have been adopted: the pre-service teachers explicitly reflect upon nature and history of science (version one) as well as conduct own scientific investigations (version two). Sample: N = 76 pre-service teachers from different semester levels (cross-sectional study) who participated in the new STEM curriculum took part in this study (intervention group). As control groups, students who did not partake in the new curriculum participated (pre-service primary (N = 134), science (N = 198), and no-science (N = 161) teachers). Design and methods: In order to allow an economic assessment, a testing instrument with closed-item formats was developed to assess the respondents' views about six NOS aspects. Results: The intervention group shows significantly more elaborated NOS views than a relevant control group (p < .01, g = .48). Additionally, a one-way ANOVA reveals a positive effect of semester level on NOS views for the intervention group (p < .01; η² = .16) but not for the control groups. Conclusion: The findings support evidence suggesting that explicit approaches are effective when fostering an informed understanding of NOS. More specifically, a sequence of both versions of explicitly teaching NOS discussed in the literature seems to be a way to successfully promote pre-service teachers' NOS understanding.
Full Text Available Students’ economic literacy depends on the contents they learn in school as well as at home. It also depends on teachers’ ability to teach and explain economic concepts and principles in the way students can understand them. But, it is very doubtful whether all the high school teachers of civics who teach economics have excellent knowledge and good teaching skill in economics. Because the authors know that only a few civics teachers in Japan had studied economics as a major subject when they were undergraduate students.In order to prove these facts, the authors conducted a nationwide survey using a questionnaire concerning personal attributes, attitude toward economic issues, and thinking about economy and economics of high school teachers of civics in Japan in 2009. 1,574 samples were collected out of around 14,000 civics teachers from every prefecture in Japan, and their answers were turned into data set for analysis. These samples proved to have high external validity representing their population, and results of analysis may reveal the characteristics of Japanese high school teachers of civics teaching economics.Findings of our survey will help improve the quality of economic education in Japan, especially the quality and attitude of economics teachers in high school.
A. Oğuzhan KILDAN
Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the changes related to the “child” concept of the teacher trainees through metaphors in their first and forth years based on behaviourism and constructivism. 104 teacher trainees studying at the faculty of education of a state university between 2007 and 2011 participated in the study. As a data collection tool, teacher trainees were given a paper on which “a child is like…; because…” was written. This paper was accepted as a written document. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were carried out in order to analyse the data. The metaphors gathered through the papers were analysed according to qualitative analysis principles. Kruskal-Wallis H Test was performed in order to find out whether the relation between the departments of the teacher trainees and the philosophical foundations of the metaphors they devised was significant. As a result of data analysis, it was observed that there was not an important change in the philosophical foundations of the metaphors devised by the teacher trainees regarding the concept of “child”. In addition, there was not a significant difference between the departments of teacher trainees and the philosophical foundations of the metaphors they devised in their final year.
Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu
The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210
Muhammad Syahran Jailani
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to reveal teaching commitment of certified teachers who teach in private Madrasah in Jambi to increase the learning. The participants are teachers (civil servant who teach in several private Madrasah in Jambi. It is the phenomenology qualitative research, referring to the eleventh steps proposed by Spradley (1980. This research revealed two important findings. First, the teachers realize that they need to be committed in their teaching as a way to improve their professionalism and also instructional quality. The second important finding is that there is a lack of supervisory effort to supervise certified teachers, and thus there has no coordination between teachers and the stakeholders. This makes MGMP and KKG does not run effectively.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985 which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students
Full Text Available Discourse on 'problematic behavior' of the young in adolescence period is often present in lay, media, professional and scientific public. In this research, we performed empirical testing of the psychological concept of 'storm and stress', which is manifested by stereotypes about adolescents as rebels. The goal was to establish whether teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents as a social group and what the content of the stereotype is. Research participants were 193 teachers teaching the seventh grade in ten Belgrade primary schools. Factor analysis method established the presence of several factors, which reflect the psychological content and meaning of teachers' stereotypes about younger adolescents. The results of our research point out: (a that stereotypes of teachers about younger adolescents stand in partial correspondence with the content of a widely distributed concept of 'storm and stress'; (b that this concept is mostly loaded with a negative perception of pupils on the part of teachers and (c that teachers less often perceive pupils through the prism of some positive qualities. That is, teachers think that these positive qualities are not 'typical' qualities of adolescents if they are observed as a group. Interviewed teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents, but intensity and valence of stereotypes vary depending on the nature of obtained factors.
Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J.
This paper reports an investigation into Australian primary school teachers' knowledge and confidence for mental health promotion. Questionnaires were delivered to 1397 teachers. In-depth interviews were held with 37 teachers. Quantitative results showed that half to two thirds of teachers felt efficacious and knowledgeable about selected…
Cheong, G. C. S.; Wadden, E. P.
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' effect on elementary school students' self-concept when taught by an experimental group of teachers that was less dogmatic than the other group of teachers. Results indicated self-concept was significantly higher among students taught by the experimental group of teachers. (JC)
Griffin, David K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in the Bahamas and Jamaica. A total of 168 Bahamian (n = 75) and Jamaican (n = 93) teachers completed the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey. Overall results indicate that teachers in the Bahamas reported higher levels…
Burton, Suzanne L.
Strong school-university partnerships yield effective music teachers. However, music teacher preparation curriculum has undergone little reform over the years, resulting in a homogeneous P-12 curriculum. Encouraging preservice music teachers to consider cultural and pedagogical differences holds promise for changing music teacher preparation and…
Shi, Qi; Leuwerke, Wade C.
Chinese homeroom teachers' performance of professional school counselor activities was explored. A total of 109 homeroom teachers in Beijing and Harbin, China reported their performance of 68 different school counseling activities as part of their regular actions as a homeroom teacher. Results found that on average homeroom teachers performed a…
Wilson, Valerie; Hall, John
A literature review of teacher stress in Scotland found that hours worked by teachers have not changed significantly over the last decade, but the number of unpopular tasks over which teachers have little control has increased, resulting in increased stress. Being forced to implement mandated changes also increases teacher stress. (Contains 46…
participation in DCCE supported their identity development as a CS teacher. Overall, I found that these CS teachers held different teacher identities with varied features related to their motivation and commitment in teaching CS. I identified four concrete factors that contributed to these teachers' sense of professional identity as a CS teacher. I addressed some of these issues for CS teachers' identity development (especially the issue of lacking community) through offering professional development opportunities with a major focus on teacher reflection and community building. Results from this work indicate a potential model of supporting CS identity development, mapping the characteristics of the professional development program with particular facets of CS teacher identity. This work offers further understanding of the unique challenges that current CS teachers are facing in their CS teaching, as well as the challenges of preparing and supporting CS teachers. My findings also suggest guidelines for teacher education and professional development program design and implementation for building committed, qualified CS teachers in ways that promote the development of CS teacher identity.
Capobianco, Brenda M.
research. This study revealed that there are no uniform solutions or standard methods to address issues of equity and accessibility in science education. This study recommends teachers be given time, support, and freedom to collaborate with other teacher-researchers, enact decisions for change, and reflect on and make public the results of their work. Additional implications suggest science teacher educators collaborate with practicing science teachers to devise practical applications and feasible resources for a wider audience.
Wieseman, Katherine Claire
The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand
McWaters, Kathy Jean
Classroom assessment practices of middle school science teachers were identified and the influence of national and state science standards on these practices was examined. In Phase I of this study a mail questionnaire was sent to 450 middle school (grades 5,6,7 and 8) science teachers in 17 parishes in Louisiana to obtain information about their classroom assessment practices. In Phase II, nine middle school teachers in eight departmentalized classrooms, two classes at each grade, participated in a qualitative study. Data were collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, interviews and document analysis. Data analysis revealed three major categories of classroom assessment targets: (a) student achievement, (b) student attitudes and, (c) student products. Results indicated that most teachers are using different assessment methods when assessing different achievement targets, as recommended by science reform documents. It was also determined that many teachers are using appropriate methods to assess student learning. While teachers reported that students spend an inordinate amount of time engaged in assessment activities, classroom observations suggested that the activities were not always written tests or graded activities. Another key finding is that there is a disconnect between the quality of teaching and the quality of assessment. Teachers who teach the material recommended by science reform documents and use recommended instructional strategies were observed to stop teaching and engage students in a "test rehearsal" geared towards rote memorization of factual information. Data suggest that the national and state science content standards are influencing the content and the format of teacher-made tests. Teachers' reported using the standards during assessment construction or selection in a wide variety of ways. The most direct use of the standards reported was to select content, format and cognitive level for test items. A more circumspect approach
Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy
Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.