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Sample records for resulting thyroid cancer

  1. Analysis results of thyroid cancer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the results of the thyroid screening test of the 'Fukushima citizens' health survey' that were published by the prefecture on February 15, 2016. The subjects of the 'prior survey' were the residents who were born in Fukushima Prefecture between April 2, 1992 and April 1, 2011, namely, Fukushima residents of approximately 0-year-old to 18-year-old at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident on March 11, 2011. The subjects of the 'full-scale survey' included the subjects of the prior survey and about one-year residents after March 11, 2011. The annual thyroid cancer incidence of persons between 0-year-old to 19-year-old all over Japan was set at annually three person per millions at the prior survey on the basis of the data (2003 - 2007) published by the Japan National Cancer Center, but it was change to five per millions according to the full-scale survey. The thyroid cancer external comparable incidence ratio in the prior survey was 20 to 50 times, an order of magnitude higher, and it was low at 6 to 38 times in the full-scale survey. Due to the change of the setting of the standard rate of incidence, the incidence in the full-scale survey was underestimated. By the way, the aggregated data of diagnostic results in the full-scale survey is in the middle stage. There is a need for the announcement that links the scientifically valid results from Fukushima Prefecture to the effective measures in the future. In addition, the comprehension of leukemia cases, and radiation protection measures with a priority on pregnant women and young people are desired. (A.O.)

  2. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  3. Results of Screening in Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Yang, Lily; Merkel, Roxanne; Patel, Dhaval; Nilubol, Naris; Merino, Maria J; Skarulis, Monica; Sadowski, Samira M; Kebebew, Electron

    2017-08-01

    Although a family history of thyroid cancer is one of the main risk factors for thyroid cancer, the benefit of screening individuals with a family history of thyroid cancer is not known. A prospective cohort study was performed with yearly screening using neck ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodule(s) >0.5 cm in at-risk individuals whose relatives were diagnosed with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC). The eligibility criteria were the presence of thyroid cancer in two or more first-degree relatives and being older than seven years of age. Twenty-five kindred were enrolled in the study (12 families with two members affected, and 13 with three or more members affected at enrollment). Thyroid cancer was detected by screening in 4.6% (2/43) of at-risk individuals from families with two members affected, and in 22.7% (15/66) of at-risk members from families with three or more patients affected (p = 0.01). FNMTC detected by screening was characterized by a smaller tumor size (0.7 ± 0.5 cm vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 cm; p = 0.006), a lower rate of central neck lymph node metastases (17.6% vs. 51.1%; p = 0.02), less extensive surgery (hemithyroidectomy 23.5% vs. 0%; p = 0.002), and a lower rate of radioactive iodine therapy (23.5% vs. 79%; p thyroid ultrasound should be considered in kindred with three or more family members affected by FNMTC. Since active screening might be associated with the risk of overtreatment, it should be implemented with caution, specifically in elderly individuals.

  4. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  5. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  6. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    2005-01-01

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 1 31I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 10 4 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy -1 . These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  7. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  8. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer......BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...

  9. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  10. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  11. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  12. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  13. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Ulanovski, A; Schotola, C; Proehl, G [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J; Buglova, E; Kruk, J [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I; Kovgan, L; Vavilov, S; Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M; Bogdanova, T [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S; Gavrilin, Y [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  14. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  16. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  17. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  18. Risk stratification of patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer. Results of the MSDS trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemann, B.; Kraemer, J.A.; Schober, O.; Schmid, K.W.; Dralle, H.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Sauerland, C.; Frankewitsch, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Multicentre Study Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) collective represents a well defined group of patients with locally aggressive thyroid carcinomas (pT4; AJCC/UICC 1997). The aim of the present study was to compare the survival of patients with minimum and extensive extrathyroidal growth according to the new AJCC/UICC TNM staging system 2009. Patients, methods: The follow-up data of 347 patients were analysed. Patients were reclassified according to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification. The event-free and overall survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. In addition, postoperative complications and status of disease were documented. Results: 327 patients were assigned to stage pT3 and 20 patients to stage pT4a, respectively. Median follow-up was 6.1 years (range 0.04-9.8 years). 92.5% of patients reached complete remission. There were 7.8% recurrences in the thyroid bed, in locoregional lymph nodes and/or in distant sites. The overall survival was >98% both in pT3 and pT4a patients (p = n. s.). In contrast, the event-free survival was significantly less favourable in pT4a patients (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis the following parameters were significant predictors of event-free survival: histological tumour type, degree of extrathyroidal extension and nodal metastasis (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The MSDS patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer showed an excellent overall survival during a median follow-up of 6.1 years. According to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification, pT3 patients with minimal extrathyroidal extension revealed a significantly better event-free survival than pT4a patients with extensive extrathyroidal growth. (orig.)

  19. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  20. Early results of an in vivo trial of ESS in thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jennifer E.; Goukassian, Ilona D.; A'Amar, Ousama M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Lee, Stephanie L.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The current gold standard for diagnosis, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, yields 10-25% of indeterminate cytology results, leading to patients undergoing thyroidectomy for diagnosis. We assessed the technical potential of a miniaturized in vivo ESS (elastic light scattering spectroscopy) probe, built into an FNA needle assembly, to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Under IRB approval, 15 patients in the endocrine clinic undergoing FNAB of a thyroid nodule had collection of ESS data using our novel miniaturized FNA probe. Using final surgical pathology as our gold standard, data post processing and visual inspection was completed. Results: 225 spectra were grouped and analyzed (120 benign, 30 malignant and 75 from indeterminate cytology). ESS probes demonstrated excellent reproducibility in use. Initial analysis of these preliminary data is promising, indicating distinction of spectral ESS features between malignant and benign conditions. Conclusion(s): An in vivo trial of an invasive miniaturized integrated ESS biopsy probe is acceptable to patients, and collection of ESS data is feasible and reliable. With development of a disease-specific algorithm, ESS could potentially be used as an in-situ real time intra-operative diagnostic tool or as a minimally invasive adjunct to conventional FNA cytology.

  1. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  2. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  3. Persistent quality of life impairments in differentiated thyroid cancer patients: results from a monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innsbruck (Austria); Wintner, Lisa M.; Holzner, Bernhard [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innsbruck (Austria); Rodrigues, Margarida; Buxbaum, Sabine; Nilica, Bernhard; Virgolini, Irene [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Singer, Susanne [University of Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Giesinger, Johannes M. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) research has so far received little attention and available results are conflicting. We studied the HRQOL of radioiodine-naive DTC patients in comparison with the general population (GP), investigated the course of HRQOL up to 30 months after radioiodine remnant ablation (RAA) and sought to identify patient characteristics associated with HRQOL. We analysed data from routine HRQOL monitoring at a nuclear medicine department. Between 2005 and 2013, a total of 439 thyroid cancer patients (all histologies) completed the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) at least once during their treatment at the department. We compared patients' baseline HRQOL scores before RAA with scores from age-matched and sex-matched controls from the Austrian GP. We then determined the course of HRQOL over the 30 months after RAA and assessed the impact of the following clinical variables on HRQOL: method of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation, histology (papillary vs. follicular) and disease stage. A total of 284 patients (mean age 48.3 years, SD 15.0 years; 71.6 % women; 80.7 % papillary type) with a baseline HRQOL assessment before RAA were available. We found clinically meaningful differences in the detriment in patients on almost all domains. These were largest for fatigue (23 points) and role functioning (25 points). Data from 241 patients (mean age 48.6 years, SD 15.9 years; 68.9 % women; 76.3 % papillary type) were included in the longitudinal analysis. Investigating the course of HRQOL, a significant improvement over time was found for role and emotional functioning, fatigue, pain, and dyspnoea. A range of HRQOL scores were improved in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation, but some scores both in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and in those followed for 30 months, especially fatigue and role functioning, did not reach levels in the GP sample. Our results show that

  4. Persistent quality of life impairments in differentiated thyroid cancer patients: results from a monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Wintner, Lisa M.; Holzner, Bernhard; Rodrigues, Margarida; Buxbaum, Sabine; Nilica, Bernhard; Virgolini, Irene; Singer, Susanne; Giesinger, Johannes M.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) research has so far received little attention and available results are conflicting. We studied the HRQOL of radioiodine-naive DTC patients in comparison with the general population (GP), investigated the course of HRQOL up to 30 months after radioiodine remnant ablation (RAA) and sought to identify patient characteristics associated with HRQOL. We analysed data from routine HRQOL monitoring at a nuclear medicine department. Between 2005 and 2013, a total of 439 thyroid cancer patients (all histologies) completed the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) at least once during their treatment at the department. We compared patients' baseline HRQOL scores before RAA with scores from age-matched and sex-matched controls from the Austrian GP. We then determined the course of HRQOL over the 30 months after RAA and assessed the impact of the following clinical variables on HRQOL: method of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation, histology (papillary vs. follicular) and disease stage. A total of 284 patients (mean age 48.3 years, SD 15.0 years; 71.6 % women; 80.7 % papillary type) with a baseline HRQOL assessment before RAA were available. We found clinically meaningful differences in the detriment in patients on almost all domains. These were largest for fatigue (23 points) and role functioning (25 points). Data from 241 patients (mean age 48.6 years, SD 15.9 years; 68.9 % women; 76.3 % papillary type) were included in the longitudinal analysis. Investigating the course of HRQOL, a significant improvement over time was found for role and emotional functioning, fatigue, pain, and dyspnoea. A range of HRQOL scores were improved in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation, but some scores both in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and in those followed for 30 months, especially fatigue and role functioning, did not reach levels in the GP sample. Our results show that

  5. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  7. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  8. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  9. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

  10. Treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronetskij, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of thyroid cancer, producing direct influence on selection of treatment procedure are enumerated. It is shown that surgical treatment is the determining way of treatment, which is supplemented with hormonotherapy in case of differentiated forms of the tumor. In case of anaplasia cancer, sarcomas, propagation of tumor beyond the limits of the organ, inoperable processes, treatment of recurrences and functional inactivity of bone metastases the remote control gamma-therapy should be performed. Therapy by radioactive iodine is shown for the treatment of remote iodine-concentrating metastases for devitalization of residual thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy

  11. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in locally advanced thyroid cancer: Acute toxicity results of a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, Teresa Guerrero; Clark, Catharine H.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Elizabeth A.; Mc Nair, Helen; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Warrington, Jim; Dearnaley, David P.; Harmer, Clive; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This phase 1 study was designed to determine the toxicity of accelerated fractionation IMRT in locally advanced thyroid cancer. Methods: Patients with high risk locally advanced thyroid cancer who required post-operative EBRT were recruited. A single-phase inverse-planned-simultaneous-boost was delivered by IMRT: 58.8 Gy/28F (daily) to the primary tumour and involved nodes and 50 Gy/28F to the elective nodes. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicity (RTOG and modified LENTSOM) was collected. Results: Thirteen patients were treated (7 medullary thyroid, 2 Hurthle cell and 4 well differentiated thyroid cancer). G3 and G2 radiation dermatitis rates were 38.5% and 31%; G3 and G2 mucositis rates 8% and 53% and G3 and G2 pain 23% and 54%. Thirty-one percentage required enteral feeding. G3 and G2 xerostomia rates were 0% and 31%. Recovery was seen, with 62% patients having dysphagia G ≤ 1 2 months after IMRT. Thirty percent of patients developed L'Hermitte's syndrome. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. No dose limiting toxicity was found. Conclusions: Accelerated fractionation IMRT in this group of patients is feasible and safe. The acute toxicity appeared acceptable and early indicators of late toxicity moderate and similar to what would be expected with conventional RT. Longer follow up is required to quantify late side effects

  12. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  13. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  14. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A; Eng, Kevin H; Szender, J Brian; Mayor, Paul; Etter, John L; Cramer, Daniel W; Diergaarde, Brenda; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; deFazio, Anna; Friel, Grace; Goodman, Marc T; Hillemanns, Peter; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan J; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjær, Susanne K; Klapdor, Rüdiger; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Nagle, Christina M; Odunsi, Kunle; Paddock, Lisa; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Segal, Brahm H; Starbuck, Kristen; Terry, Kathryn L; Webb, Penelope M; Zsiros, Emese; Ness, Roberta B; Modugno, Francesmary; Bandera, Elisa V; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-09-26

    Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated associations between hyper- and hypothyroidism and medications prescribed for these conditions with 5-year all-cause survival among women diagnosed with invasive ovarian cancer. Overall, there was a nonsignificant association with history of hyperthyroidism (n=160 cases) and mortality (HR=1.22; 95% CI=0.97-1.53). Furthermore, diagnosis of hyperthyroidism within the 5 years before ovarian cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of death (HR=1.94; 95% CI=1.19-3.18). A more modest association was observed with history of hypothyroidism (n=624 cases) and mortality (HR=1.16; 95% CI=1.03-1.31). Neither duration of hypothyroidism nor use of thyroid medications was associated with survival. In this large study of women with ovarian cancer, we found that recent history of hyperthyroidism and overall history of hypothyroidism were associated with worse 5-year survival.

  15. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Is thyroid gland an organ at risk in breast cancer patients treated with locoregional radiotherapy? Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Mutahir Ali; Al Asiri, Mushabbab; Bayoumi, Yasser; Stanciu, Laura G; Al Johani, Naji; Al Saeed, Eyad Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Aim was to evaluate the dose distribution within the thyroid gland its association with hypothyroidism in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving supraclavicular (SC) radiation therapy (RT). Consecutive 40 BC patients with baseline normal thyroid function tests (TFTs), were randomized into two groups: (a) Adjuvant chest wall/breast with SC-RT (20 patients) and (b) control group (adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only); 20 patients. The thyroid gland was contoured for each patient. Each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH), mean thyroid volume, the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50), and Dmean (average dose in whole volume of thyroid) were then estimated. TFTs were performed at the time of the last follow-up and compared. Mean thyroid volume of cohort was 19.6 cm(3) (4.02-93.52) and Dmean of thyroid gland in SC-RT and control group was 25.8 Gy (16.4-52.2) and 5.6 Gy (0.7-12.8), respectively. Median values of V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50 were 54%, 51%, 42.8%, 30.8%, 27.8%, and 7.64%, respectively, in SC-RT as compared to control group (V5;4.9%, V10;2.4%, V20;1.75%, V301%, V40;0%, and V50;0%, respectively) with P thyroid function whereas four patients (10%) had hypothyroidism; 3/20 (15%) patients in SC-RT and 1/20 (5%) in control group with P thyroid volume (P = 0.03). The risk of hypothyroidism in BC patients after SC-RT depends on the thyroid gland volume and V30 >50% and the risk can be minimized by thyroid gland shielding during RT.

  17. Thyroid cancer following diagnostic iodine-131 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Holm, L.-E.; Boice, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following 131 I exposure, 34104 patients administered 131 I for diagnostic purposes were followed for up to 40 years. Mean thyroid dose was estimated as 1.1 Gy, and 67 thyroid cancers occurred in contrast to 49.7 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71]. Excess cancers were apparent only among patients referred because of a suspected thyroid tumor and no increased risk was seen among those referred for other reasons. Further, risk was not related to radiation dose to the thyroid gland, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The slight excess of thyroid cancer, then appeared due to the underlying thyroid condition and not radiation exposure. Among those under age 20 years when 131 I was administered, a small excess risk (3 cancers vs 1.8 expected) was about 2-10 times lower than that predicted from A-bomb data. These data suggest that protraction of dose may result in a lower risk than acute x-ray exposure of the same total dose

  18. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... Many factors, including relatively young age of thyroid cancer diagnoses and improved survival, .... leukemia (CML), about 16.7% of malignancies occurred in .... thyroid neoplasia in children is a recognized result of direct.

  19. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  20. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, André; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  2. Clinical presentation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of thyroid cancer (TC) as seen at the Nuclear Medicine Department, where the patients investigated prior to diagnosis of disease are clinically suspected to harbor malignancy and mostly referred for scintigraphic investigations are presented

  3. Thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J; Schneider, A B

    2000-04-01

    The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation-induced oncogenesis and the magnitude of the risk from external radiation is well understood. This is not the case for internal radiation derived from the radioiodines, a matter of practical importance because of medical use and potential accidental exposure. This article reviews current knowledge derived from the follow-up of patients receiving diagnostic or therapeutic 131I and populations exposed to radioactive fallout. The latter includes the nuclear power station accident at Chernobyl and the results of atomic bomb development and testing at Hanford, the Nevada Test Site and the Marshall Islands. The most cogent information comes from Chernobyl where an epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer has followed exposure to radioiodine that was mainly 131I. Although much has been learned from this experience about the nature of radioiodine induced thyroid cancer in young children, the reconstruction of thyroid radiation doses is too preliminary to provide accurate knowledge of the risk in comparison to that from external radiation. In the Marshall Islands, much of the exposure was from short-lived radioiodines as well as external radiation, obviating the possibility to determine the risk from 131I. Exposure to 131I in the continental United States from atomic bomb testing is expected to have caused some thyroid cancers, but only in the immediate vicinity of the Nevada Test Site has any evidence of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms been adduced. This evidence is minimally significant statistically, and not significant for thyroid cancer per se. Medical use of radioiodine has not been observed to cause thyroid cancer but very few of the patients studied were young children, the group most sensitive to thyroid radiation. Despite these limitations, this information is sufficient to make some suggestions concerning protective measures in the case of nuclear accidents and the follow up of individuals who

  4. Absorbed body dose simulation in Thyroid cancer therapy using MCNP4Cand ITScodes and comparison to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, K.; Gorji, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Two standard particle transport codes of MCNP4C and integrated tiger series were used to estimate the total body dose in a thyroid cancer therapy study, with I-131 as the radionuclide source. Human body was modeled by water and soft tissue ellipsoids. Phantoms' dimensions were selected according to Brow nell recommendation. Absorbed fractions were calculated by both codes for different phantoms and for gammas with 0.364 MeV energy, which has the highest fraction in I-131 emitting gammas. Results were compared to the data published by Brow nell et.al.. Figure 1 shows the results of MCNP4C and Integrated Tiger Series with results published by Brow nell et. al.

  5. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  6. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Darrin V; Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Goldenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States has increased rapidly and Pennsylvania is the state with the highest rate of thyroid cancer in the country, although the factors driving this increase are unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the increase in thyroid cancer represents a true increase in disease or is the result of overdiagnosis. To compare the increase in thyroid cancer incidence and tumor characteristics in Pennsylvania with the rest of the United States and gain insight into the factors influencing the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. In a population-based study, data on thyroid cancer from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 (SEER-9) registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR) from 1985 through 2009 were collected and reviewed for information regarding sex, race, histologic type of thyroid cancer, staging, and tumor size at diagnosis. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition code C739 (thyroid carcinoma) was used to identify 110,615 records in the SEER-9 registry and 29,030 records in the PCR. Average annual percent change (AAPC) in thyroid cancer incidence across various demographic groups in Pennsylvania. The AAPC for thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania was 7.1% per year (95% CI, 6.3%-7.9%) vs 4.2% (95% CI, 3.7%-4.7%) per year in the remainder of the United States, and trends in incidence were significantly different (P Pennsylvania than in the rest of the nation, as is the rate of tumors that are larger and higher stage at diagnosis. These findings suggest that rising disease burden has contributed to the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Etiologic factors promoting the rise in thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania must be investigated and may provide insight into the drivers of the national increase in thyroid cancer.

  7. Large Discrepancy in the Results of Sensitive Measurements of Thyroglobulin Antibodies in the Follow-Up on Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Bentzen, Jens; Laurberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: During follow-up on patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer, thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies can interfere with the Tg assay, making the use of Tg less reliable as a tumor marker. PURPOSE: To compare Tg and Tg autoantibodies (Tg-Ab) methods used in Denmark, regarding the number...

  8. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  9. [Intracellular signaling mechanisms in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Terán, Paul; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Luna-Ceballos, Rosa Isela; Erazo Valle-Solís, Aura

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, the papillary variant accounts for 80-90% of all diagnosed cases. In the development of papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF and RAS genes are mainly affected, resulting in a modification of the system of intracellular signaling proteins known as «protein kinase mitogen-activated» (MAPK) which consist of «modules» of internal signaling proteins (Receptor/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) from the cell membrane to the nucleus. In thyroid cancer, these signanling proteins regulate diverse cellular processes such as differentiation, growth, development and apoptosis. MAPK play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer as they are used as molecular biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and as possible therapeutic molecular targets. Mutations in BRAF gene have been correlated with poor response to treatment with traditional chemotherapy and as an indicator of poor prognosis. To review the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular signaling of BRAF and RAS genes in thyroid cancer. Molecular therapy research is in progress for this type of cancer as new molecules have been developed in order to inhibit any of the components of the signaling pathway (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK; with special emphasis on the (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf section, which is a major effector of ERK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  11. The Association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gyun Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is also increasing. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of T2DM on thyroid cancer. Methods. A case-control study was performed. A total of 415 healthy controls with thyroid ultrasound screening and physician consultation were selected from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS. Among patients with thyroid cancer who were enrolled in T-CALOS, 415 patients were matched to the control group according to age and sex. We assessed the effects of T2DM, T2DM duration, and T2DM medication on thyroid cancer. Results. Women with T2DM had lower odds of thyroid cancer than women without T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–0.81. Individuals receiving T2DM medication had higher odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM medication (OR: 5.21, 95% CI: 1.58–17.15. Individuals with T2DM duration <6 years had lower odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34–0.97. Conclusions. Individuals with early T2DM are presumed to have a low incidence of thyroid cancer, and this effect seems to last up to 6 years after diagnosis of T2DM.

  12. Ionizing radiation and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Holm, L.E. (Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide the primary data source on cancer risk in man after exposure to ionizing radiation. The present paper discusses methodological difficulties in epidemiological studies and reviews current epidemiological knowledge on radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Most studies of radiation-induced cancer are of a ''historical observational'' type and are also non-experimental in design. Seldom is there an opportunity to consider other factors playing on cancer risk. Since many of the study subjects were exposed a long time ago there could also be difficulties in calculating the radiation doses, and to identify and follow the exposed subjects. Short exposure to low doses of gamma radiation can induce thyroid cancer in children, whereas a relationship between protracted low-dose exposure and thyroid cancer has not been established so far. The most important future issues concerning radiation-induced thyroid cancer are the risks following low radiation doses and/or protracted radiation exposure and cancer risks after [sup 131]I exposure in childhood. (authors). 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Thyroid cancer: Natural history, management strategies and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer

  14. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, Ye.Ye.

    2001-01-01

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  15. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  16. Long-Term Results after Treatment of Very Low-, Low-, and High-Risk Thyroid Cancers in a Combined Setting of Thyroidectomy and Radio Ablation Therapy in Euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer treatment usually consists of thyroidectomy and radio ablation in hypothyroidism 4-6 weeks after surgery. Replacing hypothyroidism by recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can facilitate radio ablation in euthyroidism within one week after surgery. The outcome of this approach was investigated. Methods. This is a prospective randomized trial to compare thyroidectomy and radio ablation within a few days after preconditioning with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone versus thyroidectomy and radio ablation separated by four weeks of L-T4 withdrawal. Tumors were graded into very low-, low- , or high-risk tumors. Recurrence-free survival was confirmed at follow-up controls by neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin. Suspected tumor recurrence was treated by additional radio ablation or surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires with additional evaluation of job performance and sick-leave time were used in all patients. Results. Radio ablation in euthyroidism in quick succession after thyroidectomy did not lead to higher tumor recurrence rates of differentiated thyroid cancers in any risk category and was significantly advantageous with respect to quality-of-life (P<0.001, sick-leave time (P<0.001, and job performance (P=0.002. Conclusion. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can be used safely and with good efficacy to allow radio ablation under sustained euthyroidism within one week after thyroidectomy.

  17. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  18. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  19. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  20. COMBINED SURGERY OF SPREAD THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of treating of 99 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer spreading beyond the capsule of the organ were analysed. In most cases with spreading the tumor to the tracheal rings performing of organ-preserving operations (from “window-like” tracheal resections to circular tracheal resection with intertracheal anastomosis is possible. Choosing of type of operation to be performed depends on localisation and spread of tumor invasion of trachea, pharynx and esophagus. Using of combined operations in patients with locally-spread thyroid cancer allows to achieve long and stable remission in most of the cases.

  1. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debra, D.W. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    It should be the policy in all institutions and practices which administered head and neck irradiation to identify from its records those individuals so treated and to seek them out and advise them to have a thyroid evaluation. Physicians engaged in the general care of adults should incorporate questioning about head and neck irradiation into their history-taking. Further, they should direct the patient to inquire of his parents or guardian if a negative history is obtained. Records regarding the type of radiation given and dosimetry should be sought. Irradiated patients should have a thorough examination, including careful palpation of the thyroid and adjacent node-bearing areas. A chest film should be made and a thyroid scan performed. Surgery should be recommended to all who have the findings mentioned in the text above. For those who do not, it is recommended that they be placed on a suppressive dose of thyroid hormone (sodium L-thyroxine 0.15 to 0.25 mg/day) and that serum TSH levels be measured to ascertain suppression. The patient probably should have a careful examination of his thyroid gland performed annually throughout his life. The occurrence of any nodules should be grounds for surgery, unless a satisfactory and certain alternative explanation can be found

  2. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (Pthyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT......) and papillary, follicular, medullary, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma (TL). METHODS: PubMed, OVID Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1955 to 2016. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years, ≥20 cases of HT or TC. We collectively examined the incidence of HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p 

  4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  5. Technological innovations in surgical approach for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Lo, Chung-Yau

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, surgeons have witnessed dramatic changes in surgical practice as a result of the introduction of new technological advancement. Some of these changes include refinement of techniques in thyroid cancer surgery. The development of various endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addition of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts in thyroid surgery, such as intraoperative neuromonitoring and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone, have made thyroid cancer surgery not only safer and better accepted by patients with thyroid cancer but also offer them more surgical treatment options.

  6. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  7. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Chekin, Sergei; Malakhova, Irina V.; Polyakov, Semion; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Yuri; Golovanov, Ivan; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Maceika, Evaldas; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.

    2008-01-01

    ingested iodine isotopes were also developed and implemented. 115 cases of thyroid cancer and 457 matched controls were included in the study. The main analyses were restricted to 107 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and their 423 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received low doses (median 69 mGy). The doses were much higher for women (median 196 mGy) than for men (median 64 mGy). Results of this study will be presented, together with their implications for radiation risk assessment and protection. (author)

  8. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  10. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team.

  11. Expression of stanniocalcin 1 in thyroid side population cells and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Suguru; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Ozaki, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ylaya, Kris; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-04-01

    Mouse thyroid side population (SP) cells consist of a minor population of mouse thyroid cells that may have multipotent thyroid stem cell characteristics. However the nature of thyroid SP cells remains elusive, particularly in relation to thyroid cancer. Stanniocalcin (STC) 1 and 2 are secreted glycoproteins known to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In recent years, the relationship of STC1/2 expression to cancer has been described in various tissues. Microarray analysis was carried out to determine genes up- and down-regulated in thyroid SP cells as compared with non-SP cells. Among genes up-regulated, stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was chosen for study because of its expression in various thyroid cells by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression analysis revealed that genes known to be highly expressed in cancer cells and/or involved in cancer invasion/metastasis were markedly up-regulated in SP cells from both intact as well as partial thyroidectomized thyroids. Among these genes, expression of STC1 was found in five human thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines as revealed by analysis of mRNA and protein, and its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation status of the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of STC1 in the thyroid tumor cell line and thyroid tumor tissues from humans and mice. These results suggest that SP cells contain a population of cells that express genes also highly expressed in cancer cells including Stc1, which warrants further study on the role of SP cells and/or STC1 expression in thyroid cancer.

  12. Thyroid cancer: an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.; Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Despite the fact that cancer of the thyroid gland is a rare disease it has attracted a lot of attention. It is one of the few disease where radioactive isotopes are used not only for detection but also for treatment of the disease. The Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is the apex of all the departments of nuclear medicines in India. It was established in 1963 in the precincts of the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) which is the primer cancer centre of this country. This book is a collation of the combined experience of the TMH and the RMC. The objectives are two fold, viz. (1) an introspective analysis of our experience and (2) to offer a book of ready reference to anyone dealing with any aspect of thyroid cancer. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Nodular Graves' disease with medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat Hussain; Rather, Tanveer Ahmed; Makhdoomi, Rumana; Malik, Dharmender

    2015-01-01

    Co-existence of thyroid nodules with Graves' disease has been reported in various studies. 10-15% of such nodules harbor thyroid cancer with papillary thyroid cancer being the commonest. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in nodules associated with Graves' disease is rare. On literature survey, we came across 11 such cases reported so far. We report a 62-year-old female with Graves' disease who also had a thyroid nodule that on fine-needle aspiration cytology and the subsequent postthyroidectomy histopathological examination was reported to be MTC.

  14. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p ....07-1.85, p = 0.016), and an RR of TL among HT of 9.74 (95% CI 3.93-24.13, p thyroid cancer....

  15. Thyroid cancer in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.F.; Nahar, N.; Haque, F.S.; Alam, F.; Hasan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The coexistence of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer is a rare event. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the association of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Method: From 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2006, a total of 388 new hyperthyroid patients attended the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound for radioiodine therapy. Eighty-two of them were selected before radioiodine therapy, on the basis of findings on palpation and ultrasound (USG) examination, to undergo fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for cytological diagnosis. USG examination was performed to localize and mark the position of nodule/nodules for FNAC and, in cases of nonpalpable nodules, USG guided FNAC was done. In the case of non-nodular patients, guided FNAC was done in sonographically suspicious areas. Results: FNAC report was positive for thyroid cancer in 4 patients. Histopathology examination revealed the presence of papillary carcinoma. Among the four positive cases, one had multi-nodular goitre, two had uni-nodular goiters and one had no nodule. Another patient had a negative FNAC report but due to a huge goiter, the patient underwent surgery and histopathology revealed the presence of papillary carcinoma. Conclusion: Although the occurrence of thyroid cancer in hyperthyroid patients is rare, the presence of a nodule should be carefully evaluated to exclude the presence of concurrent malignancy. FNAC (USG guided in case of non-palpable nodules) is found helpful before radioiodine therapy or surgery. (author)

  16. Coexistence of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Taşkesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancer can be associated with thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, or toxic nodular goiter. The aim of this study was considered to be endemic in our region have received the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer is detected thyroidectomy performed and patients were retrospectively evaluate. Methods: We retrospectively studied 69 patients assessed for hyperthyroidism between 2006 and 2012. Clinical hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyronine/thyroxine (T3/T4 ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, with clinical signs and symptoms. The criteria for surgery were cytological evidence of malignancy, a goiter causing symptoms of tracheal or esophageal compression, side effects of antithyroid drug therapy, or Graves’ disease with multiple relapses after therapy withdrawal or responsiveness to antithyroid drugs. Results: Totally 69 patients were included. In 20 (28.9% patients there was toxic multinodular goiter, in 28 (40.6% Graves’s disease, and in 21 (30.5% patients there was toxic nodular goiter. Of these patients, 12 (17.4% had thyroid cancer. Conclusions: As a result; low likelihood of malignancy in patients with hyperthyroidism, though suspicious lesions detected in the lymph nodes and neck adenopathies be examined in detail.

  17. Etiology of thyroid cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkar, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, although a relatively rare tumor, is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. The identification of genetic factors important in the pathogesis of thyroid cancer could provide molecular tools for a better differential diagnosis between the different histotypes. Characterisation of mechanisms by which mutated proteins transduce mitogenic and de-differentiating signals might suggest novel therapeutic approaches for controlling cell growth and restoring thyroid differentiated functions

  18. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  19. Dermatologic radiotherapy and thyroid cancer. Dose measurements and risk quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid doses for various dermatologic radiation techniques were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization rate meters in an Alderson-Rando anthropomorphic phantom. The effects of changes in radiation quality and of the use or nonuse of treatment cones and thyroid shields were evaluated in detail. The results indicate that the potential risk of radiogenic thyroid cancer is very small when proper radiation protection measures are used. The probability of radiogenic thyroid cancer developing and the potential mortality risk were assessed quantitatively for each measurement. The quantification of radiation risks allows comparisons with risks of other therapeutic modalities and the common hazards of daily life

  20. Radioiodine and radiotherapy in the management of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine is an important adjuvant treatment in the management of resectable papillary and follicular thyroid cancers in all patients except those with the best prognostic features. External radiation is also an important adjuvant therapy in these patients, especially those with tumors that extend beyond the thyroid gland and invade the trachea, esophagus, nerves, and blood vessels; it is especially important in treating patients whose tumors do not concentrate radioiodine. Radioiodine may be curative in patients with microscopic distant metastases demonstrated by radioiodine scanning. Even unresectable primary papillary and follicular cancers may be eradicated by combined therapy with radioiodine and radiotherapy. Radioiodine plays no significant role in the treatment of medullary or anaplastic thyroid cancers, but external radiation may eradicate microscopic thyroid bed or nodal disease when persistent disease is indicated by elevated calcitonin levels in medullary thyroid cancer patients. Anaplastic thyroid cancers are usually unresectable and are not eradicated by conventional radiotherapy or by any of the novel radiation techniques, with or without chemotherapy. In all types of thyroid cancer, external radiotherapy may produce beneficial palliative results in patients with distant metastases, but the use of radioiodine should always be explored in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. 30 references

  1. 131I therapy of thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Farahati, J.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a rare malignancy with wide inter ethnic and geographic variations. In Germany thyroid carcinoma is the 13. most frequent malignancy (2.7 new cases yearly per 100,000 inhabitants). The overall temporal incidence is increasing slightly in recent years. The most common types of cancer are papillary (60-80%) and follicular cancers (10-20%). The relevant prognostic indicators are tumor stage and distant metastases. The mean survival rates in papillary thyroid cancer usually exceed 90%, whereas in follicular thyroid cancer they amount to approximately 80%. The standard treatment procedure in differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancer consists of total thyroidectomy followed by adjuvant ablative therapy with radioiodine. Only in papillary thyroid cancer stage pT 1 N 0 M 0 lobectomy alone is considered to be appropriate. In patients with locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancers stage pT 4 adjuvant percutaneous radiation therapy is a treatment option. Radioiodine therapy has to be performed under the stimulative influence of TSH. Usually TSH suppressive medication with Levothyroxine has to be withdrawn approximately 4 weeks prior to radioiodine therapy. In the future, exogenous stimulation by recombinant TSH may be used instead of thyroid hormone withdrawal. It has been proved by different studies that ablative radioiodine therapy reduces the frequency of recurrences and tumor spread in patients with thyroid cancer significantly. In patients with distant metastases, up to 50% of complete responses may be achieved with radioiodine treatment

  2. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  3. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  4. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  5. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  6. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Yasumura, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimura, Hiroki; Matsui, Shiro; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Schuez, Joachim; Miyauchi; Gamhewage, Gaya; Van Deventer, Emilie; Kurihara, Osamu; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, M.; Akiba, S.; Chung, Jae Hoon; Jacob, Peter; Ulanovsky, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian; Bouville, Andre; Hatch, Maureen; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Shore, Roy; Furukawa, Kyoji; Imaizumi, Misa; Ivanov, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Bogdanova, T.; Oliynik, V.; Shpak, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Zurnadzgy, L.; Zamotaeva, G.; Mabuchi, K.; Hatch, M.; Bouville, A.; Brenner, A.; Likhtarev, I.; Gulak, L.; Shchepotin, I.; Demidchik, Yuri; Fridman, M.; Vaswani, Ashok; Sobue, Tomotaka; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Momose, Takumaro; Siemann, Michael; Lazo, Ted; ); Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry; Takamura, Noboru; Bolch, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  7. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea.MethodsPopulation and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS population weights.ResultsThe crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010.ConclusionThyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  8. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidchik, E.P.; Drobyshevskaya, I.M.; Cherstvoy, E.D.; Astakhova, L.N.; Vorontsova, T.V.; Okeanov, A.E.; Germenchuk, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  9. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  10. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  11. Endogenous Thyrotropin and Triiodothyronine Concentrations in Individuals with Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala; Soldin, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormone suppression therapy is associated with decreased recurrence rates and improved survival in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently higher baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels have been found to be associated with a postoperative diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. Our objective was to confirm whether preoperative TSH levels were higher in patients who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer after undergoing thyroidectomy, compared with patients who were found to have benign disease. We also sought to determine whether thyroid hormone levels were lower in the patients with malignancy. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective study. The study setting was the General Clinical Research Center of an Academic Medical Center. Participants were 50 euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH levels were documented in patients prior to their scheduled thyroidectomy. Following thyroidectomy, patients were divided into those with a histologic diagnosis of either differentiated thyroid cancer or benign disease. Preoperative thyroid profiles were correlated with patients' postoperative diagnoses. Results All patients had a normal serum TSH concentration preoperatively. One-third of the group was diagnosed with thyroid cancer as a result of their thyroidectomy. These patients had a higher serum TSH level (mean = 1.50 mIU/L, CI 1.22–1.78 mIU/L) than patients with benign disease (mean = 1.01 mIU/mL, CI 0.84–1.18 mIU/L). There was a greater risk of having thyroid cancer in patients with TSH levels in the upper three quartiles of TSH values, compared with patients with TSH concentrations in the lowest quartile of TSH values (odd ratio = 8.7, CI 2.2–33.7). Patients with a thyroid cancer diagnosis also had lower T3 concentrations measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mean = 112.6 ng/dL, CI 103.8–121.4

  12. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A major effort has been devoted to studies of the origins of radiogenic and hormonally-induced cancer at the cellular level in vivo. The studies has provided evidence that the functional thyroid follicules (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Transplantation assays indicate that the clonogens comprise 1% of the cells in monodispersed suspensions of normal thyroid tissue. Carcinogenesis studies show that neoplastic initiation of thyroid clonogens by radiation is a commo event. Promotion-progression to cancer from radiation initiated clonogens has, however, been shown to be inversely related to the total grafted thyroid cell number. It is thus important to further define the physiology and population kinetics of the thyroid clonogens under different hormonal conditions both in situ and following transplantion. This report briefly summarizes recent data on (a) local cell-cell and remote hormonal feedback interactions during neoplastic promotion of initiated cells among the progeny of grafted clonogens in multicellular FU; (b) clonogenic cell population kinetics in situ during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and (c) the reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary hormonal feedback system in thyroid cell-grafted thyroidectomized rats and its dependence on the formation of FU by the grafted clonogens. These results support the conclusion that the thyroid gland contains a small sub-population of clonogenic epithelial cells which posess many stem cell-like characteristics. (N.K.)

  13. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  14. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  15. Pulmonary metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid cancer (TC) in its differentiated form is generally associated with a good prognosis and a near normal life expectancy, a subset of patients especially with distant metastatic disease may run an aggressive course leading to poor survival and early death. The clinical presentation and the manner in which the disease progresses differs with the site and type of the metastatic disease. The behaviour and course of skeletal metastasis has been described elsewhere. The biological behaviour and treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease is focussed on

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  17. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  18. Thyroid cancer: relationship to radiation exposure and to pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asteris, G.T.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Exposure to radiation results in an increased occurrence of nodularity to the thyroid and, more important, the development of cancer in a significant proportion of patients. Near-total thyroidectomy is recommended in those patients with a history of irradiation who are found on physical examination of the thyroid to have one or more nodules. Although pregnancy appears to have no effect on the course of thyroid carcinoma and the tumor has no effect on pregnancy, because of the numerous stimuli to thyroid growth during pregnancy, we feel that pregnancy is best avoided by women with known residual disease

  19. Thyroid cancers: a three year retrospective histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than-Than-Htwe; Maung-Ko

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory based retrospective study was done on thyroid tissue specimen that were received from the surgically removed thyroid swellings of various reasons. It was a three year study from 1996-1998 with a total number of cases as (n=1690). Cases were between the age range of 8-88 years including both sexes. A routine histopathological examination was done according to the standard WHO classification, using conventional methods and techniques of specimen sectioning and processing. Occurrence of thyroid cancer among total cases of thyroid dysfunction is highly significant (P 0.860). The results obtained were discussed. (author)

  20. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, Elif; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre; Vitaux, Francoise; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B.; Grosclaude, Pascale; Galle, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  1. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Vitaux, Francoise [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France); Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 100 avenue du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Grosclaude, Pascale [Reseau Francais des Registres de Cancers, Toulouse (France); Galle, Pierre [Service de Physique et Chimie Biologiques, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d' Alfort (France)

    2002-08-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  2. Thyroid cancer outcomes in Filipino patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Lukas H; Shah, Manish; Eski, Spiro; Walfish, Paul G; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2010-02-01

    To compare the outcomes of patients having thyroid cancer among Filipinos vs non-Filipinos. Retrospective medical record review. High-volume tertiary referral center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 499 patients with thyroid cancer (36 Filipino and 463 non-Filipino) treated at Mount Sinai Hospital from January 1, 1984, to August 31, 2003, with a minimum 5-year follow-up period and a minimum 1.0-cm tumor size. Patients were identified from a thyroid cancer database. Data on patient, tumor, and treatment factors were collected along with outcomes. The presence of thyroid cancer recurrence, the rate of death from disease, and the time to recurrence. The 2 groups were similar for sex, age, history of head and neck radiation exposure, family history of thyroid cancer, follow-up time, tumor size, tumor pathologic findings, presence of tumor multifocality, stage of primary disease, type of thyroid surgery, use of postoperative radioactive iodine therapy, and use of external beam radiation therapy. Filipino patients experienced a thyroid cancer recurrence rate of 25% compared with 9.5% for non-Filipino patients (odds ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-7.49; P = .004). On multivariate analysis, the increased risk of thyroid cancer recurrence persisted for Filipino patients (odds ratio, 6.99; 95% confidence interval, 2.31-21.07; P Filipino patients and non-Filipino patients regarding the rate of death from disease (5.6% vs 1.9%) and the time to recurrence (52.6 vs 53.1 months). Filipino patients have a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer recurrence compared with non-Filipino patients. However, no significant difference was noted in the time to recurrence or the rate of death from disease. These findings justify a more aggressive initial management and follow-up regimen for Filipino patients with thyroid cancer.

  3. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  4. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  5. The WHO activities on thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cardis, E.

    1996-01-01

    The WHO has been involved in activities related to thyroid disease in populations exposed to Chernobyl fallout since 1991. The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident, based in Geneva, undertook a pilot project on screening for thyroid disease and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health responded to claims from Belarus of an increase of childhood thyroid cancer. Since then the WHO has been developing the public health response in partnership with scientists and physicians in Belarus and a number of centres of excellence outside the CIS specializing in the disciplines relevant to the problem. In 1993 the International Thyroid Project was initiated in partnership with the International Agency for Cancer Research. The activities developed with scientists and physicians in Belarus to respond to the increase are described. The increase in thyroid cancer and its implications for future accidents have been addressed. Revised advice on stable iodine prophylaxis has been formulated

  6. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  7. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Heidenreich, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  8. MINIMALLY INVASIVE OPEN THYROIDECTOMY IN THYROID CANCER WITH COEXISTENT HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Nenkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the minimally invasive thyroidectomy challenges is the application of this technique in the surgical treatment of thyroid cancer. The use of minimally invasive open approach in co-existence of thyroid cancer with Hashimoto thyroiditis is well known provocation to the skills of the surgeon working in the field of thyroid surgery.Aim: To report our results and to present the possibilities of minimally invasive open approach in the surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma and coexistent Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients and methods: For the period from 2008 to 2011, 641 patients were operated on in our clinic using minimally invasive open approach. In 32 of these patients presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis was found in combination with thyroid cancer. All patients were females, 26 to 46 years age. Patients were selected according to designed and accepted for our institution criteria. The procedures were performed using ultrasound (harmonic shears (Harmonic Focus® and Harmonic Ace®, Ethicon Endo-Surgery. The operative time, incidence, type and severity of complications, length of hospital stay, safety and reliability of the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: The operative incision length in all cases was between 2.0-2.5 cm. In 27 patients papillary thyroid carcinoma and in 5 patients – follicular variant of the neoplasm were found. The tumor size ranged between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. In all patients total thyroidectomy using harmonic scalpel was performed. Lymph node metastases in the central neck compartment were not found in any of the cases. The rate, type and severity of complications did not exceed those for patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy. All patients leaved the hospital in the first 24 postoperative hours. The follow-up did not reveal remnant thyroid tissue in thyroid gland bed or recurrence of the disease.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of minimally invasive open approach with

  9. Positive thyroid cancer scintigraphy using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Nyvltova, O.; Blazek, T.; Vlcek, P.; Racek, P.; Novak, Z.; Preiningerova, M.; Hubackova, M.; Krizova, M.; Zimak, J.; Bilek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of detecting thyroid cancer recurrences without the need for withdrawal of thyroid suppressive treatment. Upper-body or whole-body scintigraphy was performed in a group of 200 patients evaluated for differentiated thyroid cancers in 1993 and 1994 using technetium-99m sestamibi. Scans were performed 20-30 min following i.v. administration of 500 MBq of 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). Bone and lung metastases were detected with very high sensitivity and specificity, with a very high predictive value of negative results and a somewhat lower predictive value of positive results. The sensitivity and specificity of findings in the neck were lower but the predictive value of negative results was high. Whole-body scans with 99m Tc-MIBI are a useful tool in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, for the detection of distant metastatic lesions. (orig.)

  10. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  11. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  12. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  13. Results of large scale thyroid dose reconstruction in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Sobolev, B.; Kairo, I.; Tabachny, L.; Jacob, P.; Proehl, G.; Goulko, G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, the Ukrainian Ministry on Chernobyl Affairs initiated a large scale reconstruction of thyroid exposures to radioiodine after the Chernobyl accident. The objective was to provide the state policy on social compensations with a scientific background. About 7000 settlements from five contaminated regions have gotten certificates of thyroid exposure since then. Certificates contain estimates of the average thyroid dose from 131 I for seven age groups. The primary dose estimates used about 150000 direct measurements of the 131 I activity in the thyroid glands of inhabitants from Chernigiv, Kiev, Zhytomyr, and also Vinnytsa regions. Parameters of the assumed intake function were related to environmental and questionnaire data. The dose reconstruction for the remaining territory was based on empirical relations between intake function parameters and the 137 Cs deposition. The relationship was specified by the distance and the direction to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The relations were first derived for territories with direct measurements and then they were spread on other areas using daily iodine releases and atmospheric transportation routes. The results of the dose reconstruction allowed to mark zones on the territory of Ukraine according to the average levels of thyroid exposures. These zones underlay a policy of post-accidental health care and social compensations. Another important application of the thyroid dose reconstruction is the radiation risk assessment of thyroid cancer among people exposed during childhood due to the Chernobyl accident

  14. Neonatal thyroid screening results are related to gestational maternal thyroid function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.M.I.; Kooistra, L.; Wijnen, H.A.; Vader, H.L.; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Oei, S.G.; Vulsma, T.; Pop, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between maternal thyroid function at each pregnancy trimester and neonatal screening results. Background Overt maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation is associated with poor neonatal thyroid function. However, research on the relationship between suboptimal

  15. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  16. WOMEN IN CANCER THEMATIC REVIEW: Thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Hannah; Boelaert, Kristien

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours are critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer, and although there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is higher in patients with malignant thyroid nodules than in those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally increased in more aggressive tumours. Importantly, we have shown that the pre-operative serum TSH concentration independently predicts the presence of malignancy in subjects presenting with thyroid nodules. Establishing the use of TSH measurements in algorithms identifying high-risk thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice represents an exciting, cost-efficient and non-invasive approach to optimise thyroid cancer diagnosis. Binding of TSH to receptors on thyrocytes stimulates a number of growth promoting pathways both in normal and malignant thyroid cells, and TSH suppression with high doses of levothyroxine is routinely used after thyroidectomy to prevent cancer recurrence, especially in high-risk tumours. This review examines the relationship between serum TSH and thyroid cancer and reflects on the clinical potential of TSH measurements in diagnosis and disease monitoring. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  18. Clinical Experiences with Radiation Induced Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reiners

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of developing thyroid cancer increases considerably after exposure to external or internal radiation, especially in children below the age of 10. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, the yearly incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus increased to approximately 40 per 1.000.000 in girls and to roughly 20 per 1.000.000 in boys compared to approximately 0.5 cases per 1.000.000 prior to the accident. Typically, young children with thyroid cancer after radiation exposure present in ≈95% of the cases as papillary cancers, in ≈50% as invasive tumors growing outside the thyroid capsule, in ≈65% with lymph node metastases and in ≈15% with distant metastases. A joint Belarusian-German project starting in April 1993 that combined treatment with surgery and radioiodine was organized in 237 selected children from Belarus who were exposed to the Chernobyl fallout and had advanced stages of thyroid cancer. The study group included 141 girls and 96 boys. Their median age at the time of the accident was 1.7 years; whereas the median age at the time of diagnosis was 12.4 years. With the exception of two cases with follicular histology, the majority of the patients had been diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancers. In 63%, the tumor had grown outside the thyroid capsule and invaded the tissue of the neck (pT4. Nearly all of the selected cases (96% showed-up with lymph node metastases (pN1 and 43% of the patients with distant metastases mainly to the lungs (pM1. In 58% of the children, complete remissions of thyroid cancer could be achieved until December 31st 2010 and in 34% of the children, stable partial remissions; in the remaining 8% of the patients, partial remissions were observed. The risk of radiation-induced thyroid cancer increased considerably in children and adolescents who were affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident. In spite of the fact, that thyroid cancers in young children seem to behave more aggressively than in

  19. Risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang

    2014-03-01

    The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.

  20. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hea Min; Park, Soon Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Kang Seo

    2013-09-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  1. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Min Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  2. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  3. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...... Association - Cancer Research Network Meeting in Lisbon. It is explained why it has been decided to publish the manuscripts within the supplement - to document voices from the discussion and popularize them....

  4. Controversial Issues in Thyroid Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-04-13

    The lack of prospective randomized clinical trials for most management topics in differentiated thyroid cancer force us to make management recommendations based on retrospective observational data which is often incomplete, subject to selection bias, and conflicting. Therefore, it is not surprising that many aspects of thyroid cancer management remain controversial and not well defined. This review will examine the controversies surrounding three important topics in thyroid cancer management: (1) the option of thyroid lobectomy as initial therapy for thyroid cancer, (2) the proper use of preoperative neck imaging to optimize the completeness of the initial surgical procedure, and (3) the selective use RAI therapy as remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment or treatment of known persistent/recurrent disease. As thyroid cancer management moves toward a much more risk adapted approach to personalized management recommendations, clinicians and patients must balance the risks and benefits of the potential management options to arrive at a management plan that is optimized based on both patient preferences/values and the philosophy/experience of the local disease management team. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  6. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  7. Pathogenesis of radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of our 12-year experience in dealing with this problem,we offered a functional model of thyroid pathogenesis in the post-Chernobyl period.The model highlights the tight correlation between the response of the thyroid gland at exposure to ionising radiation and its functional state.The model takes into account that the thyroid functional state - its volume,iodine intake,production of hormones,etc.- has an influence upon the formation of the absorbed dose,mainly due to radioactive iodine,as well as on the type and level of radiation response manifestation.The functional activity of the gland depends both on peculiarities of the pubescent period in boys and girls,on periods of pregnancy,lactation and menopause in women and on external factors(iodine enemy in the environment or iodine prophylaxis).This permits us to consider and analyse a wide set of thyroid disorders possibly related to radiation exposure

  8. Quality of Life and Cost-Effectiveness Assessment of Radioiodine Ablation Strategies in Patients With Thyroid Cancer: Results From the Randomized Phase III ESTIMABL Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borget, Isabelle; Bonastre, Julia; Catargi, Bogdan; Déandréis, Désirée; Zerdoud, Slimane; Rusu, Daniela; Bardet, Stéphane; Leenhardt, Laurence; Bastie, Delphine; Schvartz, Claire; Vera, Pierre; Morel, Olivier; Benisvy, Daniele; Bournaud, Claire; Bonichon, Francoise; Kelly, Antony; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Leboulleux, Sophie; Journeau, Florence; Benhamou, Ellen; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-09-10

    In the ESTIMABL phase III trial, the thyroid ablation rate was equivalent for the two thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation methods (thyroid hormone withdrawal [THW] and recombinant human TSH [rhTSH]) and the two iodine-131 ((131)I) activities (1.1 or 3.7 GBq). The objectives of this article were to present health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) results and a cost-effectiveness evaluation performed alongside this trial. HRQoL and utility were longitudinally assessed, from random assignment to the follow-up visit at 8 ± 2 months for the 752 patients with thyroid cancer, using the Short Form-36 and the EuroQoL-5D questionnaires, respectively. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the societal perspective in the French context. Resource use (hospitalization for (131)I administration, rhTSH, sick leaves, and transportation) was collected prospectively. We used the net monetary benefit approach and computed cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for both TSH stimulation methods and (131)I activities. Sensitivity analyses of the costs of rhTSH were performed. At (131)I administration, THW caused a clinically significant deterioration of HRQoL, whereas HRQoL remained stable with rhTSH. This deterioration was transient with no difference 3 months later. rhTSH was more effective than THW in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; +0.013 QALY/patient) but more expensive (+€474/patient). The probability that rhTSH would be cost effective at a €50,000/QALY threshold was 47% in France. The use of 1.1 GBq of (131)I instead of 3.7 GBq reduced per-patient costs by €955 (US$1,018) but with slightly decreased efficacy (-0.007 QALY/patient). rhTSH avoids the transient THW-induced deterioration of HRQoL but is unlikely to be cost effective at its current price. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer treatment usually includes surgery and may include radioactive iodine therapy, targeted therapy, and hormone replacement therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. Hyperthyroidism, hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule, and thyroid cancer in a young female: a rare and unusual coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Martínez, José; Uzcategui, María; Corder, Eric; Castillo, Manuel; Sostre, Samuel; Alicea, Luz

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of concomitant thyroid carcinoma with Grave's disease has been reported to range from 0 to 10%. Many controversies exist in the literature regarding the diagnostic workup and management in these types of patients. We are reporting a case of a 31 year old woman who had Graves' disease, a palpable thyroid nodule, and results from a thyroid scan revealed a "hot" nodule. Interestingly, an ultrasound guided FNA of the "hot" nodule showed papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Finally, a total thyroidectomy showed multilobar tumor involvement. The diagnostic tools employed to establish the proper management strategy for this patient were based on data in the literature that is full of discrepancies. The fact that Grave's disease occurs concomitantly with thyroid cancer, specifically the papillary type, is an indisputably rare combination. One rare feature on our clinical case was the reported malignancy of a papillary carcinoma within a "hot" nodule which usually is much less that 1%. Many studies describe an increasing incidence of Grave's disease patients with concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma. One possible explanation for these findings could be improvements in medical technology of screening tools. We propose that, thyroid ultrasonography should be integrated in the diagnostic workup in patients presenting with Graves' disease, especially in those presenting with palpable nodules. Fine needle biopsy should not be restricted to cold nodules.

  11. Molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer. PMID:23429735

  12. Laboratory investigations in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of in vitro tests for diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor is negligible. However, monitoring the adequacy of thyroxin replacement and assess the functional aspects of metastatic disease is necessary using the routinely available hormonal tests. Serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker for monitoring metastatic disease is a well-established and indispensable procedure in all thyroid clinics worldwide

  13. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  14. [Current situation and thoughts on radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of thyroid cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Dong, W W

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was originally used primarily for the treatment of regional metastatic lymph nodes from recurrent thyroid cancers in the field of thyroid surgery. In recent years it is gradually used to treat a part of benign thyroid nodules. However, the domestic issues resulting from indiscriminately enlarged RFA indication and lack of standardization of therapy become more and more prominent, including initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers by RFA, which is against by the current consensus about RFA for patients with thyroid nodules and management guidelines for patients with thyroid cancers. Therefore, RFA should be avoided for initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers before the introduction of guidelines based on evidence-based medicine.

  15. Unusual manifestations of well-differentiated thyroid cancer: case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, E.M.; Barrenechea, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To present two unusual cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas Methods:Data gathering thru medical records, diagnostic examinations and laboratory results. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) are among the most common type of all thyroid cancers. These case reports were done because of the fact that both cases showed unusual presentations clinically. The first case had a histopathologic report of papillary cancer of the thyroid with some of the typical features of WDTC but within a month's time from the near-total thyroidectomy procedure, there was progression of the neck enlargement, compression symptoms and eventually stridor. I-131 total body scan showed only a small focus of residual neck tissues in the neck with no distant metastasis. Tracheostomy was done and another debulking of the multiple nodules which showed papillary cancer again this time with some anaplastic cells. The second case is a follicular WDTC who also underwent total thyroidectomy after presenting symptoms of soft tissue metastasis at the left buttocks which turned out to be follicular in origin. After total thyroidectomy, I-131 total body scan showed multiple skeleta/soft tissue metastases. These cases are presented to keep in mind that well-differentiated thyroid cancer may not be all the time slow growing and that it should not be taken for granted in terms of treatment. (authors)

  16. Hyperfunction Thyroid Nodules: Their Risk for Becoming or Being Associated with Thyroid Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study....

  17. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  18. Involvement of Aberrant Glycosylation in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modification reactions and nearly half of all known proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. In fact, changes in oligosaccharides structures are associated with many physiological and pathological events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation, and tumor invasion. Therefore, functional glycomics, which is a comprehensive study of the structures and functions of glycans, is attracting the increasing attention of scientists in various fields of life science. In cases of thyroid cancer, the biological characters and prognosis are completely different in each type of histopathology, and their oligosaccharide structures as well as the expression of glycosyltransferases are also different. In this review, we summarized our previous papers on oligosaccharides and thyroid cancers and discussed a possible function of oligosaccharides in the carcinogenesis in thyroid cancer.

  19. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane; Henry-Amar, Michel; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Rame, Jean-Pierre; Babin, Emmanuel; Icard, Philippe; Samama, Guy; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Mahoudeau, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ( 131 I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P 0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P 131 I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  20. Molecular targeted therapies of aggressive thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martina eFerrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC that arise from follicular cells account > 90% of thyroid cancer (TC [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC accounts < 5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts towards the development of new drugs.Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the last decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the above-mentioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds, and to personalize

  1. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy.

  2. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulong; Lu, Yurong; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy. PMID:29163356

  3. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  4. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  5. Primary hyperparathyroidism and nonmedullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linos, D.A.; van Heerden, J.A.; Edis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Of 2,058 patients who had surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism at the Mayo Clinic from 1965 through 1979, 51 or 2.5 percent had associated nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. A history of radiation exposure to the head and neck was obtained in 14 of 43 patients questioned. Thyroid disease consisted of grade 1 papillary adenocarcinoma in 48 cases and pure follicular adenocarcinoma in 3 cases. The parathyroid disease included 41 single adenomas and 5 cases of parathyroid hyperplasia; 5 patients had 2 adenomas. At follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Ten patients were receiving calcium or vitamin D supplementation for protracted hypocalcemia presumably due to the increased insult to the parathyroids from combined bilateral thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. More consecutive thyroidectomy, along with parathyroid autotransplantation when indicated, will provide definitive treatment of the thyroid cancer and at the same time minimize the risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism

  6. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  7. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, under the Radiation Protection Research Action, a Panel of experts was set up to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl at the time of the nuclear reactor accident on 26 April 1986. The report written by this Panel documents their findings with their respect to the occurrence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus and the Northern Ukraine. The Panel arrives to a consensus opinion and makes strong recommendations for urgent technical and humanitarian assistance and research cooperation. The Panel report and the response of the European Commission to these recommendations are discussed. (Author). 1 ref

  8. Hyperthyroidism in patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Dutt; Kumar, Gaurav; Guner, Karen; Kaddour, Hesham

    2016-06-01

    We present a retrospective case series of patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Our goal was to look at their clinical characteristics and outcomes to determine which patients would require further investigation. We reviewed the case notes of all patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of thyroid cancer and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism who had been treated at a thyroid cancer center from January 2006 through October 2013. During that time, 66 patients had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Of these, 8 patients (12%)-all women, aged 29 to 87 years (mean: 55.6; median: 50.5)-had biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism. Among these 8 patients, 4 had an autonomously functioning toxic nodule (AFTN), 3 were diagnosed with Graves disease, and 1 had a toxic multinodular goiter. Five patients had suspicious features on preoperative ultrasonography. All 8 patients were diagnosed with the papillary type of thyroid carcinoma. The mean size of the tumor in the 4 patients with AFTN was significantly larger than it was in those with Graves disease (42.3 ± 23.8 mm vs. 3.8 ± 1.6; p = 0.04). The 3 patients with Graves disease all had incidentally found papillary microcarcinoma. Between these two groups, the patients with AFTN had a poorer prognosis; 2 of them had extracapsular invasion and lymph node metastasis, and another died of her disease. We found that the incidence of hyperthyroidism in thyroid cancer patients was relatively high (12%). In contrast to what has previously been reported in the literature, patients with AFTN seem to have more aggressive disease and poorer outcomes than do patients with Graves disease. Any suspicious nodule associated with hyperthyroidism should be evaluated carefully.

  9. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Biko, J.; Geworski, L.; Olthoff, M.; Demidchik, E.P.; Streffer, C.; Paretzke, H.; Voigt, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Bauer, W.; Heinemann, G.; Pfob, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  10. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Chien-Chih; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Yang, An-Hang; Liu, Ching-Sheng; Chi, Chin-Wen; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Fan; Ho, Jennifer H.; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Lee, Oscar K.

    2013-01-01

    131 I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133 + cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133 + cells and higher radioresistance. After γ-irradiation of the cells, the CD133 + population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133 - cells. In vivo 131 I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133 + cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133 + cells. (orig.)

  12. Radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Although the use of 131 I has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial. This is because, thyroid cancers (TC) are generally slow growing tumors, with low mortality and normal spans of survival. To record recurrence and mortality, long-term follow-up studies over a period of two to three decades are needed to establish definite conclusions on the acceptable modes of treatment. The most reliable conclusions regarding 131 I treatment are obtained from studies reported on a large series of patients followed over a period of 3 decades or more from a single institute with a more or less unchanged protocol of management

  13. What Do Korean Women Know and Want to Know about Thyroid Cancer? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomyee; Park, Jae Young; Shin, Hye Young; Park, Sang Hee; Choi, Eun-Bi; Yoo, Jisu; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing debate about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer in Korea, information to guide decisions on whether or not to undergo screening for and treatment of abnormal lesions of the thyroid is lacking. Moreover, studies have yet to outline what lay people know and want to know about thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this study was to explore general awareness of thyroid cancer among Korean women, their sources of information, and their satisfaction with the information they are provided. The secondary aim was to investigate information needs about thyroid cancer. A qualitative study using focus group interviews was conducted. Twenty-nine women were divided into four groups: (1) participants who had never undergone thyroid ultrasound screening; (2) those who had undergone screening, (3) those who continued to undergo regular check-ups with ultrasonography for benign nodules of the thyroid; and (4) participants who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. A widespread lack of awareness of information on thyroid cancer was noted among participants in groups 1 and 2 who were not well aware of thyroid cancer and generally recognized it as a'good cancer'. Surprisingly, instead of doctors and medical personnel, most participants reported obtaining information from acquaintances and media outlets. Moreover, most participants described dissatisfaction with their experience with screening and a lack of explanation on treatment and test results from medical personnel. Women in Korea seek reliable information on thyroid cancer that could help them to better understand the disease and make informed decisions regarding screening and treatment. More effort is needed from medical personnel to communicate the implications of thyroid cancer, screening results, and treatments thereof to lay people.

  14. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer usually presents as a thyroid mass with or without painless cervical adenopathy. It may occur as part of a tumor predisposition syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia or DICER1 syndrome. Get detailed information about the risk factors, histopathology, molecular features, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid cancer: Clinical, radiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis or exclusion of cancer in the thyroid nodule remains a clinical dilemma for general surgeons and endocrinologists. Nodular disease of the thyroid is very common, while cancer is rare; a definite diagnosis of either is difficult to make. The general prevalence of thyroid nodules is very high. They are detectable ...

  16. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Brouwers, Adrienne; Links, Thera; Hubalewska‐Dydejczyk, Alicja; Signore, Alberto; de Jong, Marion; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Buscombe, John; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor originating from the calcitonin‐secreting C cells. Surgery, consisting of a total thyroidectomy and an extensive lymph node dissection, is the only effective treatment in MTC; however, metastases are frequently found in the regional cervical

  18. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Steven I; Wirth, Lori J; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet-derived gr...

  19. Molecular perspectives in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, C; Groussin, L

    2015-02-01

    Progress in understanding the molecular genetics of thyroid cancer in the last 20 years has accelerated recently with the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies known as Next-Generation Sequencing. Besides classical molecular abnormalities involving the MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) and PI3K (PhosphoInositide 3-Kinase) pathways that play a key role in follicular-derived thyroid tumorigenesis, new molecular abnormalities have been discovered. The major advances in recent years have been the discovery of new somatic driver gene point mutations (such as RASAL1 [RAS protein activator Like 1] mutations in follicular cancer) and/or mutations that have prognostic value (such as TERT [Telomerase reverse transcriptase] promoter mutations); new chromosomal rearrangements, usually having close connection with exposure to ionizing radiation (such as ALK [Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase] rearrangements); and deregulation of some gene or microRNA expression representing a molecular signature. Progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer offers new perspectives for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant status of a thyroid nodule, to refine prognosis and offer new perspectives of targeted therapy for radioiodine-refractory cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyroid cancer: experiences at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.M.; Gangadharan, P.; Nair, Krishnan M.

    1999-01-01

    Above 300 thyroid cancers are seen at the Regional Cancer Centre annually. There has been an increase in the number of TC registered over the years. This is at least partly due to improved diagnostic services and availability of 131 I therapy. Almost 90 % of the cases seen at the Centre are well-differentiated cancers

  1. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  2. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surry (United Kingdom); Trott, K.R. [Gray Cancer Inst., Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Simon, S.L. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Saito, Hiroshi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and {sup 137}Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  3. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira; Trott, K.R.; Simon, S.L.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137 Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  4. Surgical techniques for the atomic bomb survivors of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Noso, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    As for proper surgical techniques for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, this paper explains with a focus on the Hiroshima University cases, with an addition of the cases of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Takeichi Clinic. The definitive diagnosis of thyroid cancer is usually carried out by echo-guided aspiration biopsy cytology, but Takeichi Clinic faces the surgery by preparing 'thyroid - cervical lymph node map' by combining this technique with CT and MRI. As the surgery examples at Hiroshima University, 259 cases during 1955-1972 and 363 cases during 1965-1982 were taken up, and the survival rate and cancer death rate classified by tissue types for 10 years after the initial operations were shown in a table. Dead patients were mostly the surgery cases of senior persons of 60 years in age or older, and the death rate for surgery cases of the persons of 19 years old or younger was only 1.9% at 6 cases. Higher cancer death rate was seen in the cases of papillary cancer of more than 5 cm in size, where extra glandular infiltration could not be curated or cut out, and 64/318 cases of patients had a recurrence of cancer at thyroid gland. The mortality rate up to 20 years after the surgery of atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that of non-victims. Information on the multicentric cancerous focuses and microscopic cancer in the thyroid gland, as well as the tissue types and high risk of cancer death were described from the cases of Hiroshima University and Takeichi Clinic. The thyroid cancer of radiation exposure victims often results in papillary cancer, and the following are described related with this: (1) selection of ablation method, (2) method to protect the parathyroid tissue, and (3) method to prevent damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve. The surgical procedure to perform the neck outside area lymph node dissection due to the quasi-subtotal or quasi-complete removal of the thyroid gland is

  5. Surgical management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakih, A.R.; Mistry, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiated management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with lymph node and/or systemic metastases is very much a treatable cancer. Interaction between the surgeon and the nuclear medicine specialist is essential to ensure quality survival in these patient. This review is confined to surgical aspects and is based on experience with 417 patients who were operated for DTC at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1971 and 1985

  6. Epigenetics modifications and therapeutic prospects in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella eCatalano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. Epigenetic refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chroma¬tin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumour progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A,PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1 as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I- symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1 present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer.This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumour cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.

  7. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  8. Combination - breast cancer and thyroid gland cancer in the Semipalatinsk region of the Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandybaev, M.N.; Adylkhanov, T.A.; Aliev, B.Kh.; Zejnelova, L.T.; Musinov, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    It was analysed data of medicine analysis on study of combination breast and thyroid gland cancer. The paper presents results obtained by personnel of the Semipalatinsk Cancer Clinic. The obtained data indicate that breast cancer morbidity within Semipalatinsk region significantly surpass that of the whole Republic of Kazakhstan. Within 1991-2004, thyroid gland cancer has increased by factor of three. At the same time, decrease of death rate was indicated for the ills of both locations. Decrease of lifetime in ills with breast and thyroid gland cancer resulted in more frequent registration in them initially-multiple malignant tumors. Syntrochronous initially-multiple malignant tumors of breast occur 6 times rare than meta-chronous cancer and have bad prediction of survivability. (author)

  9. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    cancer database: DATHYRCA. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: National prospective cohort. Denmark; population 5.5 million. Completeness of case ascertainment was estimated by the independent case ascertainment method using three governmental registries as a reference. The reabstracted record method was used...... to appraise the validity. For validity assessment 100 cases were randomly selected from the DATHYRCA database; medical records were used as a reference. RESULT: The database held 1934 cases of thyroid carcinoma and completeness of case ascertainment was estimated to 90.9%. Completeness of registration......BACKGROUND: Although a prospective national clinical thyroid cancer database (DATHYRCA) has been active in Denmark since January 1, 1996, no assessment of data quality has been performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate completeness and data validity in the Danish national clinical thyroid...

  10. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward N. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWell-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is the most common form of thyroid malignancy. While it is typically associated with good prognosis, it may exhibit higher recurrence and mortality rates in selected groups, particularly Filipinos. This paper aims to describe the experience of a Philippine Hospital in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of 723 patients with WDTC (649 papillary and 79 follicular, evaluating the clinicopathologic profiles, ultrasound features, management received, tumor recurrence, and eventual outcome over a mean follow-up period of 5 years.ResultsThe mean age at diagnosis was 44±13 years (range, 18 to 82, with a majority of cases occurring in the younger age group (<45 years. Most tumors were between 2 and 4 cm in size. The majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs, 63.2% and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs, 54.4% initially presented as stage 1, with a greater proportion of FTC cases (12.7% vs. 3.7% presenting with distant metastases. Nodal metastases at presentation were more frequent among patients with PTC (29.9% vs. 7.6%. A majority of cases were treated by complete thyroidectomy, followed by radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression, resulting in a disease-free state. Excluding patients with distant metastases at presentation, the recurrence rates for papillary and FTC were 30.1% and 18.8%, respectively.ConclusionOverall, PTC among Filipinos was associated with a more aggressive and recurrent behavior. FTC among Filipinos appeared to behave similarly with other racial groups.

  11. Impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughattas, S.; Chatti, K.; Degdegui, M.; Hasine, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The association of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer, and its prognosis significance remain controversial. We investigate the prognosis impact of this association by reviewing our series of patients being followed for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at the department of nuclear medicine of Sahloul. Among the 350 patients followed in our department, 30 (8.5%) had histologically proved CLT, with infiltration of the non- tumoral thyroid tissue. A second group of 60 patients (without evidence of lymphocytic infiltration) was selected randomly and used as controls. The median of follow-up for these two groups was 4 years. The frequency of papillary thyroid cancer was significantly higher in the group with CTL (90% vs 74%; p=0.05). The larger diameter of the tumor didn't differ significantly (p= 0.36) between the group with TLC (mean=2.7; SD=1.98) and the control group 3.08 (SD=1.66). There was also no significant difference in capsular infiltration (37% vs 36%; p=0.96), nodal metastases (47% vs 43%; p=0.74), multicentric tumors (37% vs 38%; p=0.99) and bilateral tumors (20% vs 22%; p=0.9). At initial presentation, distant metastases were less frequent in patients with coexisting CLT and DTC (3% vs 12%, p<1%). Nevertheless, if we consider only patients with papillary thyroid cancer, the difference was not statistically significant (0% vs 6%; p=0.23). During the follow-up (mean 4 years), there was no significant difference in nodal relapse (20% vs 8% p=0.1), and distant metastasis (6% vs 3%: p=0.45). No death was noted in the first group, and two were observed in the second (patients with follicular thyroid cancer). The most striking result of this study is the total absence of significant impact of CLT on the prognosis of DTC. Our results seem to be on opposite to those of the majority of authors, underlying the complexity of this entity. We think that some factors specific to our population (iodine diet, ethnical

  12. The thyroid cancer policy model: A mathematical simulation model of papillary thyroid carcinoma in The U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Lubitz

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions.Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule. Using established calibration techniques, optimal parameter sets for tumor growth characteristics, development rate, and detection rate were used to fit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER incidence data and other calibration targets.Model outputs compared to calibration targets demonstrating sufficient calibration fit and model validation are presented including primary targets of SEER incidence data and size distribution at detection of malignancy. Additionally, we show the predicted underlying benign and malignant prevalence of nodules in the population, the probability of detection based on size of nodule, and estimates of growth over time in both benign and malignant nodules.This comprehensive model provides a dynamic platform employable for future comparative effectiveness research. Future model analyses will test and assess various clinical management strategies to improve patient outcomes related to thyroid cancer and optimize resource utilization for patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  14. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  15. The management of differentiated thyroid cancer in Europe in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldet, L.; Jaffiol, C.; Percheron, C.; Manderscheid, J.-C.; Coste-Seignovert, B.; Glinoer, D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to know how thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers are investigated and treated in 1988, an international inquiry was performed by mean of a questionnaire based on a well-defined case report of a 35-year-old female with a solitary small thyroid nodule. Clinicians were asked to indicate their diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the reported case and to some variations. Analysis of the 157 responses from thyroid experts showed that three in vitro tests (sensitive-TSH, free T 4 and total T 4 ) and three in vivo tests ( 99m Tc or radioiodide scintiscan, fine needle aspiration and ultrasonography) were performed most frequently. In the case of a solid and cold nodule and in the absence of fine needle aspiration results, 19% of respondents advocated suppressive therapy and 81% surgery. In the same clinical case, but whom fine needle aspiration had been performed and cytology was benign, surgery was advocated by 24%, suppressive therapy by 48% and a regular follow-up without treatment by 28% of respondents. When surgery was performed and the diagnosis was a differentiated thyroid cancer, (near) total thyroidectomy was more frequently chosen than partial thyroidectomy in both papillary (60 and 40%, respectively, of respondents) and follicular (74 and 26%, respectively, of respondents) cancers; 80% of clinicians did not change their surgical technique in relation to histological type of the tumour. Total thyroidectomy was more often recommended in most of the clinical or anatomical variations compared with the basic case repot. Pre- og postoperative hormonal therapy was initiated with L-T 4 and TSH suppression was controlled by sensitive-TSH and thyroblobulin determinations. After total thyroidectomy, 131 I was used with similar modalities for papillary and follicular cancers to ablate a thyroid remnant. (author)

  16. [Clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid cancer coexistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Sarolta; Győry, Ferenc; Nagy, Endre; Méhes, Gábor; Molnár, Csaba

    2017-02-01

    Former studies suggest the frequent coexistence of Hashimoto's thyreoditis with papillary thyroid cancer, frequently featured by multifocal carcinogenesis but lower clinical stages compared to thyroid cancers lacking thyroiditis. We examined the clinico-pathological correlations between Hashimoto's thyroditis and papillary thyroid cancer in our region in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. We included a total of 230 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent thyroid surgery at the Surgical Department of the University of Debrecen. Patients' sex, age, multifocality of thyroid cancer and clinical stage were evaluated. Cases included 40 patients (17.4%) with (4 male, 36 female) and 190 (82.6%) patients without HT (44 male, 146 female). Hashimoto's thyroiditis related thyroid cancer was almost exclusively associated with the papillary histological type. Multifocality of papillary cancer was significantly more frequent with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (16/40; 40.0%) compared to cases uninvolved (45/190; 23.7%; p = 0.034). In contrast, lymph node metastasis was significantly less frequent among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (4 pN1 [36.4%]; 7 pN0 [63.6%]) then without it (34 pN1 [82.9%]; 7 pN0 [17.1%]; p = 0.002). Higher frequency and multifocality of papillary thyroid cancer might be the consequence of preexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis to be considered as a preneoplastic stimulus supporting carcinogenesis, though the exact pathomechanism of this correlation is not clear yet. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(5), 178-182.

  17. [(90)Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC response is associated with survival benefit in iodine-refractory thyroid cancer: long-term results of a phase 2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Fabienne; Muller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Rochlitz, Christoph; Oertli, Daniel; Maecke, Helmut R; Muller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2009-05-15

    The authors aimed to explore the efficacy of (90)Yttrium-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid [(90)Y-DOTA]-Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) in advanced iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. In a phase 2 trial, the authors investigated biochemical response (assessed by serum thyroglobulin levels), survival, and the long-term safety profile of systemic [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. Adverse events were assessed according to the National Cancer Institute criteria. Survival analyses were performed by using multiple regression models. A total of 24 patients were enrolled. A median cumulative activity of 13.0 GBq (range, 1.7-30.3 GBq) was administered. Response was found in 7 (29.2%) patients. Eight (33.3%) patients developed hematologic toxicity grade 1-3, and 4 (16.7%) patients developed renal toxicity grade 1-4. The median survival was 33.4 months (range, 3.6-126.8 months) from time of diagnosis and 16.8 months (range, 1.8-99.1 months) from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.92; P = .04) and from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94; P = .04). The visual grade of scintigraphic tumor uptake was not associated with treatment response (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.26-3.14; P = 1.00). Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer was associated with longer survival. Upcoming trials should aim to increase the number of treatment cycles.

  18. Hashimoto's thyroiditis predicts outcome in intrathyroidal papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Vincenzo; Sciammarella, Concetta; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Gambardella, Claudio; Bellevicine, Claudio; Grasso, Marica; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Troncone, Giancarlo; De Palma, Maurizio; Giacomelli, Laura; Pezzullo, Luciano; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2017-09-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have favourable prognostic impact on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but data were obtained analysing all disease stages. Given that HT-related microenvironment involves solely the thyroid, we aimed to assess the relationship between HT, as detected through pathological assessment, and outcome in intrathyroidal PTC. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including 301 PTC with no evidence of extrathyroidal disease. Primary study endpoint was the rate of clinical remission. Auxiliary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). HT was detected in 42.5% of the cohort and was associated to female gender, smaller tumour size, lower rate of aggressive PTC variants and less frequent post-surgery radio-iodine administration. HT showed relationship with significantly higher rate of clinical remission ( P  < 0.001, OR 4, 95% CI 1.78-8.94). PTCs with concomitant HT had significantly longer RFS, as compared with non-HT tumours ( P  = 0.004). After adjustment for other parameters affecting disease outcome at univariate analysis (age at diagnosis, histology, tumour size and multifocality), prognostic effect of HT remained significant ( P  = 0.006, OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.39-7.72). To verify whether HT could optimise the identification of PTCs with unfavourable outcome, we assessed the accuracy of 'non-HT status' as negative prognostic marker, demonstrating poor capability of identifying patients not maintaining clinical remission until final follow-up (probability of no clinical remission in PTCs without HT: 21.05%, 95% CI 15.20-27.93). In conclusion, our data show that HT represents an independent prognostic parameter in intrathyroidal PTC, but cannot improve prognostic specificity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. [Thyroid cancer in patients with Grave's Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mssrouri, R; Benamr, S; Essadel, A; Mdaghri, J; Mohammadine, El H; Lahlou, M-K; Taghy, A; Belmahi, A; Chad, B

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients operated on for Graves' disease, to identify criteria which may predict malignancy, and to develop a practical approach to determine the extensiveness of thyroidectomy. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy for Graves' disease between 1995 and 2005. 547 patients underwent subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease during this period. Post-operative pathology examination revealed six cases of thyroid cancer (1.1%). All six cases had differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary carcinoma in 3 cases, follicular carcinoma in 2 cases and papillo-follicular carcinoma in 1 case). The indication for initial thyroidectomy was a palpable thyroid nodule in 3 cases (50%), failure of medical treatment for Grave's disease in 2 cases (33%), and signs of goiter compression in 1 case (17%). Five patients underwent re-operative total thyroidectomy. This study shows that while malignancy in Grave's disease is uncommon, the presence of thyroid nodule(s) in patients with Grave's disease may be considered as an indication for radical surgery. The most adequate radical surgery in this situation is to perform a total thyroidectomy.

  20. Heavy metals in the volcanic environment and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneri, R; Malandrino, P; Gianì, F; Russo, M; Vigneri, P

    2017-12-05

    In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission. Soil, water and atmosphere contamination, via the food chain, biocontaminate the residents as documented by high levels in the urines and the scalp hair compared to individuals living in adjacent non-volcanic areas. Trace amounts of metals are essential nutrients but, at higher concentrations, can be toxic for living cells. Metals can behave both as endocrine disruptors, perturbing the hormonal system, and as carcinogens, promoting malignant transformation. Similarly to other carcinogens, the transforming effect of heavy metals is higher in developing organisms as the fetus (contaminated via the mother) and individuals in early childhood. In the last decades environment metal pollution has greatly increased in industrialized countries. Although still within the "normal" limits for each single metal the hormesis effect (heavy metal activity at very low concentration because of biphasic, non linear cell response) and the possible potentiation effect resulting from the mixture of different metals acting synergistically can explain cell damage at very low concentrations. The effect of metals on the human thyroid is poorly studied: for some heavy metals no data are available. The scarce studies that have been performed mainly focus on metal effect as thyroid endocrine disruptors. The metal concentration in tissues has

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, T.; Bleuer, J.P.; Averkin, J.I.; Okeanov, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  4. New strategies for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenal, Guillermo J.

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer, which accounts for about 5-10% of thyroid cancer cases, is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the genetic changes that underlie thyroid cancer, as all kinds of tumors. The characterization of these proteins is being exploited to delineate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this cancer. This work is focused on those compounds or therapeutic approaches that are being used in clinical essays or in animal models. (author) [es

  5. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients

  6. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid hormone test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In interpreting thyroid hormones results it is preferable to think of interference and changes in concentration of their carrier proteins. Outline of Cases. We present two patients with discrepancy between the results of thyroid function tests and clinical status. The first case presents a 62-year-old patient with a nodular goiter and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Thyroid function test showed low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and normal to low fT4. By determining thyroid status (ТSH, T4, fT4, T3, fT3 in two laboratories, basal and after dilution, as well as thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG, it was concluded that the thyroid hormone levels were normal. The results were influenced by heterophile antibodies leading to a false lower TSH level and suspected secondary hypothyroidism. The second case, a 40-year-old patient, was examined and followed because of the variable size thyroid nodule and initially borderline elevated TSH, after which thyroid status showed low level of total thyroid hormones and normal TSH. Based on additional analysis it was concluded that low T4 and T3 were a result of low TBG. It is a hereditary genetic disorder with no clinical significance. Conclusion. Erroneous diagnosis of thyroid disorders and potentially harmful treatment could be avoided by proving the interference or TBG deficiency whenever there is a discrepancy between the thyroid function results and the clinical picture.

  7. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-07-01

    Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.

  8. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-01-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases

  9. Targeted Therapy Shows Benefit in Rare Type of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib (Caprelsa) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial.

  10. Thyroid cancer following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao

    1980-01-01

    A women aged 37 who had thyroid cancer after 131 I therapy for hyperthyroidism was reported. She had received various conservative therapies and surgical treatments for hyperthyroidism for 10 years before 131 I therapy. Similar cases were picked out from many reports, and their clinical characteristics were discussed. The incidence of thyroid cancer after 131 I therapy, age and sex of patients, dosage of 131 I, histological changes after the irradiation of 131 I, sites of thyroid cancer, and the relationship between 131 I therapy and the occurrence time of thyroid cancer were also considered. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ech-Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2009-01-01

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  12. POSTOPERATIVE TREATMENT OF THYROID CANCER WITH RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahd, William H.; Koplowitz, Jerry M.

    1963-06-15

    Experiences in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine since 1949 are reviewed. Forty-five patients received therapeutic amounts of I/sup 131/ and were followed for more than one year. Cancer metastases were localized by means of the mechanical scintiscanner after patients had received large tracer doses of I/sup 131/ preceded by injections of thyrotropic hormone. A consistent therapeutic regimen was followed involving four basic modalities of therapy: surgical thyroidectomy, thyrotropic hormone stimulation, cancerocidal doses of I/sup 131/ and thyroid extract administration. Twenty-nine patients in the series had proved metastatic lesions; 11 died, 18 are living, and 41% have lived 5 or more years. All patients who were free of metastases after initial thyroid surgery are alive. No complications from I/sup 131/ therapy were observed. This is attributed to the conservative dosage regimen employed. The results of the use of I/sup 131/ in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer in other reported series are also reviewed. (P.C.H.)

  13. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature.

  14. Clusters of Adolescent and Young Adult Thyroid Cancer in Florida Counties

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    Raid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid cancer is a common cancer in adolescents and young adults ranking 4th in frequency. Thyroid cancer has captured the interest of epidemiologists because of its strong association to environmental factors. The goal of this study is to identify thyroid cancer clusters in Florida for the period 2000–2008. This will guide further discovery of potential risk factors within areas of the cluster compared to areas not in cluster. Methods. Thyroid cancer cases for ages 15–39 were obtained from the Florida Cancer Data System. Next, using the purely spatial Poisson analysis function in SaTScan, the geographic distribution of thyroid cancer cases by county was assessed for clusters. The reference population was obtained from the Census Bureau 2010, which enabled controlling for population age, sex, and race. Results. Two statistically significant clusters of thyroid cancer clusters were found in Florida: one in southern Florida (SF (relative risk of 1.26; P value of <0.001 and the other in northwestern Florida (NWF (relative risk of 1.71; P value of 0.012. These clusters persisted after controlling for demographics including sex, age, race. Conclusion. In summary, we found evidence of thyroid cancer clustering in South Florida and North West Florida for adolescents and young adult.

  15. Occurrence of Endocrine and Thyroid Cancers Among Alaska Native People, 1969-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Lanier, Anne P; Southworth, Molly B

    2018-04-01

    Nationwide, the incidence of thyroid cancer is lower among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people than among U.S. whites (USW). However, little is known about the incidence of thyroid or other endocrine cancers specifically among Alaska Native (AN) people. Data were examined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Alaska Native Tumor Registry on endocrine cancers diagnosed among AN people from 1969-2013, with a specific focus on thyroid cancers. Frequencies of endocrine cancers by site and also of thyroid cancers by histology, size, and stage at diagnosis were evaluated. Distributions were compared to USW (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registries) using the chi-square test. Five-year average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancers were calculated, stratified by histology, age, and five-year period of diagnosis, and compared to those observed among USW. Five-year cause-specific survival was evaluated using cause of death data from the National Death Index Plus from the National Center for Health Statistics. During the 45-year period (1969-2013), 224 endocrine cancers were diagnosed among AN people, of which 210 (94%) were thyroid cancers. Compared to USW, AN people were diagnosed at a slightly younger age, had a higher proportion of thyroid cancers diagnosed with a size of 20-40 mm, and a larger proportion of patients with regional metastases. More than 85% of AN thyroid cancers were of papillary histology. The incidence of thyroid cancers was similar between AN people and USW, and appeared to increase among AN people over the period of surveillance. Finally, five-year cause-specific survival rate was 100% for papillary carcinoma patients and 86.3% [confidence interval 54.7-96.5] for follicular thyroid cancer patients. This study is the first report of endocrine cancers and the first detailed examination of thyroid cancer among AN people. The incidence of thyroid cancer was similar among

  16. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation.

  17. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation

  18. Thyroid dysfunction following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.L.; Tiver, K.W.; Boyages, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of hypothyroidism (both subclinical and clinical) following external beam radiotherapy to the whole of the thyroid gland in the treatment of squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: One hundred and four patients who had completed radiotherapy 30 days to 5 years earlier (84 patients) or who were scheduled for radiotherapy (20 patients) had a single measurement of serum-free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels between August 1991 and May 1992. Results: None of the 20 patients assessed prior to treatment showed thyroid dysfunction. Twenty of 84 (23.8%) previously treated patients had subclinical (9.5%) or clinical (14.3%) hypothyroidism. By 5 years, up to 40% of patients may become hypothyroid. Thyroid underactivity was significantly more common in patients having both laryngectomy (including hemi-thyroidectomy) and radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone (p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism had not been suspected clinically in any patient tested. Conclusion: In view of the frequency and potential morbidity of this complication, thyroid function testing should become a routine part of posttreatment follow-up for these patients

  19. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  20. Recent advances in managing differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartina, Livia; Grani, Giorgio; Durante, Cosimo; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2018-01-01

    The main clinical challenge in the management of thyroid cancer is to avoid over-treatment and over-diagnosis in patients with lower-risk disease while promptly identifying those patients with more advanced or high-risk disease requiring aggressive treatment. In recent years, novel clinical and molecular data have emerged, allowing the development of new staging systems, predictive and prognostic tools, and treatment approaches. There has been a notable shift toward more conservative management of low- and intermediate-risk patients, characterized by less extensive surgery, more selective use of radioisotopes (for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes), and less intensive follow-up. Furthermore, the histologic classification; tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging; and American Thyroid Association risk stratification systems have been refined, and this has increased the number of patients in the low- and intermediate-risk categories. There is now a need for new, prospective data to clarify how these changing practices will impact long-term outcomes of patients with thyroid cancer, and new follow-up strategies and biomarkers are still under investigation. On the other hand, patients with more advanced or high-risk disease have a broader portfolio of options in terms of treatments and therapeutic agents, including multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitors, more selective BRAF or MEK inhibitors, combination therapies, and immunotherapy.

  1. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC.

  2. Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab.

  3. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  4. Effects of the chernobyl disaster on thyroid cancer incidence in Turkey after 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hasan; Cakabay, Bahri; Bayrak, Ferit; Evrenkaya, Tülay

    2011-01-01

    Background. Separate studies involving people who survived atomic bombs have shown that the risk for cancer remains high after 40 years, compared with the risk in the general population. An elevated risk may also remain in regions of Turkey near the Chernobyl disaster. Patients and Methods. A multidisciplinary study conducted in 2008, 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster, examined the thyroid cancer incidence in Rize, a province of Turkey located on the shore of the middle Black Sea. Approximately 100,000 people were screened, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 89 patients. Results. Based on postoperative histopathological examinations, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in six of the 100,000 people screened. Conclusion. Given a thyroid cancer frequency of approximately 8 in 100,000 in the Turkish population, according to the Turkish Cancer Research Association, the rate in Rize reflects no increase in the thyroid cancer incidence 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster.

  5. The Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer: The Influence of Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Andrew G.; Tosteson, Tor D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapidly rising incidence of papillary thyroid cancer may be due to overdiagnosis of a reservoir of subclinical disease. To conclude that overdiagnosis is occurring, evidence for an association between access to health care and the incidence of cancer is necessary. Methods We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to examine U.S. papillary thyroid cancer incidence trends in Medicare-age and non–Medicare-age cohorts over three decades. We performed an ecologic analysis across 497 U.S. counties, examining the association of nine county-level socioeconomic markers of health care access and the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer. Results Papillary thyroid cancer incidence is rising most rapidly in Americans over age 65 years (annual percentage change, 8.8%), who have broad health insurance coverage through Medicare. Among those under 65, in whom health insurance coverage is not universal, the rate of increase has been slower (annual percentage change, 6.4%). Over three decades, the mortality rate from thyroid cancer has not changed. Across U.S. counties, incidence ranged widely, from 0 to 29.7 per 100,000. County papillary thyroid cancer incidence was significantly correlated with all nine sociodemographic markers of health care access: it was positively correlated with rates of college education, white-collar employment, and family income; and negatively correlated with the percentage of residents who were uninsured, in poverty, unemployed, of nonwhite ethnicity, non-English speaking, and lacking high school education. Conclusion Markers for higher levels of health care access, both sociodemographic and age-based, are associated with higher papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates. More papillary thyroid cancers are diagnosed among populations with wider access to healthcare. Despite the threefold increase in incidence over three decades, the mortality rate remains unchanged. Together with the large subclinical reservoir of

  6. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in Sicily: The Role of Environmental Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tavarelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30–40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA.MethodsUsing the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA.ResultsForty-three ATCs were identified in Sicily in the period 2002–2009. In our series only age <70 years at diagnosis (p = 0.01, coexistence with DTC (p = 0.027 and tumor size ≤6 cm (p = 0.012 were significant factors for increased survival at univariate analysis (only age at multivariate analysis. No difference in ATC incidence was found in urban vs rural areas and in iodine-deficient and industrial vs control areas. By contrast, in the volcanic area of Sicily, where DTC incidence is doubled relative to the rest of the island, also ATC incidence was increased. ATC data in Sicily were similar to those reported in the same period in the USA where overall survival rate at 6 and 12 months, however, was smaller.ConclusionThe similar ATC data observed in Sicily and USA (having different genetic background and lifestyle and the increased ATC incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily paralleling the increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer are compatible with the possibility that casual additional mutations, more frequent in a background of increased cell replication like DCT, are the major causes of ATC rather than

  7. Thyroid cancer: experiences at Uttar Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The highest incidence of goitre and also carcinoma of the thyroid was found to be in Terai. Although patients having thyroid carcinoma are being treated since 1964, because of the poor follow-up of the patients, only 1140 patients seen over 20 years (1978-1997) have been included in the study. Of the 217 cases of anaplastic carcinomas, surgery was feasible in only 19.4% (43/217) of cases. Even in these cases, the disease recurred within a short period to poor results. The main treatment has been external beam radiotherapy with doxorubicin as a radiosensitiser

  8. Thyroid cancer characteristics in the population surrounding Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2012-06-01

    To determine differences in disease characteristics between the thyroid cancer populations in the area around the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant and the rest of the state of Pennsylvania. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2008 were reviewed and information regarding age at diagnosis, sex, race, residential status, county of residence, thyroid pathology, thyroid surgery, and staging was recorded. Dauphin, Lancaster, and York counties were defined as the TMI area. Records of 26,357 thyroid cancer patients were reviewed, with 2,611 patients within the TMI area. A higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer (P < .001) and lower proportion of follicular thyroid cancer (P < .001) were noted in the TMI area population. Thyroid cancer cases from the TMI area were found to be more likely to be diagnosed before the age of 65 years (P < .001), be Pennsylvania born (P < .001), be well differentiated (P < .001), be <10 mm in size (P < .001), and be localized without spread (P < .001). Although the TMI area shows a higher incidence of thyroid cancer as compared to the rest of the state, this was not statistically significant. The TMI population showed a higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer and less aggressive pathology and earlier diagnosis compared to the rest of Pennsylvania. No statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence was noted. Overall, the study does not show a clear link with more advanced thyroid cancer and proximity to the TMI nuclear reactors. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  10. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. RESULTS: The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, P<0.0001. After multivariable-adjustment, the OR (95% CI for diabetes status was 0.816 (0.652-1.021; and for diabetes duration <1 year, 1-3 years, 3-5 years and ≥ 5 years vs. non-diabetes was 0.071 (0.010-0.507, 0.450 (0.250-0.813, 0.374 (0.203-0.689 and 1.159 (0.914-1.470, respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI: 1.882 (1.202-2.947. The OR (95% CI for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860-3.364, 0.696 (0.419-1.155, 0.581 (0.202-1.674, 0.522 (0.069-3.926 and 0.669 (0.230-1.948, respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti

  11. Benign breast disease and risk of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael; Nassir, Rami; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Lane, Dorothy; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that breast and thyroid diseases may be linked. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between benign breast disease and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer. Postmenopausal women (n = 133,875) aged 50-79 years were followed up for a mean of 14 years. Benign breast disease was defined by history of biopsy. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios. There were 370 incident thyroid cancer cases during the follow-up period. Compared to women without BBD, women with BBD had a significant increased risk of thyroid cancer after adjusting for potential confounders (HR 1.38 95% CI 1.10-1.73), especially for women with more than two biopsies (HR 1.59 95% CI 1.10-2.26). There were no significant differences in thyroid tumor size, stage or histologic types between women with and without BBD. Our large prospective study observed that postmenopausal women with BBD had an increased risk for thyroid cancer compared with women without BBD. A more detailed investigation of thyroid cancer risk according to different subtypes of benign breast disease is needed to better understand the association observed between thyroid and benign breast diseases.

  12. Melatonin suppresses thyroid cancer growth and overcomes radioresistance via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wei Zou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. By contrast, irradiation of thyroid cancer cells resulted in elevated level of phosphorylated p65, which could be reversed by cotreatment with melatonin. Consequently, melatonin synergized with irradiation to induce cytotoxicity to thyroid cancer, especially in the undifferentiated subgroups. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may exert anti-tumor activities against thyroid carcinoma by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of reactive oxygen species. Radio-sensitization by melatonin may have clinical benefits in thyroid cancer. Keywords: Melatonin, Thyroid cancer, Radioresistance, p65, Reactive oxygen species

  13. Mutant HABP2 Causes Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies at the base of the throat in front of the windpipe. A member of the endocrine system, the thyroid secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and metabolism. Cancer of the thyroid is the most common endocrine cancer and the eighth most common cancer in the U.S. An estimated 63,450 Americans will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer this year. The vast majority is of follicular cell origin, and the remaining cancer originates from parafollicular cells, so called medullary thyroid cancer.

  14. Serum Thyroglobulin Doubling Time in Progressive Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, R.M.; Jentzen, W.; Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A.; Gorges, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor marker doubling time (DT) has been proposed as a prognostic marker for various types of cancer. The present study analyzed the DT of the thyroid-specific tumor marker thyroglobulin (Tg), focusing on patients with progressive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: A total of

  15. Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib Approved for Melanoma, Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA recently approved the combination of dabrafenib (Taflinar) and trametinib (Mekinist) to treat some patients with melanoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer whose tumors have a mutation in the BRAF gene. As this Cancer Currents blog post explains, this is the first treatment approved specifically for anaplastic thyroid

  16. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues ... Methods. 2.1 Cell culture and treatment. Human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, .... water and the quality of RNA was evaluated by gel electro- ... and the preparations stored at ‑80°C for subsequent analysis.

  17. Predicting Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers from incoming data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Data on childhood thyroid cancers contracted in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia's Bryansk and Kaluga regions have been analysed under the working hypothesis that the excess cancers have been caused by iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout. It is postulated that the variation in latency period between different individuals is most likely to conform to either a normal or a normal logarithmic distribution. Optimal values of the mean and geometric mean latency period, together with their associated standard deviations, have been found using Belarus data. Both resulting distributions predict significant incidence of childhood thyroid cancer much earlier than ten years after the accident, a length of time widely understood in the past to be the approximate minimum for the development of a radiation-induced, solid tumour. The two distributions incorporating these optimal values have been tested against independent data from the Ukraine and Russian and each distribution has passed the statistical tests to date. Predictions are given for the annual incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in each country and for the total number of excess cases over all years. Tolerances are assigned to the latter figure. (Author)

  18. The effect of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wei, Hou-Qing; Wang, Xi-Hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and malignant tumors of the thyroid. A retrospective review of 647 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital, China in 2012 was performed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with thyroid malignancies and CLT were collected. CLT was diagnosed by histopathological method. Among 647 patients, 144 patients had thyroid malignancies and 108 patients had been diagnosed with CLT. Moreover, in total, 44 patients had thyroid malignancies coexistent with CLT: forty-one (93.2%) patients had been diagnosed with the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); two (4.5%) patients suffered from medullary carcinoma; and one (2.3%) patient suffered from lymphoma. The morbidity of thyroid malignancies in patients with CLT was significantly higher than that in patients without CLT (40.7% versus 18.6%; P CLT compared with those without CLT (P CLT and without CLT. Female predominance was observed in patients with CLT. CLT may have no effect on the progression of thyroid malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the influences of CLT on the prognosis of the thyroid carcinoma still need to be investigated with a larger sample size.

  19. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in ... investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, ... overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumourgrowth in vivo using ...

  20. Thyroid Radiation Dose and Other Risk Factors of Thyroid Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue S; Hawkins, Mike; Guibout, Catherine; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Pacquement, Hélène; Diop, Fara; Kalhouche, Amar; Benadjaoud, Mohamedamine; Winter, David; Jackson, Angela; Bezin Mai-Quynh, Giao; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Veres, Cristina; Munzer, Martine; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Deutsch, Eric; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; Rubino, Carole

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation. This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response. We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered. Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI, 1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1). Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

  1. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  2. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  3. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  4. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  5. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  6. Using nuclear medicine technique in thyroid cancer diagnosis with comparison to ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We used the following tests- thyroid uptake with I-131, Thyroid imaging with I-131 and Thyroid ultrasound and lymph node metastasis ultrasound. The results are as follows: 1.Thyroid uptake with I-131: This test was for the evaluation of normal thyroid tissue and function of thyroid cancer: The mean of uptake were: 12,7% at 2h and 28,53 % at 24 h after addition I-131. There was no relation to I-131 uptake with tumor size. (2) Thyroid imaging with I131: Diagnosis sensitivity was 98,1%. The cold nodules on scintigram were 92,5%. The warm nodules were 16,8%. And there were no hot nodules. (3) Thyroid ultrasound and lymph node metastasis ultrasound. Diagnosis sensitivity was 98,3%. Diagnosis sensitivity of lymph node metastasis is 94,1%, accuracy 96,6%. Nuclear medicine technique contributed very much to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer and other cancer diseases. We are using SPECT and other nuclear medicine technique in oncology diagnosis and follow-up therapy. (author)

  7. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  8. Ultrasound surveillance for radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, Enrico; Felicetti, Francesco; Castiglione, Anna; Gallo, Marco; Maletta, Francesca; Isolato, Giuseppe; Biasin, Eleonora; Fagioli, Franca; Corrias, Andrea; Palestini, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    The optimal surveillance strategy to screen for thyroid carcinoma childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at increased risk is still debated. In our clinical practice, beside neck palpation we routinely perform thyroid ultrasound (US). Here we describe the results obtained using this approach. We considered all CCS referred to our long term clinic from November 2001 to September 2014. One hundred and ninety-seven patients who had received radiation therapy involving the thyroid gland underwent US surveillance. Thyroid US started 5 years after radiotherapy and repeated every 3 years, if negative. Among 197 CCS previously irradiated to the thyroid gland, 74 patients (37.5%) developed thyroid nodules, and fine-needle aspiration was performed in 35. In 11 patients the cytological examination was suspicious or diagnostic for malignancy (TIR 4/5), whereas a follicular lesion was diagnosed in nine. Patients with TIR 4/5 cytology were operated and in all cases thyroid cancer diagnosis was confirmed. The nine patients with TIR 3 cytology also underwent surgery and a carcinoma was diagnosed in three of them. Prevalence of thyroid cancer was 7.1%. Tumour size ranged between 4 and 25 mm, but six (43%) were classified T3 because of extra-thyroidal extension. Six patients had nodal metastases; in eight patients the tumour was multifocal. At the time of the study all patients are disease free, without evidence of surgery complications. Applying our US surveillance protocol, the prevalence of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is high. Histological features of the thyroid cancers diagnosed in our cohort suggest that most of them were clinically relevant tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of Thyroid Dose by TLD arising from Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients from Supraclavicular Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading global cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Radiotherapy plays a significant role in treatment of breast cancer and reduces locoregional recurrence and eventually improves survival. The treatment fields applied for breast cancer treatment include: tangential, axillary, supraclavicular and internal mammary fields. Objective: In the present study, due to the presence of sensitive organ such as thyroid inside the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose and its effective factors were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thyroid dose of 31 female patients of breast cancer with involved supraclavicular lymph nodes which had undergone radiotherapy were measured. For each patient, three TLD-100 chips were placed on their thyroid gland surface, and thyroid doses of patients were measured. The variables of the study include shield shape, the time of patient’s setup, the technologists’ experience and qualification. Finally, the results were analyzed by ANOVA test using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The average age of the patients was 46±10 years. The average of thyroid dose of the patients was 140±45 mGy (ranged 288.2 and 80.8 in single fraction. There was a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and shield shape. There was also a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and the patient’s setup time. Conclusion: Beside organ at risk such as thyroid which is in the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose possibility should be reduced. For solving this problem, an appropriate shield shape, the appropriate time of the patient’s setup, etc. could be considered.

  10. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  11. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-01-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with 131 I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after 131 I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women

  12. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  13. Implication from thyroid function decreasing during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: chemosensitization role of triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have been shown to regulate breast cancer cells growth, the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones in cells could provoke a proliferation arrest in G0-G1 or weak mitochondrial activity, which makes cells insensitive to therapies for cancers through transforming into low metabolism status. This biological phenomenon may help explain why treatment efficacy and prognosis vary among breast cancer patients having hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and normal function. Nevertheless, the abnormal thyroid function in breast cancer patients has been considered being mainly caused by thyroid diseases, few studied influence of chemotherapy on thyroid function and whether its alteration during chemotherapy can influence the respose to chemotherapy is still unclear. So, we aimed to find the alterations of thyroid function and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) prevalence druing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy. Methods Thyroid hormones and NTIS prevalence at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were analyzed in 685 breast diseases patients (369 breast cancer, 316 breast benign lesions). The influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated by chemosensitization test, to compare chemotherapeutic efficacy between breast cancer cells with chemotherapeutics plus triiodothyronine (T3) and chemotherapeutics only. Results In breast cancer, NTIS prevalence at the initial diagnosis was higher and increased during chemotherapy, but declined before the next chemotherapeutic course. Thyroid hormones decreased signigicantly during chemotherapy. T3 can enhance the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 to 5-Fu and taxol, with progression from G0-G1 phase to S phase. The similar chemosensitization role of T3 were found in MDA-MB-231. We compared chemotherapeutic efficacy among groups with different usage modes of T3, finding pretreatment with lower dose of T3, using

  14. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  15. Differential regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badziong, Julia; Ting, Saskia; Synoracki, Sarah; Tiedje, Vera; Brix, Klaudia; Brabant, Georg; Moeller, Lars Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Fuhrer, Dagmar; Zwanziger, Denise

    2017-09-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transporters are expressed in thyrocytes and most play a role in TH release. We asked whether expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and the L-type amino acid transporters LAT2 and LAT4 is changed with thyrocyte dedifferentiation and in hyperfunctioning thyroid tissues. Protein expression and localization of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry in human thyroid specimen including normal thyroid tissue (NT, n  = 19), follicular adenoma (FA, n  = 44), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC, n  = 45), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, n  = 40), anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC, n  = 40) and Graves' disease (GD, n  = 50) by calculating the 'hybrid' (H) score. Regulation of transporter expression was investigated in the rat follicular thyroid cell line PCCL3 under basal and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) conditions. MCT8 and LAT4 were localized at the plasma membrane, while LAT2 transporter showed cytoplasmic localization. MCT8 expression was downregulated in benign and malignant thyroid tumours as compared to NT. In contrast, significant upregulation of MCT8, LAT2 and LAT4 was found in GD. Furthermore, a stronger expression of MCT8 was demonstrated in PCCL3 cells after TSH stimulation. Downregulation of MCT8 in thyroid cancers qualifies MCT8 as a marker of thyroid differentiation. The more variable expression of LATs in distinct thyroid malignancies may be linked with other transporter properties relevant to altered metabolism in cancer cells, i.e. amino acid transport. Consistent upregulation of MCT8 in GD is in line with increased TH release in hyperthyroidism, an assumption supported by our in vitro results showing TSH-dependent upregulation of MCT8. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Targeted Therapy for Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Priya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs constitute between 2 and 5% of all thyroid cancers. The 10-year overall survival (OS rate of patients with localized disease is around 95% while that of patients with regional stage disease is about 75%. Only 20% of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis survive 10 years which is significantly lower than for differentiated thyroid cancers. Cases with regional metastases at presentation have high recurrence rates. Adjuvant external radiation confers local control but not improved OS. The management of residual, recurrent, or metastatic disease till a few years ago was re-surgery with local measures such as radiation. Chemotherapy was used with marginal benefit. The development of targeted therapy has brought in a major advantage in management of such patients. Two drugs—vandetanib and cabozantinib—have been approved for use in progressive or metastatic MTC. In addition, several drugs acting on other steps of the molecular pathway are being investigated with promising results. Targeted radionuclide therapy also provides an effective treatment option with good quality of life. This review covers the rationale of targeted therapy for MTC, present treatment options, drugs and methods under investigation, as well as an outline of the adverse effects and their management.

  17. Primary surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, H; Machens, A

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are malignancies of follicular cell derivation. Histopathologically and oncologically, DTC fall into two broad tumor categories: papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). These major tumor categories, based on clinical manifestation and biological behavior, are further subdivided into low-risk [papillary microcarcinoma (mPTC); minimally invasive follicular cancer (MIFTC)] and high-risk DTC [PTC>1 cm or metastatic; MIFTC with histopathological angioinvasion; widely invasive FTC (WIFTC)]. Recently, a surgical approach has been adopted that differentiates between low-risk and high-risk DTC. The rationale behind this new concept is to better balance oncologic risk (high vs low) with the surgical morbidity attendant to the procedure (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism). This surgical risk is larger with routine total thyroidectomy (TT) and central node dissection (CND) than with less than TT or TT without CND.Whereas TT with CND remains the treatment of choice for high-risk DTC with metastases, the extent of thyroid resection and lymph node dissection can be reduced in low-risk PTC and FTC without demonstrable loss of oncological benefit. In the new millennium, the surgical approach to DTC, especially low-risk PTC and FTC, has undergone considerable change, resulting in less extensive procedures. This risk-adapted strategy relies not only on the skillful histopathologic detection of multifocality in PTC and vascular invasion in MIFTC, but likewise necessitates diligent follow-up to spot and adequately treat local recurrences and distant metastases as they become clinically apparent.

  18. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Thyroid, Presenting Like Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of uterine cancer to the head and neck is extremely rare. We report what we believe to be the first documented case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland. An 80-year-old woman was referred to the otolaryngology service with a rapidly growing neck mass. The mass appeared to originate from the thyroid gland. Her clinical presentation was consistent with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A tracheostomy was performed. An open biopsy established the diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, consistent with a gynecologic primary. The patient had undergone a hysterectomy 5 years prior for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The thyroid tumor histology and immunophenotype corresponded well with her prior endometrial carcinoma, indicating that the thyroid mass was a metastasis from the endometrial primary. Radiotherapy appears to offer good local disease control in this rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastatic to the thyroid.

  19. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-12-29

    The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  20. HER2-positive male breast cancer with thyroid cancer: an institutional report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Pooja; Bui, Marilyn M; Minton, Susan; Loftus, Loretta; Carter, W Bradford; Laronga, Christine; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare finding of two male breast cancer patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who also developed thyroid cancer. We reviewed 45 male breast cancer patients treated in our institution from 2003 to 2008. Only five male breast cancer patients were HER2-positive. In reviewing the published data, we found no cases of thyroid cancer and concurrent breast cancer in men. However, breast cancer and thyroid cancer have shown close association in women. This finding therefore provokes speculation as to whether we should investigate whether women with HER2-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for thyroid cancer. Although this observation seems to be clinically prevalent, publications are sparse in clinical research areas linking thyroid cancer to breast cancer.

  1. Management of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become available for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer. However, a number of clinical challenges that impact the use of VEGFR-targeted TKI in daily clinical practice have arisen. Toxicity is considerable, to the extent that most physicians hesitate to start VEGFR-targeted TKI and prefer to continue a watch-and-wait approach until the patient's disease markedly worsens. This delayed use of VEGFR-targeted TKI leads to a higher incidence of serious adverse events than was reported in clinical trials. Moreover, the watch-and-wait approach has several demerits, including a worsening of quality of life, worsening of outcomes in patients of older age or with follicular thyroid cancer and increased risk of brain metastasis or bleeding. Thus, optimal timing for the start of VEGFR-targeted TKI requires careful consideration. Moreover, management of VEGFR-targeted TKI toxicities requires appropriate supportive care, well-organised infrastructure in the outpatient clinic and patient education. Future treatment will progress to precision medicine based on molecular testing. Promotion of precision medicine requires the establishment of a system of easy access to molecular testing and the promotion of translational research for the development of new drugs.

  2. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. Results after 874 patient-years of follow-up in the MSDS-trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, M. [Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Radiology; Pixberg, M.K.; Riemann, B.; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Heinecke, A. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biometrics; Schmid, K.W. [University Hospital of Essen, West German Cancer Center (Germany). Inst. of Pathology and Neuropathology; Dralle, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery

    2009-07-01

    Evaluate the clinical benefit of external beam radiotherapy (RTx) for locally invasive thyroid carcinoma with follicular cell differentiation (DTC). The Multicentre Study on Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) was planned as a prospective multicenter trial on the benefit of adjuvant RTx in locally invasive DTC (pT4; UICC 1997) with or without lymph node metastases and no known distant metastases. All patients were treated with thyroidectomy, {sup 131}I-therapy, and TSH-suppression and were randomized to receive additional RTx or not. In 4/2003 the trial became a prospective cohort study after only 45 of then 311 patients had consented to randomization. 351 of 422 patients met the trial's inclusion criteria. Age was 48 {+-} 12 years (mean {+-} SD). 25% were men. Tumours were papillary in 90% and follicular in 10%. Of 47 patients randomized or allocated to RTx, 26 actually received RTx. Mean follow-up was 930 days. In an actual treatment analysis, 96% (25/26) of the RTx-patients reached complete remission (CR) vs. 86% in the non-RTx patients. Recurrences occurred in 0 vs. 3 % of patients: 6 reoperated for regional lymph node metastases, 1 tracheal invasion treated with tracheoplasty, 1 local invasion necessitating laryngectomy, 2 distant metastases (1 lung, 1 lung + bone). Serious chronic RTx toxicity occurred in 1/26 patients. The MSDS trial showed low mortality and recurrence rates and a weak benefit of RTx in terms of local control that did however not reach statistical significance. Routine RTx in locally invasive DTC can no longer be recommended. (orig.)

  3. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. Results after 874 patient-years of follow-up in the MSDS-trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, M.; Pixberg, M.K.; Riemann, B.; Schober, O.; Schuck, A.; Willich, N.; Heinecke, A.; Schmid, K.W.; Dralle, H.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluate the clinical benefit of external beam radiotherapy (RTx) for locally invasive thyroid carcinoma with follicular cell differentiation (DTC). The Multicentre Study on Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) was planned as a prospective multicenter trial on the benefit of adjuvant RTx in locally invasive DTC (pT4; UICC 1997) with or without lymph node metastases and no known distant metastases. All patients were treated with thyroidectomy, 131 I-therapy, and TSH-suppression and were randomized to receive additional RTx or not. In 4/2003 the trial became a prospective cohort study after only 45 of then 311 patients had consented to randomization. 351 of 422 patients met the trial's inclusion criteria. Age was 48 ± 12 years (mean ± SD). 25% were men. Tumours were papillary in 90% and follicular in 10%. Of 47 patients randomized or allocated to RTx, 26 actually received RTx. Mean follow-up was 930 days. In an actual treatment analysis, 96% (25/26) of the RTx-patients reached complete remission (CR) vs. 86% in the non-RTx patients. Recurrences occurred in 0 vs. 3 % of patients: 6 reoperated for regional lymph node metastases, 1 tracheal invasion treated with tracheoplasty, 1 local invasion necessitating laryngectomy, 2 distant metastases (1 lung, 1 lung + bone). Serious chronic RTx toxicity occurred in 1/26 patients. The MSDS trial showed low mortality and recurrence rates and a weak benefit of RTx in terms of local control that did however not reach statistical significance. Routine RTx in locally invasive DTC can no longer be recommended. (orig.)

  4. Childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine after Chernobyl and at present

    OpenAIRE

    Demidchik, Yuri E.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid cancer in children is usually rare, but in the individuals exposed to radiation risk of disease increases considerably. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, an over 10-fold maximal elevation in the incidence of thyroid cancer was registered about a decade later, cumulatively resulting in more than a thousand of newly diagnosed cases in children who lived in the territories of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine affected by radioactive fallouts. Experience from the epidemic substantially pro...

  5. The role of podoplanin in the biology of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rudzińska

    Full Text Available Podoplanin (PDPN, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein specific to the lymphatic system is expressed in a variety of human cancers, and is regarded as a factor promoting tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular role of PDPN in the biology of thyroid cancer cells. PDPN expression was evaluated in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, IF and IHC. To examine the role of podoplanin in determining a cell's malignant potential (cellular migration, invasion, proliferation, adhesion, motility, apoptosis, a thyroid cancer cell line with silenced PDPN expression was used. We observed that PDPN was solely expressed in the cancer cells of 40% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC tissues. Moreover, PDPN mRNA and protein were highly expressed in PTC-derived TPC1 and BcPAP cell lines but were not detected in follicular thyroid cancer derived cell lines. PDPN knock-down significantly decreased cellular invasion, and modestly reduced cell migration, while proliferation and adhesion were not affected. Our results demonstrate that PDPN mediates the invasive properties of cells derived from papillary thyroid carcinomas, suggesting that podoplanin might promote PTC progression.

  6. Evidence of increased chromosomal abnormalities in French Polynesian thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violot, D.; M'kacher, R.; Dossou, J.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Parmentier, C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in thyroid cancer patients before and after radioactive iodine administration in order to assess cytogenetic particularity in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients. Chromosomal abnormalities were studied in 30 Polynesian patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, prior to and 4 days after 131 I administration. Unstable chromosomal abnormalities were counted in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a conventional cytogenetic method. Peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) in order to establish the dose-response of the lymphocytes. Control groups were composed of 50 European thyroid cancer patients before and after first administration of 131 I, and of ten European healthy donors. In addition, in vitro irradiation assays were performed at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy). The relative risk of spontaneous dicentrics before any radiation treatment was 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.1) times higher among Polynesian thyroid patients than among European thyroid cancer patients. After in vitro irradiation, the rise in frequency of dicentrics was similar in the Polynesian thyroid cancer group and the European thyroid patients and healthy donors. Four days after administration of 3.7 GBq 131 I, the relative risk for a dicentric per cell was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) times higher in Polynesian than in European patients. This can be explained by higher 131 I retention in Polynesian compared with European patients. The results obtained revealed an increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients compared with European control patients. These preliminary findings are compatible with possible previous environmental aggression and therefore imply a need for further investigations on larger series including, in particular, French Polynesian healthy donors. In addition to French Polynesians, Maori and Hawaiian control groups could be useful. (orig.)

  7. Thyroid cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroff, S.V.; Fuks, J.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Improved survival resulting from advances in therapy in patients with Hodgkin's disease is associated with long-term morbidity, including the potential for the development of a second solid malignancy. We report a 44-year-old man with an unusually aggressive course of thyroid carcinoma 15 years after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. In a review of the English-language literature, we found 21 cases of thyroid cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, with latency periods ranging from 6 to 48 years. The development of secondary thyroid cancer after high-dose neck irradiation may be related to hypothyroidism, itself a complication of radiotherapy. Thyroid function should be measured at least once a year in all patients given neck irradiation, with initiation of thyroid hormone replacement if there is evidence of sustained hypothyroidism

  8. Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTCA) in children is quite different from the adult- onset disease in that they are more aggressive at the time of diagnosis and with metastases and has a higher risk for recurrence. Some studies claim it to be less lethal and hence treatment protocols may be different from that of the adult. This study was made to analyze the need for RAI therapy as one of the cornerstone of treatment aside from surgery and thyroid hormone suppression as well as to determine the behavior of WDTCA in children. Results: The incidence of DTCA is varied and ranges from 1-10% in several published series. In the Philippines where thyroid cancer in adults ranks 5th in mortality for both sexes, the incidence is likewise very low, around 0.5-1% for ages 18 years and below in a ten year study. It was predominantly a female population (74%) as compared to the males (26%). Fifteen cases were reviewed and included as most were given RAI (87%). Most presented as a solitary nodule and with lymph node metastases. Thirteen cases were papillary in nature and only two cases were follicular. The incidence of nodal metastases was 53% while lung metastases were seen in 20% of cases. Of the 13 cases that underwent RAI therapy, three cases of lung metastases needed repeat therapy. In the cases with lymph node metastases, 2 cases also had recurrence and which necessitated repeat RAI therapy. The two cases that did not get RAI therapy had progressive disease on follow- up after 5 and 7 years respectively from surgery. Discussion: Primary treatment for DTC should consist of surgery, radioiodine ablation and thyroid hormone suppression. We must rely on pediatric outcome studies and the high frequency of multifocal intrathyroidal disease, loco- regional spread and extra cervical metastases often seen as initial presentations of this particular group. The more advanced disease at diagnosis for children, propensity for recurrence as well as the greater radioiodine

  9. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  10. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to {sup 131}I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  11. Differentiated thyroid cancer following radioiodide 131I therapy of hyperthyroidism: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, J; Soumar, J; Zeman, V; Nahodil, V; Zamrazil, V; Smejkal, V Jr

    1978-01-01

    Differentiated (papillary) thyroid cancer was detected 17 years following radioiodide 131I treatment for toxic multinodular goiter. Twenty-one cases of thyroid cancers with previous 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism were summarized. This combination is rare compared to the incidence of thyroid cancers following external irradiation. This may be due to higher absorbed dose to thyroid in 131I treatment.

  12. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Bryansk and Kaluga Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Parshkov, E.M.; Shakhtarin, V.V.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Skvortsov, V.F.; Chebotareva, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed 62 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Bryansk and Kaluga regions, the most contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The data on specified radiation situation as well as probable radiation doses to the thyroid are given. It is noted that the development of thyroid cancer depends on the age of children at the time of accident (0-3, 7-9, 12-15 years). They are the most critical periods for the formation and functioning of the thyroid, in particular, in girls. It is suggested that thyroid cancer develops in children and teenagers residing in areas with higher Cs 137 contamination level at younger age than in those residing in less contaminated regions. It is shown that the minimal latent period in the development of thyroid cancer makes up to 5 years. The results of ESR method on tooth enamel specimen indicate that over post-accident period the sufficient share of children has collected such individual radiation dose which are able to affect on their health state and development of thyroid pathology

  13. Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism a Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer? An Exemplar Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinamon, Udi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with several cancer types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Objective To explore further the relation between PHPT and PTC. Methods By considering patients with PHPT as extra-suspicious for PTC, we studied an exemplar group of patients with PHPT with a small (≤1 cm thyroid nodule, which was negative in preoperative cytologic examination. During parathyroidectomy, a frozen section biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed PTC, as did the final surgical specimen, revealing that the preoperative cytology was false-negative. Additionally, relevant reports retrieved from the English literature addressing thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism were reviewed and processed. Results Four patients with PHPT were studied. Three had a multifocal thyroid disease, and three had neck lymph node metastasis. Processing previous report data supported an association between PHPT and PTC. Although thyroid nodularity among patients with PHPT was similar to the general population, PTC incidence was higher. This was true also for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions This study emphasized that PHPT should be considered as a noteworthy risk factor for PTC. Fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule is the most valuable diagnostic procedure for thyroid cancer. Yet, false-negative results were reported in up to 10% of cases, especially in small, subcentimeter nodules. In line with our data and the literature, patients with PHPT should have both a detailed ultrasound addressing the thyroid and cytology of any thyroid nodule, including small subcentimeter lesions. Moreover, surgical flexibility, allowing intraoperative thyroid nodule sampling, should be considered even for “innocent” nodules.

  14. Thyroid doses in Belarus resulting from the Chernobyl accident: comparison of the estimates based on direct thyroid measurements and on measurements of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkarev, Sergey; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valery; Savkin, Mikhail; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    A substantial increase of childhood cancer cases observed in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia after the Chernobyl accident has been associated with thyroid exposure to radio iodines following the accident. A large number of direct thyroid measurements (i.e. measurement of the exposure rate near the thyroid of the subject)were conducted in Belarus during a few weeks after the accident. Individual thyroid doses based on results of the direct thyroid measurements were estimated for about 126,000 Belarusian residents and settlement-average thyroid doses for adults were calculated for 426 contaminated settlements in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Another set of settlement-average thyroid doses for adults was estimated based on results of activity measurements in milk samples for 28 settlements (with not less than 2 spectrometric measurements) and 155 settlements (with not less than 5 total beta-activity measurements) in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Concentrations of 131 I in milk were derived from these measurements. In the estimation of this set of thyroid doses, it was assumed that adults consumed 0.5 L d -1 of milk locally produced. The two sets of dose estimates were compared for 47 settlements, for which simultaneously were available a dose estimate based on thyroid measurements and a dose estimate based either on spectrometric or radiometric milk data. The settlement average thyroid doses based on milk activity measurements were higher than those based on direct thyroid measurements by a factor of 1.8 for total beta-activity measurements (30 settlements were compared) and by a factor of 2.4 for spectrometric measurements (17 settlements). This systematic difference can be explained by overestimation of the milk consumption rate used in the calculation of the milk-based thyroid doses and/or by application of individual countermeasures by people. (author)

  15. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Roche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES in New Jersey (NJ, a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  16. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979-2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.M.; Niu, X.; Pawlish, K.S.; Henry, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques

  17. Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Combination with Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase II/III Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella Catalano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC has a median survival less than 5 months and, to date, no effective therapy exists. Taxanes have recently been stated as the main drug treatment for ATC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid efficiently potentiates the effects of paclitaxel in vitro. Based on these data, this trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel and valproic acid for the treatment of ATC. This was a randomized, controlled phase II/III trial, performed on 25 ATC patients across 5 centers in northwest Italy. The experimental arm received the combination of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/weekly and valproic acid (1,000 mg/day; the control arm received paclitaxel alone. Overall survival and disease progression, evaluated in terms of progression-free survival, were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome was the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The coadministration of valproic acid did not influence the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Neither median survival nor median time to progression was statistically different in the two arms. Median survival of operated-on patients was significantly better than that of patients who were not operated on. The present trial demonstrates that the addition of valproic acid to paclitaxel has no effect on overall survival and disease progression of ATC patients. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2008-005221-11.

  18. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  19. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Wu, Xinchao [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Maimaiti, Yusufu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Gao, Zairong, E-mail: gaobonn@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine {sup 131}I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from {sup 131}I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced {sup 131}I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  20. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xuemei; Wu, Xinchao; Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing; Maimaiti, Yusufu; Gao, Zairong; Zhang, Yongxue

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine "1"3"1I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from "1"3"1I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced "1"3"1I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  1. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  2. PRACTICAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THYROID CANCER GUIDELINES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Ying, Lee Suat; Saw, Stephanie; Tuttle, R Michael; Venkataraman, Kavita; Su-Ynn, Chia

    2015-11-01

    Numerous published guidelines have described the optimal management of thyroid cancer. However, these rely on the clinical availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We hypothesized that the availability of medical resources and economic circumstances vary in Asia-Pacific countries, making it difficult to implement guideline recommendations into clinical practice. We surveyed participants at the 2009 and 2013 Congresses of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Federation of Endocrine Societies by distributing questionnaires to attendees at registration. Responses were obtained from 268 respondents in 2009 and 163 respondents in 2013. Similar to the high prevalence of low-risk thyroid cancer observed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, across the Asia-Pacific countries surveyed in 2009 and 2013, 50 to 100% of the respondents from the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Korea, and Sri Lanka reported that more than 50% of the patients had low-risk thyroid cancer on follow-up. Importantly, there was much variation with regards to the perceived availability of investigation and treatment modalities. We found a wide variation in clinicians' perception of availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the face of a rise in thyroid cancer incidence and thyroid cancer management guidelines that emphasized their importance. The lack of availability of management tools and treatments will prove to be a major barrier to the implementation of thyroid cancer management guidelines in Southeast Asia, and likely in other parts of the world as well.

  3. High incidence of thyroid cancer among patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldrymidis, Dimitrios; Papadakis, Georgios; Tsakonas, Georgios; Kaldrymidis, Philippos; Flaskas, Theofanis; Seretis, Andreas; Pantazi, Eleni; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Peppa, Melpomeni; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12.26+9.6 years. From 110 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 26 (23.6%) patients. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer and was diagnosed in 13 patients (11.8%); other cancers encountered were gastric cancer (N=2), endometrial cancer (N-2), and breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer (N-2), myelodysplastic syndrome, renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer and pancreatic carcinoma, one case each. Age, gender, age at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly, tumor size of pituitary adenoma and duration of disease were not associated with cancer development. This study suggests that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and therefore they should undergo regular screening with hormonal and ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid and FNAB when required.

  4. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W.; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Padberg, Barbara-C.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  5. Clinical impact of molecular analysis on thyroid cancer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wreesmann, Volkert B.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid cancer constitutes a progressive continuum of disease ranging from indolent well-differentiated carcinomas to aggressive poorly differentiated carcinomas and universally fatal anaplastic carcinomas. The wide divergence in clinical behavior is poorly predicted for by current

  6. Dietary nitrate and nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfoy, Briseis A; Zhang, Yawei; Park, Yikyung; Holford, Theodore R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ward, Mary H

    2011-07-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed worldwide. Nitrate inhibits iodide uptake by the thyroid, potentially disrupting thyroid function. An increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with nitrate intake was recently reported in a cohort study of older women in Iowa. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and thyroid cancer risk overall and for subtypes in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 490,194 men and women, ages 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire. During an average of 7 years of follow-up we identified 370 incident thyroid cancer cases (170 men, 200 women) with complete dietary information. Among men, increasing nitrate intake was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] for the highest quintile versus lowest quintile RR = 2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-4.041; p-trend cancer for either men or women. We evaluated risk for the two main types of thyroid cancer. We found positive associations for nitrate intake and both papillary (RR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.09-4.05; p-trend = 0.05) and follicular thyroid cancer (RR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.03-11.4; p-trend = 0.01) among men. Nitrite intake was associated with increased risk of follicular thyroid cancer (RR = 2.74; 95%CI: 0.86-8.77; p-trend = 0.04) among men. Our results support a role of nitrate in thyroid cancer risk and suggest that further studies to investigate these exposures are warranted. Published 2010 UICC.

  7. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  8. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  9. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I{sup 131} dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements.

  10. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  11. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  12. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gary L; Waguespack, Steven G; Bauer, Andrew J; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M; Dinauer, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-07-01

    Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in

  13. The Role of the PAX8/PPARγ Fusion Oncogene in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Placzkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is uncommon and exhibits relatively low mortality rates. However, a subset of patients experience inexorable growth, metastatic spread, and mortality. Unfortunately, for these patients, there have been few significant advances in treatment during the last 50 years. While substantial advances have been made in recent years about the molecular genetic events underlying papillary thyroid cancer, the more aggressive follicular thyroid cancer remains poorly understood. The recent discovery of the PAX8/PPARγ translocation in follicular thyroid carcinoma has promoted progress in the role of PPARγ as a tumor suppressor and potential therapeutic target. The PAX8/PPARγ fusion gene appears to be an oncogene. It is most often expressed in follicular carcinomas and exerts a dominant-negative effect on wild-type PPARγ, and stimulates transcription of PAX8-responsive promoters. PPARγ agonists have shown promising results in vitro, although very few studies have been conducted to assess the clinical impact of these agents.

  14. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Anjum; Godward, Sara; Williams, Dillwyn; Siddique, Iqbal; Al-Saleh, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth ± three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  15. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  16. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in an Area of Epidemic Thyroid Goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, A.; Paliogiannis, P.; Scognamillo, F.; Attene, F.; Trignano, M.; Tanda, F.; Budroni, M.; Cesaraccio, R.; Palmieri, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of thyroid cancer in the province of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), an area with epidemic thyroid goiter, in the period 1992-2010. Data were obtained from the local tumor registry which makes part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries. An increasing trend in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the province of Sassari was evidenced. This trend seems to follow the general worldwide trend and does not seem to be related to the high incidence of thyroid goiter in the area. The frequencies of the different histological subtypes were similar to those reported in numerous national and international reports. Women are affected earlier than men and, therefore, suffer greater professional, economic, and social impacts. Overall mortality is low and a relative 5-year survival is excellent, especially in comparison to other malignancies

  17. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features.

  18. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  19. Thyroid hormones and carcinoembryonic antigen in persons with a high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetukhina, E.S.; Bukhteeva, N.F.; Sapozhkova, L.P.; Maripova, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to study CEA and thyroid hormones in high risk groups as there is evidence of their change in lung cancer patients. A questionnaire to distinguish between 4 types of the probability of lung cancer development and a method of radioimmunoassay to study the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones in the blood serum were used. A high risk group included 320 practically healthy persons, a control group 108 patients with verified lung cancer. The results of the study have shown that the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones increases more often in persons of the high risk group with noncancerous diseases than in persons without pathological pulmonary changes. With an increase in the degree of probability the frequency of a high concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones grows. The older the persons with a high risk of lung cancer, the higher the frequency of concentration of the thyroid hormones. Studies of CEA and thyroid hormones can be used for dynamic observation of persons with a high risk of lung cancer

  20. Reduced expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianjun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid. Methods In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40 and carcinomas (n = 35, along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc. Results The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases. Conclusion Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma.

  1. Radiation and risk for thyroid cancer: atypical findings of a community thyroid recall program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, W.; Miller, M.; Sanislow, C.; Fishbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Screening of 553 persons for thyroid disease by scan and physical exam was performed. Group I (245) had documented irradiation, with most (85%) receiving 300 R for lymphoid hyperplasia. Group II (308) had only a history of prior irradiation. Abnormal glands were found in 17 of 245 (7%) of Group I with 7 of 245 (3%) having nodular disease. No cancers were found in six of eight (75%) persons with nodular disease having surgery. Abnormal glands were found in 45/308 (14.6%) of Group II with 16/308 (5.2%) having nodular disease. Twelve of 16 (75%) with nodular disease from Group II had surgery and three thyroid cancers were found; in addition, one person from this group had a history of prior surgery for thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Group I was 0%, Group II was 1.3%, and the combined incidence was 0.7%. The relatively low incidence of thyroid cancer observed is attributed to the relatively late average age at time of irradiation; 22 years for Group 1, 13 years for Group II

  2. The Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in England and Wales over A Ten-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marie Evans

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide, whether a real or apparent increase is debated. Literature from the USA suggests greater diagnostic scrutiny, environmental and genetic factors may all play a part. This increase will result in a greater number of referrals for surgical assessment. This study examined the trend in incidence of thyroid cancer in England and Wales. Materials and Methods A retrospective study, using the HES database over the period 2000-2010. Data were extracted of all newly diagnosed thyroid cancers in England and Wales and the age at diagnosis. Data were examined for the change in incidence of thyroid cancer diagnosis dependent on the age group of the patient using the linear regression model. Results 45411 patients were identified. In England the incidence of thyroid cancer rose from 5.7/100,000 of the population in 2000 to 9.9/100,000 in 2010 and in Wales it rose from 3.5/100,000 in 2000 to 7.5/100,000. There was a statistical increase (P≤0.02 (t-stat >2 in the diagnosis of thyroid cancers across all age groups with exception of the 0-14 age group (P>0.5.  Conclusion There has been a statistical increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer. This is likely to impact on hospitals and cancer service resources. An increase in surgical demand and the coinciding ageing population highlights the importance of further investigation into the etiology, use of imaging, patient demographics, histology and overall mortality of this patient group.

  3. Thyroid Nodularity and cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Farbtuha, T.; Matisane, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Radiation exposure was from rapidly decaying radioactive iodines, as well as from 137 CS and other long-lived radioisotopes. About 6000 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident were from Latvia. External radiation exposure was defined for 40% of them and the doses were 0.01-0.5 Grey (Gy). Although according to conclusions of authoritative experts of different countries, the actual doses of radiation might be at least 3-4 times higher. Because the thyroid is highly susceptible to cancer induction by ionizing radiation, our examination was conducted in 2001 to determine the prevalence of thyroid tumors in 1990-2000 and other nodular thyroid disease 14 years after the accident in Latvia's Chernobyl clean-up workers. The Latvian State Register for persons who have received ionising radiation in Chernobyl and Latvia's Cancer Register were used in this work as well as 1000 Chernobyl accident clean-up workers medical ambulatory cards were analysed. We have received that occurrence of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers was 10,6 times higher than in Latvia's population (men) in 1990-2000 and also it occurs at earlier age in comparison with population data (40-50 and 55-65 accordingly). This can be explained in two ways: either due to effect of the short-term or long-term external and internal radiation exposure (including, from the incorporated 131 I) on the thyroid tissue, or due to a better dispensarisation (obligatory thyroid ultrasound examination once per year) of the examined group. The first thyroid cancer was discovered in 1996 -after ten years of latent period. The relative risk of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers in 1996 was 33.27, and in 1997 -42.64. Then, the morbidity of the thyroid cancer exhibits tendency to decrease (RR 18.27 in 1998, and 9.42 in 1999). The presence of thyroid benign nodules was

  4. Thyroid cancer and multiple primary tumors in the SEER cancer registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; McCarron, Peter; Ron, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased steadily in the United States and elsewhere. Radiation exposure at a young age is a strong risk factor, but otherwise the etiology is unclear. To explore etiologic clues, we studied the risk of thyroid cancer after an earlier primary cancer, as well as

  5. Thyroid cancer due to biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, T.; Castro, N.; Teixeira, D.; Matuo, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common in the region of the head and neck. It can be caused by spontaneous mutations, but also by ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the thyroid has been studied for several decades. The exact cause of the cancer is not known, but people with certain risk factors are more vulnerable, such as exposure to radiation, family history and age over 40 years. The thyroid is susceptible to the effects of radiation and is involved in the field of diagnostic or therapeutic irradiation, and may present functional and structural changes. Radiation can act in different ways, such as inhibiting or activating specific functions of the follicular epithelium, reducing the number of functioning follicles, altering vascularization or vascular permeability and inducing immune reactions. These morphological and histological changes may be related to the development of thyroid cancer

  6. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Cancer: Lessons from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kid Törnquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin is found in the cell membrane of all eukaryotic cells, and was for a long time considered merely as a structural component. However, during the last two decades, metabolites of sphingomyelin, especially sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, have proven to be physiologically significant regulators of cell function. Through its five different G protein-coupled receptors, S1P regulates a wide array of cellular processes, ranging from stimulating cellular proliferation and migration, to the inhibition of apoptosis and induction of angiogenesis and modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis. Many of the processes regulated by S1P are important for normal cell physiology, but may also induce severe pathological conditions, especially in malignancies like cancer. Thus, understanding S1P signaling mechanisms has been the aim of a multitude of investigations. Great interest has also been shown in understanding the action of sphingosine kinase (SphK, i.e., the kinase phosphorylating sphingosine to S1P, and the interactions between S1P and growth factor signaling. In the present review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the possible importance of S1P and SphK in the etiology of thyroid cancer. Although clinical data is still scarce, our in vitro findings suggest that S1P may function as a “double-edged sword”, as the receptor profile of thyroid cancer cells largely determines whether S1P stimulates or blocks cellular migration. We will also discuss the interactions between S1P- and VEGF-evoked signaling, and the importance of a S1P1-VEGF receptor 2 complex in thyroid cancer cells.

  7. Diagnostic 131I whole-body scintigraphy 1 year after thyroablative therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: correlation of results to the individual risk profile and long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Frank; Friedrich, Ulla; Knesewitsch, Peter; Hahn, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    131 I whole-body scan (WBS) and serum thyroglobulin (TG) are important in detecting thyroid remnants or recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Usually, a diagnostic WBS is carried out 6 months after ablation to exclude residual disease. We retrospectively analysed results of a second routine diagnostic WBS and TG measurements at 1 year after thyroablation and correlated these to the risk profile of patients with long-term follow-up. A total of 197 patients were followed up after thyroidectomy and ablative 131 I therapy. Follow-up included clinical examination, radioiodine WBS and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine and TG measurements at 3-6 months and 1 year after ablation. WBS (+) patients received a therapeutic activity of 131 I. The risk profile of patients was defined according to clinical results before the 1-year control. Clinical results at 1 year after ablation were analysed in correlation to the patient risk profile and long-term follow-up data (mean 7.2 years). One year after thyroablation, 95.8% of low-risk patients had no residual disease when diagnostic WBS was carried out using 370 MBq 131 I; 4.2% of low-risk patients had residual disease at this time point. In the high-risk group of this cohort, 54.5% were disease-free 1 year after ablation, but 45.5% demonstrated residual disease. After the 1-year control, 94% of all applied radioiodine therapies were executed in the high-risk group, compared with 6% in the low-risk group (p < 0.01). A second routine WBS 1 year after thyroablation is not indicated in low-risk patients. Risk stratification according to the early clinical course effectively identified patients with higher likelihood of persistent or recurrent disease in the long-term follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Reduced expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in human thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huadong; Chen, Suning; Lin, Wei; Shi, Hai; Ma, Jianjun; Liu, Xinping; Ma, Qingjiu; Yao, Libo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Jianguo; He, Xianli; Chen, Changsheng; Li, Xiaojun; Gong, Li; Bao, Guoqiang; Fu, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2) was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40) and carcinomas (n = 35), along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc. The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases. Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma

  9. Metformin reduces thyroid cancer risk in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether metformin may affect thyroid cancer risk has not been studied. This study investigated the association between metformin use and thyroid cancer risk in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The reimbursement databases of all diabetic patients from 1996 to 2009 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance. An entry date was set at 1 January 2006 and 1,414,723 patients with type 2 diabetes were followed for thyroid cancer incidence until the end of 2009. Incidences for ever-users, never-users and subgroups of metformin exposure using tertile cutoffs for cumulative duration of therapy and cumulative dose were calculated and adjusted hazard ratios were estimated by Cox regression. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: There were 795,321 ever-users and 619,402 never-users, with respective numbers of incident thyroid cancer of 683 (0.09% and 1,614 (0.26%, and respective incidence of 24.09 and 87.33 per 100,000 person-years. The overall fully adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval was 0.683 (0.598-0.780, and all categories of the dose-response parameters showed significantly lower risk with P-trends < 0.0001. The protective effect of metformin on thyroid cancer incidence was also supported by sensitivity analyses, disregarding age (< 50 or ≥ 50 years and sex; and was not affected by excluding users of insulin, sulfonylurea, and insulin and/or sulfonylurea respectively, by previous diagnosis of other cancers or by potential detection examinations that might lead to differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the first time that metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes may reduce the risk of thyroid cancer.

  10. Beyond radioiodine: novel therapies in advanced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is a relatively common endocrine malignancy. Fortunately, many patients do well with standard therapy including surgery and radioiodine. A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram ' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer. The retinoid isotretinoin is the most extensively studied of these agents. It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear. In vitro studies suggest that the retinoid receptors RARβ and RXRγ are required for this effect. Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in loss of iodine concentration in these tumors. Inhibitors of methylation (5-azacytidine, phenylacetate and sodium butyrate) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in cell culture models, but published trials in humans are not yet available. Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function. Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function. Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines. Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidine diones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Our own work has focused on receptor-selective retinoids and thiazolidine diones as potential therapy in patients with advanced thyroid cancer based on nuclear hormone receptor

  11. The treatment landscape in thyroid cancer: a focus on cabozantinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitzman SP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Weitzman, Maria E Cabanillas Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Although patients with thyroid cancer generally fare well, there is a subset for which this is not necessarily true. Progress in understanding the molecular aberrations in thyroid cancer has led to a change in the management of these cases. Since 2011, four multikinase inhibitors (MKIs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for thyroid cancer – cabozantinib and vandetanib for medullary thyroid cancer and sorafenib and lenvatinib for differentiated thyroid cancer. This change in the treatment landscape has raised challenges for practitioners who may not be familiar with the use of MKIs or with the treatment and natural history of advanced thyroid cancer in general. This article reviews the epidemiology, molecular drivers, and initial treatment of patients with thyroid cancer and offers practical guidance to assist with the determination of when to appropriately start an MKI. As an example, cabozantinib and its efficacy are discussed in detail. Close monitoring is required for all patients on targeted agents to assess for adverse effects and response to therapy. An approach to managing drug-related adverse events is detailed. Since these drugs are not curative and have not yet proven to prolong overall survival, it is critical to weigh the risks and benefits of treatment at every visit. The potential value of changing to a different agent following failure of an MKI is also addressed. Keywords: chemotherapy, adverse event, targeted therapy, kinase inhibitor, VEGF, RET

  12. Tc-99m-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most

  13. ANALYSIS OF RELAPSE RATE AND METASTASES OF HIGH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savenok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  Analysis of rate of relapses and metastases with well-differentiated thyroid cancer was performed for patients in 2009 to 2013. The study involved 189 patients with thyroid cancer including 98 (51.9 % patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer, 77 (40.7 % patients suffering from follicular thyroid cancer, and 14 (7.4 % patients suffering from medullary thyroid cancer. 2.04 % of the 98 patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer manifested a relapse, and lymphogenic metastases of cancer were revealed with 1.0 % of patients. With follicular thyroid cancer (n = 77, lymphogenic metastases were registered in 7.8 % of cases, relapses were revealed in 1.3 % of cases. This analysis demonstrated that observation of patients for 5 years revealed a higher percentage of metastases with patients that suffered from follicular thyroid cancer.

  14. Hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer: a five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Monalisa Ferreira; Casulari, Luiz Augusto

    2010-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely occurs in association with hyperfunctioning nodules. We describe a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism associated with a palpable thyroid nodule. Thyroid scintigraphy showed an autonomous nodule, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. Laboratorial findings were consistent with the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and a papillary carcinoma of 3.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 cm, follicular variant, was described by histological examination. The surrounding thyroid tissue was normal. Postoperatively, the patient received 100 mCi of (131)I, and whole body scans detected only residual uptake. No evidence of metastasis was detected during five years of follow-up. Hot thyroid nodules rarely harbor malignancies, and this case illustrated that, when a carcinoma occurs the prognosis seems to be very good with no evidence of metastatic dissemination during a long-term follow-up.

  15. Thyroid cancer. Reevaluation of an experimental model for radiogenic endocrine carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1984-11-01

    The status of experimental studies of radiogenic thyroid cancer is appraised, and some older data are reinterpreted in the light of more recent findings. Problems of thyroid dosimetry, particularly the dosimetry of internal radioiodides, are discussed. The steps in radiation carcinogenesis during the acute phase, the latent phase, and the phase of tumor growth are discussed in terms of thyroid epithelial cell population changes. The roles of three cell populations (undamaged or completely repaired epithelial cells, oncogenically initiated cells, and terminally damaged but functionally competent cells) in neoplasia are described. Finally, the implications for man of these experimental results and conclusions are discussed. 89 refs., 4 figs

  16. Cell lines radiosensitization of thyroid cancer by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Dagrosa, M A; Rossich, L; Casal, M; Pisarev, M A; Thomasz, L; Juvenal G J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. Surgical resection and radioactive iodine is an effective treatment for well-differentiated tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) are agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and as a consequence remodeling of chromatin structure. They can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptotic cell death in different tumor cells. The use of HDAC-I agents could be of utility to enhance the response to external radiation therapy of those thyroid cancers that are refractory to most conventional therapeutic treatments. Objective: To study the effect of HDAC-I as radiosensitizers for the treatment of thyroid cancer and their ability to induce differentiation of thyroid cancer cells. Materials and methods: The human thyroid follicular (WRO) and papillary (TPC-1) carcinoma cell lines were seeded and incubated with increasing doses (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM) of the HDAC-I sodium butirate (NaB) and valproic acid (VA) to evaluate cell proliferation and iodide uptake. Cells were irradiated with a 60 Co γ-ray source (1 ± 5% Gy/min) and postirradiation survival was quantified with the colony formation assay. Survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated for each cell line. Cell cycle and cell death were evaluated at a dose of 3 Gy. Iodide uptake, PCR analysis and transient transfection studies were performed. Results: Cell proliferation was not significantly suppressed after 24 hours of incubation with both drugs at all assayed doses. Iodide uptake was not modified after incubation with HDAC-I of both cell lines. SF2 was reduced from 68 ± 1.6 % in the control WRO cells to 42 ± 3.8 % (P<0.001) in NaB-treated cells. In TPC-1 SF2 was reduced from 32 ± 1.1 % in the control cells to 24 ± 0.8 % (P<0.01). In VA-treated cells SF2 was reduced from 69 ± 0.02 % in control WRO cells to 56 ± 0.01 % (P<0.01) and from 31 ± 2 % in control TPC-1 cells to 11 ± 1 % (P<0.01). There was an arrest

  17. [Current situation and thinking of diagnosis and treatment in some types of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Yu, Y; Li, D P; Dong, L

    2017-04-07

    As arising incidence of thyroid cancer, the treatment for thyroid carcinoma is becoming increasingly standardized. But there are different opinions on the treatment for some types of thyroid cancers, including the determination of operative opportunity, surgical method, and follow-up observation plan. There are mainly two categories of patients, namely the patients diagnosed as familial thyroid cancer mutation carriers through family screening, including medullary thyroid carcinoma and familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, and the patients with thyroid microcarcinoma that can be observed after diagnosed by fine needle biopsy cytology. We will discuss current situation for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  18. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A; Salomaa, S [eds.; Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M; Veidebaum, T; Tekkel, M [eds.; Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T [ed.; Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, Jr, J D [ed.; Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  19. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality; possibilities for thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Faced with a diagnosis of cold thyroid nodule as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, the clinician has to determine whether this nodule is malignant or not. This is a serious problem since, according to literature, 7-20 per cent of cold thyroid nodules are malignant. In 1982 some Japanese authors demonstrated the possibility of using 201 T1 in diagnosing thyroid tumors. This study refers to 120 patients who underwent an operation for thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of one or several cold nodules (as evaluated with conventional scintigraphy) and enables a comparison between a thorough evaluation of the thyroidal status and the 201 T1 scintigrams. These were obtained with a gamma-camera using a pinhole collimator. If a cold nodule is positive with 201 T1, surgery is incontestably indicated, as such a finding correlates with the existence of a thyroid tumor (benign follicular adenoma or carcinoma) in 89.5 per cent of the observed cases. In the cancer group the sensibility of the Thallium test is of 85 per cent and its specificity 80 per cent. We may assert that there is a very low risk of Thallium negative (old) nodules being malignant. The pre-operative 201 T1 scintigraphy is easy to perform in any Nuclear Medicine department. Nowadays, the combination of aspiration cytology and 201 T1 scintigraphy should make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid cancers [fr

  20. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  1. Nitrate intake and the risk of thyroid cancer and thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary H; Kilfoy, Briseis A; Weyer, Peter J; Anderson, Kristin E; Folsom, Aaron R; Cerhan, James R

    2010-05-01

    Nitrate is a contaminant of drinking water in agricultural areas and is found at high levels in some vegetables. Nitrate competes with uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially affecting thyroid function. We investigated the association of nitrate intake from public water supplies and diet with the risk of thyroid cancer and self-reported hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a cohort of 21,977 older women in Iowa who were enrolled in 1986 and who had used the same water supply for >10 years. We estimated nitrate ingestion from drinking water using a public database of nitrate measurements (1955-1988). Dietary nitrate intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and levels from the published literature. Cancer incidence was determined through 2004. We found an increased risk of thyroid cancer with higher average nitrate levels in public water supplies and with longer consumption of water exceeding 5 mg/L nitrate-N (for >or=5 years at >5 mg/L, relative risk [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2]). We observed no association with prevalence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Increasing intake of dietary nitrate was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, RR = 2.9 [1.0-8.1]; P for trend = 0.046) and with the prevalence of hypothyroidism (odds ratio = 1.2 [95% CI = 1.1-1.4]), but not hyperthyroidism. Nitrate may play a role in the etiology of thyroid cancer and warrants further study.

  2. Cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid nodules harboring thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Sann Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Abbott, Collette E; Seethala, Raja; Ohori, N Paul; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Hodak, Steven P

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene mutations play a critical role in thyroid cell proliferation and function. They are found in 20%-82% of hyperfunctioning nodules, hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), and papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The diagnostic importance of TSHR mutation testing in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens remains unstudied. To examine the association of TSHR mutations with the functional status and surgical outcomes of thyroid nodules, we evaluated 703 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology for TSHR mutations using next-generation sequencing. Testing for EZH1 mutations was performed in selected cases. The molecular diagnostic testing was done as part of standard of care treatment, and did not require informed consent. TSHR mutations were detected in 31 (4.4%) nodules and were located in exons 281-640, with codon 486 being the most common. Allelic frequency ranged from 3% to 45%. Of 16 cases (12 benign, 3 FTC, 1 PTC) with surgical correlation, 15 had solitary TSHR mutations and 1 PTC had comutation with BRAF V600E. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed in all 3 FTC (2 overt, 1 subclinical). Of 5 nodules with solitary TSHR mutations detected at high allelic frequency, 3 (60%) were FTC. Those at low allelic frequency (3%-22%) were benign. EZH1 mutations were detected in 2 of 4 TSHR-mutant malignant nodules and neither of 2 benign nodules. We report that TSHR mutations occur in ∼5% thyroid nodules in a large consecutive series with indeterminate cytology. TSHR mutations may be associated with an increased cancer risk when present at high allelic frequency, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning. Benign nodules were however most strongly correlated with TSHR mutations at low allelic frequency. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: AIIMS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Nair, P.G.G.; ); Bal, C.S.; Pant, G.S.; Basu, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    After a slow start in late sixties, the procedure of 131 I therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC) has gained increasing popularity with every passing year at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. This has become an integral part of TC management at AIIMS like at most other centres all over the world. There is a general consensus that near total thyroidectomy along with 131 I therapy and suppressive doses of thyroid hormones provide the best mode of treatment for DTC

  4. Nuclear medicine in the assessment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, G.-C.; Franc, B.; O'Connor, A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite modern multi-modality treatment, 10-30% of patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) ultimately develop local recurrence or metastatic disease. These malignancies are frequently slow-growing and secondary surgical resection is often undertaken along with radioactive iodine treatment. Correlation of radiological imaging with nuclear medicine studies is essential for individualized treatment planning, and to optimize this management. Radiologists should be familiar with the interpretation of various nuclear medicine studies used to image differentiated thyroid neoplasms

  5. Papillary Thyroid Cancer: The Good and Bad of the "Good Cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Reese W; Bushman, Norah M; Orne, Jason; Balentine, Courtney J; Wendt, Elizabeth; Saucke, Megan; Pitt, Susan C; Macdonald, Cameron L; Connor, Nadine P; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2017-07-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is often described as the "good cancer" because of its treatability and relatively favorable survival rates. This study sought to characterize the thoughts of papillary thyroid cancer patients as they relate to having the "good cancer." This qualitative study included 31 papillary thyroid cancer patients enrolled in an ongoing randomized trial. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants at the preoperative visit and two weeks, six weeks, six months, and one year after thyroidectomy. Grounded theory was used, inductively coding the first 113 interview transcripts with NVivo 11. The concept of thyroid cancer as "good cancer" emerged unprompted from 94% (n = 29) of participants, mostly concentrated around the time of diagnosis. Patients encountered this perception from healthcare providers, Internet research, friends, and preconceived ideas about other cancers. While patients generally appreciated optimism, this perspective also generated negative feelings. It eased the diagnosis of cancer but created confusion when individual experiences varied from expectations. Despite initially feeling reassured, participants described feeling the "good cancer" characterization invalidated their fears of having cancer. Thyroid cancer patients expressed that they did not want to hear that it's "only thyroid cancer" and that it's "no big deal," because "cancer is cancer," and it is significant. Patients with papillary thyroid cancer commonly confront the perception that their malignancy is "good," but the favorable prognosis and treatability of the disease do not comprehensively represent their cancer fight. The "good cancer" perception is at the root of many mixed and confusing emotions. Clinicians emphasize optimistic outcomes, hoping to comfort, but they might inadvertently invalidate the impact thyroid cancer has on patients' lives.

  6. Evaluation of the Quality of Online Information for Patients with Rare Cancers: Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Ulrike; Monga Sindeu, Tabea; Schroth, Sarah; Huebner, Jutta; Herth, Natalie

    2017-01-24

    The Internet offers an easy and quick access to a vast amount of patient information. However, several studies point to the poor quality of many websites and the resulting hazards of false information. The aim of this study was to assess quality of information on thyroid cancer. A patients' search for information about thyroid cancer on German websites was simulated using the search engine Google and the patient portal "Patienten-Information.de". The websites were assessed using a standardized instrument with formal and content aspects from the German Cancer Society. Supporting the results of prior studies that analysed patient information on the Internet, the data showed that the quality of patient information on thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous depending on the website providers. The majority of website providers are represented by media and health providers other than health insurances, practices and professionals offering patient information of relatively poor quality. Moreover, most websites offer patient information of low-quality content. Only a few trustworthy, high-quality websites exist. Especially Google, a common search engine, focuses more on the dissemination of information than on quality aspects. In order to improve the patient information from the Internet, the visibility of high-quality websites must be improved. For that, education programs to improve patients' eHealth literacy are needed. A quick and easy evaluation tool for online information suited for patients should be implemented, and patients should be taught to integrate such a tool into their research process.

  7. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  8. Detection and a possible link between parvovirus B19 and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Ashkan; Mostafaei, Shayan; Yari, Kheirollah; Ghasemi, Amir; Minaei Chenar, Hamzeh; Moghoofei, Mohsen

    2017-06-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a small, non-enveloped virus and belongs to Parvoviridae family. B19 persists in many tissues such as thyroid tissue and even thyroid cancer. The main aim of this study was to determine the presence of B19, its association with increased inflammation in thyroid tissue, and thus its possible role in thyroid cancer progression. Studies have shown that virus replication in non-permissive tissue leads to overexpression of non-structural protein and results in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. A total of 36 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens and serum were collected from patients and 12 samples were used as control. Various methods were employed, including polymerase chain reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results have shown the presence of B19 DNA in 31 of 36 samples (86.11%). Almost in all samples, the levels of non-structural protein 1, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 were simultaneously high. The presence of parvovirus B19 has a significant positive correlation with nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 levels. This study suggests that B19 infection may play an important role in tumorigenesis and thyroid cancer development via the inflammatory mechanisms.

  9. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient mice. Genetically engineered models of papillary and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (PTC and ATC) are immunocompetent; however, slow and stochastic tumor development hinders high-throughput testing. Novel models of PTC and ATC in which tumors arise rapidly and synchronously in immunocompetent mice would facilitate the investigation of novel therapeutics and approaches. Methods: We characterized and utilized mouse cell lines derived from PTC and ATC tumors arising in genetically engineered mice with thyroid-specific expression of endogenous BrafV600E/WT and deletion of either Trp53 (p53) or Pten. These murine thyroid cancer cells were transduced with luciferase- and GFP-expressing lentivirus and implanted into the thyroid glands of immunocompetent syngeneic B6129SF1/J mice in which the growth characteristics were assessed. Results: Large locally aggressive thyroid tumors form within one week of implantation. Tumors recapitulate their histologic subtype, including well-differentiated PTC and ATC, and exhibit CD3+, CD8+, B220+, and CD163+ immune cell infiltration. Tumor progression can be followed in vivo using luciferase and ex vivo using GFP. Metastatic spread is not detected at early time points. Conclusions: We describe the development of the next generation of murine orthotopic thyroid cancer models. The implantation of genetically defined murine BRAF-mutated PTC and ATC cell lines into syngeneic mice results in rapid and synchronous tumor formation. This

  10. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa Maria Z; Maia, Ana Luiza; Vaisman, Mário

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

  12. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  13. Initiative For Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: Decision Support System For Anaplast Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ahmed Chandio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high level exposure of biomedical image analysis, Medical image mining has become one of the well-established research area(s of machine learning. AI (Artificial Intelligence techniques have been vastly used to solve the complex classification problems of thyroid cancer. Since the persistence of copycat chromatin properties and unavailability of nuclei measurement techniques, it is really problem for doctors to determine the initial phases of nuclei enlargement and to assess the early changes of chromatin distribution. For example involvement of multiple transparent overlapping of nuclei may become the cause of confusion to infer the growth pattern of nuclei variations. Un-decidable nuclei eccentric properties may become one of the leading causes for misdiagnosis in Anaplast cancers. In-order to mitigate all above stated problems this paper proposes a novel methodology so called “Decision Support System for Anaplast Thyroid Cancer” and it proposes a medical data preparation algorithm AD (Analpast_Cancers which helps to select the appropriate features of Anaplast cancers such as (1 enlargement of nuclei, (2 persistence of irregularity in nuclei and existence of hyper chromatin. Proposed methodology comprises over four major layers, first layer deals with the noise reduction, detection of nuclei edges and object clusters. Second layer selects the features of object of interest such as nuclei enlargement, irregularity and hyper chromatin. Third layer constructs the decision model to extract the hidden patterns of disease associated variables and final layer evaluates the performance evaluation by using confusion matrix, precision and recall measures. The overall classification accuracy is measured about 97.2% with 10-k fold cross validation.

  14. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek-Widera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE. We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100% cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100% provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100% specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary.

  15. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Saraiva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  16. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parisha; Bhatia; Koji; Tsumagari; Zakaria; Y; Abd; Elmageed; Paul; Friedlander; Joseph; F; Buell; Emad; Kandil

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review.

  17. The incidence of second primary tumors in thyroid cancer patients is increased, but not related to treatment of thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Robbert B. T.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of second primary tumors in patients treated for thyroid cancer. Furthermore, we wanted to assess the standardized risk rates for all second primary tumors, but especially for breast cancer, as data in the literature indicate an excessive risk

  18. American Thyroid Association statement on preoperative imaging for thyroid cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michael W; Bauer, Andrew J; Bernet, Victor A; Ferris, Robert L; Loevner, Laurie A; Mandel, Susan J; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory W; Steward, David L

    2015-01-01

    The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging.

  19. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne; Colonna, Marc; Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette; Lacour, Brigitte; Schvartz, Claire; Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc; Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia; Belot, Aurelien; Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2011-04-01

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  20. Thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer: does it make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Luis, T.O.L.; Santiago, J.F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a disease with varied rates of growth and prognosis. A number of factors, including adequacy of follow-up after surgery, impact on the overall morbidity and mortality. Thyroglobulin (Tg) as tumor marker has been used in the surveillance of thyroid cancer particularly the differentiated type. It has a distinctive role in influencing decision-making whether to monitor thyroid medical suppression periodically or to implement further therapeutic interventions in the face of recurrent disease. We have made an anlysis of 60 thyroid cancer cases where Tg was used to discriminate between those likely to have recurrence or not. A Tg value of 10 ng/ml showed recurrences (83.3%) (p<0.001). On this basis, a practical guide in the form of an algorithm was formulated to help physicians in resolving contentious issues in post-operative management. In summary, Tg makes a lot of difference in the approach to diagnosis and further treatment of recurrent thyroid cancer and offers itself as a cost-effective and efficient determinant for long-term optimal outcome. (author)

  1. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Mina [Dankook University Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young Won [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  2. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1993-01-01

    The accident to the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in April 1986 led to the exposure of substantial populations in northern Ukraine and southern Belarus to radioactive fallout. Recently, increases in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer have been reported from these areas. The possible casual association between exposure to the isotopes of iodine in the fallout and the increased thyroid cancer is examined, with a view to predicting the public health consequences of this aspect of the accident. The reported increases are shown to be consistent with a casual association and, if this is established, then a substantial increase in thyroid cancer can be expected over the next 50 years in the exposed populations. This conclusion underlines the urgent need for research to establish beyond doubt the origin of the reported increases and to formulate and appropriate public health response, including exploration of possible mitigating measures for the future 5 refs, 3 figs

  3. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Kim, Jae Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jin, Young Won

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  4. Updated guidelines on the preoperative staging of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recent studies have provided prognostic information and recommendations for staging thyroid cancers that have changed the staging and management guidelines for the disease. Consequently, minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE) was removed from the T3 stage classification in the eighth edition of the TNM staging system by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. New T categories have been subsequently added, including T3a, defined as a tumor >4 cm in its greatest dimension, limited to the thyroid gland, and T3b, defined as a tumor of any size with gross ETE invading only the strap muscles. In this article, the author reviews the changes in the TNM staging system for thyroid cancer, with an emphasis on ultrasonography in preoperative staging.

  5. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Multidisciplinary Management at the Colombian National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavito, Gloria; Llamas O, Augusto; Cadena, Enrique; De Los Reyes, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system. Two hundred and twenty-one new cases were diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCI) in 2006, roughly 4% of all new cancer cases. Weekly multidisciplinary decision-making meetings on thyroid cancer management have been held at the NCI since 1994. This article covers the body of knowledge gathered through 14 years of interdisciplinary collaboration where experience has been combined with the best available evidence.

  6. Treatment of non-uptaking 131I thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli

    2005-01-01

    Normally, thyroid cancer is a disease with a good prognosis, but about 30% the of tumors dedifferentiate and may finally develop into highly malignant thyroid carcinoma with a mean survival time of less than 8 months. Due to the loss of thyroid-specific functions associated with dedifferentiation. These tumors are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as radioiodine therapy and thyroxine-mediated thyrotropin suppression. Medullary thyroid carcinomas are also highly aggressive. Here, therapy is limited to surgery, and no alternative is left if patients do not respond to this standard procedures. Several novel approaches are currently being tested for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Many of them utilize methods of gene therapy: 1) reintroduction of the tumor suppressor p53; 2) suicide gene therapy; 3) antitumor immune response by expression of an adenovirus-delivered interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene; 4) immune response by DNA vaccination against the tumor marker calcitonin; 5) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodine transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by radioiodide therapy; 6) blocking of the expression of the oncogene c-myc by antisense oligonuleotides; 7) radioimmunotherapy by a radiolabelled antibody; 8) retinoic acid is used for a redifferentiation therapy, and 9) somatostatin. (authors)

  7. Scintigraphic criteria for administration of therapeutic activities of 131I for ablation of residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhuzha, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim to determinate the optical scintigraphic criteria of radioablation of the small parts of residual thyroid tissue (RTT) after a thyroidectomy the results of postoperative monitoring of 29 women aged 23-60 with differentiated thyroid cancer, who did not get the radioiodine therapy, were analyzed. At the single postoperative scintigraphy with 131 I the optimal scintigraphic criteria for radioablation are the relative level of 131 I accumulation in RTT and the relative specific volume activity in RTT. At the values of these indices below 0.21% and 0.16%/sm 3 , respectively, only suppressive thyroid hormone therapy and standard monitoring are recommended

  8. DNA content in radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, R.A.; Deaconson, T.F.; Vetsch, R.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    DNA content has been reported to be of prognostic significance in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Since malignant tumors with irradiation as an initiator often contain DNA aberrations, the DNA content of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with a prior history of low-dose head and neck irradiation was determined and compared with similar nonradiation-associated lesions. The DNA content of thyroid cancers from 53 patients was determined with use of flow cytometry. Sixteen radiation-associated thyroid carcinomas (11 papillary, 3 follicular, and 2 medullary) all were diploid. In a group of 37 nonradiation-associated tumors, 10 were aneuploid (10 of 29 papillary carcinomas and 0 of 2 follicular or 6 medullary carcinomas). This difference in DNA content is significant (p less than 0.02, Fisher's exact test). These findings were unexpected and suggest that if the initiating irradiation causes a DNA aberration, this aberration is not reflected in DNA content as measured by means of flow cytometry

  9. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, E.; Sokolov, V.; Proshin, A.; Barnes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  10. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  11. [Enviromental factors in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubetta, L; Costa, A

    1978-07-14

    Local factors with a possible influence on the frequency and histological type of thyroid cancer are examined in the light of cases observed at the Mauriziano Hospital in the last 10 years. The overall number of cases has been increasing and papilliferous forms have been more common than follicular forms. Iodine deficiency and thyrotropin hyper-stimulation encourage onset and account for the higher frequency of thyroid cancer in endemic areas, where, however, follicular forms are more common. Ironising radiation is a direct cause, particularly of papilliferous forms arising after exposure during youth.

  12. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1 plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  13. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Qun; Li, Qinpei; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Jun; Teng, Tieshan; Chen, Mingliang; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2018-03-02

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA) was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53)-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  14. (131)I treatment in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A J M; Vázquez, R G; Cuenca, J I C; Brocca, M A M; Castilla, J; Martínez, J M M; González, E N

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) is a cornerstone in the treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC). In patients on haemodialysis due to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), it must be used cautiously, considering the renal clearance of this radionuclide. Also, the safety of the procedure and subsequent long-term outcome is still not well defined. In 2001, we described a dosimetric method and short-term results in three patients, with a good safety profile. We hypothesize that our method is safe in a long-term scenario without compromising the prognosis of both renal and thyroid disease. Descriptive-retrospective study. A systematic search was carried out using our clinical database from 2000 to 2014. DTC and radioiodine treatment while on haemodialysis. peritoneal dialysis. Final sample n=9 patients (n=5 males), age 48 years (median age 51 years males, 67 years female group); n=8 papillary thyroid cancer, n=1 follicular thyroid cancer; n=5 lymph node invasion; n=1 metastatic disease. Median RAI dose administered on haemodialysis 100mCi. 7.5 years after radioiodine treatment on haemodialysis, n=7 deemed free of thyroid disease, n=1 persistent non-localised disease. No complications related to the procedure or other target organs were registered. After 3.25 years, n=4 patients underwent successful renal transplantation; n=4 patients did not meet transplantation criteria due to other conditions unrelated to the thyroid disease or its treatment. One patient died due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (free of thyroid disease). Radioiodine treatment during haemodialysis is a long-term, safe procedure without worsening prognosis of either renal or thyroid disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly 50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  16. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery FAQs PDF En Español Cirugia De La Tiroides El folleto de Cirugia De La Tiroides Search Thyroid ...

  17. Interaction of pathology and molecular characterization of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.; Cherstvoy, E.; Egloff, B.; Hoefler, H.; Vecchio, G.; Bogdanova, T.; Bragarnik, M.; Tronko, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of joint studies of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age between departments in Cambridge, Brussels, Naples and Munich in the European Union, and departments in Minsk, Kiev and Obninsk in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe. The pathology of 264 cases of childhood thyroid cancer out of 430 that have occurred since 1990 in the 3 countries in which high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident occurred has been restudied by NIS and EU pathologists. The overall level of agreement reached was about 97%. The diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and ISH for the differentiation markers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and the tumors were classified according to the WHO, with papillary carcinomas being further subclassified. 99% of the 134 Belarussian cases were papillary carcinomas, as were 94% of the 114 Ukrainian tumors. All 9 of the Russian cases available for study were papillary in type. 76 of 154 cases of childhood thyroid cancer reviewed over a 30 year period in England and Wales and were also studied, 68% of these were papillary carcinoma. Histological study showed that a subtype of papillary carcinoma, rarely found in adults, with a solid/follicular architecture occurred in children. It was found in 72% of the Belarussian papillary carcinomas, 76% of the Ukrainian cases, but only 40% of the England and Wales cases. Molecular biological studies showed that the proportion of cases of papillary carcinoma expressing the ret gene was not significantly different in the exposed and the unexposed tumors, studies of the type of translocation leading to ret gene expression are not yet conclusive. Ras gene mutations were found as expected in follicular carcinoma, but were absent from any papillary carcinoma, whether from exposed or unexposed cases. TSH receptor mutations, normally found in follicular tumors were not found in any papillary carcinomas, nor were any p53 mutations identified. All these results

  18. Cancer of the thyroid and 131I fallout in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.; Lund, E.

    1983-01-01

    From 1953 to 1962 Norway received relatively high levels of radioactive fallout. On the basis of extensive measurements in air, precipitation, food and humans, the dose to the thyroid due to 131 I has been calculated. Cancer registration in Norway is practically completely efficient because of obligatory notification of the Cancer Registry by physicians, pathology laboratories, and the Central Bureau of Statistics of all cases or death certificates concerning cancer. Analysis of the Cancer Registry data from 1953 to 1980 concerning birth cohorts 1936 to 1961 indicates an overall increasing trend in thyroid cancer morbidity, most pronounced in female cohorts born 1930-50. The highest, most abrupt irregularities reveal a coincidence of high numbers with high 131 I content in milk consumed during the years of prepuberty and puberty. Possible interpretations are discussed. (author)

  19. Acorrelation study between histological results and thyroid ultrasound findings. The TI-RADS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moncó Fernández, Carlos; Serrano-Moreno, Clara; Donnay-Candil, Sergio; Carrero-Alvaro, Juan

    2018-04-01

    There are several classifications based on thyroid ultrasound for selecting suspected malignant thyroid nodules. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) classification proposed by Horvath in 2009 includes 6 categories. To assess the sensitivity of the TI-RADS classification for diagnosing thyroid nodules. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy at our hospital (n=263) from September 2013 to December 2015. After thyroidectomy, histological results were correlated to the ultrasound findings reported. Of the 263 study patients, 75 (28.5%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer and 188 (71.5%) with benign disease. Correlation of histological results with preoperative ultrasound reports showed an initial sensitivity of 65%. After excluding 15 patients diagnosed with occult microcarcinoma, sensitivity increased to 81.6%. The ultrasound images from 11 false negatives cases were then reassessed by a radiologist who knew histological diagnosis and reclassified 10 of them as TI-RADS≥4. This procedure could have increased sensitivity up to 98.3%. Although the sensitivity initially found in our study using the TI-RADS scale was relatively low, the value markedly improved when patients with occult microcarcinoma were excluded. Thus, use of the TI-RADS scale would allow for an adequate selection of patients amenable to fine needle aspiration of the nodule. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Brandao, Luis E.; Candeiro, Ricardo E.; Rebelo, Ana M.O.; Corbo, Rossana; Dutra, Janaina

    2008-01-01

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na 131 I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131 I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131 I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131 I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131 I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131 I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 1 31 I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na 131 I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  1. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  2. Cytogenetic damage after 131-iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, S.; Carbonell, E.; Creus, A.; Marcos, R.

    1999-01-01

    To detect the incidence and persistence of potential chromosome damage induced by iodine-131 therapy, we applied the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to peripheral blood lymphocytes from hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients treated with 131 I. Two groups of patients were evaluated in a longitudinal study; one group was composed of 47 hyperthyroid patients and the other of 39 thyroid cancer patients. In the hyperthyroidism group, the micronuclei frequency was determined before 131 I therapy and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after it. Furthermore, an additional sample was taken from a subgroup of 17 hyperthyroidism patients 6 months after treatment. In the thyroid cancer group, the analysis was also conducted over time, and four samples were studied: before treatment and 1 week, 6 months and 1 year later. Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study was performed with 70 control subjects and 54 thyroid cancer patients who had received the last therapeutic dose 1-6 years before the present study. In the hyperthyroidism group a significant increase in the micronuclei average was found over time. In the sample obtained 6 months after therapy, the micronuclei mean frequency was practically the same as in the sample taken 3 months before. In the thyroid cancer group a twofold increase in the frequency of micronuclei was seen 1 week after therapy. Although this value decreased across time, the micronuclei frequency obtained 1 year after 131 I therapy remained higher than the value found before it. Concerning the data from the cross-sectional study, a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei was detected in the subgroup of thyroid cancer patients treated between 1 and 3 years before the current study. These results indicate that exposure to 131 I therapy induces chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes and that the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay is sensitive enough to detect the genetic damage by exposure to sufficiently high levels of radiation

  3. Cytogenetic damage after 131-iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, S.; Carbonell, E.; Creus, A.; Marcos, R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Genetica i de Microbiologia; Galofre, P. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-12-01

    To detect the incidence and persistence of potential chromosome damage induced by iodine-131 therapy, we applied the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to peripheral blood lymphocytes from hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I. Two groups of patients were evaluated in a longitudinal study; one group was composed of 47 hyperthyroid patients and the other of 39 thyroid cancer patients. In the hyperthyroidism group, the micronuclei frequency was determined before {sup 131}I therapy and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after it. Furthermore, an additional sample was taken from a subgroup of 17 hyperthyroidism patients 6 months after treatment. In the thyroid cancer group, the analysis was also conducted over time, and four samples were studied: before treatment and 1 week, 6 months and 1 year later. Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study was performed with 70 control subjects and 54 thyroid cancer patients who had received the last therapeutic dose 1-6 years before the present study. In the hyperthyroidism group a significant increase in the micronuclei average was found over time. In the sample obtained 6 months after therapy, the micronuclei mean frequency was practically the same as in the sample taken 3 months before. In the thyroid cancer group a twofold increase in the frequency of micronuclei was seen 1 week after therapy. Although this value decreased across time, the micronuclei frequency obtained 1 year after {sup 131}I therapy remained higher than the value found before it. Concerning the data from the cross-sectional study, a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei was detected in the subgroup of thyroid cancer patients treated between 1 and 3 years before the current study. These results indicate that exposure to {sup 131}I therapy induces chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes and that the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay is sensitive enough to detect the genetic damage by exposure to sufficiently high

  4. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and evaluation of its results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Taşkesen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to evaluate obstetric outcomes of the women with thyroid dysfunction than the normal pregnant women.Materials and methos: In our study, 633 women between the ages of 18 to 35 who admitted to Kovancılar State Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic for pregnancy follow-up between January 2010 and January 2011 were evaluated. Serum thyroid - stimulating hormones (TSH, free tri-iyodotironin (T3, free thyroxine (T4 levels for all patients were studied. Antithyroidal peroxidase (anti-TPO and Anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg parameters were measured if they were necessary. The relationship between thyroid functions and complications such as eclampsia, preeclampsia, maternal anemia, postpartum hemorrhage, fetal anomalies, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia was examined.Results: Hypothyroidism was found 18 of cases and hyperthyroidism was found 4 of them. The mean age of patients in the study was 26.42 (± 8.42. The mean values were 1.86 ± 0.19 μIU/mL for TSH, 1.15 ± 0.29 ng/mL for free T4 and 2.90 ± 0.31 pg/mL for free T3 respectively. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (9 cases, 50 % was the most frequent etiology for patients with hypothyroidism. Other etiologic factors for hypothyroidism were found to be for 4 cases as (22.2%, iatrogenic (previously undergone thyroidectomy and 5 cases as (37.8% a lack of iodine. Maternal anemia was observed in 5 (27.78% cases with hypothyroidism. Preeclampsia was observed 16.67% in patients with hypothyroidism.Conclusion: Observed thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women may cause serious maternal and fetal complications. For disorders of thyroid function during pregnancy, to provide the necessary treatment at the appropriate time is important to prevent complications of mother and fetus. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:196-201

  5. Biotinidase is a novel marker for papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K-C So

    Full Text Available Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001. Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001. Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR = 3.1. We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001. Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4. Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR = 0.29 which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28, nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16, advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21 and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23. However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8. In conclusion, loss of overall

  6. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Levi, Ana M; Rogado, Jacobo; Sanchez-Torres, Jose Miguel; Colomer, Ramón; Marazuela, Mónica

    2018-06-14

    Nivolumab is an anti-cancer monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD1 and modulates T-cell response. It has been shown to significantly improve survival in several types of cancer, but clinical trials have also reported an increased risk of developing immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Endocrine IRAEs may be particularly relevant. To comprehensively evaluate the clinical presentation of endocrine IRAEs in patients with lung cancer treated with nivolumab. Potential risk factors are analyzed, and strategies for IRAE management are proposed. Forty consecutive patients treated with nivolumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were studied, paying particular attention to development of endocrine IRAEs (thyroid, hypophyseal, adrenal, or pancreatic) and clinical outcome. Thyroid function changes were found in 9 patients (22.5%), of which six developed hypothyroidism and three had hyperthyroidism after a median of 3.8 and 2.3 cycles of nivolumab respectively. Only one patient had thyroid-related symptoms. Thyroid autoimmunity was negative in all cases. Hyperthyroid patients showed no uptake in iodine scintigraphy, and their hormone values returned to normal in less than six months. Nivolumab was discontinued for toxicity in one patient. One patient with hyperthyroidism also developed autoimmune diabetes, and one patient with hypothyroidism also had hypogonadism. After a median follow-up of 7.6 months, 25 patients (62.5%) showed response to nivolumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no differences between patients who developed thyroid changes and those who did not. Thyroid changes after treatment with nivolumab are common and warrant active laboratory monitoring. The underlying mechanisms and their relevance deserve further research. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  8. Risk stratification and prediction of cancer of focal thyroid fluorodeoxyglucose uptake during cancer evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Na, Min-A.; Kim, In-Joo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Focal thyroid incidentaloma by F-18 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported 1-4% of cancer patients and normal healthy population, with a risk of cancer ranging 14-50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid incidentaloma in F-18 FDG PET/CT and risk of cancer, usefulness of visual and SUV max and SUV mean differentiating malignant nodules and to define the predictable variables. A total 159 patients with focal thyroid FDG incidentaloma during cancer evaluation with non-thyroid cancer were enrolled. After F-18 PET/CT, we analyzed the image visually and obtained semiquantitative indices. The incidence of focal FDG thyroid incidentaloma is 1.36% and cancer risk is 23.3%. The incidence of focal thyroid FDG uptake was significantly higher in women (2.88 vs. 0.31%; X 2 =136.4, p max (malignant: median 4.53, range 2.1-12.0; benign: median 3.08, range 1.6-35, p=0.0093). However, SUV mean have no statistical differences (malignant: median 2.17, range 1.77-3.19; benign: median 2.05, range 1.15-5.77, p=0.0541). In ROC analyses, the optimal visual grades were >grade 3, and the optimal semiquantitative indices were 4.46 for SUV max , 2.03 for SUV mean . The visual grade was superior to other variables for the differentiation malignant from benign thyroid incidentalomas. The size and visual grade was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. Focal thyroid FDG incidentalomas in non-thyroid cancer patients during evaluation have a high risk of malignancy. The size and visual grade are potential predictors for malignant thyroid incidentaloma. (author)

  9. Comprehensive Survey Results of Childhood Thyroid Ultrasound Examinations in Fukushima in the First Four Years After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Midorikawa, Sanae; Shimura, Hiroki; Matsuzuka, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Hideto; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid nodules and cancers are rare in children compared with adults. However, after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, a rapid increase in childhood thyroid cancer was observed. To avoid any confusion and misunderstanding of data obtained in Fukushima after the 2011 nuclear accident, baseline prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancers should be carefully assessed with standardized criteria systematically, and comprehensively applied to the population perceived to be at risk. Under the official framework of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, the thyroids of children in Fukushima were examined using ultrasound, and the results collected in the first four years after the nuclear accident were analyzed in order to establish a baseline prevalence of childhood thyroid abnormalities, especially cancer. Of 367,685 people aged 18 years or younger as of April 1, 2011, who were living in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident, 300,476 underwent thyroid ultrasound screening. Of those, 2108 subjects with thyroid nodules were further examined using an advanced ultrasound instrument, with standardized criteria applied to determine the need for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). FNAC results determined the need for surgery and histological confirmation of the cytological diagnosis. Of the 2108 rescreened subjects, 543 underwent FNAC, of whom 113 were diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy. Subsequently, 99 patients underwent surgical resection, revealing 95 cases of papillary thyroid cancer, three poorly differentiated cancers, and one benign nodule. The overall prevalence of childhood thyroid cancer in Fukushima was determined to be 37.3 per 100,000 with no significant differences between evacuated and non-evacuated areas. Thyroid cancer patients had external exposure estimates of detected in this four-year study in Fukushima can be attributed to mass screening. It clearly exceeds what is found incidentally anywhere else. Direct

  10. Decreased staging of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowczyk, M; Janicki, A; Dworacki, G; Szczepanek-Parulska, E; Danieluk, M; Barnett, J; Antonik, M; Kałużna, M; Bromińska, B; Czepczyński, R; Bączyk, M; Ziemnicka, K; Ruchała, M

    2018-04-04

    The biological association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of CLT exerts any influence on clinical or histological presentation of DTC. Nine hundred and seven consecutive patients with DTC treated in the years 1998-2016 were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of concomitant CLT. The statistical differences were analysed. Out of 907 patients included in the study, 331 were diagnosed with DTC and CLT (studied group), while 576 patients with DTC but without CLT constituted a control group. The distribution of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer did not differ. In CLT group, the prevalence of pT1 was greater than for pT2-pT4 DTC (P = 0.0003; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.27-2.24) compared to controls (68.3 vs. 56.1%, respectively). The presence of multifocal lesions was similar. The thyroid capsule infiltration without extrathyroidal invasion (P CLT (P = 0.004; OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.17-2.34) as well as nodal involvement (P = 0.048; OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). The collected data indicate a protective role of CLT in preventing the spread of the DTC. The presence of CLT might limit tumour growth to the primary site.

  11. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra (Spain). Evolution and clinical characteristics, 1986-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo Álvaro, Jorge; Bermejo Fraile, Begoña; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Anda Apiñániz, Emma

    The latest published studies show an increased incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra and its clinical presentation regarding sex, histological subtype and size over the last 25 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were calculated on the basis of data from the Cancer Registry of Navarra during 1986-2010. Clinical data were obtained from the historical cohort of the Hospital Registry of Cancer of Navarra, which includes all the new cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed and treated in the public health network of this Community in that period. The overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra increased over the last 25 years, with an increase in the adjusted rate in men from 2.24 (1986-1990) to 5.85 (2006-2010) per 100,000 population/year (P<.001) and in women from 9.05 to 14.04, respectively (P<.001). This increase occurs only in papillary carcinoma. The clinical characteristics of 739 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were studied. The mean age at diagnosis increased over the years and the predominance of women (about 80%) remains stable. Mean tumor size decreased over the five-year periods from 30.9 to 22.5mm (P<.001), the proportion of microcarcinomas (T1a) increased from 8.8% to 30% (P<.001) and, despite this increase, there were no statistical differences in the TNM stage at diagnosis during the study period. The distribution of histological variants of papillary and follicular carcinoma did not change over 25 years. During the period studied, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased in Navarra in both sexes. The increase occurred only in papillary carcinoma, without changes in the distribution of his histological variants. The increase in the proportion of T1a tumors is remarkable, but the TNM stage distribution was maintained. These results suggest an increase in the diagnosis of thyroid microcarcinomas due to changes in clinical practice

  13. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using mult...

  14. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Retrospective analysis of data from breast cancer patients with thyroid metastasis (TM). Methods: The ... parenchyma with gathering of calcification that reduced in size, revealing the sensitiveness of TM to chemotherapy. Conclusion: US ..... patients.16-18. Most common sites of primary tumors are renal cell car-.

  15. Nuclear medicine in thyroid cancer management: A practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    Thyroid cancers are now being diagnosed at an earlier stage and treatments together with follow-up strategies are more effective. However this is not consistent throughout the world. The practice does differ considerably from country to country and region to region. Many International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Members States can benefit from the lessons learned and improve overall patient management of thyroid cancers. The IAEA has significantly enhanced the capabilities of many Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. In terms of treatment, the use of radioiodine ( 131 I) has been central to thyroid cancer and has been successfully used for over six decades. Over the years the IAEA has also assisted many Member States to develop indigenous manufacturing of radioiodine therefore reducing the barriers for the care of patients. This publication is a culmination of efforts by more than twenty international experts in the field to produce a global perspective on the subject. Views expressed are those of individual experts involved and are intended to assist national or regional authorities in decisions regarding the frameworks for effective treatment of thyroid cancer

  16. The prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT following I131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, T.W.; Cherk, M.H.; Yap, K.S.K.; Kalff, V.; Topliss, D.J.; Serpell, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the aims of this study are first to determine the prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT and secondly to assess the contribution of this tissue to total neck I-131 activity in patients treated with I-131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Materials and methods: a total of 63 consecutive patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer treated with total thyroidectomy underwent whole body planar imaging and SPECT/CT of the neck 48 hours following ablative I-131 therapy. On SPECT/CT, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as radioiodine activity in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid bed in close proximity to the midline without evidence of localisation to lymph nodes. On planar imaging, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as linear radioiodine activity in the midline of the neck superior to the thyroid bed. SPECT/CT and planar images were classified by two independent reviewers as positive, negative or equivocal with interobserver agreement quantified using a Kappa score. Disagreement was resolved using a third reviewer. Quantitation of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue and total neck I-131 activity was performed using region of interest analysis on planar imaging following localisation on SPECT/CT. Results: thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was present in 31/63 (49%; 95% CI: 37-61%) patients on SPECT/CT. In these 31 patients, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue contributed to an average of 49% of total neck activity. Interobserver agreement was substantial on SPECT/CT (Kappa = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) and fair on planar imaging (Kappa = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract was present in one half of patients in our study population and can contribute to a significant amount of total neck I-131 activity. Given the high prevalence of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue, our results suggest that total neck

  17. Diagnosis and management of differentiated thyroid cancer using molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert L; Ferris, Robert L; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Sherman, Steven I; Steward, David L; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2013-04-01

    To define molecular biology in clinical practice for diagnosis, surgical management, and prognostication of differentiated thyroid cancer. Ovid Medline 2006-2012 Manuscripts with clinical correlates. Papillary thyroid carcinomas harbor point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements, all of which activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These mutually exclusive mutations are found in 70% of PTC. BRAF mutation is found in 45% of papillary thyroid cancer and is highly specific. Follicular carcinomas are known to harbor RAS mutation or PAX8/PPARγ rearrangement. These mutations are also mutually exclusive and identified in 70% of follicular carcinomas. Molecular classifiers measure the expression of a large number of genes on a microarray chip providing a substantial negative predictive value pending further validation. 1) 20% to 30% of cytologically classified Follicular Neoplasms and Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance collectively are malignant on final pathology. Approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed solely for diagnostic purposes are benign. Molecular alteration testing may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures, 2) may reduce the number of completion thyroidectomies, and 3) may lead to more individualized operative and postoperative management. Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARγ for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm improve specificity, whereas molecular classifiers may add negative predictive value to fine needle aspiration diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells

  19. Sympathetic Nerve Injury in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Diamantis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The double innervation of the thyroid comes from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Injury rates during surgery are at 30% but can be minimized by upwardly preparing the thyroid vessels at the level of thyroid capsule. Several factors have been accused of increasing the risk of injury including age and tumor size. Our aim was to investigate of there is indeed any possible correlations between these factors and a possible increase in injury rates following thyroidectomy. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical correlation was observed for a positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and thyroid malignancy surgery (p < 0.001; I2 = 74% No statistical correlations were observed for a negative or positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and tumor size. There was also no statistically significant value observed for the correlation of the patients’ age with the risk of sympathetic nerve injury (p = 0.388. Lack of significant correlation reported could be due to the small number of studies and great heterogeneity between them.

  20. p53 in differentiation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Toshio; Ito, Takashi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hayashi, Yuzo; Dohi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-01-01

    P53 is a tumor suppressor gene with such a recessive nature and is inactivated in many carcinomas. DNA was extracted from 10 primary papillary adenocarcinomas and eight undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid, using three 5 μm sliced paraffin segments, and then amplified by PCR. The products were analyzed for mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 to 8 by the direct sequencing method and for allelic deletion by the RFLP method. In five human thyroid carcinomas, DNA was extracted from each tissue and analyzed. Mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 to 8 and p53 gene deletions were not detected in the 10 papillary adenocarcinomas, mutations were detected in seven of eight cases and allelic deletions was detected in three of the five cases examined. In each of the five cases which had both differentiated and undifferentiated tissues in the same tumor, p53 gene mutations were not detected in the differentiated tissues while mutations and gene deletions were detected in the undifferentiated sections. The p53 gene was analyzed using paraffin-embedded tissues by the combined use of the direct sequencing and PCR methods and by the RFLP method. It was found that the progression of human thyroid carcinoma is closely related to the p53 genetic changes. Furthermore, the analysis of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues in the same tumor showed that human undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas develop from differentiated carcinomas. (J.P.N.)

  1. Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Ward, Mary H

    2013-02-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40-70 years enrolled in 1996-2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk [RR(Q4) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-2.07; p for trend = 0.40]. Compared to the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a twofold risk of thyroid cancer (RR(Q4) = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20-3.51), but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend = 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RR(Q4) = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28-2.99; p for trend nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  2. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  3. State of esophageal transport function in patients with nodular goiter and in patients operated on for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purizhanskij, I.I.; Lyzhina, V.D.; Ogneva, T.V.; Pashev, N.; Minchev, D.; Mladenov, V.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of changes of esophageal transport function in 10 patients with thyroid adenoma and in 27 patients after surgical and radiotherapeutic management for thyroid cancer. The results were compared with those of a control group. Significant data on changes on esophageal transport function in patients with thyroid adenoma were unnoticed. Esophageal dysfunction after operation and radioactive iodine therapy for cancer was detected in 55%. Dysfunction was thought to be caused by dysphagia which showed direct correlation with the severity of hypothyroidism

  4. Salvage Lenvatinib Therapy in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Ryder, Mabel M; Hilger, Crystal R; Bible, Keith C

    2017-07-01

    Historical anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) outcomes have been terrible, with a median survival of only five months and <20% one-year survival. Improved outcomes are now achieved with aggressive initial therapy in stages IVA and IVB disease, but patients with distant metastatic disease (stage IVC) still do poorly; improved therapies are sorely needed. Kinase inhibitors have emerged as promising agents in the therapy of advanced medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer, but there are limited data regarding the use of lenvatinib in ATC. The aim of this study was to delineate clinical outcomes in a series of patients with advanced ATC in response to lenvatinib therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted involving all lenvatinib-treated Mayo Clinic ATC patients in 2015. Of 28 distinct ATC patients seen in 2015, three (11%) with metastatic disease of ECOG performance status 2-3 were treated with lenvatinib. Two patients were male; age range at ATC diagnosis was 57-84 years. All three patients attained successful local control of their disease with surgery and/or combined chemoradiotherapy. Lenvatinib was offered as the second, third, or fourth line of therapy at the time of metastatic disease progression. Two patients incurred minor responses to therapy, with structural regression of distant metastatic tumor disease soon after starting lenvatinib treatment (at one to two months), while one patient achieved stable disease, but no Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors partial responses resulted. Overall survival after starting lenvatinib was two, six, and seven months. Fatigue and hypertension were prominent, and one patient developed pulmonary emboli while on lenvatinib. This initial single-institution experience suggests that lenvatinib may have some disease-modifying activity in metastatic ATC that is otherwise refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, observed benefits were transient, and toxicities were prominent. Clinical trials are required

  5. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  6. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  7. 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Echeverry, Guadalupe Polanco; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in thyroid cancer susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3,067 cases and 8,575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer in the British Isles (Odds Ratio, OR= 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.11–1.27, P= 4.03 × 10−7), Japan (OR= 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03–1.41, P= 0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR= 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99–1.44, P= 0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5,484 cases and 12,594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (P= 1.23 × 10−7, OR= 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide thyroid cancer risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ~13%. PMID:26290501

  8. A Systematic Review of Unmet Information and Psychosocial Support Needs of Adults Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yong Gyu; Alhashemi, Ahmad; Fazelzad, Rouhi; Goldberg, Alyse S; Goldstein, David P; Sawka, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education and psychosocial support to patients are important elements of comprehensive cancer care, but the needs of thyroid cancer survivors are not well understood. The published English-language quantitative literature on (i) unmet medical information and (ii) psychosocial support needs of thyroid cancer survivors was systematically reviewed. A librarian information specialist searched seven electronic databases and a hand search was conducted. Two reviewers independently screened citations from the electronic search and reviewed relevant full-text papers. There was consensus between reviewers on the included papers, and duplicate independent abstraction was performed. The results were summarized descriptively. A total of 1984 unique electronic citations were screened, and 51 full-text studies were reviewed (three from the hand search). Seven cross-sectional, single-arm, survey studies were included, containing data from 6215 thyroid cancer survivor respondents. The respective study sizes ranged from 57 to 2398 subjects. All of the studies had some methodological limitations. Unmet information needs were variable relating to the disease, diagnostic tests, treatments, and co-ordination of medical care. There were relatively high unmet information needs related to aftercare (especially long-term effects of the disease or its treatment and its management) and psychosocial concerns (including practical and financial matters). Psychosocial support needs were incompletely met. Patient information on complementary and alternative medicine was very limited. In conclusion, thyroid cancer survivors perceive many unmet information needs, and these needs extend to aftercare. Psychosocial information and supportive care needs may be insufficiently met in this population. More work is needed to improve knowledge translation and psychosocial support for thyroid cancer survivors.

  9. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  10. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    .2-3.1) for brain cancer, and 3.3 (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) for NHL. Corresponding hazard ratios after childhood leukemia were 10.4 (95% CI, 0.4-223) for thyroid cancer, 7.2 (95% CI, 2.0-26) for brain cancer, and 6.5 (95% CI, 0.4-110) for NHL. Patients with adult leukemia have excess risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer......Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...

  11. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Doyon, Francoise; Shamsaldin, Akhtar; Abbas, Tahaa Moncef; Caillou, Bernard; Colonna, Marc; Cecarreli, Claudia; Schvartz, Claire; Bardet, Stephane; Langlois, Christiane B.Sc.; Ricard, Marcel; Schlumberger, Martin; Vathaire, Florent de

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOS E g software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131 I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  12. The prevalence of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Sert Bektaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Iodine deficiency is still considered to be the major etiological factor for endemic goiter. The pathogenesis of the goiter in iodine deficient area caries different characteristics. The aim of this study investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancers and type of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city where is iodine deficiency region.Materials and methods: Thyroid surgical materials which were sent to our department were screened retrospectively from the archives between the years 2009-2010. Thyroid resection was performed on 241 patients with nodular goiter in one year. We evaluated patients who received the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with histhopatological examination.Results: 222 of our patients (92.1% female and 19 (7.9% were male. The youngest patient 16 and the oldest patient was 80 years old and the average age is 40.9 ± 12.8. Histopathological examination of 197 (81.7% cases of nodular goiter, 31 (12.9% cases lymphocytic thyroiditis, 13 (5.4% patients had thyroid tumors. The three tumors on the 2 cases (0.8% benign, 11 (4.6% were malignant. As a type of cancer 1 (0.4% patients, follicular carcinoma-oncocytic variant, 10 (4.2% cases were papillary carcinoma.Conclusions: Iodine deficiency area in the province of Şırnak in patients with nodular goiter who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer rate of 4.6%, and most cancers is seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

  13. The Breast-Thyroid Cancer Link: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sarah M.; White, Michael G.; Hong, Susan; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kaplan, Edwin L.; Angelos, Peter; Kulkarni, Swati A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Grogan, Raymon H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of thyroid cancer in women with a history of breast cancer are higher than expected. Similarly, rates of breast cancer in those with a history of thyroid cancer are increased. Explanations for these associations include detection bias, shared hormonal risk factors, treatment effect, and genetic susceptibility. With increasing numbers of breast and thyroid cancer survivors clinicians should be particularly cognizant of this association. Here we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed and Scopus search engines to identify all publications studying the incidence of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or thyroid cancer following a diagnosis of breast cancer. This demonstrated an increased risk of thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy following breast cancer (OR=1.55, 95% CI [1.44,1.67]) and an increased risk of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following thyroid cancer (OR= 1.32, 95% CI [1.23,1.42]). There is a clear increase in the odds of developing either thyroid or breast cancer as a secondary malignancy after diagnosis with the other. Here we review this association and current hypothesis as to the cause of this correlation. PMID:26908594

  14. Surgical and Pathological Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Dzepina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid carcinoma is a relatively rare pediatric pathology, comprising around 3% of all childhood tumors. We investigated parameters of tumor aggressiveness, multicentricity, and locoregional metastatic spread patterns in patients up to 18 years of age and made comparison with the older group. All patients were operated upon with total thyroidectomy, with or without lymph-node neck dissection. Results. Patients with papillary carcinoma present with more advanced stage, larger primary tumor, and more commonly present with palpable thyroid and/or neck node. Overall, papillary cancer demonstrated pathological aggressiveness as defined by our criteria in 60%, multicentricity in 40%, and locoregional metastatic foci in 77% of cases. Multicentric tumor foci in both thyroid lobes and tumor aggressiveness were identified as a risk factor for metastatic development. Conclusion. By observing clinicopathological parameters, we demonstrated that papillary thyroid cancer behaves more aggressively in the younger group. We recommend total thyroidectomy with careful intraoperative exploration of thyroid bed and lateral neck in search for possible metastatic spread. In case of positive findings, it is obligatory to perform a standard neck dissection, keeping in mind that neck lymphonodes are primary site of locoregional recurrence. With meticulous attention to technical aspects of operation, perioperative morbidity should be minimal.

  15. The correlation of vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer ultrasound with tumor malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of ultrasound vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer with tumor malignancy. Methods: A total of 140 patients with thyroid nodule who accepted surgical resection in our hospital between May 2013 and June 2016 were selected as the research subjects, the patients with malignant thyroid nodule were included in the malignant group of the research and patients with benign thyroid nodule were included in the benign group of research. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography was conducted before operation to determine vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI and vascularization flow index (VFI; tumor tissues were collected after operation to detect the expression of angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion-related molecules. Results: VI, FI and VFI levels of tumor tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group; VEGF, MK, Ang-2, IGF-II, Bcl-2, Livin, Wip1, S100A4, TCF, β-catenin and SATB1 protein expression in tumor tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group and positively correlated with VI, FI and VFI levels while CCNG2 and p27 protein expression were significantly lower than those of benign group and negatively correlated with VI, FI and VFI levels. Conclusion: Ultrasound vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer increase significantly and are closely related to the angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion.

  16. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brose, Marcia S; Nutting, Christopher M; Jarzab, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    cancer that had progressed within the past 14 months. Adult patients (≥18 years of age) with this type of cancer were enrolled from 77 centres in 18 countries. To be eligible for inclusion, participants had to have at least one measurable lesion by CT or MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria...... cancer. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sorafenib. These results suggest that sorafenib is a new treatment option for patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals...

  17. [Analysis of Incidence and Mortality of Thyroid Cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Zheng, R S; Wang, N; Zeng, H M; Yuan, Y N; Zhang, S W; Li, H C; Liu, S; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and mortality status of thyroid cancer in China, 2013. Methods: Incidence and mortality data of thyroid cancer were derived from 255 population-based cancer registries in China. Age-specific and age standardized incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer in different areas (urban and rural) with different gender were calculated based on the stratification of area (urban and rural), gender, age and tumor position. Chinese census in 2000 and the world Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population data in 2013. Results: The estimates of new cancer incident cases and deaths were 143.9 thousand and 6 500, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 10.58/100 000 (Male 5.12/100 000, Female 16.32/100 000). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 8.82/100 000 and 7.67/100 000, respectively. Male to female ratio was 1∶3.2. The crude incidence rate in urban and rural areas were 15.03/100 000 and 5.41/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 2.57 times higher than that of rural areas. The crude mortality rate of thyroid cancer was 0.48/100 000 (Male 0.33/100 000, Female 0.63/100 000). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 0.33/100 000 and 0.32/100 000, respectively. The crude mortality rate in urban and rural areas were 0.57/100 000 and 0.38/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 1.41 times higher than that of rural areas. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates (0-74 years old) were 0.74% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the data from 255 cancer registries, papillary carcinoma is the main pathology type, which accounted

  18. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  19. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of thyroid function following total laryngectomy in laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasaddi Zarandy M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a well-documented complication after treatment of laryngeal cancer and is particularly significant among patients undergoing laryngectomy. We investigated the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients treated with total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. We also evaluated the effect of neck radiotherapy on thyroid function after total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 31 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mean age 53.6 years. Among these patients, 14 were treated with surgery only and 17 were treated with surgery plus radiotherapy. Laboratory evaluation included levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, free T3, and antithyroid antibodies both preoperatively and postoperatively at the first day, as well as one and six months after surgery. Results: All patients had normal thyroid function before treatment; however, after 6 months, five patients (16.1% were hypothyroid. Of these, three patients (9.6% had subclinical symptoms, including elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal free T4, and two patients (6.5% showed clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Radiotherapy and neck dissection were significantly associated with higher incidences of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypothyroidism occurs in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal cancer. The results indicate that thyroid function studies should be routinely performed in the follow-up care of laryngeal cancer patients, especially if radiotherapy and neck dissection were part of the treatment. We suggest that this approach will improve the patient's quality of life and diminish the co-morbidity associated with this kind of surgery.

  20. Sericeous thyroglobulin and whole body thyroid scan in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Huanca, M.; Postigo, J.; Farfan, J.

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor among endocrine diseases. it has an incidence of 1,87 cases per hundred thousand habitants. Thyroglobulin is an iodo glycoprotein useful in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Total body scan is a well established method to localize distant functioning metastases. We report the concordance of this two methods in 22 patients attending to the Nuclear Medicine Center and proceeding from the Head and Neck Department of INEN, which had undergone total thyroidectomy, received a I-131 ablative dose, performed a total body scan and determined the thyroglobulin concentration fourteen were female patients and the same number were accounted as high risk patients. We conclude for the studied population, that an excellent correlation between thyroglobulin and scans was noted and that 6,5 ng/ml will be used as a cut-off point for the thyroglobulin determination. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Radiation risk assessment of the thyroid cancer in Ukrainian children exposed due to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.; Likhtarev, I.; Kairo, I.; Tronko, N.; Oleynik, V.; Bogdanova, T.

    1996-01-01

    The children's thyroid exposure to radioiodine is one of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The collective dose to children aged 0-18 in the entire Ukraine was estimated to be 400000 person-Gy. The dose estimates were calculated on the basis of measurements of thyroid content of 131 I for about 108000 people in Ukraine aged 0-18 years in May-June 1986. Up to the end of 1994, 542 thyroid cancers throughout the Ukraine have been reported in children and young adults who were aged 0-18 at the time of the accident. Rates of thyroid cancer have climbed, from about 0.7 per million children aged 0-14 in 1986 to more 7 per million in 1994. Rates increased most in region closest to Pripyat'. Between 1990 and 1994, 9 of the 14,580 people who had been children at the time of the accident in Pripyat' developed thyroid cancer. This corresponds to an annual incidence of 123 cases per million persons. The estimated average thyroid dose in Ukrainian children varies by several orders of magnitude. There is a more than 30-fold gradient in thyroid cancer incidence rates corresponding to the gradient in thyroid doses from 131 I. A preliminary investigation shows an excess in the annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer, throughout the northern territory of Ukraine, corresponding to the average doses to thyroid from 131 I. Coefficients of regression of excess cancers versus thyroid dose have been calculated

  2. SIALOLITHIASIS IN PATIENTS WITH THYROID CANCER: TREATMENT, REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Малика Нурдыновна Доклаева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the salivary glands is one of the most frequent pathologies among dental patients. Salivolithiasis is most common among the diseases of the salivary glands. Half of the patients after the surgery relapse stone formation. One of the etiological causes salivolithiasis is a violation of mineral metabolism. Known effects of thyroid hormones on the balance of bone remodeling. The aim of our study was to improve treatment of patients with salivolithiasis in thyroid pathology. Materials and methods. To determine thyroid function in patients were studied: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free T4.. State of mineral metabolism was assessed by content in the blood calcium-regulating hormones parathyrin (PTH (pg / ml and calcitonin (CAT (pg / ml, a marker of bone resorption-Cross laps (ng / ml and bone formation - osteocalcin (ng / ml. Postoperatively, the patients were divided into two groups: the first consisted of patients with preoperative correction of thyroid status at the doctor, endocrinologist, the second (control - without preoperative correction of thyroid status doctor endocrinologist. Results. In the control group of patients compared with the group that received the necessary correction, much heavier passed the postoperative period. Output. Reasonable pharmacological correction in violation of mineral metabolism in patients with calculous sialadenitis is the best procedure that can reduce the number of complications such as acute exacerbations of chronic sialadenitis.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-1

  3. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  4. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  5. The Effect of Thyroiditis on the Yield of Central Compartment Lymph Nodes in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Victoria; Yen, Tina W F; Rose, Brian T; Fareau, Gilbert G; Misustin, Sarah M; Evans, Douglas B; Wang, Tracy S

    2015-12-01

    In patients who have undergone thyroidectomy and central compartment neck dissection (CCND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), visualization of enlarged lymph nodes may lead to more extensive CCND. This study sought to determine the effect of patient age and the presence of thyroiditis on the number of malignant and total lymph nodes resected in patients who underwent CCND for PTC. This retrospective review examined a prospective database of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and CCND for PTC between April 2009 and June 2013 and had thyroiditis on the final pathology. The patients were categorized into age groups by decade (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years) and compared with a control group of patients matched by age, gender, and tumor size. Of 74 patients with thyroiditis, 64 (87 %) were women. The median age of the patients was 47.5 years (range 18.2-72.0 years). The patients with thyroiditis had more lymph nodes resected than those without thyroiditis (median 11 vs 7; p thyroiditis and PTC who underwent CCND had more lymph nodes resected but a had lower proportion of metastatic lymph nodes than those without thyroiditis. Given the relatively low yield of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy, a more judicious approach to CCND might be considered, particularly for the youngest and oldest patients with PTC and thyroiditis.

  6. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  7. Targeting the NF-κB Pathway as a Combination Therapy for Advanced Thyroid Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Pozdeyev

    Full Text Available NF-κB signaling plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and drug/radiation resistance. Combination therapy involving NF-κB pathway inhibition is an attractive strategy for the treatment of advanced forms of thyroid cancer. This study was designed to test the efficacy of NF-κB pathway inhibition in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, using docetaxel and ionizing radiation in in vitro models of thyroid cancer. We found that while both docetaxel and ionizing radiation activated NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer cells, there was no synergistic effect on cell proliferation and/or programmed cell death with either genetic (transduction of a dominant negative mutant form of IκBα or pharmacologic (proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and IKKβ inhibitor GO-Y030 inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines BCPAP, 8505C, THJ16T and SW1736. Docetaxel plus bortezomib synergistically decreased in vitro invasion of 8505C cells, but not in the other cell lines. Screening of a panel of clinically relevant targeted therapies for synergy with genetic NF-κB inhibition in a proliferation/cytotoxicity assay identified the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA as a potential candidate. However, the synergistic effect was confirmed only in the BCPAP cells. These results indicate that NF-κB inhibitors are unlikely to be beneficial as combination therapy with taxane cytotoxic chemotherapy, external radiation therapy or radioiodine therapy. There may be unique circumstances where NF-κB inhibitors may be considered in combination with docetaxel to reduce tumor invasion or in combination with HDAC inhibitors to reduce tumor growth, but this does not appear to be a combination therapy that could be broadly applied to patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Further research may identify which subsets of patients/tumors may respond to this therapeutic

  8. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  9. Effect of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy on Bone in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Papaleontiou, Maria; Hawley, Sarah T.; Haymart, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The thyroid cancer incidence is rising. Despite current guidelines, controversy exists regarding the degree and duration of thyrotropin suppression therapy. Also, its potential skeletal effects remain a concern to physicians caring for thyroid cancer patients. We conducted a review of published data to evaluate existing studies focusing on the skeletal effects of thyrotropin suppression therapy in thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods. A systematic search of the PubMed, O...

  10. Molecular markers in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Anil K; Vaish, Richa; Vaidya, Abhishek; Nixon, Iain J; Williams, Michelle D; Vander Poorten, Vincent; López, Fernando; Angelos, Peter; Shaha, Ashok R; Khafif, Avi; Skalova, Alena; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Hunt, Jennifer L; Ferlito, Alfio

    2018-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are of common occurrence in the general population. About a fourth of these nodules are indeterminate on aspiration cytology placing many a patient at risk of unwanted surgery. The purpose of this review is to discuss various molecular markers described to date and place their role in proper perspective. This review covers the fundamental role of the signaling pathways and genetic changes involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. The current literature on the prognostic significance of these markers is also described. PubMed was used to search relevant articles. The key terms "thyroid nodules", "thyroid cancer papillary", "carcinoma papillary follicular", "carcinoma papillary", "adenocarcinoma follicular" were searched in MeSH, and "molecular markers", "molecular testing", mutation, BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, PAX 8, miRNA, NIFTP in title and abstract fields. Multiple combinations were done and a group of experts in the subject from the International Head and Neck Scientific Group extracted the relevant articles and formulated the review. There has been considerable progress in the understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis and the emergence of numerous molecular markers in the recent years with potential to be used in the diagnostic algorithm of these nodules. However, their precise role in routine clinical practice continues to be a contentious issue. Majority of the studies in this context are retrospective and impact of these mutations is not independent of other prognostic factors making the interpretation difficult. The prevalence of these mutations in thyroid nodule is high and it is a continuously evolving field. Clinicians should stay informed as recommendation on the use of these markers is expected to evolve.

  11. Sustained ERK inhibition maximizes responses of BrafV600E thyroid cancers to radioiodine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagarajah, J.; Le, M.; Knauf, J.A.; Ferrandino, G.; Montero-Conde, C.; Pillarsetty, N.; Bolaender, A.; Irwin, C.; Krishnamoorthy, G.P.; Saqcena, M.; Larson, S.M.; Ho, A.L.; Seshan, V.; Ishii, N.; Carrasco, N.; Rosen, N.; Weber, W.A.; Fagin, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodide (RAI) therapy of thyroid cancer exploits the relatively selective ability of thyroid cells to transport and accumulate iodide. Iodide uptake requires expression of critical genes that are involved in various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ERK signaling, which is markedly

  12. Increased Global DNA Hypomethylation in Distant Metastatic and Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N; Zafon, Carles; Villalmanzo, Núria; Iglesias, Carmela; van Hemel, Bettien M; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle S; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Buj, Raquel; Mauricio, Dídac; Peinado, Miguel A; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Reverter, Jordi L; Robledo, Mercedes; Links, Thera P; Jordà, Mireia

    Context: Global DNA hypomethylation is a major event for the development and progression of cancer, although the significance in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its role in thyroid cancer progression and its potential as a prognostic marker. Methods: Global

  13. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  14. Radiation safety procedures in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekharrao, B.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    During any administration of radioactive materials, it is imperative to always be conversant with any forbidden radiation health safety practices. This need is amplified when dealing with therapeutic amount of radionuclides. Among all the procedures dealing with the use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is easiest to think of 131 I, since this is the most widely used unsealed source of a radiopharmaceutical for treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism and carries with it most of the problems associated with therapy applications

  15. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  16. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.; Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  17. Predictors of Regional Lymph Node Recurrence after Initial Thyroidectomy in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

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    Amirsina Sharifi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR is common in patients with thyroid cancer but clinicopathological predictors are unclear. We aimed to clarify these predictors and identify patients who would benefit from prophylactic lymph node dissection the most. Method. 343 patients with different types of thyroid cancer were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy between 2007 and 2013. Results. The median ± interquartile range of patients’ age was 40 ± 25 years. 245 (71.4% patients were female. Regarding the risk of regional lymph node recurrence, we found that male gender, age ≥45 years, non-PTC (i.e., medullary, follicular, and anaplastic types histopathology, T3 (i.e., tumor size >4 cm in the greatest dimension limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroid extension, stage IVa, and isolated cervical lymphadenopathy as initial manifestation (ICL are significant risk factors. T3 (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 156.41, 95% CI [55.72–439.1] and ICL (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 77.79, 95% CI [31.55–191.81] were the strongest predictors of regional lymph node recurrence. Conclusion. We found easily achievable risk factors for RLNR in thyroid cancers patients. We suggested that patients with specific clinicopathological features like male gender, age ≥45 years, larger tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension be considered as prophylactic lymphadenectomy candidates.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Transoral Videolaryngoscopic Surgery for Retropharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Fujiwara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic-assisted transoral surgery, including transoral robotic surgery for metastatic retropharyngeal lymph node (RPN from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, has been reported to reduce the complications resulting from transcervical and transmandibular approaches. However, the narrow working space and difficulty identifying RPN are problematic. To solve these issues, several studies have used intraoperative ultrasound in endoscopic-assisted transoral surgery. However, the type of ultrasonography suitable for this purpose remains unclear. Case Presentation: A 60-year-old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma (T4aN1bM0 initially underwent total thyroidectomy and paratracheal and selective neck dissections (D2a, with resectional management of recurrent laryngeal nerve, trachea, and esophagus. Three years later, she was diagnosed with left retropharyngeal and upper mediastinal lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery was performed with a combination of ultrasonography with a flexible laparoscopic transducer manipulated with forceps for identifying RPN intraoperatively. Due to the transducer’s small size and thin, flexible cable, the transducer interrupted the procedure in spite of the narrowness of oral cavity. RPN was resected completely without adverse events. Conclusion: We performed intraoperative ultrasound-guided endoscopic transoral surgery for metastatic RPN from papillary thyroid cancer and achieved complete resection as well as preservation of swallowing function.

  19. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  20. Thyroid cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas-Lavu, Monika; Parker, Andrew; Spigelman, Allan D; Scott, Rodney J; Epstein, Richard J; Jensen, Michael; Samaras, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome describes a familial cancer syndrome comprising germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair genes, MLH1 , MSH2 , MSH6 , and PMS2 and is characterized by colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies. Thyroid cancer is not usually considered to be part of the constellation of Lynch syndrome cancers nor have Lynch syndrome tumor gene mutations been reported in thyroid malignancies. This study reports a woman with Lynch syndrome (colonic cancer and a DNA mismatch repair mutation in the MSH2 gene) with a synchronous papillary thyroid cancer. Six years later, she developed metachronous breast cancer. Metastatic bone disease developed after 3 years, and the disease burden was due to both breast and thyroid diseases. Despite multiple interventions for both metastatic breast and thyroid diseases, the patient's metastatic burden progressed and she died of leptomeningeal metastatic disease. Two prior case reports suggested thyroid cancer may be an extraintestinal malignancy of the Lynch syndrome cancer group. Hence, this study examined the genetic relationship between the patient's known Lynch syndrome and her thyroid cancer. The thyroid cancer tissue showed normal expression of MSH2 , suggesting that the tumor was not due to the oncogenic mutation of Lynch syndrome, and molecular analysis confirmed BRAF V600E mutation. Although in this case the thyroid cancer was sporadic, it raises the importance of considering cancer genetics in familial cancer syndromes when other cancers do not fit the criteria of the syndrome. Careful documentation of other malignancies in patients with thyroid cancer and their families would assist in better understanding of any potential association. Appropriate genetic testing will clarify whether a common pathogenic mechanism links seemingly unrelated cancers.

  1. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoeckli, Sandro J. [Clinic of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Padberg, Barbara-C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-09-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  2. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  3. Thyroid Cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    24 cases were revised, of patient with thyroid tumors in the period understood between 1983 and 1995. Of these tumors 14 were papillars, 3 medullar, 3 children with high levels of thyro calcitonine, 2 with follicular adenomas, a boy with hyperplasia and a doubtful cytology to the one who two years later it was made a total thyroidectomy. Most of the patients were bigger than the 10 years, globally there was not great difference in the distribution for sex, being lightly bigger the number of patient of feminine sex; in the medullar, the relationship was of 2:1 feminine: Masculine, similar to that reported in the literature. To the date, they are alive and without illness 12 patients; 3 evolve with lung metastasis, 2 (with lung metastasis) they abandoned the controls, 3 died with illness and 1 present metastasis and cardiac illness. Iodine 1 31 was used in eleven patients

  4. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: similar and dissimilar characteristics in neighboring areas. Possible implications for the epidemiology of thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Latina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Medical centers worldwide report an increased frequency of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and thyroid cancer (TC, two environmentally influenced diseases. In Sicily, data on HT are available for the province of Messina (1975-2005; data on TC are available for the whole island (2002-2004, with the volcanic province of Catania having the highest incidence. OBJECTIVE: To replicate in Catania, on comparable years, the HT data of Messina. DESIGN METHODS SETTING: Review of the clinical records of patients in years 1995-2005 to compare presentation and yearly changes of HT. During 1995-2005, records were computer stored in the Endocrine Divisions of the University Hospitals of Catania and Messina, two tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Catania is outnumbered by Messina (742 vs. 3,409 HT patients. Similar were the linear increase in the yearly number of HT patients, rates of thyroid dysfunctions though with different proportions of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, and rates of positiveness for TgAb or TPOAb. Different were age and its yearly trend; gender distribution and rates of the sonography variants, though yearly trends were similar. CONCLUSION: The HT epidemics is smaller in Catania, with changes in presentation overlapping partially those in Messina. Whatever environmental factors might be involved, they (and/or their intensity were not necessarily the same in these provinces. Intriguingly, the expected number of TC in HT patients with thyroid nodules in Catania is congruent with that of the general population of this province, but it is far less than in the Messina province. Thus, TC and HT incidences could be influenced by distinct environmental factors.

  5. The relationship of thyroid cancer in the people of the Marshall Ishands to potential exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J.; Trott, K.R. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The US atomic weapons testing programme in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls in the Marshall Islands to various degrees. The largest weapon named BRAVO was tested in 1954 and resulted in high exposures to residents living on three atolls immediately downwind of the test site. Between 1993 and 1997, as part of the Nationwide Radiological Study of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, we examined 4767 Marshallese for all forms of thyroid disease, benign and malignant. Those examined had residences at the time of the test on all inhabited atolls of the nation and were born before the end of the nuclear testing period and thus potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. This group includes more than 60% of the alive population at risk. We diagnosed 38 thyroid cancers and found 23 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before. These findings indicate that 1 in 100 Marshallese had thyroid cancer or had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer before the investigation. Thyroid cancer rates varied little throughout the country, which suggests that thyroid cancer is endemic to the Marshallese population. However, the highest prevalence (1.8%) was found among women who were alive at the time of the BRAVO test. We derived crude estimates of thyroid dose for each study participant, using age-specific dose estimates on Utirik as estimated by Lessard et al. and adjusting those for location on the basis of contemporary measurements of Cs-137 at their island of residence in 1954. Prevalence of thyroid cancer generally increased with estimated dose to the thyroid, but the trend was not statistically significant. In view of these data, more precise individual thyroid dose reconstruction becomes an essential task for future work. (author)

  6. The relationship of thyroid cancer in the people of the Marshall Islands to potential exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Schoemaker, M.J.; Trott, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The US atomic weapons testing programme in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls in the Marshall Islands to various degrees. The largest weapon named BRAVO was tested in 1954 and resulted in high exposures to residents living on three atolls immediately downwind of the test site. Between 1993 and 1997, as part of the Nationwide Radiological Study of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, we examined 4767 Marshallese for all forms of thyroid disease, benign and malignant. Those examined had residences at the time of the test on all inhabited atolls of the nation and were born before the end of the nuclear testing period and thus potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. This group includes more than 60% of the alive population at risk. We diagnosed 38 thyroid cancers and found 23 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before. These findings indicate that 1 in 100 Marshallese had thyroid cancer or had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer before the investigation. Thyroid cancer rates varied little throughout the country, which suggests that thyroid cancer is endemic to the Marshallese population. However, the highest prevalence (1.8%) was found among women who were alive at the time of the BRAVO test. We derived crude estimates of thyroid dose for each study participant, using age-specific dose estimates on Utirik as estimated by Lessard et al. and adjusting those for location on the basis of contemporary measurements of Cs-137 at their island of residence in 1954. Prevalence of thyroid cancer generally increased with estimated dose to the thyroid, but the trend was not statistically significant. In view of these data, more precise individual thyroid dose reconstruction becomes an essential task for future work. (author)

  7. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ...

  8. Thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of radiation-induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puylaert, J.B.; Pauwels, E.K.; Goslings, B.M.; Van Daal, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate was performed in 249 patients who received radiation therapy for abnormalities in the head or neck in order to determine the role of this examination in the detection of abnormal nodules arising from cancer. These patients received a mean total dose of about 10.1 Gy. The mean follow-up period was 39 years. All patients underwent physical examination without prior knowledge of the scintigram. Scintigrams were evaluated without prior knowledge of the physical examination. In 158 cases, both the physical examination and scintigraphy were negative. In 64 cases, both examinations were positive. In ten patients, the physical examination was positive and scintigraphy was negative and vice versa in 17 patients. Of 249 patients, 28 ultimately underwent thyroid surgery; a total of four had carcinoma. A cost-benefit relationship as to routine scintigraphy as a screening procedure is presented. If patients are first screened by palpation, a number of abnormal nodules will be missed. In addition, a considerable number with positive palpation would probably undergo surgery unnecessarily. From a clinical and financial point of view, it is believed that scintigraphy is the examination of choice for screening for radiation-induced thyroid malignancies

  9. Cytokine production in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and associated autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivancevic-Simonovic, Snezana; Mihaljevic, Olgica; Majstorovic, Ivana; Popovic, Suzana; Markovic, Slavica; Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Jovanovic, Zorica; Mijatovic-Teodorovic, Ljiljana; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Colic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent thyroid autoimmune disease, while papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. A few patients with HT also develop PTC. The aim of this study was to analyze cytokine profiles in patients with PTC accompanied with autoimmune HT in comparison with those in patients with PTC alone or HT alone and healthy subjects. Cytokine levels were determined in supernatants obtained from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated whole blood cultures in vitro. The concentrations of selected cytokines: Th1-interferon gamma (IFN-γ); Th2-interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 13 (IL-13); Th9-interleukin 9 (IL-9); and Th17-interleukin 17 (IL-17A) were measured using multiplex cytokine detection systems for human Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22. We found that PTC patients with HT produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13 and IFN-γ than PTC patients without HT. In conclusion, autoimmune HT affects the cytokine profile of patients with PTC by stimulating secretion of Th1/Th2/Th9 types of cytokines. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios in PTC patients with associated autoimmune HT indicate a marked shift toward Th2 immunity.

  10. Therapeutic administration of 131I for differentiated thyroid cancer, radiation dose to ovaries and outcome of pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsi, Jerome-Philippe; Rubino, Carole; Labbe, Martine; Vathaire, Florent de; Schlumberger, Martin; Ricard, Marcel; Ceccarelli, Claudia; Schvartz, Claire; Henri- Amar, Michel; Bardet, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Background: Radiation is known to be mutagenic. In thyroid cancer treatment, 131 I is usually administered, for the first treatment, at a 3.7 GMBq activity, corresponding to an estimated mean radiation dose of 140 mGy to the ovaries. However data on the effects of 131 I therapy on pregnancy outcomes, especially untoward, are scarce. Methods: Data on 2673 pregnancies were obtained by interviewing female patients treated for thyroid carcinoma who had not received external radiation to the ovaries, in three French hospitals and one Italian hospital. Results: The incidence of miscarriages was 10 % before any treatment for thyroid cancer; this percentage increased after surgery for thyroid cancer, both before (20 %) and after (19 %) 131 I treatment, with no variation according to the cumulative dose. Miscarriages were not significantly more frequent in women treated with 131 I during the year before conception, even in subjects who had received more than 370 MBq during that year, as compared to women never treated with 131 I. The incidence of stillbirths, preterm births, a low birth weight, congenital malformation and death during the first year of life was not significantly different before or after 131 I therapy. The incidence of thyroid and non thyroidal cancers was similar in children born either before or after the mother's exposure to 131 I. Conclusion: In our data, we found no evidence that exposure to 131 I affects the outcome of subsequent pregnancies and offspring. Whether the number of malformations, or thyroid and non thyroidal cancers are related to gonadal irradiation remains to be established. Our findings allowed us to fuel the debate on the doubling dose: the concept is still heatedly debated and the value of 1 Gy as the doubling dose in humans should be rediscussed. (author)

  11. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Omry-Orbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but

  12. County-Level Radon and Incidence of Female Thyroid Cancer in Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Oakland

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990–2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017. We tabulated the percent of radon above four picocuries per liter and the female thyroid cancer incidence rate in each county. Quantile maps were constructed, and an ordinary least-squares regression model was run using Geoda 1.10.0.8 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: No association was observed between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in any of the States: New Jersey (β = 0.06, p = 0.23; Iowa (β = −0.07, p = 0.07; or Wisconsin (β = −0.01, p = 0.78. A spatial regression model was considered, but the Moran’s I of the residuals from each of the models was not significant, so no spatial term was required. Discussion: In this county-level ecological study across three different States in the US, we did not find an association between elevated radon and thyroid cancer incidence in women. While this ecologic study reports null findings, due to the ecologic fallacy, individual-level studies of this association may still be warranted.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Sufficiently Abolished Oncogenicity in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chi Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC, also called undifferentiated thyroid cancer, is the least common but most aggressive and deadly thyroid gland malignancy of all thyroid cancers. The aim of this study is to explore essential biomarker and use CRISPR/Cas9 with lentivirus delivery to establish a gene-target therapeutic platform in ATC cells. At the beginning, the gene expression datasets from 1036 cancers from CCLE and 8215 tumors from TCGA were collected and analyzed, showing EGFR is predominantly overexpressed in thyroid cancers than other type of cancers (P=0.017 in CCLE and P=0.001 in TCGA. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genomic edit system, ATC cells with EGFR sgRNA lentivirus transfection obtained great disruptions on gene and protein expression, resulting in cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition, and most importantly metastasis turn-off ability. In addition, the FDA-approved TKI of afatinib for EGFR targeting also illustrates great anticancer activity on cancer cell death occurrence, cell growth inhibition, and cell cycle arrest in SW579 cells, an EGFR expressing human ATC cell line. Furthermore, off-target effect of using EGFR sgRNAs was measured and found no genomic editing can be detected in off-target candidate gene. To conclude, this study provides potential ATC therapeutic strategies for current and future clinical needs, which may be possible in increasing the survival rate of ATC patients by translational medicine.

  14. Combined effect of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status on aggressiveness in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-jin; Myong, Jun Pyo; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Kyu Eun; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and to determine their combined association with tumor aggressiveness in PTC. A total of 1780 patients with PTC who underwent surgery were enrolled in this study. Simple and multiple analyses were performed to determine the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the BRAF(V600E) mutation in PTC. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was present in 11.5% of patients (204/1780) with PTC. Multiple logistic regressions showed that BRAF(V600E) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.493; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.360-0.678) and the female sex (OR = 7.146; 95% CI = 3.408-18.347) were independent factors associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in PTC. BRAF(V600E) mutation and the Hashimoto's thyroiditis-negative PTC group were associated with aggressive disease (OR = 3.069; 95% CI = 1.654-5.916). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was associated less frequently with BRAF(V600E) , and frequently with the female sex in patients with PTC. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) status may help to predict clinical outcome of PTC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis And Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hajj Boutros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: No consensus exists on the association between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT and cancer. To resolve this controversy, this review aimed to evaluate the relationship between the two conditions. Methods: Using Pub-Med database, we searched studies relevant to the topic focusing on the association between HT and Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC, as well as the association between HT and Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL. Findings: Both HT and PTC are common worldwide, and the two conditions may be closely related. However, the relationship remains controversial. Some studies found that PTC coexisted with HT 2.8-fold more frequently, with variable prevalence ranging from 0.5 to 30%. In contrast to surgical and pathological series that suggested a positive correlation between the two diseases and even a cause-and-effect relationship, the other studies evaluating fine-needle aspirate specimens did not find a statistically significant correlation. On the other hand, the relationship between PTL and HT appears well established. Conclusion: The existing data provide inconsistent evidence favoring a causal relationship between HT and PTC. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship. However patients with HT are at risk for PTL. Therefore careful observation and follow-up of HT patients is recommended.

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer following exposure to 131I early in life: A combined analysis of six studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanesa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Astakhova, Larisa; Davis, Scott; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Ivanov, Victor; Stepanenko, Valeri; Malakhova, Irina; Simon, Steven; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Trott, Klaus; Negri, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several recent studies have investigated the association between the risk of thyroid cancer and exposure to radio-iodines, following the Chernobyl accident, fall-out from weapons testing or releases from nuclear installations. These studies have been carried out in Belarus, Russia, French Polynesia, the US (Hanford site) and the Marshall Islands, in populations with different genetic backgrounds and different distributions of host and environmental risk factors, and most have collected information on a number of possible confounding or modifying factors. A formal combined analysis of studies of thyroid cancer in relation to 131 I exposure in childhood and adolescence was performed in an attempt to maximise the information concerning risks from exposure to iodine radioisotopes. The objectives of the analyses were: a) to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to 131 I in childhood and adolescence; and b) to evaluate the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation-induced thyroid cancer risk. These include: age at exposure, stable iodine intake, genetic background, history of thyroid diseases, diet and reproductive history. The criteria for inclusion of studies in the combined analyses, which were defined a priori, included availability of individual or individualised estimates of radiation dose to the thyroid and adequate diagnostic confirmation of thyroid cancer. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relation between radiation dose and risk of thyroid cancer. It was applied in the standard fashion to case-control studies. For cohort studies, 'case-control sets' were defined on the basis of the 'risk sets' for each individual case. The distribution of total thyroid dose was highly skewed, with the majority of subjects in almost all studies having received relatively low doses, particularly in French Polynesia. The dose to the thyroid was mainly from exposure to 131 I, except in the Marshall Islands

  17. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... prompted many researchers to explore the transcriptome and, in recent years, also the miRNome in order to generate new molecular classifiers capable of classifying thyroid tumours more accurately than by conventional cytopathological and histopathological methods. This has led to a number of molecular...

  18. X-ray medical diagnostics and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, T.; Chobanova, N.; Pavlova, A; Bajrakova, A.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical epidemiological study for assessment of X-ray medical diagnosis as a risk factor for thyroid cancer (TC) has been carried out. The data from the investigation of 90 TC cases and 180 controls matched by sex and age are used. The risk assessment is based on the distribution of investigated persons according to thyroid gland irradiation (as an equivalent dose cumulated from the procedures) and the number of different procedures of organs and systems. There is a significantly increased risk for TC from diagnostic lung examinations; fluoroscopy (OR=3.49, 95% CI=1.66±7.39, p=0.0002) and radiography (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.05±5.86, p=0.02) (author)

  19. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, V; Sciammarella, C; Vitale, M; Colao, A; Faggiano, A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the genetic events implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer (TC) involve genes with kinase activity. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) are very relevant in this field. KIs are considered the most suitable treatment for patients with iodine-refractory differentiated TC; these patients comprise the subgroup with the poorer prognosis. To date, only sorafenib has been approved for this indication, but promising results have been reported with several other KIs. In particular, lenvatinib has demonstrated excellent efficacy, with both progression-free survival and objective tumour response being better than with sorafenib. Despite being considered to be well tolerated, both sorafenib and lenvatinib have shown a remarkable toxicity, which has led to dose reductions in the majority of patients and to treatment discontinuation in a significant proportion of cases. The role of KIs in differentiated TC may be revolutionised by the finding that selumetinib may restore a clinical response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of advanced, progressive medullary TC (MTC). Nevertheless, the toxicity of both compounds suggests their selective use in those patients with strong disease progression. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus, alone or in combination with somatostatin analogues, should be studied in metastatic MTC patients with slow progression of disease, these representing the vast majority of patients. KIs did not significantly impact on the clinical features of anaplastic TC (ATC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy on Bone in Thyroid Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleontiou, Maria; Hawley, Sarah T; Haymart, Megan R

    2016-02-01

    The thyroid cancer incidence is rising. Despite current guidelines, controversy exists regarding the degree and duration of thyrotropin suppression therapy. Also, its potential skeletal effects remain a concern to physicians caring for thyroid cancer patients. We conducted a review of published data to evaluate existing studies focusing on the skeletal effects of thyrotropin suppression therapy in thyroid cancer patients. A systematic search of the PubMed, Ovid/Medline, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted. The retained studies were evaluated for methodological quality, and the study populations were categorized into premenopausal women, postmenopausal women, and men. Twenty-five pertinent studies were included. Seven studies were longitudinal and 18 were cross-sectional. Of the 25 included studies, 13 were assigned an excellent methodological quality score. Three of 5 longitudinal studies and 3 of 13 cross-sectional studies reported decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women; 2 of 4 longitudinal studies and 5 of 13 cross-sectional studies reported decreased BMD in postmenopausal women. The remaining studies showed no effect on BMD. The only longitudinal study of men showed bone mass loss; however, cross-sectional studies of men did not demonstrate a similar effect. Studies to date have yielded conflicting results on the skeletal effects of thyrotropin suppression therapy and a knowledge gap remains, especially for older adults and men. Existing data should be cautiously interpreted because of the variable quality and heterogeneity. Identifying groups at risk of adverse effects from thyrotropin suppression therapy will be instrumental to providing focused and tailored thyroid cancer treatment. The standard treatment for thyroid cancer includes total thyroidectomy with or without radioactive iodine ablation, often followed by thyrotropin suppression therapy. Despite current guidelines, controversy exists

  1. American Thyroid Association statement on the essential elements of interdisciplinary communication of perioperative information for patients undergoing thyroid cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Sally E; Doherty, Gerard M; Inabnet, William B; Pasieka, Janice L; Randolph, Gregory W; Shaha, Ashok R; Terris, David J; Tufano, Ralph P; Tuttle, R Michael

    2012-04-01

    Thyroid cancer specialists require specific perioperative information to develop a management plan for patients with thyroid cancer, but there is not yet a model for effective interdisciplinary data communication. The American Thyroid Association Surgical Affairs Committee was asked to define a suggested essential perioperative dataset representing the critical information that should be readily available to participating members of the treatment team. To identify and agree upon a multidisciplinary set of critical perioperative findings requiring communication, we examined diverse best-practice documents relating to thyroidectomy and extracted common features felt to enhance precise, direct communication with nonsurgical caregivers. Suggested essential datasets for the preoperative, intraoperative, and immediate postoperative findings and management of patients undergoing surgery for thyroid cancer were identified and are presented. For operative reporting, the essential features of both a dictated narrative format and a synoptic computer format are modeled in detail. The importance of interdisciplinary communication is discussed with regard to the extent of required resection, the final pathology findings, surgical complications, and other factors that may influence risk stratification, adjuvant treatment, and surveillance. Accurate communication of the important findings and sequelae of thyroidectomy for cancer is critical to individualized risk stratification as well as to the clinical issues of thyroid cancer care that are often jointly managed in the postoperative setting. True interdisciplinary care is essential to providing optimal care and surveillance.

  2. The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer The commonly used tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is designed to predict death and not recurrence. Based on this, patients with thyroid cancer are grouped into risk categories at the time of initial treatment. However, recent......-up is measurement of plasma-thyroglobulin concentration and ultrasound of the neck focusing on the thyroid bed and classification of lymph nodes according to their location and high risk signs....

  3. Evidence for an Association between Macular Degeneration and Thyroid Cancer in the Aged Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Jane-Ming; Chang, Yun-Lun; Hsu, Chung-Y; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-05-03

    Direct evidence of whether thyroid cancer patients have a higher risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has yet to be investigated. Patients older than 50 years-old and newly diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 2000 and 2008 were identified from the national health insurance research database (NHIRD). We applied time-varying Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association between thyroid cancer and AMD. The multivariable models included conventional cardiovascular risk factors, myopia, vitreous floaters, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and treatment modality of thyroid cancer. The analysis process was stratified by age, gender, and comorbidity. In this study, 5253 patients were included in a thyroid cancer cohort (men 24.5%; median age 59.1 years (53.7⁻67.4 years), and 21,012 matched controls were included in a non-thyroid cancer cohort. The AMD incidence was 40.7 per 10,000 person/year in the thyroid cancer cohort. The thyroid cancer cohort had a higher risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.09⁻1.75) of AMD than the non-thyroid cohort. Thyroid cancer patients had a higher risk of AMD, especially the male patients (aHR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.38⁻3.14) and the patients with comorbidities (aHR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09⁻1.74). In conclusion, thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years-old have increased risk of AMD.

  4. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ling

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with Hashimoto���s thyroiditis (HT and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gender, nodular size, invasive status, central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level, were compared between the various groups of patients. Results There were 653 patients with a final diagnosis of HT. More PTC was found in those with HT (58.3%; 381 of 653 than those without HT (2416 of 5456; 44.3%; p Conclusion PTC and HT have a close relationship in this region of highly prevalent HT disease. Based on the results of our study, we hypothesise that long-term HT leads to elevated serum TSH, which is the real risk factor for thyroid cancer.

  5. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  6. Radiation exposure and risk of pediatric thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in air following the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), of which subsequent medical and pediatric events are reported herein. Many residents who had lived close to the Plant had to dwell in the evacuation area. The risk of their pediatric thyroid cancer has become a subject of anxiety since the incidence of the cancer alone is known to have increased post Chernobyl nuclear accident. The cancer is quite rare in the pediatric field, the tissue type is mostly of differentiated papillocarcinoma, and the long prognosis is reportedly as good as that of the cancer not due to radiation exposure if surgically treated appropriately. After the Accident, Radiation Medical Science Center for Fukushima Health Management Survey was founded in Fukushima Medical University, where the whole lifetime health management of Fukushima prefectural residents is to be continued. Among them, the ultrasonic examination of the thyroid started in Oct. 2011 to 360 thousands children of the age 20 mm cyst or >5 mm solid node. It is important to carefully watch the health of children involving their mental side as they suffer from the experience of ''exposed'', rather than the actual physical effect. (T.T.)

  7. Advanced Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma with Thyroid Invasion Mimicking Thyroid Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Al Khatib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old female patient, a breast cancer survivor and a case of unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, with thyroid invasion, presented with suprasternal neck swelling mimicking thyroid primary. A literature search was undertaken to highlight this rare presentation. There have been few reports in the literature describing tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the thyroid.

  8. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

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    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  9. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacy, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Liu, Lianyong [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Punan Hospital, Shanghai 200125 (China); He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Tian, Jianqing, E-mail: jianqing0991@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • CHIP is significantly upregulated in thyroid cancer cells. • Overexpression of CHIP facilitates proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • Silencing of CHIP inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • CHIP promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via activating the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  10. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

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    MacMillan Christina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. Methods EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. Results The anaplastic (ATC and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p Conclusion We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC.

  11. Scanning in Thyroid Cancer; Exploration des tumeurs de la thyroide; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov pri issledovanii raka shchitovidnoj zhelezy; Exploracion de los tumores tiroideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Franz K [Radioisotope Centre, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    Scanning in thyroid cancer is of value in - 1. The preoperative diagnosis of a thyroid nodule; 2. The localization of thyroid cancer metastases; 3. The treatment of thyroidectomize d patients with metastases from thyroid cancer. The appearance of thyroid nodules on the scintigram is described. Some prelimi- nary results of the use of radiophosphoru s and external counting with a Geiger- Mueller tube of ''cold'' nodules are reported. Localization of thyroid cancer metastases with particular emphasis on the use of thyrotropic hormone is described. With this method three-fourths of all patients with metastatic thyroid cancer were found to have functioning metastases. The technique of ablation of normal thyroid remnants following total thyroidectomy and the treatment of metastases is discussed in detail. Scanning of metastases is the best method to follow the patient's progress. (author) [French] L'exploration des tumeurs de la thyroide presente un interet pour: 1. Le diagnostic preoperatoire des nodules de la thyroide; 2. La localisation des metastases du cancer de la thyroide; 3. Le traitement des personnes ayant subi l'ablation de la thyroide et atteintes de metastases du cancer de la thyroide. L'auteur decrit l'aspect des nodules de la thyroide sur le scintigramme. Il donne certains resultats preliminaires obtenus par l'emploi du radiophosphore et par comptage externe des nodules < froids > a l'aide d'un tube de Geiger-Mueller. L'auteur etudie aussi la localisation des metastases du cancer de la thyroide, en particulier par l'utilisation de l'hormone thyrotropique. L'emploi de cette methode a permis de constater que les trois quarts des malades atteints de cancer metastatique de la thyroide souffraient de metastases en activite. Apres avoir evoque la thyroidectomie totale et la methode d'ablation des fragments de thyroide restant normalement apres operation, l'auteur etudie en detail le traitement des metastases. L'exploration des metastases est la meilleure

  12. Diffuse Thyroid Metastasis From Lung Cancer Mimicking Thyroiditis on 99mTc-Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Gao, Shan; Feng, Jinteng; Wang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangjian

    2017-09-01

    Possible thyroiditis was suspected in a 56-year-old man who initially presented sore throat because laboratory examinations revealed decreased serum thyroid hormone and the Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake by the thyroid gland. However, subsequent examination demonstrated that the absence of pertechnetate activity in the thyroid was due to complete replacement of thyroid gland by the metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, which was unknown at the initial presentation.

  13. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

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    Idit Dotan

    Full Text Available The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining.TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls.A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam radiation or chemotherapy, with

  14. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Fernanda; Momesso, Denise; Bulzico, Daniel A.; Pessoa, Cencita H. C. N.; da Cruz, Manuel Domingos Gonçalves; Dias, Fernando; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1%) recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86%) continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P = 0.01). After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes. PMID:24455413

  16. Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vaisman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1% recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86% continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P<0.001. Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P=0.01. After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes.

  17. Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, F.; Pinchera, A.; Vorontsova, T.; Demidchik, E.P.; Delange, F.; Reiners, C.; Schlumberger, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the activities and the results of the research carried out by the Centers participating to the JSP4 project, within the framework of the EU program on the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The project was aimed to develop and to control the application of basic principles for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, with special attention to the peculiar requirement of children and adolescents. To this purpose, training in Western European Centers was offered to a number of scientists from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Several official meetings were organized to share views and to discuss the progress of the project. A basic protocol for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma has been developed and approved by all participating Centers. Hopefully, it will be applied to the new cases and to those already under monitoring. A large part of the protocol is dedicated to the post-surgical treatment with thyroid hormones for the suppression of TSH and with calcitriol for the management of surgical hypoparathyroidism. A detailed protocol to asses iodine deficiency and, eventually, to introduce a program of iodine supplementation has been proposed. The collection of control cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma in non-radiation exposed European countries has been initiated in Italy, France and Germany. This data will be used as control for the post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid carcinomas. Here is reported a preliminary comparison of the clinical and epidemiological features of almost all (n=368) radiation-exposed Belarus children who developed thyroid carcinoma (age at diagnosis < 16 years), with respect to 90 children of the same age group, who, in the past 20 years, have received treatment for thyroid carcinoma in two centers in Italy (Pisa and Rome). Finally, by molecular biology, genetic mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been found in several samples of thyroid carcinomas provided by the Belarus

  18. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  19. Spectrum of thyroid lesions in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over 11years and a review of thyroid cancers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nor Hayati; Omar, Effat; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2009-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many nations including Malaysia. Seven states in the country have been identified by Ministry of Health of Malaysia to have high incidence of goitre and one of these is Kelantan. This is a retrospective study over an 11-year period from 1994 to 2004 on all thyroid specimens submitted to the Pathology Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), in Kelantan. Epidemiological data were retrieved from the patients' records and pathology findings from the pathology reports. During this period, Department of Pathology HUSM received a total of 1,486 thyroid specimens. The female to male ratio was 6:1 and the median age was 40.0 years. The duration of goitre ranged from one to 15 years. Histopathological examination showed 71.9 percent were non-neoplastic and 28.1 percent neoplastic lesions. The hospital-based incidence of nodular hyperplasia was 9.9 per 100,000 admitted patients per year. The hospital-based incidence of all types of malignant thyroid cancers was 3.5 per 100,000. The most common malignancy was papillary carcinoma 76.6 percent. The majority of the cancers (59.5 percent) occurred in a background of nodular hyperplasia. Thyroid cancers made up 4.9 percent of all cancers seen in HUSM. This study suggests that malignant thyroid lesions arising from multi-nodular goitre are high in a population living in an iodine-deficiency area.

  20. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena; Ahonen, Mikko; Koppel, Tarmo; Hardell, Lennart

    2016-07-07

    Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type. We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type. We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing

  1. Incidence of symptomatic salivary disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni E, Ignacio; Selt A, Guillermo Vander; Ruiz A, Catalina; Leon R, Augusto; Solar G, Antonieta; Orellana B, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer can produce severe and frequent salivary symptoms, during the treatment or later. Aim: To analyze the incidence, severity and characteristics of the salivary signs and symptoms in these patients. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive anal isis of 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, treated with surgery and radioactive iodine, that completed a telephonic survey for the evaluation of salivary symptoms. Results: 26 (24.52%) patients presented with salivary symptoms or signs after the radioactive iodine therapy (mean 5 months). The average doses of I 131 was 128,5 mCi. Xerostomy, pain, xeroftalmy, inflammation, sialoadenitis and dysgeusia, were the most frequent clinical symptoms. Conclusions: After radioactive iodine therapy the salivary symptoms and signs incidence is high. We conclude that the indication for this treatment must be selective, but in accordance with the oncological risk of each patient

  2. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Ezaki, Haruo; Ron, E.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Lubin, J.; Asano, Masahide.

    1992-06-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 10 4 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  3. Targeting thyroid cancer with acid-triggered release of doxorubicin from silicon dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shijie Li,1 Daqi Zhang,1 Shihou Sheng,2 Hui Sun1 1Department of Thyroid Surgery, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Colorectal and Anal Surgery, China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Chang Chun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, therapy for thyroid cancer mainly involves surgery and radioiodine therapy. However, chemotherapy can be used in advanced and aggressive thyroid cancer that cannot be treated by other options. Nevertheless, a major obstacle to the successful treatment of thyroid cancer is the delivery of drugs to the thyroid gland. Here, we present an example of the construction of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with thyroid–stimulating-hormone receptor-targeting ligand that can specifically target the thyroid cancer. Doxorubicin nanoparticles can be triggered by acid to release the drug payload for cancer therapy. These nanoparticles shrink the tumor size in vivo with less toxic side effects. This research paves the way toward effective chemotherapy for thyroid cancer. Keywords: thyroid cancer, silicon dioxide nanoparticle, doxorubicin, acid-triggered release

  4. Sustained ERK inhibition maximizes responses of BrafV600E thyroid cancers to radioiodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, James; Le, Mina; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Bolaender, Alexander; Irwin, Christopher; Krishnamoorthy, Gnana Prakasam; Saqcena, Mahesh; Larson, Steven M; Ho, Alan L; Seshan, Venkatraman; Ishii, Nobuya; Carrasco, Nancy; Rosen, Neal; Weber, Wolfgang A; Fagin, James A

    2016-11-01

    Radioiodide (RAI) therapy of thyroid cancer exploits the relatively selective ability of thyroid cells to transport and accumulate iodide. Iodide uptake requires expression of critical genes that are involved in various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ERK signaling, which is markedly increased in thyroid cancer cells driven by oncogenic BRAF, represses the genetic program that enables iodide transport. Here, we determined that a critical threshold for inhibition of MAPK signaling is required to optimally restore expression of thyroid differentiation genes in thyroid cells and in mice with BrafV600E-induced thyroid cancer. Although the MEK inhibitor selumetinib transiently inhibited ERK signaling, which subsequently rebounded, the MEK inhibitor CKI suppressed ERK signaling in a sustained manner by preventing RAF reactivation. A small increase in ERK inhibition markedly increased the expression of thyroid differentiation genes, increased iodide accumulation in cancer cells, and thereby improved responses to RAI therapy. Only a short exposure to the drug was necessary to obtain a maximal response to RAI. These data suggest that potent inhibition of ERK signaling is required to adequately induce iodide uptake and indicate that this is a promising strategy for the treatment of BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer.

  5. Thyroid cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome – case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas-Lavu M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monika Fazekas-Lavu,1 Andrew Parker,2 Allan D Spigelman,3,4 Rodney J Scott,5 Richard J Epstein,6 Michael Jensen,7 Katherine Samaras1,8 1Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Pathology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 3Hereditary Cancer Clinic, St Vincent’s Cancer Genetics Service, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 4University of NSW, St Vincent’s Clinical School, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 5Division of Molecular Medicine, Pathology North, John Hunter Hospital and The Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Oncology, 7Department of Oncological Surgery/General Surgery, St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 8Diabetes and Metabolism Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia Abstract: Lynch syndrome describes a familial cancer syndrome comprising germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 and is characterized by colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies. Thyroid cancer is not usually considered to be part of the constellation of Lynch syndrome cancers nor have Lynch syndrome tumor gene mutations been reported in thyroid malignancies. This study reports a woman with Lynch syndrome (colonic cancer and a DNA mismatch repair mutation in the MSH2 gene with a synchronous papillary thyroid cancer. Six years later, she developed metachronous breast cancer. Metastatic bone disease developed after 3 years, and the disease burden was due to both breast and thyroid diseases. Despite multiple interventions for both metastatic breast and thyroid diseases, the patient’s metastatic burden progressed and she died of leptomeningeal metastatic disease. Two prior case reports suggested thyroid cancer may be an extraintestinal malignancy of the Lynch syndrome cancer group. Hence, this study examined the genetic relationship between the patient’s known Lynch syndrome and her

  6. Is there any association between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer? A retrospective data analysis

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    Daysi Maria de Alcântara-Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis