WorldWideScience

Sample records for resulting radiation hotspots

  1. BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, Kevin

    2009-04-30

    The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.

  2. Drone Detects Hotspots of Radiation and CO2 Outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2016-12-01

    Market availability of environmental sensors and drones allow drones to become part of the education activities promoting environmental science both in high schools and grade schools. Here we provide one mode of drone operation for potential use in educational framework.Drone can carry devices that are capable of measuring various parameters of the environment. Commercial radiation and gas (CO2) sensors can be attached to the commercial drone. Our specific drone acquired data set of CO2 measurements over the natural outgassing of CO2 and another set of measurements over old uranium mine. Measurements of CO2 gave a poor signal to noise ratio. Its sensitivity, however, was enough to detect an increase in CO2 in the closed room with humans present compared to the fresh air outside. We could measure an increase of CO2 when directly over the source of natural CO2 outburst. Our data showed that CO2 concentration quickly dilutes in air few meters from the source to concentrations that are within the noise limit. However, the radiation measurements provided a map that correlates well with radiation survey obtained by ground measurements with more sophisticated instrument. We used the most common conventional drone, which is on the market and highly effective personal dosimeter, which can also be used for fire and rescue for its durability. Experimental field measurements were done at Třebsko site, where a map of radioactivity using standard spot measurements was already done. A field experiment was done in winter months when demand for the drone was higher due to cold and wet weather. We tested profiles and height versus the intensity of the recorded signal measurements. We consulted our results and ability to measure radioactivity with the regional fire-fighting units headquarters and verify the applicability and use of this technology for their needs.

  3. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Shervais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP. The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. Theprimary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho.Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1 The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2 The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperaturerhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3 The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments.We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project.

  4. Spatial patterns in discordant diagnostic test results for Chagas disease: links to transmission hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Plotkin, Joshua B; Waller, Lance A; Cabrera, Lilia; Steurer, Frank; Seitz, Amy E; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Cordova Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2009-04-15

    Diagnosis of Chagas disease is hindered by discordance between screening and confirmatory test results for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In periurban Arequipa, Peru, spatial analysis revealed that individuals with discordant test results are spatially clustered in hotspots of T. cruzi transmission, suggesting that discordant results likely represent true infections in this setting.

  5. Radiological scenario modeling using the Hotspot code and potential financial impact of treatment of radiation induced cancer to the public; Modelagem de cenario radiologico utilizando o codigo Hotspot e potenciais impactos financeiros para tratamento de cancer radioinduzido ao publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The work aims to develop a methodology that is able to estimate the financial impact in a radiological emergency events, considering the radiation induced cancer, particularly leukemia. Considering a RDD - Radiological Dispersive Device, consisting of explosives and cesium-137 as radioactive material, a scenario building on the Rio de Janeiro was modeled. The convergence of a risk modeling platform (HotSpot 3.0), the analysis of excess relative risks for humans (BEIR V-Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V), considering scenarios composed of contaminated areas, are secondary goals.

  6. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Franky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion

  7. Results and analysis of the hot-spot temperature experiment for a cable-in-conduit conductor with thick conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Kamil; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2015-12-01

    In the design of future DEMO fusion reactor a long time constant (∼23 s) is required for an emergency current dump in the toroidal field (TF) coils, e.g. in case of a quench detection. This requirement is driven mainly by imposing a limit on forces on mechanical structures, namely on the vacuum vessel. As a consequence, the superconducting cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) of the TF coil have to withstand heat dissipation lasting tens of seconds at the section where the quench started. During that time, the heat will be partially absorbed by the (massive) steel conduit and electrical insulation, thus reducing the hot-spot temperature estimated strictly from the enthalpy of the strand bundle. A dedicated experiment has been set up at CRPP to investigate the radial heat propagation and the hot-spot temperature in a CICC with a 10 mm thick steel conduit and a 2 mm thick glass epoxy outer electrical insulation. The medium size, ∅ = 18 mm, NbTi CICC was powered by the operating current of up to 10 kA. The temperature profile was monitored by 10 temperature sensors. The current dump conditions, namely the decay time constant and the quench detection delay, were varied. The experimental results show that the thick conduit significantly contributes to the overall enthalpy balance, and consequently reduces the amount of copper required for the quench protection in superconducting cables for fusion reactors.

  8. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  9. RHUM-RUM, a Large-Scale Effort to Seismologically Image a Mantle Plume Under the Reunion Hotspot: Experiment Presentation and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, K.; Barruol, G.

    2014-12-01

    RHUM-RUM is a German-French geophysical experiment based on the seafloor and on islands surrounding the hotspot of La Réunion, western Indian Ocean. Its primary objective is to clarify the presence or absence of a mantle plume beneath the Reunion hotspot, which is thought to have first pierced the surface 65 million years ago with the eruption of the Deccan Traps on India. RHUM-RUM's central component is a one-year deployment (Oct 2012 - Nov 2013) of 57 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) and hydrophones on an area of 2000x2000 km2 surrounding the hotspot. All OBS have been successfully recovered. We also have been operating 37 land seismometers on the islands of La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, southern Seychelles, îles Eparses, and on Madagascar between 2011 and 2014. As the data collection stage is drawing to a close, we discuss data yield and quality with respect to RHUM-RUM's primary purpose (passive seismological imaging through all depth levels of the mantle) and secondary applications ("environmental seismology" in a sparsely instrumented area, e.g., tracking of tropical cyclones). We give an overview of the research questions investigated by the RHUM-RUM group, and present preliminary results.

  10. VT Biodiversity Project - Biological Hotspots

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset is the result of an effort to map biological "hotspots" in Vermont based on the "element occurrences" in the Nongame and Natural...

  11. Radiation damage at LHCb, results and expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    Faerber, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb Detector is a single-arm spectrometer at the LHC designed to detect new physics through measuring CP violation and rare decays of heavy flavor mesons. The detector consists of vertex detector, tracking system, dipole magnet, 2 RICH detectors, em. calorimeter, hadron calorimeter, muon detector which all use different technologies and suffer differently from radiation damage. These radiation damage results and the investigation methods will be shown. The delivered luminosity till July 2011 was about 450 pb−1. The Vertex detector receives the highest particle flux at LHCb. The currents drawn by the silicon sensors are, as expected, increasing proportional to the integrated luminosity. The highest irradiaton regions of the n-bulk silicon sensors are observed to have recently undergone space charge sign inversion. The Silicon Trackers show increasing leakage currents comparable with earlier predictions. The electromagentic calorimeter and hadron calorimeter suffer under percent-level signal decrease whi...

  12. 69 Hotspot Advance Speed - Hotspot Size/Core-Hotspot distance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kagoyire

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rj.v1i1S.6D. 69. Rwanda ... these hotspots advance away from the AGN core, where is the bulk advance speed of the hotspot in units .... 0.2,0.4 0.1and 0.3 0.1 for the large size FR II, MSO and CSO sources respectively.

  13. The mQTL hotspot on linkage group 16 for phenolic compounds in apple fruits is probably the result of a leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene at that locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Schaart, J.; Beekwilder, J.; Allan, A.C.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study on ripe apples from a progeny of a cross between the apple cultivars 'Prima' and 'Fiesta' showed a hotspot of mQTLs for phenolic compounds at the top of LG16, both in peel and in flesh tissues. In order to find the underlying gene(s) of this mQTL hotspot, we

  14. The mQTL hotspot on linkage group 16 for phenolic compounds in apple fruits is probably the result of a leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene at that locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Schaart, J.; Beekwilder, J.; Allan, A.C.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study on ripe apples from a progeny of a cross between the apple cultivars 'Prima' and 'Fiesta' showed a hotspot of mQTLs for phenolic compounds at the top of LG16, both in peel and in flesh tissues. In order to find the underlying gene(s) of this mQTL hotspot, we investigat

  15. Spectral investigation of hot-spot and cavity resonance effects on the terahertz radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystal mesa structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Kazuo; Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa structures in the case of single mesa and series-connected mesas is investigated by the FTIR spectroscopic technique while observing its temperature distribution simultaneously by a SiC photoluminescence technique. Changing the bias level, sudden jumps of the hot-spot position were clearly observed. Although the radiation intensity changes drastically associated with the jump of the hot spot position, the frequency is unaffected as long as the voltage per junction is kept constant. Since the frequency of the intense radiation satisfies the cavity resonance condition, we confirmed that the cavity resonance is of primarily importance for the synchronization of whole intrinsic Josephson junctions in the mesa for high power radiation. This work was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for challenging Exploratory Research, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

  16. Clinical results of radiation therapy for thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Sasai, Keisuke; Kitakabu, Yoshizumi; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takahashi, Masaji; Tsutsui, Kazushige; Fushiki, Masato

    1992-05-01

    From August 1968 to December 1989, 58 patients with thymoma were treated by radiotherapy using cobalt-60 gamma ray. Eleven cases were treated by radiothrapy alone, 1 by preoperative radiotheapy, 43 by postoperative radiotherapy, and 3 in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy. The following points were clarified: (a) Postoperative and intraoperative radiotherapy were effective; (b) For postoperative radiotherapy, operability was the major factor influencing survival and local control, and Stage I and II tumors resected totally or subtotally as well as Stage III tumors resected totally were good indications for such therapy; (c) The patients with complicating myasthenia gravis had a longer survival time and better local control rate than those without it. Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 17 patients, and none of them died of this complication. In all cases in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy, dry desquamation was observed within the irradiated field. (author).

  17. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  18. Indirect-direct hybrid-drive work-dominated hotspot ignition for inertial confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    He, X T; Li, J W; Liu, J; Lan, K; Wu, J F; Wang, L F; Ye, W H

    2015-01-01

    An indirect-direct hybrid-drive work-dominated hotspot ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion is proposed: a layered fuel capsule inside a spherical hohlraum with an octahedral symmetry is compressed first by indirect-drive soft-x rays (radiation) and then by direct-drive lasers in last pulse duration. In this scheme, an enhanced shock and a follow-up compression wave for ignition with pressure far greater than the radiation ablation pressure are driven by the direct-drive lasers, and provide large pdV work to the hotspot to perform the work-dominated ignition. The numerical simulations show that the enhanced shock stops the reflections of indirect-drive shock at the main fuel-hotspot interface, and therefore significantly suppresses the hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetry. Based on the indirect-drive implosion dynamics the hotspot is further compressed and heated by the enhanced shock and follow-up compression wave, resulting in the work-dominated hotspot ignition and burn with a maximal implos...

  19. Predictive aging results in radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.

    1993-06-01

    We have previously derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict polymer degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in predictive capabilities at the low dose rates and long time periods appropriate, for instance, to ambient nuclear power plant environments. The methodology was successfully applied to several polymeric cable materials and then verified for two of the materials by comparisons of the model predictions with 12 year, low-dose-rate aging data on these materials from a nuclear environment. In this paper, we provide a more detailed discussion of the methodology and apply it to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicone rubber and two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7-9 year) low-dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under bnuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following "generic" materials: hypalon, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such "generic" behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated.

  20. Hotspots, Jets and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the nature of `hotspots' and `jet knots' in the kpc-scale structures of powerful radio galaxies and their relationship to jet-environment interactions. I describe evidence for interaction between the jets of FRI sources and their local environments, and discuss its relationship to particle acceleration, but the main focus of the paper is the hotspots of FRIIs and on new observational evidence on the nature of the particle acceleration associated with them.

  1. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker test-beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Baker, K; Baron, S; Benjamin, D; Bertelsen, H; Bondarenko, V; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Capéans-Garrido, M; Cardiel-Sas, L; Catinaccio, A; Cetin, S A; Cwetanski, Peter; Dam, M; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Driouichi, C; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gagnon, P; Grichkevitch, Y; Grigalashvili, N S; Hajduk, Z; Hansen, P; Kayumov, F; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Khristatchev, A; Konovalov, S; Koudine, L; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Krüger, K; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Luehring, F C; Lundberg, B; Maleev, V; Markina, I; McFarlane, K W; Mialkovski, V; Mitsou, V A; Mindur, B; Morozov, S; Munar, A; Muraviev, S; Nadtochy, A; Newcomer, F M; Ögren, H O; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S; Olszowska, J; Passmore, S; Patritchev, S; Peshekhonov, V D; Petti, R; Price, M; Rembser, C; Rohne, O; Romaniouk, A; Rust, D R; Ryabov, Yu; Shchegelskii, V; Seliverstov, D M; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Sosnovtsev, V V; Soutchkov, V; Spiridenkov, E; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H; Zalite, A

    2004-01-01

    Several prototypes of the Transition Radiation Tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC have been built and tested at the CERN SPS accelerator. Results from detailed studies of the straw-tube hit registration efficiency and drift-time measurements and of the pion and electron spectra without and with radiators are presented. (10 refs).

  2. Hotspot swells revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Adam, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    The first attempts to quantify the width and height of hotspot swells were made more than 30 years ago. Since that time, topography, ocean-floor age, and sediment thickness datasets have improved considerably. Swell heights and widths have been used to estimate the heat flow from the core-mantle boundary, constrain numerical models of plumes, and as an indicator of the origin of hotspots. In this paper, we repeat the analysis of swell geometry and buoyancy flux for 54 hotspots, including the 37 considered by Sleep (1990) and the 49 considered by Courtillot et al. (2003), using the latest and most accurate data. We are able to calculate swell geometry for a number of hotspots that Sleep was only able to estimate by comparison with other swells. We find that in spite of the increased resolution in global bathymetry models there is significant uncertainty in our calculation of buoyancy fluxes due to differences in our measurement of the swells’ width and height, the integration method (volume integration or cross-sectional area), and the variations of the plate velocities between HS2-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 1990) and HS3-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 2002). We also note that the buoyancy flux for Pacific hotspots is in general larger than for Eurasian, North American, African and Antarctic hotspots. Considering that buoyancy flux is linearly related to plate velocity, we speculate that either the calculation of buoyancy flux using plate velocity over-estimates the actual vertical flow of material from the deep mantle or that convection in the Pacific hemisphere is more vigorous than the Atlantic hemisphere.

  3. Results of Radiation Therapy in Stage III Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Woo; Shin, Byung Chul; Yum, Ha Yong; Jeung, Tae Sig; Yoo, Myung Jin [Kosin University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : The aim of this study is to analyze the survival rate, treatment failure and complication of radiation therapy alone in stage III uterine cervical cancer. Materials and Methods : From January 1980 through December 1985, 227 patients with stage II uterine cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy at Kosin Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Among 227 patients, 72 patients(31.7%) were stage IIIa, and 155 patients(68.3%) were stage IIIb according to FIGO classification. Age distribution was 32-71 years(median: 62 years). Sixty nine patients(95.8%) in stage IIIa and 150 patients(96.8%) in stage IIIb were squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 8 patients (11.1%) in stage IIIa and 29 patients(18.7%) in stage IIIb. Among 72 patients with stage IIIa, 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone by conventional technique (180-200 cGy/fr). And 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy with intracavitary radiotherapy(ICR) with Cs137 sources, and among 155 patients with stage IIIb, 80 patients(51.6%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone and 75 patients(48.4%) were treated with external radiation therapy with ICR. Total radiation doses of stage IIIa and IIIb were 65-105 Gy(median : 78.5 Gy) and 65-125.5 Gy (median :83.5 Gy). Survival rate was calculated by life-table method. Results : Complete response rates were 58.3% (42 patients) in state IIIa and 56.1%(87 patients) in stage Iiib. Overall 5 year survival rates were 57% in stage IIIa and 40% in stage IIIb. Five year survival rates by radiation technique in stage IIIa and IIIb were 64%, 40% in group treated in combination of external radiation and ICR, and 50%, 40% in the group of external radiation therapy alone(P=NS). Five year survival rates by response of radiation therapy in stage IIIa and IIIb were 90%, 66% in responder group, and 10%, 7% in non-responder group (P<0.01). There were statistically no

  4. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  5. The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli; Delamere, Jennifer; Shippert, Timothy; Cole, Jason; Iacono, Michael; Jin, Zhonghai; Li, Jiangnan; Manners, James; Raisanen, Petri; Rose, Fred; Zhang, Yuanchong; Wilson Michael J.; Rossow, William

    2011-01-01

    The computer codes that calculate the energy budget of solar and thermal radiation in Global Climate Models (GCMs), our most advanced tools for predicting climate change, have to be computationally efficient in order to not impose undue computational burden to climate simulations. By using approximations to gain execution speed, these codes sacrifice accuracy compared to more accurate, but also much slower, alternatives. International efforts to evaluate the approximate schemes have taken place in the past, but they have suffered from the drawback that the accurate standards were not validated themselves for performance. The manuscript summarizes the main results of the first phase of an effort called "Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes" (CIRC) where the cases chosen to evaluate the approximate models are based on observations and where we have ensured that the accurate models perform well when compared to solar and thermal radiation measurements. The effort is endorsed by international organizations such as the GEWEX Radiation Panel and the International Radiation Commission and has a dedicated website (i.e., http://circ.gsfc.nasa.gov) where interested scientists can freely download data and obtain more information about the effort's modus operandi and objectives. In a paper published in the March 2010 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society only a brief overview of CIRC was provided with some sample results. In this paper the analysis of submissions of 11 solar and 13 thermal infrared codes relative to accurate reference calculations obtained by so-called "line-by-line" radiation codes is much more detailed. We demonstrate that, while performance of the approximate codes continues to improve, significant issues still remain to be addressed for satisfactory performance within GCMs. We hope that by identifying and quantifying shortcomings, the paper will help establish performance standards to objectively assess radiation code quality

  6. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  7. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  8. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkadoula, E., E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devanathan, R. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weber, W. J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Scientific Computing Department, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dove, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  9. New results on radiation effects on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurny, Frantisek; Dachev, Tsvetan

    2009-03-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks due to ionization radiation. During the Work Package 2400 of the COST-724/WG-2 action, a number of spacecraft and aircraft experiments have been performed with both active and passive detectors. A large data base has been created. In this contribution we would like to stress the results obtained and their importance in three particular directions: (i) Simultaneous investigation of galactic cosmic rays on aircraft and on the International Space Station (ISS); (ii) Onboard spacecraft neutron contribution as estimated on the basis of the comparison of results measured with MDU/Liulin equipment onboard ISS, foton capsule and a commercial aircraft flying at subsonic altitudes; (iii) Complex analysis of the results of long term measurements onboard a Czech Airlines aircraft. The results obtained are presented, analyzed, and discussed, and their complementary nature is underlined. The contribution represents a version of the Final Report of the Work Package 2400 of the COST-724/WG-2: Radiation Environment of the Earth.

  10. The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Delamere, Jennifer; Shippert, Timothy R.; Cole, Jason; Fomin, Boris; Iacono, Michael J.; Jin, Zhonghai; Li, Jiangning; Manners, James; Raisanen, Petri; Rose, Fred; Zhang, Yuanchong; Wilson, Michael J.; Rossow, William B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from Phase I of the Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC), intended as an evolving and regularly updated reference source for evaluation of radiative transfer (RT) codes used in Global Climate Models. CIRC differs from previous intercomparisons in that it relies on an observationally validated catalogue of cases. The seven CIRC Phase I baseline cases, five cloud-free, and two with overcast liquid clouds, are built around observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program that satisfy the goals of Phase I, namely to examine radiative transfer (RT) model performance in realistic, yet not overly complex, atmospheric conditions. In addition to the seven baseline cases, additional idealized "subcases" are also examined to facilitate intrepretation of the causes of model errors. In addition to summarizing individual model performance with respect to reference line-by-line calculations and inter-model differences, we also highlight RT model behavior for conditions of doubled CO2, aspects of utilizing a spectral specification of surface albedo, and the impact of the inclusion of scattering in the thermal infrared. Our analysis suggests that RT models should work towards improving their calculation of diffuse shortwave flux, shortwave absorption, treatment of spectral surface albedo, and shortwave CO2 forcing. On the other hand, LW calculations appear to be significantly closer to the reference results. By enhancing the range of conditions under which participating codes are tested, future CIRC phases will hopefully allow even more rigorous examination of RT code performance.

  11. Hotspot tracks and the early rifting of the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Morgan, W.

    1983-05-01

    Many hotspot tracks appear to become the locus of later rifting, as though the heat of the hotspot weakens the lithosphere and tens of millions of years later the continents are split along these weakened lines. Examples are the west coast of Greenland-east coast of Labrador (Madeira hotspot), the south coast of Mexico-north coast of Honduras (Guyana hotspot), and the south coast of West Africa-north coast of Brazil (St. Helena hotspot). A modern day analog of a possible future rift is the Snake River Plain, where the North American continent is being "pre-weakened" by the Yellowstone hotspot track. This conclusion is based on reconstructions of the motions of the continents over hotspots for the past 200 million years. The relative motions of the plates are determined from magnetic anomaly isochrons in the oceans and the motion of one plate is chosen ad hoc to best fit the motions of the plates over the hotspots. However, once the motion of this one plate is chosen, the motions of all the other plates are prescribed by the relative motion constraints. In addition to the correlation between the predicted tracks and sites of later continental breakup, exposed continental shields correlate with the tracks. Their exposure may be the result of hotspot induced uplift which has led to erosion of their former platform sediment cover.

  12. Detecting Biosphere anomalies hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Mahecha, Miguel; Flach, Milan; Denzler, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The current amount of satellite remote sensing measurements available allow for applying data-driven methods to investigate environmental processes. The detection of anomalies or abnormal events is crucial to monitor the Earth system and to analyze their impacts on ecosystems and society. By means of a combination of statistical methods, this study proposes an intuitive and efficient methodology to detect those areas that present hotspots of anomalies, i.e. higher levels of abnormal or extreme events or more severe phases during our historical records. Biosphere variables from a preliminary version of the Earth System Data Cube developed within the CAB-LAB project (http://earthsystemdatacube.net/) have been used in this study. This database comprises several atmosphere and biosphere variables expanding 11 years (2001-2011) with 8-day of temporal resolution and 0.25° of global spatial resolution. In this study, we have used 10 variables that measure the biosphere. The methodology applied to detect abnormal events follows the intuitive idea that anomalies are assumed to be time steps that are not well represented by a previously estimated statistical model [1].We combine the use of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models with a distance metric like Mahalanobis distance to detect abnormal events in multiple biosphere variables. In a first step we pre-treat the variables by removing the seasonality and normalizing them locally (μ=0,σ=1). Additionally we have regionalized the area of study into subregions of similar climate conditions, by using the Köppen climate classification. For each climate region and variable we have selected the best ARMA parameters by means of a Bayesian Criteria. Then we have obtained the residuals by comparing the fitted models with the original data. To detect the extreme residuals from the 10 variables, we have computed the Mahalanobis distance to the data's mean (Hotelling's T^2), which considers the covariance matrix of the joint

  13. Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn B. Marks

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.

  14. Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.; Inman, Richard D.; Barr, Kelly R.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Medica, Philip A.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Gottscho, Andrew D.; Marks, Sharyn B.; Jennings, W. Bryan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.

  15. Recent results of radiation damage studies in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, S.J.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Chilingarov, A.; Ciasnohova, A.; Glaser, M.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lemeilleur, F.; Santiard, J.C.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Kambara, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Rolf, A.; Pilath, S.; Feick, H.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schulz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) DPNC, Univ. de Geneve (Switzerland) Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Dortmund (Germany) 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Hamburg (Germany) School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne (Australia))

    1994-04-21

    The RD2 Collaboration is making preliminary studies on a silicon tracking detector for use at the LHC. It is a priority that this detector should withstand the high level of radiation to be expected for LHC operation. Therefore systematic studies on the change of the detector performance due to radiation damage have been made, or are in progress. Well established results on neutron related damage at room temperature have been extended to lower temperatures, as foreseen for operation at LHC. For comparison proton damage studies have also been started. The detector properties under investigation include the reverse current, the depletion voltage and the charge collection efficiency. With a compressed 10 year LHC operational scenario we have successfully checked the ability of silicon detectors to survive the period influences of high fluence irradiation and subsequent annealing. (orig.)

  16. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  17. The spatial regulation of meiotic recombination hotspots: are all DSB hotspots crossover hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrentino, Maria-Elisabetta; Borde, Valérie

    2012-07-15

    A key step for the success of meiosis is programmed homologous recombination, during which crossovers, or exchange of chromosome arms, take place. Crossovers increase genetic diversity but their main function is to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. Defects in crossover number and position produce aneuploidies that represent the main cause of miscarriages and chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome. Recombination is initiated by the formation of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs), which occur preferentially at places called DSB hotspots. Among all DSBs generated, only a small fraction is repaired by crossover, the other being repaired by other homologous recombination pathways. Crossover maps have been generated in a number of organisms, defining crossover hotspots. With the availability of genome-wide maps of DSBs as well as the ability to measure genetically the repair outcome at several hotspots, it is becoming more and more clear that not all DSB hotspots behave the same for crossover formation, suggesting that chromosomal features distinguish different types of hotspots.

  18. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Effects and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Goodenow, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some exposure to gamma irradiation. Non-condensable gas formation from radiation may breakdown water over time and render a portion of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature with accelerated gamma irradiation exposures on the same order of magnitude that is expected in eight years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon; evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some non-condensable gas was evident, however thermosyphon performance was not affected because the non-condensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of non-condensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the non-condensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of selected thermosyphons at temperature and in a vacuum chamber revealed that the non-condensable gas likely diffused out of the thermosyphons over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  19. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  20. Recent Radiation Test Results for Trench Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) radiation test results are presented for various trench-gate power MOSFETs. The heavy-ion response of the first (and only) radiation-hardened trench-gate power MOSFET is evaluated: the manufacturer SEE response curve is verified and importantly, no localized dosing effects are measured, distinguishing it from other, non-hardened trench-gate power MOSFETs. Evaluations are made of n-type commercial and both n- and p-type automotive grade trench-gate device using ions comparable to of those on the low linear energy transfer (LET) side of the iron knee of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum, to explore suitability of these parts for missions with higher risk tolerance and shorter duration, such as CubeSats. Part-to-part variability of SEE threshold suggests testing with larger sample sizes and applying more aggressive derating to avoid on-orbit failures. The n-type devices yielded expected localized dosing effects including when irradiated in an unbiased (0-V) configuration, adding to the challenge of inserting these parts into space flight missions.

  1. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Kaoru [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  2. Anthropogenic influence on SOA and the resulting radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical changes in the atmosphere since the pre-industrial period on the distributions and burdens of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA has been calculated using the off-line aerosol chemistry transport model Oslo CTM2. The production of SOA was found to have increased from about 35 Tg yr−1 to 53 Tg yr−1 since pre-industrial times, leading to an increase in the global annual mean SOA burden from 0.33 Tg to 0.50 Tg, or about 51%. The effect of allowing semi-volatile species to partition to sulphate aerosol was also tested, leading to an increase in SOA production from about 43 Tg yr−1 to 69 Tg yr−1 since pre-industrial times, while the annual mean SOA burden increased from 0.44 Tg to 0.70 Tg, or about 59%. The increases were greatest over industrialised areas, especially when partitioning to sulphate aerosol was allowed, as well as over regions with high biogenic precursor emissions. The contribution of emissions from different sources to the larger SOA burdens has been calculated. The results suggest that the majority of the increase was caused by emissions of primary organic aerosols (POA, from fossil fuel and bio fuel combustion. As yet, very few radiative forcing estimates of SOA exist, and no such estimates were provided in the latest IPCC report. In this study, we found that the change in SOA burden caused a radiative forcing (defined here as the difference between the pre-industrial and the present day run of −0.09 W m−2, when SOA was allowed to partition to both organic and sulphate aerosols, and −0.06 W m−2 when only partitioning to organic aerosols was assumed. Therefore, the radiative forcing of SOA was found to be stronger than the best estimate for POA in the latest IPCC assessment.

  3. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  4. Imbalance aware lithography hotspot detection: a deep learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoyu; Luo, Luyang; Su, Jing; Lin, Chenxi; Yu, Bei

    2017-03-01

    With the advancement of VLSI technology nodes, light diffraction caused lithographic hotspots have become a serious problem affecting manufacture yield. Lithography hotspot detection at the post-OPC stage is imperative to check potential circuit failures when transferring designed patterns onto silicon wafers. Although conventional lithography hotspot detection methods, such as machine learning, have gained satisfactory performance, with extreme scaling of transistor feature size and more and more complicated layout patterns, conventional methodologies may suffer from performance degradation. For example, manual or ad hoc feature extraction in a machine learning framework may lose important information when predicting potential errors in ultra-large-scale integrated circuit masks. In this paper, we present a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) targeting representative feature learning in lithography hotspot detection. We carefully analyze impact and effectiveness of different CNN hyper-parameters, through which a hotspot-detection-oriented neural network model is established. Because hotspot patterns are always minorities in VLSI mask design, the training data set is highly imbalanced. In this situation, a neural network is no longer reliable, because a trained model with high classification accuracy may still suffer from high false negative results (missing hotspots), which is fatal in hotspot detection problems. To address the imbalance problem, we further apply minority upsampling and random-mirror flipping before training the network. Experimental results show that our proposed neural network model achieves highly comparable or better performance on the ICCAD 2012 contest benchmark compared to state-of-the-art hotspot detectors based on deep or representative machine leaning.

  5. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brawley, Otis W. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  6. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  7. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Human industrial activities have left behind a legacy of ecosystems strongly impacted by a wide range of contaminants, including radionuclides. Phyto-toxic effects of acute impact are well known, but the consequences of long-term chronic exposure to low pollutant concentrations is neither well understood nor adequately included in risk assessments. To understand effects of real-world contaminant exposure properly we must pay attention to what is actually going on in the field. However, for many wildlife groups and endpoints, there are no, or very few, studies that link accumulation, chronic exposure and biological effects in natural settings. To fill the gaps, results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hair-grass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Because each impacted site developed in its own way due to a unique history of events, the experience from one case study is rarely directly applicable to another situation. In spite of high heterogeneity in response, we have detected several general patterns. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by the increased level of both cytogenetic alterations and genetic diversity. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage were accompanied by decrease in reproductive ability. In less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, it is impossible to establish exactly the relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive ability. Radioactive contamination of the plants

  8. The Martian Radiation Environment Experiment -- Results and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2004-05-01

    Ionizing radiation in space presents a potentially serious health hazard to astronauts on long-duration missions. Missions that take humans outside the geomagnetosphere (which provides significant shielding for crews in low-Earth orbit) are of particular concern. A mission to Mars would expose a crew to a substantial radiation dose from high-energy heavy ions in the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR). Though not expected to cause acute effects, such exposures might endanger the long-term health of crewmembers, leading to increased risk of late effects such as cancer and cataract. Since the biological effects of these ions are not well understood, NASA cannot yet specify career limits for deep-space missions. While ground-based research in radiobiology continues, it is necessary to characterize the radiation field on the Martian surface. This is determined by the radiation incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere, the transmission properties of the atmosphere, and the production of secondary particles (neutrons in particular) in the upper part of the surface. The Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, has returned the first detailed measurements of the radiation field incident on the atmosphere. MARIE consists of a stack of silicon charged-particle detectors, designed to measure the nearly-constant flux of energetic Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and intermittent Solar Particle Events (SPE). The detector is optimized for the detection of solar protons and helium in the energy range from 30 to 75 MeV/nucleon, though higher energies and heavier ions are also detected. Despite considerable uncertainties in data normalization, the measured dose agrees with model calculations, to an accuracy well within the (conservatively) estimated errors. As of this writing (Feb. 2004), MARIE is off, having sustained damage during the large Solar Particle Event of Oct. 29, 2003. Attempts to recover the instrument will resume in the

  9. Aircraft taxiing route planning based on airport hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zuo, Qinghai

    2017-05-01

    In order to avoid airport surface hotspots, taxiing route planned for aircraft based on surface hotspots is proposed in this paper. Firstly, airport is abstracted into node-link model and aircraft taxiing avoidance mechanism is established. Then, a ground taxiing route optimization model which minimizes total taxiing time is proposed. A simulation is conducted based on a practical setting of 9 flights on runway 02L at a central-south airport. Simulation results indicate that total taxiing time is reduced by 243s after optimization and no taxiing conflict occurs. Meanwhile, the number of flight that taxi through hotspots area is reduced f, which effectively alleviates the risk level of hotspots and improves airport operation safety.

  10. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  11. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiying Sun

    Full Text Available Chromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, increases the incidence of chromosome translocations. However, how ATM protects cells from chromosome translocations is still unclear. Chromosome translocations involving the MLL gene on 11q23 are the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemias associated with chemotherapy employing etoposide, a topoisomerase II poison. Here we show that ATM deficiency results in the excessive binding of the DNA recombination protein RAD51 at the translocation breakpoint hotspot of 11q23 chromosome translocation after etoposide exposure. Binding of Replication protein A (RPA and the chromatin remodeler INO80, which facilitate RAD51 loading on damaged DNA, to the hotspot were also increased by ATM deficiency. Thus, in addition to activating DNA damage signaling, ATM may avert chromosome translocations by preventing excessive loading of recombinational repair proteins onto translocation breakpoint hotspots.

  12. SENTIMENT ANALYSIS FOR ONLINE FORUMS HOTSPOT DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The user generated content on the web grows rapidly in this emergent information age. The evolutionary changes in technology make use of such information to capture only the user’s essence and finally the useful information are exposed to information seekers. Most of the existing research on text information processing, focuses in the factual domain rather than the opinion domain. Text mining plays a vital role in online forum opinion mining. But opinion mining from online forum is much more difficult than pure text process due to their semi structured characteristics. In this paper we detect online hotspot forums by computing sentiment analysis for text data available in each forum. This approach analyzes the forum text data and computes value for each piece of text. The proposed approach combines K-means clustering and Support Vector Machine (SVM classification algorithm that can be used to group the forums into two clusters forming hotspot forums and non-hotspot forums within the current time span. The experiment helps to identify that K-means and SVM together achieve highly consistent results. The prediction result of SVM is also compared with other classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, Decision tree and among them SVM performs the best.

  13. Fish-derived nutrient hotspots shape coral reef benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantz, Andrew A; Ladd, Mark C; Schrack, Elizabeth; Burkepile, Deron E

    2015-12-01

    Animal-derived nutrients play an important role in structuring nutrient regimes within and between ecosystems. When animals undergo repetitive, aggregating behavior through time, they can create nutrient hotspots where rates of biogeochemical activity are higher than those found in the surrounding environment. In turn, these hotspots can influence ecosystem processes and community structure. We examined the potential for reef fishes from the family Haemulidae (grunts) to create nutrient hotspots and the potential impact of these hotspots on reef communities. To do so, we tracked the schooling locations of diurnally migrating grunts, which shelter at reef sites during the day but forage off reef each night, and measured the impact of these fish schools on benthic communities. We found that grunt schools showed a high degree of site fidelity, repeatedly returning to the same coral heads. These aggregations created nutrient hotspots around coral heads where nitrogen and phosphorus delivery was roughly 10 and 7 times the respective rates of delivery to structurally similar sites that lacked schools of these fishes. In turn, grazing rates of herbivorous fishes at grunt-derived hotspots were approximately 3 times those of sites where grunts were rare. These differences in nutrient delivery and grazing led to distinct benthic communities with higher cover of crustose coralline algae and less total algal abundance at grunt aggregation sites. Importantly, coral growth was roughly 1.5 times greater at grunt hotspots, likely due to the important nutrient subsidy. Our results suggest that schooling reef fish and their nutrient subsidies play an important role in mediating community structure on coral reefs and that overfishing may have important negative consequences on ecosystem functions. As such, management strategies must consider mesopredatory fishes in addition to current protection often offered to herbivores and top-tier predators. Furthermore, our results suggest that

  14. Absence of the TAP2 human recombination hotspot in chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Ptak

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments using sperm typing have demonstrated that, in several regions of the human genome, recombination does not occur uniformly but instead is concentrated in "hotspots" of 1-2 kb. Moreover, the crossover asymmetry observed in a subset of these has led to the suggestion that hotspots may be short-lived on an evolutionary time scale. To test this possibility, we focused on a region known to contain a recombination hotspot in humans, TAP2, and asked whether chimpanzees, the closest living evolutionary relatives of humans, harbor a hotspot in a similar location. Specifically, we used a new statistical approach to estimate recombination rate variation from patterns of linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 24 western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus. This method has been shown to produce reliable results on simulated data and on human data from the TAP2 region. Strikingly, however, it finds very little support for recombination rate variation at TAP2 in the western chimpanzee data. Moreover, simulations suggest that there should be stronger support if there were a hotspot similar to the one characterized in humans. Thus, it appears that the human TAP2 recombination hotspot is not shared by western chimpanzees. These findings demonstrate that fine-scale recombination rates can change between very closely related species and raise the possibility that rates differ among human populations, with important implications for linkage-disequilibrium based association studies.

  15. Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-03-06

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 {micro}m and 8.0 {micro}m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B {approx} 170 {micro}G in spot A, and B {approx} 270 {micro}G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to {approx} 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of {approx} 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies {approx}> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics of extragalactic jets.

  16. Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-03-06

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 {micro}m and 8.0 {micro}m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B {approx} 170 {micro}G in spot A, and B {approx} 270 {micro}G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to {approx} 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of {approx} 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies {approx}> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics of extragalactic jets.

  17. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  18. Expected Results From Channeling Radiation Experiments at Fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab; Broemmelsiek, Daniel [Fermilab; Edstrom, Dean [Fermilab; Hyun, Jibong [JAEA, Ibaraki; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Rush, Wade [Kansas U.

    2016-06-01

    The photoinjector at the new Fermilab FAST facility will accelerate electron beams to about 50 GeV. After initial beam commissioning, channeling radiation experiments to generate hard X-rays will be performed. In the initial stage, low bunch charge beams will be used to keep the photon count rate low and avoid pile up in the detector. We report here on the optics solutions, the expected channaling spectrum including background from bremmstrahlung and the use of a Compton scatterer for higher bunch charge operation.

  19. Socioeconomic Context and the Food Landscape in Texas: Results from Hotspot Analysis and Border/Non-Border Comparison of Unhealthy Food Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Salinas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the food landscape of Texas using the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment (mRFEI and to make comparisons by border/non-border. Methods: The Modified Retail Food Environment index (mRFEI (2008 is an index developed by the CDC that measures what percent of the total food vendors in a census track sell healthy food. The range of values is 0 (unhealthy areas with limited access to fruits and vegetables to (100—Healthy. These data were linked to 2010 US Census socioeconomic and ethnic concentration data. Spatial analysis and GIS techniques were applied to assess the differences between border and non-border regions. Variables of interest were mRFEI score, median income, total population, percent total population less than five years, median age, % receiving food stamps, % Hispanic, and % with a bachelor degree. Results: Findings from this study reveal that food environment in Texas tends to be characteristic of a “food desert”. Analysis also demonstrates differences by border/non-border location and percent of the population that is foreign born and by percent of families who receive food stamps. Conclusions: Identifying the relationship between socioeconomic disparity, ethnic concentration and mRFEI score could be a fundamental step in improving health in disadvantage communities, particularly those on the Texas-Mexico border.

  20. Africa's hotspots of biodiversity redefined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küper, W.; Sommer, J.H.; Lovett, J.C.; Beentje, H.J.; Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.; Chatelain, C.; Sosef, M.S.M.; Barthlott, W.

    2004-01-01

    A key problem for conservation is the coincidence of regions of high biodiversity with regions of high human impact. Twenty-five of the most threatened centers of plant diversity were identified by Myers et al., and these "hotspots" play a crucial role in international conservation strategies. The p

  1. Climate change hotspots in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Giorgi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We use a statistical metric of multi-dimensional climate change to quantify the emergence of global climate change hotspots in the CMIP5 climate model ensemble. Our hotspot metric extends previous work through the inclusion of extreme seasonal temperature and precipitation, which exert critical influence on climate change impacts. The results identify areas of the Amazon, the Sahel and tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and the Tibetan Plateau as persistent regional climate change hotspots thro...

  2. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  3. The Electron Energy Distribution in the Hotspots of Cygnus A: Filling the Gap with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Stawarz, L; Harris, D E; Ostrowski, M

    2007-01-01

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity 170 muG in spot A, and 270 muG in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots' magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100 MeV up to 100 GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds ...

  4. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  5. Identification of chromosomal translocation hotspots via scan statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Israel T.; Rosales, Rafael A.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Jankovic, Mila

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The detection of genomic regions unusually rich in a given pattern is an important undertaking in the analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Recent studies of chromosomal translocations in activated B lymphocytes have identified regions that are frequently translocated to c-myc oncogene. A quantitative method for the identification of translocation hotspots was crucial to this study. Here we improve this analysis by using a simple probabilistic model and the framework provided by scan statistics to define the number and location of translocation breakpoint hotspots. A key feature of our method is that it provides a global chromosome-wide nominal control level to clustering, as opposed to previous methods based on local criteria. While being motivated by a specific application, the detection of unusual clusters is a widespread problem in bioinformatics. We expect our method to be useful in the analysis of data from other experimental approaches such as of ChIP-seq and 4C-seq. Results: The analysis of translocations from B lymphocytes with the method described here reveals the presence of longer hotspots when compared with those defined previously. Further, we show that the hotspot size changes substantially in the absence of DNA repair protein 53BP1. When 53BP1 deficiency is combined with overexpression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the hotspot length increases even further. These changes are not detected by previous methods that use local significance criteria for clustering. Our method is also able to identify several exclusive translocation hotspots located in genes of known tumor supressors. Availability and implementation: The detection of translocation hotspots is done with hot_scan, a program implemented in R and Perl. Source code and documentation are freely available for download at https://github.com/itojal/hot_scan. Contact: isilva@rockefeller.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics

  6. Testing the Efficacy of Global Biodiversity Hotspots for Insect Conservation: The Case of South African Katydids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelet, Corinna S.; Thompson, Aileen C.; Naskrecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet grid, we delineated katydid hotspots in two ways: (1) count-based: grid cells in the top 10% of total, endemic, threatened and/or sensitive species richness; vs. (2) score-based: grid cells with a mean value in the top 10% on a scoring system which scored each species on the basis of its IUCN Red List threat status, distribution, mobility and trophic level. We then compared katydid hotspots with each other and with recognized biodiversity hotspots. Grid cells within biodiversity hotspots had significantly higher count-based and score-based diversity than non-hotspot grid cells. There was a significant association between the three types of hotspots. Of the count-based measures, endemic species richness was the best surrogate for the others. However, the score-based measure out-performed all count-based diversity measures. Species richness was the least successful surrogate of all. The strong performance of the score-based method for hotspot prediction emphasizes the importance of including species’ natural history information for conservation decision-making, and is easily adaptable to other organisms. Furthermore, these results add empirical support for the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots in conserving non-target organisms. PMID:27631131

  7. Sampling effects on the identification of roadkill hotspots: Implications for survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Marques, J Tiago; Lourenço, André; Medinas, Denis; Barbosa, A Márcia; Beja, Pedro; Mira, António

    2015-10-01

    Although locating wildlife roadkill hotspots is essential to mitigate road impacts, the influence of study design on hotspot identification remains uncertain. We evaluated how sampling frequency affects the accuracy of hotspot identification, using a dataset of vertebrate roadkills (n = 4427) recorded over a year of daily surveys along 37 km of roads. "True" hotspots were identified using this baseline dataset, as the 500-m segments where the number of road-killed vertebrates exceeded the upper 95% confidence limit of the mean, assuming a Poisson distribution of road-kills per segment. "Estimated" hotspots were identified likewise, using datasets representing progressively lower sampling frequencies, which were produced by extracting data from the baseline dataset at appropriate time intervals (1-30 days). Overall, 24.3% of segments were "true" hotspots, concentrating 40.4% of roadkills. For different groups, "true" hotspots accounted from 6.8% (bats) to 29.7% (small birds) of road segments, concentrating from 60% (lizards, lagomorphs, carnivores) of roadkills. Spatial congruence between "true" and "estimated" hotspots declined rapidly with increasing time interval between surveys, due primarily to increasing false negatives (i.e., missing "true" hotspots). There were also false positives (i.e., wrong "estimated" hotspots), particularly at low sampling frequencies. Spatial accuracy decay with increasing time interval between surveys was higher for smaller-bodied (amphibians, reptiles, small birds, small mammals) than for larger-bodied species (birds of prey, hedgehogs, lagomorphs, carnivores). Results suggest that widely used surveys at weekly or longer intervals may produce poor estimates of roadkill hotspots, particularly for small-bodied species. Surveying daily or at two-day intervals may be required to achieve high accuracy in hotspot identification for multiple species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fuzzy pattern matching method based on graph kernel for lithography hotspot detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Izumi; Kanazawa, Yuzi; Ishida, Tsutomu; Banno, Koji

    2017-03-01

    In advanced technology nodes, lithography hotspot detection has become one of the most significant issues in design for manufacturability. Recently, machine learning based lithography hotspot detection has been widely investigated, but it has trade-off between detection accuracy and false alarm. To apply machine learning based technique to the physical verification phase, designers require minimizing undetected hotspots to avoid yield degradation. They also need a ranking of similar known patterns with a detected hotspot to prioritize layout pattern to be corrected. To achieve high detection accuracy and to prioritize detected hotspots, we propose a novel lithography hotspot detection method using Delaunay triangulation and graph kernel based machine learning. Delaunay triangulation extracts features of hotspot patterns where polygons locate irregularly and closely one another, and graph kernel expresses inner structure of graphs. Additionally, our method provides similarity between two patterns and creates a list of similar training patterns with a detected hotspot. Experiments results on ICCAD 2012 benchmarks show that our method achieves high accuracy with allowable range of false alarm. We also show the ranking of the similar known patterns with a detected hotspot.

  9. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions.

  10. Where are the lightning hotspots on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R. I.; Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The first lightning observations from space date from the early 1960s and more than a dozen spacecraft orbiting the Earth have flown instruments that recorded lightning signals from thunderstorms over the past 45 years. In this respect, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), having just completed its mission (1997-2015), provides the longest and best total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning data base over the tropics.We present a 16 year (1998-2013) reprocessed data set to create very high resolution (0.1°) TRMM LIS total lightning climatology. This detailed very high resolution climatology is used to identify the Earth's lightning hotspots and other regional features. Earlier studies located the lightning hotspot within the Congo Basin in Africa, but our very high resolution lightning climatology found that the highest lightning flash rate on Earth actually occurs in Venezuela over Lake Maracaibo, with a distinct maximum during the night. The higher resolution dataset clearly shows that similar phenomenon also occurs over other inland lakes with similar conditions, i.e., locally forced convergent flow over a warm lake surface which drives deep nocturnal convection. Although Africa does not have the top lightning hotspot, it comes in a close second and it is the continent with the highest number of lightning hotspots, followed by Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania. We also present climatological maps for local hour and month of lightning maxima, along with a ranking of the highest five hundred lightning maxima, focusing discussion on each continent's 10 highest lightning maxima. Most of the highest continental maxima are located near major mountain ranges, revealing the importance of local topography in thunderstorm development. These results are especially relevant in anticipation of the upcoming availability of continuous total lightning observations from the Geostationary Lightning Mapping (GLM

  11. Recent results on celestial gamma radiation from SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Gerald H.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on board the SMM are described. Recent results reported include observations and analyses of gamma-ray lines from Co-56 produced in supernovae, observations of the temporal variation of the 511 keV line observed during Galactic center transits, and measurements of the diffuse Galactic spectrum from 0.3 to 8.5 MeV. The work in progress includes measurements of the distribution of Galactic Al-26, observations to place limits on Galactic Ti-44 and Fe-60 and on Be-7 produced in novae, and searches for a characteristic gamma-ray emission from pair plasmas, a 2.223 MeV line emission, limits on deexcitation lines from interstellar C and O, and gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Conservation of recombination hotspots in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Isheng J.; Burt, Austin; Koufopanou, Vassiliki

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic recombination does not occur randomly along a chromosome, but instead tends to be concentrated in small regions, known as “recombination hotspots.” Recombination hotspots are thought to be short-lived in evolutionary time due to their self-destructive nature, as gene conversion favors recombination-suppressing alleles over recombination-promoting alleles during double-strand repair. Consistent with this expectation, hotspots in humans are highly dynamic, with little correspondence in ...

  13. An Orexin Hotspot in Ventral Pallidum Amplifies Hedonic ‘Liking' for Sweetness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Yi; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin) is implicated in stimulating appetite as well as arousal, and in both food reward and drug reward. The ventral pallidum (VP) receives orexin projections from lateral hypothalamus neurons (LH), and orexin terminals are especially dense in the posterior half of VP, which is also the location of an opioid hedonic hotspot. The VP hotspot is a roughly cubic-millimeter site where mu opioid stimulation can amplify the hedonic impact of sweetness, expressed as an increase in ‘liking' reactions to sucrose taste. The anatomical overlap in posterior VP between opioid hotspot and orexin inputs raises the possibility that the hedonic hotspot might allow orexin to amplify ‘liking' too. We examined whether microinjections of orexin-A into the VP hotspot enhance the hedonic impact of sucrose, as assessed via affective taste reactivity measures of ‘liking' reactions, and additionally compared effects at nearby sites in adjacent LH and extended amygdala. Taste reactivity results indicated that orexin stimulation specifically in the VP hotspot nearly doubled the magnitude of positive ‘liking' reactions elicited by the taste of sucrose. Mapping results for localization of function, aided by Fos plume measures of the local spread of orexin impact, suggested that hedonic enhancement was generated by essentially the same cubic-millimeter of posterior VP previously identified as the opioid hotspot. By contrast, microinjection sites in the anterior half of VP, or in LH or extended amygdala, generally failed to produce any hedonic enhancement. We conclude that an orexin hedonic hotspot exists in posterior VP, with similar boundaries to the opioid hotspot. An orexin hedonic hotspot may permit regulatory hypothalamic circuitry to make foods more ‘liked' during hunger by acting through VP. Dysfunction in a VP orexin hotspot in addiction or mood disorders might also contribute to some types of affective psychopathology. PMID:23463152

  14. Radiation Testing on State-of-the-Art CMOS: Challenges, Plans, and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007 and 2008, we discussed a variety of challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices and technologies [1, 2]. In this presentation, we provide more specific details in this on-going investigation focusing on out-of-the-box lessons observed for providing radiation effects assurances as well as preliminary test results.

  15. Basal-cell carcinoma resulting from radiation therapy for hypertrophic tonsils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, C.W.; O' Brian, J.J.; Shidnia, H.; Becker, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Benign dermatologic conditions are no longer treated with therapeutic radiation because of the late complications that can result. One of the most serious complications that may occur is the development of skin cancer of various types. In this report, a patient received radiation for hypertrophic tonsils and later developed basal-cell carcinomas in the irradiated areas.

  16. Differential interpretation of the results of well logging with scattered gamma radiation of radioactive ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, Yu.B.; Kuzin, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    Studied are the possibilities of quantitative interpretation of the results of logging of scattered gamma radiation. Recording of the scattered gamma radiation of radioactive ores makes it possible in a number of cases to solve the questions of lithological separation of rocks and the identification of their substantive composition. The effectiveness of exploration of radioactive raw materials is increased.

  17. Postoperative radiation therapy for malignant glioma. Results of conventional radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T.; Inoue, T.; Chatani, M.; Hata, K.; Taki, T.; Nii, Y.; Nakagawa, H.

    1987-02-01

    From December 1977 through September 1984, a total of 39 cases of malignant glioma were treated with radiation therapy (RT) postoperatively. Twenty-nine cases were classified into glioblastoma (GM) and 10 astrocytoma (AS) (low grade : 6 and anaplastic : 4) histologically. One third of cases received 50 Gy/25 FRX/5 WKS of whole brain RT. Another two thirds of cases underwent 60 Gy/30 FRX/6 WKS of whole brain or 50 Gy/25 FRX/5 WKS of whole brain + additional 20 Gy/10 FRX/2 WKS of localized field RT. Chemotherapy (BLM, MeCCNU and ACNU) was given for 34 cases. Survivals at 3 years for GM and AS were 12 % and 68 %, respectively. Prognostic factors for GM were age, neurologic function (RTOG), AJC-staging T-factor, pre-RT LDH level and volume of residual tumor. Corresponding factors for AS were histological subclassification and neurologic function (RTOG). However, RT dose and field did not impact on survival significantly. Acute adverse effects of RT were otitis media or externa (70 %) and conjunctivitis (8 %). Retinal bleeding was noted in three long-term survivors at 2 years after RT.

  18. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Early Results from the Advanced Radiation Protection Thick GCR Shielding Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Clowdsley, Martha; Slaba, Tony; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Zeitlin, Cary; Kenny, Sean; Crespo, Luis; Giesy, Daniel; Warner, James; McGirl, Natalie; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Radiation Protection Thick Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Shielding Project leverages experimental and modeling approaches to validate a predicted minimum in the radiation exposure versus shielding depth curve. Preliminary results of space radiation models indicate that a minimum in the dose equivalent versus aluminum shielding thickness may exist in the 20-30 g/cm2 region. For greater shield thickness, dose equivalent increases due to secondary neutron and light particle production. This result goes against the long held belief in the space radiation shielding community that increasing shielding thickness will decrease risk to crew health. A comprehensive modeling effort was undertaken to verify the preliminary modeling results using multiple Monte Carlo and deterministic space radiation transport codes. These results verified the preliminary findings of a minimum and helped drive the design of the experimental component of the project. In first-of-their-kind experiments performed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, neutrons and light ions were measured between large thicknesses of aluminum shielding. Both an upstream and a downstream shield were incorporated into the experiment to represent the radiation environment inside a spacecraft. These measurements are used to validate the Monte Carlo codes and derive uncertainty distributions for exposure estimates behind thick shielding similar to that provided by spacecraft on a Mars mission. Preliminary results for all aspects of the project will be presented.

  20. Paleo-drainage basin connectivity predicts evolutionary relationships across three Southeast Asian biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Rüber, Lukas; Nylinder, Stephan; Stelbrink, Björn; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Lavoué, Sébastien; Tan, Heok Hui; Nugroho, Estu; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L; Siti Azizah, M N; Von Rintelen, Thomas; Hall, Robert; Carvalho, Gary R

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors driving diversity across biodiversity hotspots is critical for formulating conservation priorities in the face of ongoing and escalating environmental deterioration. While biodiversity hotspots encompass a small fraction of Earth's land surface, more than half the world's plants and two-thirds of terrestrial vertebrate species are endemic to these hotspots. Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia displays extraordinary species richness, encompassing four biodiversity hotspots, though disentangling multiple potential drivers of species richness is confounded by the region's dynamic geological and climatic history. Here, we use multilocus molecular genetic data from dense multispecies sampling of freshwater fishes across three biodiversity hotspots, to test the effect of Quaternary climate change and resulting drainage rearrangements on aquatic faunal diversification. While Cenozoic geological processes have clearly shaped evolutionary history in SE Asian halfbeak fishes, we show that paleo-drainage re-arrangements resulting from Quaternary climate change played a significant role in the spatiotemporal evolution of lowland aquatic taxa, and provide priorities for conservation efforts.

  1. [Results of radiation therapy of cancer of the lip (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltényi, L; Sallay, A; Dézsi, Z; Matolay, G; Szatai, I; Borbély, T; Vargha, G

    1980-03-01

    The authors are presenting the 5-year survival rates of 170 patients treated for carcinoma of the lip at the radiological department of the Medical University in Debrecen. The results of radiation therapy, clarified and stage-correlated, are as follows: T1 100%, T2 90.2%, T3 67.9%. They call attention to the fact that in planning and carrying out the schedule of radiation treatment its effectiveness is stage-dependent. In radiation treatment applied in conformity with this, the basic laws of radiation therapy have to be observed. In the treatment of Stages T1 the optimal added-up radiation effectiveness lies at 2000 to 2500 reu with Chaoul tubes 1 and 2, for Stages T2 at 2300 to 2600 reu with Chaoul tubes 3 and 4, for Stages T3 at 2500 to 2600 reu with Chaoul tubes 3, 6 or 10 and additional telecobalt irradiation of the corresponding lymphatic chains.

  2. Hotspot sequential pattern visualization in peatland of Sumatera and Kalimantan using shiny framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriantini, G.; Sitanggang, I. S.; Trisminingsih, R.

    2017-01-01

    Fires on peatland frequently occurred in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Fires on peatland can be identified by hotspot sequential patterns. Sequential pattern mining is one of data mining techniques that can be used to analyse hotspot sequential patterns. Sequential pattern discovery equivalent classes (SPADE) algorithm can be applied to extract hotspot sequential patterns. The objectives of this work are: 1) to obtain hotspot sequential pattern in Sumatra and Kalimantan in 2014 and 2015, and 2) to develop a web based application using Shiny framework that is available in R package for hotspot sequential pattern visualization in peatland of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Hotspot sequential patterns were obtained using minimum support of 0.01 with the focus of analysis is the hotspot sequences with length two or more events. This work generated as many 89 sequences with length 2 or more in Sumatra in 2014, 147 sequences in Sumatra in 2015, 48 sequences in Kalimantan in 2014, and 51 sequences in Kalimantan in 2015. Hotspot sequential patterns are visualized based on peatland’s characteristics, weather, and social economy. The features in this web based application have been tested and the results show that all features work properly according to the test scenario.

  3. Putting 'Local' Back into Public Wifi Hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    Public Wifi hotspots in cafes and public places are based on wireless local area network technology (WLAN). In contrast to the common understanding of connecting directly to the internet when connecting to a Wifi hotspot, we are proposing to bring the original notion of connecting to a local netw...

  4. Capturing Hotspots For Constrained Indoor Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Finding the hotspots in large indoor spaces is very important for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation and guidance. The tracking data coming from indoor tracking are huge in volume and not readily available for finding hotspots. This paper presents a graph-...

  5. HotSpot Software Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  6. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  7. Cloud Computing Application for Hotspot Clustering Using Recursive Density Based Clustering (RDBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Aries; Khiyarin Nisa, Karlina

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has vast areas of tropical forest, but are often burned which causes extensive damage to property and human life. Monitoring hotspots can be one of the forest fire management. Each hotspot is recorded in dataset so that it can be processed and analyzed. This research aims to build a cloud computing application which visualizes hotspots clustering. This application uses the R programming language with Shiny web framework and implements Recursive Density Based Clustering (RDBC) algorithm. Clustering is done on hotspot dataset of the Kalimantan Island and South Sumatra Province to find the spread pattern of hotspots. The clustering results are evaluated using the Silhouette's Coefficient (SC) which yield best value 0.3220798 for Kalimantan dataset. Clustering pattern are displayed in the form of web pages so that it can be widely accessed and become the reference for fire occurrence prediction.

  8. Peptides identify multiple hotspots within the ligand binding domain of the TNF receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennick Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hotspots are defined as the minimal functional domains involved in protein:protein interactions and sufficient to induce a biological response. Results Here we describe the use of complex and high diversity phage display libraries to isolate peptides (called Hotspot Ligands or HSPLs which sub-divide the ligand binding domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2; p75 into multiple hotspots. We have shown that these libraries could generate HSPLs which not only subdivide hotspots on protein and non-protein targets but act as agonists or antagonists. Using this approach, we generated peptides which were specific for human TNFR2, could be competed by the natural ligands, TNFα and TNFβ and induced an unexpected biological response in a TNFR2-specific manner. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the dissection of the TNFR2 into biologically active hotspots with the concomitant identification of a novel and unexpected biological activity.

  9. Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes within nano- to macroscales. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of input of labile organics by plants creates microbial hotspots over short periods of time - the hot moments. We define microbial hotspots as small soil volumes with much faster process rates and much more intensive interactions compared to the average soil conditions. Such hotspots are found in the rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores (including drilosphere) and on aggregate surfaces, but hotspots are frequently of mixed origin. Hot moments are short-term events or sequences of events inducing accelerated process rates as compared to the averaged rates. Thus, hotspots and hot moments are defined by dynamic characteristics, i.e. by process rates. For this hotspot concept we extensively reviewed and examined the localization and size of hotspots, spatial distribution and visualization approaches, transport of labile C to and from hotspots, lifetime and process intensities, with a special focus on process rates and microbial activities. The fraction of active microorganisms in hotspots is 2-20 times higher than in the bulk soil, and their specific activities (i.e. respiration, microbial growth, mineralization potential, enzyme activities, RNA/DNA ratio) may also be much higher. The duration of hot moments in the rhizosphere is limited and is controlled by the length of the input of labile organics. It can last a few hours up to a few days. In the detritusphere, however, the duration of hot moments is regulated by the output - by decomposition rates of litter - and lasts for weeks and months. Hot moments induce succession in microbial communities and intense intra- and interspecific competition affecting C use efficiency, microbial growth and turnover. The faster turnover and lower C use efficiency in hotspots counterbalances the high C inputs, leading to the absence of strong

  10. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  12. The making of a productivity hotspot in the coastal ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Wingfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly productive hotspots in the ocean often occur where complex physical forcing mechanisms lead to aggregation of primary and secondary producers. Understanding how hotspots persist, however, requires combining knowledge of the spatio-temporal linkages between geomorphology, physical forcing, and biological responses with the physiological requirements and movement of top predators. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we integrate remotely sensed oceanography, ship surveys, and satellite telemetry to show how local geomorphology interacts with physical forcing to create a region with locally enhanced upwelling and an adjacent upwelling shadow that promotes retentive circulation, enhanced year-round primary production, and prey aggregation. These conditions provide an area within the upwelling shadow where physiologically optimal water temperatures can be found adjacent to a region of enhanced prey availability, resulting in a foraging hotspot for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta off the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the set of conditions that lead to a persistent top predator hotspot, which increases our understanding of how highly migratory species exploit productive regions of the ocean. These results will aid in the development of spatially and environmentally explicit management strategies for marine species of conservation concern.

  13. Cloud recognition from ground-based solar radiation measurements: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Josep; Gonzalez, Josep-Abel

    1998-12-01

    Despite cloud recognition techniques that can routinely identify cloud classes form satellite images, observation of clouds from the ground is still needed to acquire a complete description of cloud climatology. Solar radiation in a given site is one of the meteorological magnitudes that are most affected by cloud cover. Presently, the number of stations where both global and diffuse total solar radiation is measured is growing, due basically to energetic applications of solar radiation. Global and diffuse hourly irradiation, along with some measure of the temporal variability of solar radiation, are used in this paper to describe the sky condition, and to classify it into several cloud types. A classical maximum likelihood method is applied for clustering data. One year of solar radiation data and cloud observations at a site in Catalonia, Spain is used to illustrate the ability of solar radiation measurements to describe cloud types. Preliminary results of the above methodology show that three clusters appear using global and diffuse hourly irradiation only. Fog, stratus, and stratocumulus from the first group. A second group includes altocumulus alone or mixed with other clouds, as well as scattered cumulus congestus. In a third group, we find clear skies, cirrus and scattered cumulus. Especially in this third group, variability of solar radiation within an hour helps to separate different situations.

  14. A multigroup radiation diffusion test problem: Comparison of code results with analytic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, A I; Harte, J A; Bolstad, J H; Offner, S R

    2006-12-21

    We consider a 1D, slab-symmetric test problem for the multigroup radiation diffusion and matter energy balance equations. The test simulates diffusion of energy from a hot central region. Opacities vary with the cube of the frequency and radiation emission is given by a Wien spectrum. We compare results from two LLNL codes, Raptor and Lasnex, with tabular data that define the analytic solution.

  15. Recent results on the development of radiation-hard diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, J S; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    Charged particle detectors made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have radiation hardness greatly exceeding that of silicon- based detectors. The CERN-based RD42 Collaboration has developed and tested CVD diamond microstrip and pixel detectors with an eye to their application in the intense radiation environment near the interaction region of hadron colliders. This paper presents recent results from tests of these detectors. (4 refs).

  16. The emergence of motives in liminal hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten; Sørensen, Kathrine Solgaard

    2017-01-01

    The concept of “motivation” commonly constructs as a psychological essence what is really the paradoxical imposition of a required desire. While the resulting impasse blocked theoretical development for around four decades, pragmatic motivational techniques evolved regardless. These could...... be (probably to no avail) dismissed for not taking account of the deep theoretical problems. This article suggests instead to rearticulate them with the conceptual repertoire of liminal hotspots, which directs attention to the emergent nature of activities and collectives, and thus motives. This is done...... as part of an ongoing collaboration with counselors who experiment with different ways of helping young drug users without taking motivation as premise, in the sense of a prerequisite, for interventions. Data from recorded counseling sessions are analyzed and rearticulated, first in terms of the classical...

  17. The Emergence of Motives in Liminal Hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten; Sørensen, Kathrine Solgaard

    2016-01-01

    The concept of ‘motivation’ commonly constructs as a psychological essence what is really the paradoxical imposition of a required desire. While the resulting impasse blocked theoretical development for around four decades, pragmatic motivational techniques evolved regardless. These could...... be (probably to no avail) dismissed for not taking account of the deep theoretical problems. This article suggests instead to re-articulate them with the conceptual repertoire of liminal hotspots, which directs attention to the emergent nature of activities and collectives, and thus motives. This is done...... as part of an ongoing collaboration with counsellors who experiment with different ways of helping young drug users without taking motivation as premise, in the sense of a pre-requisite, for interventions. Data from recorded counselling situations are analyzed and rearticulated, first in terms...

  18. Trans-regulation of mouse meiotic recombination hotspots by Rcr1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Parvanov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is required for the orderly segregation of chromosomes during meiosis and for providing genetic diversity among offspring. Among mammals, as well as yeast and higher plants, recombination preferentially occurs at highly delimited chromosomal sites 1-2 kb long known as hotspots. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles various proteins play in carrying out the molecular events of the recombination process, relatively little is understood about the factors controlling the location and relative activity of mammalian recombination hotspots. To search for trans-acting factors controlling the positioning of recombination events, we compared the locations of crossovers arising in an 8-Mb segment of a 100-Mb region of mouse Chromosome 1 (Chr 1 when the longer region was heterozygous C57BL/6J (B6 x CAST/EiJ (CAST and the remainder of the genome was either similarly heterozygous or entirely homozygous B6. The lack of CAST alleles in the remainder of the genome resulted in profound changes in hotspot activity in both females and males. Recombination activity was lost at several hotspots; new, previously undetected hotspots appeared; and still other hotspots remained unaffected, indicating the presence of distant trans-acting gene(s whose CAST allele(s activate or suppress the activity of specific hotspots. Testing the activity of three activated hotspots in sperm samples from individual male progeny of two genetic crosses, we identified a single trans-acting regulator of hotspot activity, designated Rcr1, that is located in a 5.30-Mb interval (11.74-17.04 Mb on Chr 17. Using an Escherichia coli cloning assay to characterize the molecular products of recombination at two of these hotspots, we found that Rcr1 controls the appearance of both crossover and noncrossover gene conversion events, indicating that it likely controls the sites of the double-strand DNA breaks that initiate the recombination process.

  19. How does the mass media report and interpret radiation data? The results of media content analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment Health and Safety (Belgium); Cantone, M.C. [University of Milano, Faculty of Medicine (Italy); Tomkiv, Y. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway); Prezelj, I. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences (Slovenia); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Melekhova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In communication with the general population, experts often provide quantitative information related to ionizing radiation, expressed with different units of radioactivity. However, quantitative information about radiation risks may be meaningful only to people who have the ability to comprehend basic numerical concepts and possess knowledge related to radiation. Thus, the media, as a bridge between experts and the general population, has to 'translate' quantitative information into a qualitative one. How successful and accurate are the mass media in this transformation of scientific results into publicly understandable information? Our research investigates media reporting on the concept of ionizing radiation in a case of nuclear emergencies. The presentation is focused on summarizing the 'lessons learned' from the use of radiation data in media reporting about the Fukushima nuclear accident. The in-depth media content analysis was conducted in twelve quality newspapers in Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Norway and Russia using the same scientific methodology and analyzing the same time period. Preliminary results identified miss concepts of radiation data by media and even within emergency responders and decision makers. The research is a result of FP7 project Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe - PREPARE and upgraded with a Russian experience. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  1. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    contribute essentially to radiation risk estimations for future interplanetary space exploration by humans, putting them on a solid experimental and theoretical basis. The talk will give an overview of the current status of the MATROSHKA data evaluation and results and comparisons of the first three MTR experimental phases (MTR-1, 2A and 2B). The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EUs Seventh Frame-work Programme (FP7) under Project Nr: 218817 and coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) http://www-fp7-hamlet.eu

  2. Methodology and software to detect viral integration site hot-spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Namshin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern gene therapy methods have limited control over where a therapeutic viral vector inserts into the host genome. Vector integration can activate local gene expression, which can cause cancer if the vector inserts near an oncogene. Viral integration hot-spots or 'common insertion sites' (CIS are scrutinized to evaluate and predict patient safety. CIS are typically defined by a minimum density of insertions (such as 2-4 within a 30-100 kb region, which unfortunately depends on the total number of observed VIS. This is problematic for comparing hot-spot distributions across data sets and patients, where the VIS numbers may vary. Results We develop two new methods for defining hot-spots that are relatively independent of data set size. Both methods operate on distributions of VIS across consecutive 1 Mb 'bins' of the genome. The first method 'z-threshold' tallies the number of VIS per bin, converts these counts to z-scores, and applies a threshold to define high density bins. The second method 'BCP' applies a Bayesian change-point model to the z-scores to define hot-spots. The novel hot-spot methods are compared with a conventional CIS method using simulated data sets and data sets from five published human studies, including the X-linked ALD (adrenoleukodystrophy, CGD (chronic granulomatous disease and SCID-X1 (X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency trials. The BCP analysis of the human X-linked ALD data for two patients separately (774 and 1627 VIS and combined (2401 VIS resulted in 5-6 hot-spots covering 0.17-0.251% of the genome and containing 5.56-7.74% of the total VIS. In comparison, the CIS analysis resulted in 12-110 hot-spots covering 0.018-0.246% of the genome and containing 5.81-22.7% of the VIS, corresponding to a greater number of hot-spots as the data set size increased. Our hot-spot methods enable one to evaluate the extent of VIS clustering, and formally compare data sets in terms of hot-spot overlap

  3. Threats from climate change to terrestrial vertebrate hotspots in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Maiorano

    Full Text Available We identified hotspots of terrestrial vertebrate species diversity in Europe and adjacent islands. Moreover, we assessed the extent to which by the end of the 21(st century such hotspots will be exposed to average monthly temperature and precipitation patterns which can be regarded as extreme if compared to the climate experienced during 1950-2000. In particular, we considered the entire European sub-continent plus Turkey and a total of 1149 species of terrestrial vertebrates. For each species, we developed species-specific expert-based distribution models (validated against field data which we used to calculate species richness maps for mammals, breeding birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Considering four global circulation model outputs and three emission scenarios, we generated an index of risk of exposure to extreme climates, and we used a bivariate local Moran's I to identify the areas with a significant association between hotspots of diversity and high risk of exposure to extreme climates. Our results outline that the Mediterranean basin represents both an important hotspot for biodiversity and especially for threatened species for all taxa. In particular, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas host particularly high species richness as measured over all groups, while the eastern Mediterranean basin is particularly rich in amphibians and reptiles; the islands (both Macaronesian and Mediterranean host the highest richness of threatened species for all taxa occurs. Our results suggest that the main hotspots of biodiversity for terrestrial vertebrates may be extensively influenced by the climate change projected to occur over the coming decades, especially in the Mediterranean bioregion, posing serious concerns for biodiversity conservation.

  4. Solar radiation inside greenhouses covered with semitransparent photovoltaic film: first experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern Italian regions are characterized by climatic conditions with high values of solar radiation and air temperature. This has allowed the spread of protected structures both as a defense against critical winter conditions both for growing off-season. The major energy source for these greenhouses is given by solar energy and artificial energy is used rarely. So the problem in the use of greenhouses in these areas, if anything, is opposite to that of the northern areas. In these places you must try to mitigate often the solar radiation inside the greenhouses with suitable measures or abandon for a few months the cultivation inside these structures. The solar radiation intercepted by passive means can be used for other purposes through the uptake and transformation by the photovoltaic panels whose use however is problematic due to complete opacity of the cells. New photosensitive materials partially transparent to solar radiation onto flexible media, allow to glimpse the possibility of using them to greenhouses cover, getting the dual effect of partially screen the greenhouse and use the surplus to generate electricity. The research was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using a flexible photovoltaic film realized by the University of Rome Tor Vergata (research group of ECOFLECS project coordinated by prof. Andrea Reale for covering greenhouses. Two greenhouses in small scale were built: one covered with photovoltaic film and one covered with EVA film for test. In both greenhouses during the first research period it was grown a variety of dwarf tomato. The research was carried out comparing the solar radiation that enters into greenhouse in the summer (August 2012 and in winter conditions (December 2012 in both greenhouses. The result show that the average ratio between the daily global solar radiation under the photovoltaic film and outside radiation is about 37%, while between the radiation under EVA film and outside radiation

  5. Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, U.; Zakey, A.; Abd El Wahab, M.

    2009-04-01

    Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from the latest set of climate change projections by 14 global climates for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The concept of climate change can be approaches from the viewpoint of vulnerability or from that of climate response. In the former case a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region for which potential climate change impacts on the environment or different activity sectors can be particularly pronounced. In the other case, a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region whose climate is especially responsive to global change. In particular, the characterization of climate change response-based Hot-Spot can provide key information to identify and investigate climate change Hot-Spots based on results from multi-model ensemble of climate change simulations performed by modeling groups from around the world as contributions to the Fourth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) is defined based on four variables: change in regional mean surface air temperature relative to the global average temperature change ( or Regional Warming Amplification Factor, RWAF ), change in mean regional precipitation (P % , of present day value ), change in regional surface air temperature interannual variability (T % ,of present day value), change in regional precipitation interannual variability (P % ,of present day value ). In the definition of the RCCI it is important to include quantities other than mean change because often mean changes are not the only important factors for specific impacts. We thus also include inter

  6. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejon, Philip; Williams, Thomas N; Nyundo, Christopher; Hay, Simon I; Benz, David; Gething, Peter W; Otiende, Mark; Peshu, Judy; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Bauni, Evasius; Marsh, Kevin; Smith, David L; Borrmann, Steffen

    2014-04-24

    Malaria transmission is spatially heterogeneous. This reduces the efficacy of control strategies, but focusing control strategies on clusters or 'hotspots' of transmission may be highly effective. Among 1500 homesteads in coastal Kenya we calculated (a) the fraction of febrile children with positive malaria smears per homestead, and (b) the mean age of children with malaria per homestead. These two measures were inversely correlated, indicating that children in homesteads at higher transmission acquire immunity more rapidly. This inverse correlation increased gradually with increasing spatial scale of analysis, and hotspots of febrile malaria were identified at every scale. We found hotspots within hotspots, down to the level of an individual homestead. Febrile malaria hotspots were temporally unstable, but 4 km radius hotspots could be targeted for 1 month following 1 month periods of surveillance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02130.001. Copyright © 2014, Bejon et al.

  7. Coral Reef Watch, Hotspots, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch provides Coral Bleaching hotspot maps derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  8. Ultraconfined Plasmonic Hotspots Inside Graphene Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Foley, J J; Gannett, W; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Ni, G X; Zettl, A; Fogler, M M; Wiederrecht, G P; Gray, S K; Basov, D N

    2016-12-14

    We report on a nanoinfrared (IR) imaging study of ultraconfined plasmonic hotspots inside graphene nanobubbles formed in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. The volume of these plasmonic hotspots is more than one-million-times smaller than what could be achieved by free-space IR photons, and their real-space distributions are controlled by the sizes and shapes of the nanobubbles. Theoretical analysis indicates that the observed plasmonic hotspots are formed due to a significant increase of the local plasmon wavelength in the nanobubble regions. Such an increase is attributed to the high sensitivity of graphene plasmons to its dielectric environment. Our work presents a novel scheme for plasmonic hotspot formation and sheds light on future applications of graphene nanobubbles for plasmon-enhanced IR spectroscopy.

  9. Hotspots Detection from Trajectory Data Based on Spatiotemporal Data Field Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Wu, T.; Xu, Y. Q.

    2017-09-01

    City hotspots refer to the areas where residents visit frequently, and large traffic flow exist, which reflect the people travel patterns and distribution of urban function area. Taxi trajectory data contain abundant information about urban functions and citizen activities, and extracting interesting city hotspots from them can be of importance in urban planning, traffic command, public travel services etc. To detect city hotspots and discover a variety of changing patterns among them, we introduce a data field-based cluster analysis technique to the pick-up and drop-off points of taxi trajectory data and improve the method by introducing the time weight, which has been normalized to estimate the potential value in data field. Thus, in the light of the new potential function in data field, short distance and short time difference play a powerful role. So the region full of trajectory points, which is regarded as hotspots area, has a higher potential value, while the region with thin trajectory points has a lower potential value. The taxi trajectory data of Wuhan city in China on May 1, 6 and 9, 2015, are taken as the experimental data. From the result, we find the sustaining hotspots area and inconstant hotspots area in Wuhan city based on the spatiotemporal data field method. Further study will focus on optimizing parameter and the interaction among hotspots area.

  10. HOTSPOTS DETECTION FROM TRAJECTORY DATA BASED ON SPATIOTEMPORAL DATA FIELD CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available City hotspots refer to the areas where residents visit frequently, and large traffic flow exist, which reflect the people travel patterns and distribution of urban function area. Taxi trajectory data contain abundant information about urban functions and citizen activities, and extracting interesting city hotspots from them can be of importance in urban planning, traffic command, public travel services etc. To detect city hotspots and discover a variety of changing patterns among them, we introduce a data field-based cluster analysis technique to the pick-up and drop-off points of taxi trajectory data and improve the method by introducing the time weight, which has been normalized to estimate the potential value in data field. Thus, in the light of the new potential function in data field, short distance and short time difference play a powerful role. So the region full of trajectory points, which is regarded as hotspots area, has a higher potential value, while the region with thin trajectory points has a lower potential value. The taxi trajectory data of Wuhan city in China on May 1, 6 and 9, 2015, are taken as the experimental data. From the result, we find the sustaining hotspots area and inconstant hotspots area in Wuhan city based on the spatiotemporal data field method. Further study will focus on optimizing parameter and the interaction among hotspots area.

  11. CONSERVATION. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S K; Brown, L; Mailand, C; Mondol, S; Clark, W; Laurie, C; Weir, B S

    2015-07-03

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa's major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime.

  12. The Results and Prognostic Factors of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Early Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To evaluate the results and prognostic factors for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients at stages I and II of endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1991 and December 2006, 35 patients with FIGO stages I and II disease, who received adjuvant radiation therapy following surgery for endometrial cancer at Ewha Womans University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. A total of 17 patients received postoperative pelvic external beam radiation therapy; whereas, 12 patients received vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 6 patients received both pelvic radiation therapy and vaginal brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 54 months. The 5-yr overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 91.4% and 81.7%, respectively. The 5-yr overall survival rates for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 100%, 100% and 55.6%, respectively. In addition, the 5-yr disease-free survival rates were 100%, 70.0%, and 45.7%, respectively. Although no locoregional relapses were identified, distant metastases were observed in 5 patients (14%). The most common site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by bone, liver, adrenal gland, and peritoneum. A univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between distant metastases and risk-group (p=0.018), pathology type (p=0.001), and grade (p=0.019). A multivariate analysis also revealed that distant metastases were correlated with pathology type (p=0.009). Papillary, serous and clear cell carcinoma cases demonstrated a poor patient survival rate compared to cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. The most common complication of pelvic external beam radiation therapy was enteritis (30%), followed by proctitis, leucopenia, and lymphedema. All these complications were of RTOG grades 1 and 2; no grades 3 and 4 were observed. Conclusion: For the low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (stages 1 and 2) endometrial

  13. Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90{degree}C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

    1989-12-31

    The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90{degree}C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Tran, Tuyet-Hanh; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Le, Vu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background: A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007-2009), and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009-2011). It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang.Methodology: To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and pr...

  16. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  17. Relativistic Hotspots in FR II Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Alex M.; Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Gawronski, M. P.; Cederbloom, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a list of six FR II radio sources that are candidates to possess hotspots with modestly relativistic (v/c > 0.2) bulk velocities, in contrast to the vast majority of FR II radio sources that possess non-relativistic hotspot bulk velocities (e.g., v/c = 0.03+/- 0.02 from Scheuer 1995). These objects display arm- length and flux-ratio asymmetries between lobes that self-consistently indicate relativistic motion. The candidates are selected from the FIRST 1.4 GHz survey (including but not limited to the catalog of FR II quasars of de Vries et al. 2006) with the requirement that the radio core have a spectroscopic SDSS counterpart. We find no significant difference in the number of neighboring sources within 300 projected kpc of the candidate sources and randomly selected nearby regions. The deprojected and light travel-time corrected lobe distances are not abnormal for FR II sources, and neither are the core-to-lobe flux ratios after correcting for lobe beaming. We briefly consider four possibilities for these type of objects: (i) environmental interactions randomly mimicking relativistic effects, (ii) a restarted jet causing the near hotspot to brighten while the far hotspot still appears faint, (iii) observation during a short interval common to FR II lifetimes during which the hotspot decelerates from relativistic to non-relativistic velocities, and (iv) innately unusual characteristics (e.g., a mass-loaded jet) driving relativistic bulk velocities in the hotspots of a small fraction (< 1%) of FR II objects. We favor the last interpretation but cannot rule out the alternatives. We also comment on the useful external constraints such objects provide to the evaluation of hotspot X-ray emission mechanisms.

  18. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between two chicken populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooijmans Richard PMA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several genetic linkage maps of the chicken genome have been published, the resolution of these maps is limited and does not allow the precise identification of recombination hotspots. The availability of more than 3.2 million SNPs in the chicken genome and the recent advances in high throughput genotyping techniques enabled us to increase marker density for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the chicken genome. This high-resolution linkage map allowed us to study recombination hotspots across the genome between two chicken populations: a purebred broiler line and a broiler × broiler cross. In total, 1,619 animals from the two different broiler populations were genotyped with 17,790 SNPs. Results The resulting linkage map comprises 13,340 SNPs. Although 360 polymorphic SNPs that had not been assigned to a known chromosome on chicken genome build WASHUC2 were included in this study, no new linkage groups were found. The resulting linkage map is composed of 31 linkage groups, with a total length of 3,054 cM for the sex-average map of the combined population. The sex-average linkage map of the purebred broiler line is 686 cM smaller than the linkage map of the broiler × broiler cross. Conclusions In this study, we present a linkage map of the chicken genome at a substantially higher resolution than previously published linkage maps. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between the two mapping populations were observed in several chromosomes near the telomere of the p arm; the sex-specific analysis revealed that these regional differences were mainly caused by female-specific recombination hotspots in the broiler × broiler cross.

  19. Decongestion of urban areas with hotspot-pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of population in urban areas is jeopardizing the mobility and air quality worldwide. One of the most notable problems arising is that of traffic congestion which in turn affects air pollution. With the advent of technologies able to sense real-time data about cities, and its public distribution for analysis, we are in place to forecast scenarios valuable to ameliorate and control congestion. Here, we propose a local congestion pricing scheme, hotspot-pricing, that surcharges vehicles traversing congested junctions. The proposed tax is computed from the estimation of the evolution of congestion at local level, and the expected response of users to the tax (elasticity). Results on cities' road networks, considering real-traffic data, show that the proposed hotspot-pricing scheme would be more effective than current mechanisms to decongest urban areas, and paves the way towards sustainable congestion in urban areas.

  20. Flood risk assessment of land pollution hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Arrighi, Chiara; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Among the risks caused by extreme events, the potential spread of pollutants stored in land hotspots due to floods is an aspect that has been rarely examined with a risk-based approach. In this contribution, an attempt to estimate pollution risks related to flood events of land pollution hotspots was carried out. Flood risk has been defined as the combination of river flood hazard, hotspots exposure and vulnerability to contamination of the area, i.e. the expected severity of the environmental impacts. The assessment was performed on a geographical basis, using geo-referenced open data, available from databases of land management institutions, authorities and agencies. The list of land pollution hotspots included landfills and other waste handling facilities (e.g., temporary storage, treatment and recycling sites), municipal wastewater treatment plants, liquid waste treatment facilities and contaminated sites. The assessment was carried out by combining geo-referenced data of pollution hotspots with flood hazard maps. We derived maps of land pollution risk based on geographical and geological properties and source characteristics available from environmental authorities. These included information about soil particle size, soil hydraulic conductivity, terrain slope, type of stored pollutants, the type of facility, capacity, size of the area, land use, etc. The analysis was carried out at catchment scale. The case study of the Arno river basin in Tuscany (central Italy) is presented.

  1. Predator diversity hotspots in the blue ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Lotze, Heike K; Myers, Ransom A

    2003-08-19

    Concentrations of biodiversity, or hotspots, represent conservation priorities in terrestrial ecosystems but remain largely unexplored in marine habitats. In the open ocean, many large predators such as tunas, sharks, billfishes, and sea turtles are of current conservation concern because of their vulnerability to overfishing and ecosystem role. Here we use scientific-observer records from pelagic longline fisheries in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to show that oceanic predators concentrate in distinct diversity hotspots. Predator diversity consistently peaks at intermediate latitudes (20-30 degrees N and S), where tropical and temperate species ranges overlap. Individual hotspots are found close to prominent habitat features such as reefs, shelf breaks, or seamounts and often coincide with zooplankton and coral reef hotspots. Closed-area models in the northwest Atlantic predict that protection of hotspots outperforms other area closures in safeguarding threatened pelagic predators from ecological extinction. We conclude that the seemingly monotonous landscape of the open ocean shows rich structure in species diversity and that these features should be used to focus future conservation efforts.

  2. Transcription factor cooperativity in early adipogenic hotspots and super-enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Rabiee, Atefeh; Nielsen, Ronni;

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that transcription factors operate in complex networks through thousands of genomic binding sites, many of which bind several transcription factors. However, the extent and mechanisms of crosstalk between transcription factors at these hotspots remain unclear....... Using a combination of advanced proteomics and genomics approaches, we identify ∼12,000 transcription factor hotspots (∼400 bp) in the early phase of adipogenesis, and we find evidence of both simultaneous and sequential binding of transcription factors at these regions. We demonstrate that hotspots...... are highly enriched in large super-enhancer regions (several kilobases), which drive the early adipogenic reprogramming of gene expression. Our results indicate that cooperativity between transcription factors at the level of hotspots as well as super-enhancers is very important for enhancer activity...

  3. Shock-induced hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in PETN containing a spherical void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tzu-Ray; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2014-05-01

    We present results of reactive molecular dynamics simulations of hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shock-induced compression of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with the ReaxFF reactive force field. A supported shockwave is driven through a PETN crystal containing a 20 nm spherical void at a sub-threshold impact velocity of 2 km/s. Formation of a hotspot due to shock-induced void collapse is observed. During void collapse, NO2 is the dominant species ejected from the upstream void surface. Once the ejecta collide with the downstream void surface and the hotspot develops, formation of final products such as N2 and H2O is observed. The simulation provides a detailed picture of how void collapse and hotspot formation leads to initiation at sub-threshold impact velocities.

  4. Hotspot detection using space-time scan statistics on children under five years of age in Depok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdiana, Miranti; Widyaningsih, Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Some problems that affect the health level in Depok is the high malnutrition rates from year to year and the more spread infectious and non-communicable diseases in some areas. Children under five years old is a vulnerable part of population to get the malnutrition and diseases. Based on this reason, it is important to observe the location and time, where and when, malnutrition in Depok happened in high intensity. To obtain the location and time of the hotspots of malnutrition and diseases that attack children under five years old, space-time scan statistics method can be used. Space-time scan statistic is a hotspot detection method, where the area and time of information and time are taken into account simultaneously in detecting the hotspots. This method detects a hotspot with a cylindrical scanning window: the cylindrical pedestal describes the area, and the height of cylinder describe the time. Cylinders formed is a hotspot candidate that may occur, which require testing of hypotheses, whether a cylinder can be summed up as a hotspot. Hotspot detection in this study carried out by forming a combination of several variables. Some combination of variables provides hotspot detection results that tend to be the same, so as to form groups (clusters). In the case of infant health level in Depok city, Beji health care center region in 2011-2012 is a hotspot. According to the combination of the variables used in the detection of hotspots, Beji health care center is most frequently as a hotspot. Hopefully the local government can take the right policy to improve the health level of children under five in the city of Depok.

  5. Analysis of structural hot-spot stress in orthotropic plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ce; Ji Bohai; Xu Hanjiang

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the actual steel deck structure of Taizhou Bridge, this paper carries out hot-spot stress analysis on some key spots by using the finite element model which simulates local structure of orthotropic steel bridge decks. A finite element model is established for local structure of orthotropic steel bridge decks, and in the analysis of linear elasticity of the structure, face load is employed to simulate the loads from vehicle wheels. Analysis results show that main stresses are relatively heavy at the joints between diaphragm plates, top plates and U-shaped ribs and the joints between diaphragm plates and U-shaped ribs. These joints shall be regarded as key points for hot-spot stress analysis. Different mesh densities are adopted in the finite element model and the main stresses at different hot spots are contrasted and linear extrapolation is carried out using extrapolation formulae. Results show that different mesh densities have different influences on the hot-spot stresses at the welded seams of U-shaped ribs. These influences shall be considered in calculation and analysis.

  6. Some recent results of the silicon detector radiation damage study by the RD2 collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghinolfi, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bates, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bardos, R. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bonino, R. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Chilingarov, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Clark, A.G. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Feick, H. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Fretwurst, E. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Glaser, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Gorfine, G. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Goessling, C. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Jarron, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kambara, H. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Lindstroem, G. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Lisowski, B. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Moorhead, G.F. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Munday, D.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Parker, M.A. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Perrin, E. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Pilath, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Rolf, A. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Schulz, T. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Teiger, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tovey, S.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Uhlmann, T.M. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Recent results by the RD2 Collaboration of a study of radiation damage of silicon detectors for the ATLAS detector at LHC are presented. The detectors have been irradiated by neutrons with fluences of up to 1.5x10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The electric field in the detectors before and after type inversion, the depletion voltage and the dark current were studied. (orig.).

  7. Analysis of microstructure-dependent shock dissipation and hot-spot formation in granular metalized explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    Variations in the microstructure of granular explosives (i.e., particle packing density, size, shape, and composition) can affect their shock sensitivity by altering thermomechanical fields at the particle-scale during pore collapse within shocks. If the deformation rate is fast, hot-spots can form, ignite, and interact, resulting in burn at the macro-scale. In this study, a two-dimensional finite and discrete element technique is used to simulate and examine shock-induced dissipation and hot-spot formation within low density explosives (68%-84% theoretical maximum density (TMD)) consisting of large ensembles of HMX (C4H8N8O8) and aluminum (Al) particles (size ˜ 60 -360 μm). Emphasis is placed on identifying how the inclusion of Al influences effective shock dissipation and hot-spot fields relative to equivalent ensembles of neat/pure HMX for shocks that are sufficiently strong to eliminate porosity. Spatially distributed hot-spot fields are characterized by their number density and area fraction enabling their dynamics to be described in terms of nucleation, growth, and agglomeration-dominated phases with increasing shock strength. For fixed shock particle speed, predictions indicate that decreasing packing density enhances shock dissipation and hot-spot formation, and that the inclusion of Al increases dissipation relative to neat HMX by pressure enhanced compaction resulting in fewer but larger HMX hot-spots. Ensembles having bimodal particle sizes are shown to significantly affect hot-spot dynamics by altering the spatial distribution of hot-spots behind shocks.

  8. Plate tectonics and hotspots: the third dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L; Tanimoto, T; Zhang, Y S

    1992-06-19

    High-resolution seismic tomographic models of the upper mantle provide powerful new constraints on theories of plate tectonics and hotspots. Midocean ridges have extremely low seismic velocities to a depth of 100 kilometers. These low velocities imply partial melting. At greater depths, low-velocity and high-velocity anomalies record, respectively, previous positions of migrating ridges and trenches. Extensional, rifting, and hotspot regions have deep (> 200 kilometers) low-velocity anomalies. The upper mantle is characterized by vast domains of high temperature rather than small regions surrounding hotspots; the asthenosphere is not homogeneous or isothermal. Extensive magmatism requires a combination of hot upper mantle and suitable lithospheric conditions. High-velocity regions of the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle correlate with Archean cratons.

  9. Evolution of midplate hotspot swells: Numerical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Chase, Clement G.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of midplate hotspot swells on an oceanic plate moving over a hot, upwelling mantle plume is numerically simulated. The plume supplies a Gaussian-shaped thermal perturbation and thermally-induced dynamic support. The lithosphere is treated as a thermal boundary layer with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The two fundamental mechanisms of transferring heat, conduction and convection, during the interaction of the lithosphere with the mantle plume are considered. The transient heat transfer equations, with boundary conditions varying in both time and space, are solved in cylindrical coordinates using the finite difference ADI (alternating direction implicit) method on a 100 x 100 grid. The topography, geoid anomaly, and heat flow anomaly of the Hawaiian swell and the Bermuda rise are used to constrain the models. Results confirm the conclusion of previous works that the Hawaiian swell can not be explained by conductive heating alone, even if extremely high thermal perturbation is allowed. On the other hand, the model of convective thinning predicts successfully the topography, geoid anomaly, and the heat flow anomaly around the Hawaiian islands, as well as the changes in the topography and anomalous heat flow along the Hawaiian volcanic chain.

  10. On localised hotspots of an urban crime model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J. B.; O'Farrell, Hayley

    2013-06-01

    We investigate stationary, spatially localised crime hotspots on the real line and the plane of an urban crime model of Short et al. [M. Short, M. DÓrsogna, A statistical model of criminal behavior, Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences 18 (2008) 1249-1267]. Extending the weakly nonlinear analysis of Short et al., we show in one-dimension that localised hotspots should bifurcate off the background spatially homogeneous state at a Turing instability provided the bifurcation is subcritical. Using path-following techniques, we continue these hotspots and show that the bifurcating pulses can undergo the process of homoclinic snaking near the singular limit. We analyse the singular limit to explain the existence of spike solutions and compare the analytical results with the numerical computations. In two-dimensions, we show that localised radial spots should also bifurcate off the spatially homogeneous background state. Localised planar hexagon fronts and hexagon patches are found and depending on the proximity to the singular limit these solutions either undergo homoclinic snaking or act like “multi-spot” solutions. Finally, we discuss applications of these localised patterns in the urban crime context and the full agent-based model.

  11. Long-term Results of Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Sang Jun [Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To evaluate the long-term results after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer in terms of failure, survival, and cosmesis. One hundred fifty-four patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. According to TNM stage, 93 patients were stage I, 50 were IIa, and 11 were IIb. The affected breasts were irradiated with 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks with a boost irradiation dose of 10{approx}16 Gy to the excision site. Chemotherapy was administered in 75 patients and hormonal therapy in 92 patients with tamoxifen. Follow-up periods were 13{approx}179 months, with a median of 92.5 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 97.3% and 94.5%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (5YDFS and 10YDFS, respectively) rates were 92.5% and 88.9%, respectively; the ultimate 5YDFS and 10YDFS rates after salvage treatment were 93.9% and 90.2%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, only the interval between surgery and radiation therapy ({<=}6 weeks vs. >6 weeks, p=0.017) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for DFS. The major type of treatment failure was distant failure (78.5%) and the most common distant metastatic site was the lungs. The cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 96 patients (80.7%). Conservative surgery and radiation for early stage invasive breast cancer yielded excellent survival and cosmetic results. Radiation therapy should be started as soon as possible after breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer, ideally within 6 weeks.

  12. Variations in Jupiter's Radiation Belts and Synchrotron Radiation as a Result of the Impacts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy/9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Thorne, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Changes to Jupiter's synchrotron radiation following the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy/9 are reported. Also, the consequences are reported for three possible mechanisms that might have caused those changes.

  13. Re-evaluating the NO 2 hotspot over the South African Highveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S.M. Lourens

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, numerous pollution hotspots have been identified using satellite-based instruments. One of these hotspots is the prominent NO2hotspot over the South African Highveld. The tropospheric NO2column density of this area is comparable to that observed for central and northern Europe, eastern North America and south-east Asia. The most well-known pollution source in this area is a large array of coal-fired power stations. Upon closer inspection, long-term means of satellite observations also show a smaller area, approximately 100 km west of the Highveld hotspot, with a seemingly less substantial NO2column density. This area correlates with the geographical location of the Johannesburg–Pretoria conurbation or megacity, one of the 40 largest metropolitan areas in the world. Ground-based measurements indicate that NO2concentrations in the megacity have diurnal peaks in the early morning and late afternoon, which coincide with peak traffic hours and domestic combustion. During these times, NO2concentrations in the megacity are higher than those in the Highveld hotspot. These diurnal NO2 peaks in the megacity have generally been overlooked by satellite observations because the satellites have fixed local overpass times that do not coincide with these peak periods. Consequently, the importance of NO2 over the megacity has been underestimated. We examined the diurnal cycles of NO2 ground-based measurements for the two areas – the megacity and the Highveld hotspot – and compared them with the satellite-based NO2 observations. Results show that the Highveld hotspot is accompanied by a second hotspot over the megacity, which is of significance for the more than 10 million people living in this megacity.

  14. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  15. Results of radiation therapy in periarthritis humeroscapularis; Ergebnisse der Strahlentherapie bei Periarthropathia humeroscapularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, J.; Schlichting, G.; Galalae, R.; Kimmig, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Koltze, H. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Celle (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background: radiation therapy is applied in painful degenerative shoulder diseases. Aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of radiation therapy to symptomatic improvement in periarthritis humeroscapularis. Methods: ninety-four patients with periarthritis humeroscapularis were treated in two institutions. Mean age was 68 years, sex distribution were 32 men and 62 women. In 58 cases the right side was affected, left in 36 cases. At single doses of 0,75 Gy once a week a total dose of 6 Gy was applied The treatment effect was evaluated by the standardized von Pannewitz-score at the end of the treatment up to 6 months thereafter. Results: the treatment results of all the 94 patients were documentated at the end of therapy. Seventy-one patients were followed at least for further 4 months. Radiogenic side-effects were not noticed. The symptoms of 54 patients (57.4%) were improved or vanished, in 40 cases the symptoms were not significantly affected (42.6%). Four months after therapy 42 of 71 patients were improved (59.2%), 29 unchanged (40.8%). The treatment effect occured typically up to 2 months after therapy, there were no age-related differences. Also in recurrent radiation therapies the symptoms improved, in 80 percent after one preceding therapy, however only in 31.2 percent after multiple prior radiotherapies. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

  17. The Planetary Accretion Shock. I. Framework for Radiation-hydrodynamical Simulations and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Klahr, Hubert; Kuiper, Rolf; Mordasini, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    The key aspect determining the postformation luminosity of gas giants has long been considered to be the energetics of the accretion shock at the surface of the planet. We use one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamical simulations to study the radiative loss efficiency and to obtain postshock temperatures and pressures and thus entropies. The efficiency is defined as the fraction of the total incoming energy flux that escapes the system (roughly the Hill sphere), taking into account the energy recycling that occurs ahead of the shock in a radiative precursor. We focus in this paper on a constant equation of state (EOS) to isolate the shock physics but use constant and tabulated opacities. While robust quantitative results will have to await a self-consistent treatment including hydrogen dissociation and ionization, the results presented here show the correct qualitative behavior and can be understood from semianalytical calculations. The shock is found to be isothermal and supercritical for a range of conditions relevant to the core accretion formation scenario (CA), with Mach numbers { M }≳ 3. Across the shock, the entropy decreases significantly by a few times {k}{{B}}/{{baryon}}. While nearly 100% of the incoming kinetic energy is converted to radiation locally, the efficiencies are found to be as low as roughly 40%, implying that a significant fraction of the total accretion energy is brought into the planet. However, for realistic parameter combinations in the CA scenario, we find that a nonzero fraction of the luminosity always escapes the Hill sphere. This luminosity could explain, at least in part, recent observations in the young LkCa 15 and HD 100546 systems.

  18. Identification of hot-spot residues in protein-protein interactions by computational docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Recio Juan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of protein-protein interactions is becoming increasingly important for biotechnological and therapeutic reasons. We can define two major areas therein: the structural prediction of protein-protein binding mode, and the identification of the relevant residues for the interaction (so called 'hot-spots'. These hot-spot residues have high interest since they are considered one of the possible ways of disrupting a protein-protein interaction. Unfortunately, large-scale experimental measurement of residue contribution to the binding energy, based on alanine-scanning experiments, is costly and thus data is fairly limited. Recent computational approaches for hot-spot prediction have been reported, but they usually require the structure of the complex. Results We have applied here normalized interface propensity (NIP values derived from rigid-body docking with electrostatics and desolvation scoring for the prediction of interaction hot-spots. This parameter identifies hot-spot residues on interacting proteins with predictive rates that are comparable to other existing methods (up to 80% positive predictive value, and the advantage of not requiring any prior structural knowledge of the complex. Conclusion The NIP values derived from rigid-body docking can reliably identify a number of hot-spot residues whose contribution to the interaction arises from electrostatics and desolvation effects. Our method can propose residues to guide experiments in complexes of biological or therapeutic interest, even in cases with no available 3D structure of the complex.

  19. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96.

  20. Level of natural radionuclides in foodstuffs and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The natural radioactivities in three major groups of foodstuff widely consumed in Upper Egypt were determined. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in cereals, leguminosae, and flour were measured using γ-ray spectroscopy. Another group of hay, water, and soil samples from the same location were also analyzed. Hay samples were found to contain the highest radioactivity concentration among all the samples that were investigated. This increment could be due to the high water content in the shoots which tends to accumulate soluble radionuclides. The average calculated concentrations of soil samples in the present study exhibits the lowest values with respect to those from different countries. In the case of water samples, the average activities of both 232Th and 40K were similar to those for soil while 226Ra was twice that of water sample. The annual ingestion dose from each radionuclide was calculated. The computed annual dose owing to daily intake of radium, thorium, and potassium via wheat flour, lentils,and bean in the present study (214.8 μSv) is ten times lower than the global average annual radiation dose (2400 μSv)from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. The obtained results show that the dose values are quite low and carry insignificant radiation dose to the public.

  1. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  2. High frequency of microsatellites in S. cerevisiae meiotic recombination hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Joel PW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes but their function and evolution are not yet well understood. Their elevated mutation rate makes them ideal markers of genetic difference, but high levels of unexplained heterogeneity in mutation rates among microsatellites at different genomic locations need to be elucidated in order to improve the power and accuracy of the many types of study that use them as genetic markers. Recombination could contribute to this heterogeneity, since while replication errors are thought to be the predominant mechanism for microsatellite mutation, meiotic recombination is involved in some mutation events. There is also evidence suggesting that microsatellites could function as recombination signals. The yeast S. cerevisiae is a useful model organism with which to further explore the link between microsatellites and recombination, since it is very amenable to genetic study, and meiotic recombination hotspots have been mapped throughout its entire genome. Results We examined in detail the relationship between microsatellites and hotspots of meiotic double-strand breaks, the precursors of meiotic recombination, throughout the S. cerevisiae genome. We included all tandem repeats with motif length (repeat period between one and six base pairs. Long, short and two-copy arrays were considered separately. We found that long, mono-, di- and trinucleotide microsatellites are around twice as frequent in hot than non-hot intergenic regions. The associations are weak or absent for repeats with less than six copies, and also for microsatellites with 4–6 base pair motifs, but high-copy arrays with motif length greater than three are relatively very rare throughout the genome. We present evidence that the association between high-copy, short-motif microsatellites and recombination hotspots is not driven by effects on microsatellite distribution of other factors previously linked to both

  3. Intensity modulated radiation therapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Results of feasibility study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Rui Bai; Guo-Hua Wu; Wei-Jian Guo; Xu-Dong Wu; Yuan Yao; Yin Chen; Ren-Hua Zhou; Dong-Qin Lu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with chemotherapy could increase radiation dose to gross tumor volume without severe acute radiation related toxicity by decreasing the dose to the surrounding normal tissue in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Twenty-one patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were evaluated in this clinical trial,Patients would receive the dose of IMRT from 21Gy to 30Gy in 7 to 10 fractions within two weeks after conventional radiotherapy of 30Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. The total escalation tumor dose would be 51, 54,57, 60Gy, respectively. 5-fluororacil (5-FU) or gemcitabine was given concurrently with radiotherapy during the treatment course.RESULTS: Sixteen patients who had completed the radiotherapy plan with doses of 51Gy (3 cases), 54Gy (3 cases), 57Gy (3 cases) and 60Gy (7 cases) were included for evaluation. The median levels of CA19-9 prior to and after radiotherapy were 716 U/ml and 255 U/ml respectively (P<0.001) in 13 patients who demonstrated high levels of CA19-9 before radiotherapy. Fourteen patients who suffered from pain could reduce at least 1/3-1/2 amount of analgesic intake and 5 among these patients got complete relief of pain. Ten patients improved in Kamofsky performance status (KPS). The median follow-up period was 8 months and one-year survival rate was 35 %. No patient suffered more than grade Ⅲ acute toxicities induced by radiotherapy.CONCLUSION: Sixty Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks with late course IMRT technique combined with concurrent 5-FU chemotherapy can provide a definitely palliative benefit with tolerable acute radiation related toxicity for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

  4. Evaluating Direct Radiative Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Atmospheric Dynamics with Aquaplanet and Regional Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ö.; Tegen, I.; Quaas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics are usually investigated with help of general circulation models or also regional models that represent the atmospheric system as realistic as possible. Reducing the complexity of models used to study the effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics helps to understand underlying mechanisms. In this study, by using ECHAM6 General Circulation Model (GCM) in an Aquaplanet setting and using simplified aerosol climatology, an initial idealization step has been taken. The analysis only considers direct radiative effects, furthering the reduction of complex model results. The simulations include cases including aerosol radiative forcing, no aerosol forcing, coarse mode aerosol forcing only (as approximation for mineral dust forcing) and forcing with increased aerosol absorption. The results showed that increased absorption affects cloud cover mainly in subtropics. Hadley circulation is found to be weakened in the increased absorption case. To compare the results of the idealized model with a more realistic model setting, the results of the regional model COSMO-MUSCAT that includes interactive mineral dust aerosol and considers the effects of dust radiative forcing are also analyzed. The regional model computes the atmospheric circulation for the year 2007 twice, including the feedback of dust and excluding the dust aerosol forcing. It is investigated to which extent the atmospheric response to the dust forcing agrees with the simplified Aquaplanet results. As expected, in the regional model mineral dust causes an increase in the temperature right above the dust layer while reducing the temperature close to the surface. In both models the presence of aerosol forcing leads to increased specific humidity, close to ITCZ. Notwithstanding the difference magnitudes, comparisons of the global aquaplanet and the regional model showed similar patterns. Further detailed comparisons will be presented.

  5. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radition-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die vorliegende Arbeit soll tierexperimentelle Ergebnisse zur Pathogenese akuter Funktionsstoerungen der Harnblase nach Bestrahlung zusammenfassen. Material und Methoden: Transurethrale zystometrische Messungen dienen zur longitudinalen Erfassung der Harnblasenfunktion bei der Maus. Mit dieser Methode koennen strahlenbedingte Stoerungen der Speicherkapazitaet quantifiziert werden. In histologischen Untersuchungen wurden Veraenderungen in der

  6. Estimating the Error in Statistical HAMR Object Populations Resulting from Simplified Radiation Pressure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, S.; Vörsmann, P.; Wiedemann, C.; Kebschull, C.; Braun, V.; Möckel, M.; Gelhaus, J.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.

    2012-09-01

    The high-area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) object population in ESA's MASTER-2009 software (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference) is dominated by Multi-Layer Insulation debris at large sizes. The underlying model employs two independent mechanisms whereby Multi-Layer Insulation debris is created. These mechanisms are fragmentation events on the one hand and a deterioration process leading to the continuous release of larger objects on the other hand. All debris source models used to create the MASTER debris population rely on a semi-analytical propagator to model the major secular and long periodic orbit perturbations. The orbit parameters of HAMR objects are highly susceptive to radiation pressure effects which can result in fast secular and periodic changes for area-to-mass ratios above about 1 square meter per kilogram. The implementation of radiation pressure in this propagator is limited to the effects of solar irradiation on a spherical object and using a cylindrical Earth shadow. The current paper discusses the applicability of such a simplified theory to large statistical HAMR object populations where the main objective is not to predict the exact future location of a single object but rather to give a correct representation of the overall distribution of all HAMR objects. The basis for the current study is given by a numerical propagator which is supported by published observation results. Initially, the effects of object orientation, Earth albedo and thermal radiation on the orbit evolution are discussed. Results from published observations and simulation results give insight into the validity of the implemented model. Fundamental differences between the orbit prediction of this refined numerical propagator and the semi-analytical propagator are looked at with a view towards large statistical populations. To this end, a plausible, statistical, population of HAMR objects is propagated over an extended time period using both propagation

  7. Creating Hotspots for the Knowledge Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Klundert, M.; Van Winden, W.

    2012-01-01

    The emerging knowledge economy alters the expectations for contemporary work environments. Everywhere, we see the development of campuses and other types of “knowledge hotspots”. In this article, the authors discuss the emergence of these hotspots, and provide a number of examples. They identify a n

  8. Ridges and hotspots: perspectives from global tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Shen; Tanimoto, Toshiro

    1991-01-01

    Resolution in global tomography has improved to a level of about 1000 km due to a rapid increase of digital data during the last decade. We have started to see various important tectonic features in some detail. We will attempt to summarize our current observations for ridges and hotspots.

  9. Eliminating "Hotspots" in Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    Signals from defective picture elements rejected. Image processing program for use with charge-coupled device (CCD) or other mosaic imager augmented with algorithm that compensates for common type of electronic defect. Algorithm prevents false interpretation of "hotspots". Used for robotics, image enhancement, image analysis and digital television.

  10. Hotspot Mainport Schiphol : midterm review report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döpp, S.; Brink, van den P.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Jacobs, A.; Homan, C.; Sondij, J.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of Knowledge for Climate (KfC) research in Hotspot Schiphol Mainport is to optimize the contribution of meteorological services to a sustainable operation and reliable operation of Schiphol airport. Three research projects have been carried out in the first tranche of the Knowledge for Cli

  11. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  12. RESULTS OF 192IR CONTACT RADIATION THERAPY FOR CERVIX UTERI CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kravets

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of treatment for locally advanced cervix uteri cancer, by applying a 192Ir radioactive source for contact radiation. Three- and five-year overall and relapse-free survival rates have been obtained for stages: 82.5 and 82.5%; 78.4 and 78.4% for Stage IIb; 57 and 52.3%; 41.6 and 41.6 for IIIb; 53.3 and 47.3%; 42.4 and 37.7% for IVb, respectively.

  13. Radiation dose from multidetector CT studies in children: results from the first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Origgi, Daniela; Palorini, Federica [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Department of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [University of Palermo, Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [University of Palermo, Department of Medical and Forensic Biopathology and Biotechnologies, Section of Radiology, Palermo (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) scanners have contributed to the widespread use of CT in paediatric imaging. However, concerns are raised for the associated radiation exposure. Very few surveys on radiation exposure from MDCT studies in children are available. The aim of this study was to outline the status of radiation exposure in children from MDCT practice in Italy. In this retrospective multicentre study we asked Italian radiology units with an MDCT scanner with at least 16 slices to provide dosimetric and acquisition parameters of CT examinations in three age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-15 years) for studies of head, chest and abdomen. The dosimetric results were reported in terms of third-quartile volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) (mGy), size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) (mGy), dose length product (DLP) (mGy cm), and total DLP for multiphase studies. These results were compared with paediatric European and adult Italian published data. A multivariate analysis assessed the association of CTDI{sub vol} with patient characteristics and scanning modalities. We collected data from 993 MDCT examinations performed at 25 centres. For age groups 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years, the CTDI{sub vol}, DLP and total DLP values were statistically significantly below the values observed in our analogous national survey in adults, although the difference decreased with increasing age. CTDI{sub vol} variability among centres was statistically significant (variance = 0.07; 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.16; P < 0.001). This study reviewed practice in Italian centres performing paediatric imaging with MDCT scanners. The variability of doses among centres suggests that the use of standardised CT protocols should be encouraged. (orig.)

  14. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  15. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: First Results From The Release 4 GEWEX Integrated Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Gupta, Shashi; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; zhang, taiping

    2016-04-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number should help improve the RMS of the existing products and allow for future higher resolution SRB gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree). In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  16. Inter-comparisons of thermodynamic sea-ice modeling results using various parameterizations of radiative flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radiative fluxes are of primary importance in the energy and mass balance of the sea-ice cover. Various parameterizations of the radiative fluxes are studied in a thermodynamic sea-ice model. Model outputs of the surface radiative and heat fluxes and mass balance are compared with observations. The contribution of short-wave radiation is limited to a long part of winter. Therefore, simple schemes are often sufficient. Errors in estimations of the short-wave radiation are due mainly to cloud effects and occasionally to multi-reflection between surface and ice crystals in the air. The long-wave radiation plays an important role in the ice surface heat and mass balance during most part of a winter. The effect of clouds on the accuracy of the simple radiative schemes is critical, which needs further attention. In general, the accuracy of an ice model depends on that of the radiative fluxes.

  17. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  18. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-08-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin—a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (Edep) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated.

  19. Cyberknife Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Nonresectable Tumors of the Liver: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Goyal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has emerged as a treatment option for local tumor control of primary and secondary malignancies of the liver. We report on our updated experience with SBRT in patients with non-resectable tumors of the liver. Methods. Our first 17 consecutive patients (mean age 58.1 years receiving SBRT for HCC (=6, IHC (=3, and LM (=8 are presented. Mean radiation dose was 34Gy delivered over 1–3 fractions. Results. Treated patients had a mean decrease in maximum pretreatment tumor diameter from 6.9±4.6 cm to 5.0±2.1 cm at three months after treatment (<.05. The mean total tumor volume reduction was 44% at six months (<.05. 82% of all patients (14/17 achieved local control with a median follow-up of 8 months. 100% of patients with HCC (=6 achieved local control. Patients with surgically placed fiducial markers had no complications related to marker placement. Conclusion. Our preliminary results showed that SBRT is a safe and effective local treatment modality in selected patients with liver malignancies with minimal adverse events. Further studies are needed to define its role in the management of these malignancies.

  20. 193-nm radiation durability study of MoSi binary mask and resulting lithographic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Isabelle; Belledent, Jérôme; Pain, Laurent; Connolly, Brid; Sczyrba, Martin; Lamantia, Matt

    2011-05-01

    Dimensions on mask continue to shrink to keep up with the ITRS roadmap. This has implications on the material of choice for the blanks. For example, the new binary OMOG stack (Opaque MOSi on Glass) was successfully introduced to meet the mask specifications at the 32nm technology node. Obviously 193-nm optical lithography will be further used in production at even higher NA and lower k1 emphasizing, for example, the impact on wafer of any electromagnetic field migration effects. Indeed, long term radiation damage inducing CD growth and consequently, device yield loss, has already been reported [1, 2]. This mechanism, known as Electric Field induced Migration of chrome (EMF) often shortens the mask's lifetime. Here, a study was conducted to investigate the impact of intensive ArF scanner exposure both on final wafer and mask performances. The Si printed wafers measured with top-down CD-SEM were characterized with respect to CD uniformity, linearity, Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) printability through process window, MEEF, DOF, and OPC accuracy. The data was also correlated to advanced mask inspection results (e.g. AIMSTM) taken at the same location. More precisely, this work follows a preliminary study [1] which pointed out that OMOG is less sensitive to radiation than standard COG (Chrome On Glass). And, in this paper, we report on results obtained at higher energy to determine the ultimate lifetime of OMOG masks.

  1. The Aurora radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of reionization: calibration and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Andreas H.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; Jeon, Myoungwon; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a new suite of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation and reionization called Aurora. The Aurora simulations make use of a spatially adaptive radiative transfer technique that lets us accurately capture the small-scale structure in the gas at the resolution of the hydrodynamics, in cosmological volumes. In addition to ionizing radiation, Aurora includes galactic winds driven by star formation and the enrichment of the universe with metals synthesized in the stars. Our reference simulation uses 2 × 5123 dark matter and gas particles in a box of size 25 h-1 comoving Mpc with a force softening scale of at most 0.28 h-1 kpc. It is accompanied by simulations in larger and smaller boxes and at higher and lower resolution, employing up to 2 × 10243 particles, to investigate numerical convergence. All simulations are calibrated to yield simulated star formation rate functions in close agreement with observational constraints at redshift z = 7 and to achieve reionization at z ≈ 8.3, which is consistent with the observed optical depth to reionization. We focus on the design and calibration of the simulations and present some first results. The median stellar metallicities of low-mass galaxies at z = 6 are consistent with the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, which are believed to have formed most of their stars at high redshifts. After reionization, the mean photoionization rate decreases systematically with increasing resolution. This coincides with a systematic increase in the abundance of neutral hydrogen absorbers in the intergalactic medium.

  2. Results of Simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on Spectra Restraint Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin; Hussain, Sarosh; Waller, Jess

    2017-01-01

    Spectra or similar Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric is the likely choice for future structural space suit restraint materials due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance, and dimensional stability. During long duration space missions, space suits will be subjected to significant amounts of high-energy radiation from several different sources. To insure that pressure garment designs properly account for effects of radiation, it is important to characterize the mechanical changes to structural materials after they have been irradiated. White Sands Test Facility (WSFTF) collaborated with the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to irradiate and test various space suit materials by examining their tensile properties through blunt probe puncture testing and single fiber tensile testing after the materials had been dosed at various levels of simulated GCR and SPE Iron and Proton beams at Brookhaven National Laboratories. The dosages were chosen based on a simulation developed by the Structural Engineering Division at JSC for the expected radiation dosages seen by space suit softgoods seen on a Mars reference mission. Spectra fabric tested in the effort saw equivalent dosages at 2x, 10x, and 20x the predicted dose as well as a simulated 50 year exposure to examine the range of effects on the material and examine whether any degradation due to GCR would be present if the suit softgoods were stored in deep space for a long period of time. This paper presents the results of this work and outlines the impact on space suit pressure garment design for long duration deep space missions.

  3. Light Penetration in Seawater Polluted by Dispersed Oil: Results of Radiative Transfer Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, K.; Darecki, M.; Toczek, H.

    2015-11-01

    The downwelling light in seawater is shaped by natural seawater constituents as well as by some external substances which can occur locally and temporally. In this study we focused on dispersed oil droplets which can be found in seawater after an oil spill or in the consequence of intensive shipping, oil extraction and transportation. We applied our modified radiative transfer model based on Monte Carlo code to evaluate the magnitude of potential influence of dispersed oil droplets on the downwelling irradiance and the depth of the euphotic zone. Our model was validated on the basis of in situ measurements for natural (unpolluted) seawater in the Southern Baltic Sea, resulting in less than 5% uncertainty. The optical properties of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil were calculated on the basis of Mie theory and involved into radiative transfer model. We found that the changes in downwelling light caused by dispersed oil depend on several factors such as oil droplet concentration, size distribution, and the penetration depth (i.e. vertical range of oil droplets occurrence below sea surface). Petrobaltic oil droplets of submicron sizes and penetration depth of 5 m showed a potentially detectable reduction in the depth of the euphotic zone of 5.5% at the concentration of only 10 ppb. Micrometer-sized droplets needed 10 times higher concentration to give a similar effect. Our radiative transfer model provided data to analyse and discuss the influence of each factor separately. This study contributes to the understanding of the change in visible light penetration in seawater affected by dispersed oil.

  4. Educating medical students about radiation oncology: initial results of the oncology education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Singh, Deeptej; Ozonoff, Al; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2007-10-01

    Multidisciplinary cancer care requires the integration of teaching across established educational boundaries. Because exposure to oncology and radiation oncology is limited in the undergraduate medical curriculum, the authors introduced an oncology education initiative at their institution. They report on the addition of structured multidisciplinary oncology education to the required radiology core clerkship. An institutional-based cohort study of fourth-year medical students rotating through a required clerkship in radiology at Boston University School of Medicine was conducted, beginning with the class of 2007. An educational questionnaire measuring the perceived quality of oncology education before and after exposure to a structured didactic program was administered. Of the 149 fourth-year students, 121 (81%) have completed the didactics of the initiative. Although 68 of 121 (56%) students reported having limited exposure to cancer care in the clinical years, 107 of 121 (88%) were motivated to learn more about the subject, and 100 of 121 (83%) reported a better understanding of the multidisciplinary nature of cancer care after this oncology education initiative. One hundred ten of 121 (91%) felt that the radiology clerkship was an opportune time to receive oncology and radiation oncology teaching. As a result of the initiative, 32% of the students pursued advanced training in radiation oncology. Of students who before the initiative were not planning on taking oncology electives, 70 of 99 (71%) agreed or strongly agreed that the lecture motivated them to learn more about the subject, and 43 of 99 (43%) agreed or strongly agreed that the lecture motivated them to take oncology electives. Systematic exposure to multidisciplinary oncology education as part of a radiology core clerkship provides an excellent opportunity for the integrated teaching of oncologic principles and patient management. This type of experience addresses an important yet underrepresented

  5. Automated hotspot analysis with aerial image CD metrology for advanced logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Trautzsch, Thomas; Kim, Min-ho; Seo, Jung-Uk; Yoon, Young-Keun; Han, Hak-Seung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Meyers, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Continuously shrinking designs by further extension of 193nm technology lead to a much higher probability of hotspots especially for the manufacturing of advanced logic devices. The CD of these potential hotspots needs to be precisely controlled and measured on the mask. On top of that, the feature complexity increases due to high OPC load in the logic mask design which is an additional challenge for CD metrology. Therefore the hotspot measurements have been performed on WLCD from ZEISS, which provides the benefit of reduced complexity by measuring the CD in the aerial image and qualifying the printing relevant CD. This is especially of advantage for complex 2D feature measurements. Additionally, the data preparation for CD measurement becomes more critical due to the larger amount of CD measurements and the increasing feature diversity. For the data preparation this means to identify these hotspots and mark them automatically with the correct marker required to make the feature specific CD measurement successful. Currently available methods can address generic pattern but cannot deal with the pattern diversity of the hotspots. The paper will explore a method how to overcome those limitations and to enhance the time-to-result in the marking process dramatically. For the marking process the Synopsys WLCD Output Module was utilized, which is an interface between the CATS mask data prep software and the WLCD metrology tool. It translates the CATS marking directly into an executable WLCD measurement job including CD analysis. The paper will describe the utilized method and flow for the hotspot measurement. Additionally, the achieved results on hotspot measurements utilizing this method will be presented.

  6. Identifying ecosystem service hotspots for environmental management in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashieda Davids

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite considerable research into the importance of ecosystem services, little has been achieved in translating such research into management action. In an urban context where numerous pressures on ecosystem services exist, the identification and management of priority ecosystem services areas are vital to ensure the ongoing provision of these services.Method: To identify opportunities for securing a sustainable supply of ecosystem services for the city of Durban, this paper identifies ecosystem service priority areas, called hotspots, and assesses their spatial congruence with critical biodiversity areas (CBAs, conservation areas, the Durban Metropolitan Open Space System (D’MOSS and land ownership categories, using spatial overlap and correlation analyses. Hotspots for 13 ecosystem services were identified and analysed, including carbon storage, nutrient retention, sediment retention, water supply and flood attenuation.Results: The study found generally weak correlations between ecosystem service hotspots and CBAs and conservation areas. On average, 30% of the 13 ecosystem services hotspots were located within terrestrial CBAs, 51% within the D’MOSS, with nominal overlaps of 0.3%, 3.9% and 5.07% within estuaries and freshwater CBAs and conservation areas, respectively. The majority of ecosystem service hotspots were located within communally (41% or privately owned (27% lands.Conclusion: The results indicated that substantial portions of hotspot areas lie outside of formally regulated and managed conservation areas and remain vulnerable to human impact and habitat degradation. The study identified management areas and options that could yield maximum benefits; including the need for the development of an ecosystem services management and protection strategy, the selection of areas for co-management of ecosystem service hotspots and CBAs and the need for collaborative management.

  7. Identifying ecosystem service hotspots for environmental management in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashieda Davids

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite considerable research into the importance of ecosystem services, little has been achieved in translating such research into management action. In an urban context where numerous pressures on ecosystem services exist, the identification and management of priority ecosystem services areas are vital to ensure the ongoing provision of these services.Method: To identify opportunities for securing a sustainable supply of ecosystem services for the city of Durban, this paper identifies ecosystem service priority areas, called hotspots, and assesses their spatial congruence with critical biodiversity areas (CBAs, conservation areas, the Durban Metropolitan Open Space System (D’MOSS and land ownership categories, using spatial overlap and correlation analyses. Hotspots for 13 ecosystem services were identified and analysed, including carbon storage, nutrient retention, sediment retention, water supply and flood attenuation.Results: The study found generally weak correlations between ecosystem service hotspots and CBAs and conservation areas. On average, 30% of the 13 ecosystem services hotspots were located within terrestrial CBAs, 51% within the D’MOSS, with nominal overlaps of 0.3%, 3.9% and 5.07% within estuaries and freshwater CBAs and conservation areas, respectively. The majority of ecosystem service hotspots were located within communally (41% or privately owned (27% lands.Conclusion: The results indicated that substantial portions of hotspot areas lie outside of formally regulated and managed conservation areas and remain vulnerable to human impact and habitat degradation. The study identified management areas and options that could yield maximum benefits; including the need for the development of an ecosystem services management and protection strategy, the selection of areas for co-management of ecosystem service hotspots and CBAs and the need for collaborative management.

  8. Man-made radionuclides in the environment and resulting radiation exposures; Anthropogene Radionuklide in der Umwelt und daraus resultierende Strahlenexpositionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie

    2009-07-01

    This contribution gives a survey about the sources of man-made environmental radioactivity and quantifies some of the resulting radiation exposures. The relevance of the different radionuclides with respect to the radiation exposures is discussed. Finally, the question of the effects of small doses is addressed. (orig.)

  9. PROTOCOL FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ORAL SEQUELAE RESULTING FROM HEAD AND NECK RADIATION-THERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSMA, J; VISSINK, A; SPIJKERVET, FKL; ROODENBURG, JLN; PANDERS, AK; VERMEY, A; SZABO, BG; SGRAVENMADE, EJ

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the desired antitumor effects, head and neck radiation therapy induces damage in normal tissues that may result in oral sequelae such as mucositis, hyposalivation, radiation caries, taste loss, trismus, soft-tissue necrosis, and osteoradionecrosis. These sequelae may be dose-limiting

  10. Long-Term Results of 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To analyze the treatment outcomes, complications, prognostic factors after a long-term follow-up of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Between December 1981 and December 2006, 190 eligible patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated at our department with a curative intent. Of these patients, 103 were treated with RT alone and 87 patients received CCRT. The median age was 49 years (range, 8-78 years). The distributions of clinical stage according to the AJCC 6th edition included I: 7 (3.6%), IIA: 8 (4.2%), IIB: 33 (17.4%), III: 82 (43.2%), IVA: 31 (16.3%), IVB: 29 (15.3%). The accumulated radiation doses to the primary tumor ranged from 66.6-87.0 Gy (median, 72 Gy). Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively analyzed. Acute and late toxicities were assessed using the RTOG criteria. A total of 96.8% (184/190) of patients completed the planned treatment. With a mean follow-up of 73 months (range, 2-278 months; median, 52 months), 93 (48.9%) patients had relapses that were local 44 (23.2%), nodal 13 (6.8%), or distant 49 (25.8%). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 55.6% and 44.5%, 54.8% and 51.3%, in addition to 65.3% and 57.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CCRT, age, gender, and stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. The CCRT and gender were independent prognostic factors for both DFS and DSS. There was no grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity, but grade 3 mucositis and hematologic toxicity were present in 42 patients (22.1%) and 18 patients (9.5%), respectively. During follow-up, grade 3 hearing loss in 9 patients and trismus in 6 patients were reported. The results of our study were in accordance with findings of previous studies and we confirmed that CCRT, low stage, female gender, and young age were related to improvement in OS

  11. Hotspot Cooling with Self-Propelled Jumping Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaopeng; Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Liu, Fangjie; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic hotspots are prevalent in electronic systems including microprocessors and power electronics with constantly changing computing tasks or payloads. Here, we report a new adaptive hotspot cooling technique that rapidly responds to moving hotspots in a passive manner independent of external forces. The hotspot cooling is based upon the self-propelled jumping of dropwise condensate, which directly returns the working fluid from a superhydrophobic condenser to an opposing superhydrophilic evaporator. The adaptive thermal management is accomplished by the preferential evaporation of water at the hotspots and the rapid jumping return of the condensate across the very short inter-plate distance. The proof-of-concept for this hotspot cooling technique will be demonstrated by the adaptive response to hotspots at increasing heat fluxes. Corresponding author.

  12. Latest results on solarization of optical glasses with pulsed laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Petzold, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are more and more used for material processing and lithography. Femtosecond laser help to generate three dimensional structures in photoresists without using masks in micro lithography. This technology is of growing importance for the field of backend lithography or advanced packaging. Optical glasses used for beam shaping and inspection tools need to withstand high laser pulse energies. Femtosecond laser radiation in the near UV wavelength range generates solarization effects in optical glasses. In this paper results are shown of femtosecond laser solarization experiments on a broad range of optical glasses from SCHOTT. The measurements have been performed by the Laser Zentrum Hannover in Germany. The results and their impact are discussed in comparison to traditional HOK-4 and UVA-B solarization measurements of the same materials. The target is to provide material selection guidance to the optical designer of beam shaping lens systems.

  13. Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the environment: analysis of the results in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassas, Athanasios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros; Sahalos, John N

    2012-09-01

    Non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks were initiated as a result of the public concerns about the potential health effects from telecommunication emissions. In the present study, the data acquired from such networks in Greece are used to assess the changes in the outdoor electromagnetic environment with respect to location and time. The study shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the urban (median electric field: 1.1 V m(-1)) and the rural (median electric field: 0.3 V m(-1)) installations of monitoring units and also shows that there is a median diurnal variation (daily maximum to minimum) of 20.2 and 33.8 % for the broadcasting and mobile telecommunication emissions, respectively. Moreover, there is a difference in the electric field between daytime and night, but not between morning and afternoon. The results are in line with previously published data from spot measurements, monitoring networks and personal exposimeter studies performed in several European countries.

  14. Disaster waste characteristics and radiation distribution as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Hata, Toshimitsu

    2012-04-03

    The compounded impacts of the catastrophes that resulted from the Great East Japan Earthquake have emphasized the need to develop strategies to respond to multiple types and sources of contamination. In Japan, earthquake and tsunami-generated waste were found to have elevated levels of metals/metalloids (e.g., mercury, arsenic, and lead) with separation and sorting more difficult for tsunami-generated waste as opposed to earthquake-generated waste. Radiation contamination superimposed on these disaster wastes has made it particularly difficult to manage the ultimate disposal resulting in delays in waste management. Work is needed to develop policies a priori for handling wastes from combined catastrophes such as those recently observed in Japan.

  15. Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT Cost-Effectiveness Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash eBijlani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and synthesize the current stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT cost-effectiveness research to date across several common SRS and SBRT applications. Methods: This review was limited to comparative economic evaluations of SRS, SBRT and alternative treatments (e.g., other radiotherapy techniques or surgery. Based on PubMed searches using the terms, stereotactic, stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, economic evaluation, quality adjusted life year (QALY, cost, cost effectiveness, cost utility and cost analysis, published studies of cost-effectiveness and health economics were obtained. Included were articles in peer-reviewed journals that presented a comparison of costs between treatment alternatives from January 1997 to November 2012. Papers were excluded if they did not present cost calculations, therapeutic cost comparisons, or health economic endpoints. Results: Clinical outcomes and costs of SRS and SBRT were compared to other therapies for treatment of cancer in the brain, spine, lung, prostate and pancreas. Treatment outcomes for SRS and SBRT are usually superior or comparable, and cost-effective, relative to alternative techniques. Conclusion: Based on the review of current SRS and SBRT clinical and health economic literature, from a patient perspective, SRS and SBRT provide patients a clinically-effective treatment option, while from the payer and provider perspective, SRS and SBRT demonstrate cost-savings.

  16. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease 'hotspot'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Sarah B; Malavé, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease 'hotspots'. The One World/One Health paradigm is an 'assemblage' discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that considers the lives of those who experience risk in hotspots on a daily basis. As a result, policymakers and practitioners are unable to fully comprehend the social and ecological processes that catalyze cross-species pathogen exchange. This study examined local populations' comprehension of zoonotic disease. From October 2008-May 2009 we collected data from people living on the periphery of Kibale National Park, in western Uganda. We administered a survey to 72 individuals and conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 individuals. Results from the survey showed respondents had statistically significant awareness that transmission of diseases from animals was possible compared to those who did not think such transmission was possible (x(2) = 30.68, df = 1, p zoonoses and provided biomedically accurate examples of possible infections and corresponding animal sources (e.g., worm infection from pigs and Ebola from primates). Qualitative data also revealed expectations about the role of the State in managing the prevention of zoonoses from wildlife. As a result of this research, we recommend meaningful discourse with people living at the frontlines of animal contact in emerging disease and conservation hotspots in order to develop informed and relevant zoonoses prevention practices that take into account local knowledge and perceptions.

  17. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Do, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos [Department of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  18. Chromatin Folding, Fragile Sites, and Chromosome Aberrations Induced by Low- and High- LET Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Cox, Bradley; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J.; Wu, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated non-random distributions of breaks involved in chromosome aberrations induced by low- and high-LET radiation. To investigate the factors contributing to the break point distribution in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, human epithelial cells were fixed in G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome in separate colors. After the images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multimega base pair scale. Specific locations of the chromosome, in interphase, were also analyzed with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes. Both mBAND and BAC studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested association of interphase chromatin folding to the radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. We further investigated the distribution of genes, as well as the distribution of breaks found in tumor cells. Comparisons of these distributions to the radiation hotspots showed that some of the radiation hotspots coincide with the frequent breaks found in solid tumors and with the fragile sites for other environmental toxins. Our results suggest that multiple factors, including the chromatin structure and the gene distribution, can contribute to radiation-induced chromosome aberrations.

  19. DNA barcoding the floras of biodiversity hotspots

    OpenAIRE

    Lahaye, Renaud; van der Bank, Michelle; Bogarin, Diego; Warner, Jorge; Pupulin, Franco; Gigot, Guillaume; Maurin, Olivier; Duthoit, Sylvie; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a technique in which species identification is performed by using DNA sequences from a small fragment of the genome, with the aim of contributing to a wide range of ecological and conservation studies in which traditional taxonomic identification is not practical. DNA barcoding is well established in animals, but there is not yet any universally accepted barcode for plants. Here, we undertook intensive field collections in two biodiversity hotspots (Mesoamerica and southern A...

  20. Forecasting hotspots using predictive visual analytics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Ross; Hafen, Ryan; Rudolph, Stephen; Cleveland, William; Ebert, David

    2014-12-30

    A method for forecasting hotspots is provided. The method may include the steps of receiving input data at an input of the computational device, generating a temporal prediction based on the input data, generating a geospatial prediction based on the input data, and generating output data based on the time series and geospatial predictions. The output data may be configured to display at least one user interface at an output of the computational device.

  1. Means and Trends in Solar Radiation: Results From Two Global Data Sets and Effects on Estimated Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Downwelling surface solar radiation is an important factor driving plant productivity, and clouds and aerosols are major factors responsible for interannual variability in downwelling radiation. Global ecosystem models require spatially extensive data sets that vary interannually to capture effects that potentially drive changes in ecosystem function. Representative global solar radiation data sets include National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses and Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) calculations that included satellite observations of cloud properties. The CASA light-use efficiency model, which utilizes solar radiation and satellite-derived vegetation information, was run with the two solar radiation data sets to explore how differences affect estimated net primary production (NPP). Mean global NCEP solar radiation exceeded that from GISS by 16%, likely as a result of lower cloudiness within the NCEP reanalyses compared to satellite observations. Neither data set resulted in a significant trend in growing season radiation over the study period (1984-2000). Locally, relative differences were up to 40% in the mean and 10% in the trend of solar radiation and NPP, and varied in sign across the globe.

  2. Observing Volcanic Thermal Anomalies from Space: How Accurate is the Estimation of the Hotspot's Size and Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaksek, K.; Pick, L.; Lombardo, V.; Hort, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the heat emission from active volcanic features on the basis of infrared satellite images contributes to the volcano's hazard assessment. Because these thermal anomalies only occupy a small fraction (Infratec) record images of the artificial heat source in wavebands comparable to those available from satellite data. These range from the short-wave infrared (1.4-3 µm) over the mid-wave infrared (3-8 µm) to the thermal infrared (8-15 µm). In the conducted experiment the pixel fraction of the hotspot was successively reduced by increasing the camera-to-target distance from 3 m to 35 m. On the basis of an individual target pixel the expected decrease of the hotspot pixel area with distance at a relatively constant wire temperature of around 600 °C was confirmed. The deviation of the hotspot's pixel fraction yielded by the Dual-Band method from the theoretically calculated one was found to be within 20 % up until a target distance of 25 m. This means that a reliable estimation of the hotspot size is only possible if the hotspot is larger than about 3 % of the pixel area, a resolution boundary most remotely sensed volcanic hotspots fall below. Future efforts will focus on the investigation of a resolution limit for the hotspot's temperature by varying the alloy's amperage. Moreover, the un-mixing results for more realistic multi-component target pixel consisting of more than two thermally distinct features should be analyzed.

  3. Alterations of CNS structure & function by charged particle radiation & resultant oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Komarova, Natalia; Limoli, Charles; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Raber, Jacob; Spigelman, Igor; Soltesz, Ivan; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Stampanoni, Marco; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Wodarz, Dominik

    were complex and suggested continuous remodeling of the brain for up to 6 months. Thus we demonstrated a suite of CNS structural and functional changes after proton and iron ion exposure in the low dose regime. Based on these findings we will now test whether oxidative stress mediates the reactions of CNS to radiation exposure and what role radiation quality and dose rate play in the responses. We will use cultured neural precursor cells (mouse human) to detect changes in oxidative status and differentiation as functions of charged particle charge and velocity. These results will inform the selection of particles for many in vivo measurements that will compare wild type mice to a transgenic strain that over-expresses a human catalase gene (which inactivates hydrogen peroxide) in the mitochondrial compartment. This will explicitly test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the mechanisms underlying the CNS endpoints that we will measure. We will extend the electrophysiological measurements on individual nerves in hippocampal slices to characterize both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Further, multi-electrode arrays will be used to follow correlated electrical activity in different hippocampal regions in order to understand network-level function as well as synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Controlled oxidative stress on irradiated samples will explore whether response mechanisms are shared. To link alterations in neurogenesis to performance we will explore behavioral changes mediated by the hippocampus simultaneously with measures of expression of the Arc gene in newly-born neurons. This will test whether decrements in performance correlate with loss of new cells and whether behavior properly stimulates functional integration of the new cells; the behavioral paradigm will be contextual fear conditioning. We will develop mathematical frameworks for CNS responses to radiation in order to inform risk estimates. Finally, we will couple a high

  4. Estimation of the committed radiation dose resulting from gamma radionuclides ingested with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godyń, Piotr; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew; Moliszewska, Ewa

    The objective of the study was to estimate the value of the radiation dose absorbed in consequence of consumption of popular food products for individual age groups. Potatoes, corn and sugar beet were selected for the study. Edible parts of these plants were collected in experimental fields of the KWS Lochów Polska Sp. z o.o. seeding company in Kondratowice (Poland). On the basis of the obtained study results, it can be stated that in consequence of consumption of the selected food products, people may receive increased doses from both natural and artificial radioactive isotopes. The doses calculated for several age groups do not show any health hazards in consequence of consumption of the tested food. One of the determined radionuclides was (137)Cs; however, its presence in the absorbed dose is lower than the doses from natural radioactive isotopes, in particular (40)K.

  5. Radiation Therapy Results of Invasive Cervical Carcinoma Found After Inappropriate Hysterectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Eun Seog; Nam, Kae Hyun; Huh, Seung Jae [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-15

    Purpose : Hysterectomy without lymph node dissection was considered an inadequate treatment method for invasive uterine cervix cancer. Usually the procedure was performed inadvertently on patients who were thought to have benign or premalignant conditions preoperatively. We analysed radiotherapy results of such patients to evaluate survival rates, failure patterns and prognostic factors according to various conditions. Methods and Materials : Sixty one patients undergoing hysterectomy in the presence of invasive cervical carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative diagnosis were carcioma in situ (38 cases), severe dysplasia(2), myoma(6), uterine bleeding (4), uterine prolapse (2), and early invasive cervix cancer (10) (One patient had myoma and carcinoma in situ coincidently). Patients received postoperative megavoltage radiotherapy form August 1985 to December 1993, and minimum follow-up period was 24 months. Eight patients reveived ICR only, 6 patients ICR and external radiation, and 47 patients received external radiation therapy only. Results : Overall 5-year survival rate and relapse-free survival rate were 83.8%, 86.9% respectively. For patients with retrospective stage IA, IB, IIB (gross residual after surgery), and vaginal cuff recurrence were 90.9%, 88.8%, 38.4%, and 100% respectively. There were 8 cases of treatment failure, most of them (5/8) were in patients with gross residual disease, other patients were full thickness involvement of cervix wall (2/8) except one. Patients with early vaginal cuff recurrence and microinvasive cervical cncer (stage IA) had no treatment related failure. Prognostic factors affecting survival by univariate analysis were status of residual disease, tumor histology and retrospective stage. Conclusion : Adjuvant radiotherapy appeared to be effective treatment method for patients with presumed stage IA, IB and early local recurrent disease after inadvertent hysterectomy. Survivals for patients with gross disease

  6. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  7. The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousema Teun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous in most settings, resulting in the formation of recognizable malaria hotspots. Targeting these hotspots might represent a highly efficacious way of controlling or eliminating malaria if the hotspots fuel malaria transmission to the wider community. Methods/design Hotspots of malaria will be determined based on spatial patterns in age-adjusted prevalence and density of antibodies against malaria antigens apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-1. The community effect of interventions targeted at these hotspots will be determined. The intervention will comprise larviciding, focal screening and treatment of the human population, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. The impact of the intervention will be determined inside and up to 500 m outside the targeted hotspots by PCR-based parasite prevalence in cross-sectional surveys, malaria morbidity by passive case detection in selected facilities and entomological monitoring of larval and adult Anopheles populations. Discussion This study aims to provide direct evidence for a community effect of hotspot-targeted interventions. The trial is powered to detect large effects on malaria transmission in the context of ongoing malaria interventions. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine the effect of individual components of the interventions and the cost-effectiveness of a hotspot-targeted approach, where savings made by reducing the number of compounds that need to receive interventions should outweigh the costs of hotspot-detection. Trial registration NCT01575613. The protocol was registered online on 20 March 2012; the first community was randomized on 26 March 2012.

  8. A Conceptual Design Model for High Performance Hotspot Network Infrastructure (GRID WLAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeze Chidiebele. C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of wireless networking technologies for large enterprises, operators (service providers, small-medium organizations, has made hotspot solutions for metropolitan area networks (MAN, last mile wireless connectivity, mobile broadband solutions, IP-based cellular phones (VOIP and other event-based wireless solutions in very high demand. Wireless radio gateways (routers and access points with its wide-spread deployment has made Wi-Fi an integral part of today’s hotspot access technology in organizational models. Despite its role in affecting performance for mobility market segments, previous research has focused on media access control (MAC protocol techniques , carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA, fair scheduling, and other traffic improvement methodologies without detailed consideration for virtual switch partitioning for load balancing, reliable fragmentation capacities, buffer size dependencies, load effects, queuing disciplines as well as hotspot access control framework. This paper proposes a conceptual high performance hotspot solution (GRID WLAN and through simulations with OPNET modeler, presents efficient performance metrics for its deployment. Considering the GRID WLAN access points in context, the results shows that with the design model, a careful selection of buffer sizes, fragmentation threshold, network management framework with network load intensity will guarantee an efficient hotspot solution.

  9. A Multi-Wavelength Study of the High Surface Brightness Hotspot in PKS1421-490

    CERN Document Server

    Godfrey, L E H; Lovell, J E J; Jauncey, D L; Gelbord, J; Schwartz, D A; Marshall, H L; Birkinshaw, M; Georganopoulos, M; Murphy, D W; Perlman, E S; Worrall, D M

    2009-01-01

    Long Baseline Array imaging of the z=0.663 broad line radio galaxy PKS1421-490 reveals a 400 pc diameter high surface brightness hotspot at a projected distance of approximately 40kpc from the active galactic nucleus. The isotropic X-ray luminosity of the hotspot, L_{2-10 keV} = 3 10^{44} ergs/s, is comparable to the isotropic X-ray luminosity of the entire X-ray jet of PKS0637-752, and the peak radio surface brightness is hundreds of times greater than that of the brightest hotspot in Cygnus A. We model the radio to X-ray spectral energy distribution using a one-zone synchrotron self Compton model with a near equipartition magnetic field strength of 3 mG. There is a strong brightness asymmetry between the approaching and receding hotspots and the hot spot spectrum remains flat (alpha ~ 0.5) well beyond the predicted cooling break for a 3 mG magnetic field, indicating that the hotspot emission may be Doppler beamed. A high plasma velocity beyond the terminal jet shock could be the result of a dynamically impo...

  10. Climate Change Hotspots Identification in China through the CMIP5 Global Climate Model Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanghe Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the countries vulnerable to adverse climate changes. The potential climate change hotspots in China throughout the 21st century are identified in this study by using a multimodel, multiscenario climate model ensemble that includes Phase Five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Both high (RCP8.5 and low (RCP4.5 greenhouse gas emission trajectories are tested, and both the mean and extreme seasonal temperature and precipitation are considered in identifying regional climate change hotspots. Tarim basin and Tibetan Plateau in West China are identified as persistent regional climate change hotspots in both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The aggregate impacts of climate change increase throughout the 21st century and are more significant in RCP8.5 than in RCP4.5. Extreme hot event and mean temperature are two climate variables that greatly contribute to the hotspots calculation in all regions. The contribution of other climate variables exhibits a notable subregional variability. South China is identified as another hotspot based on the change of extreme dry event, especially in SON and DJF, which indicates that such event will frequently occur in the future. Our results can contribute to the designing of national and cross-national adaptation and mitigation policies.

  11. Identifying Genetic Hotspots by Mapping Molecular Diversity of Widespread Trees: When Commonness Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Cintia P; Mathiasen, Paula; Acosta, María Cristina; Quiroga, María Paula; Vidal-Russell, Romina; Echeverría, Cristian; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning requires setting priorities at the same spatial scale at which decision-making processes are undertaken considering all levels of biodiversity, but current methods for identifying biodiversity hotspots ignore its genetic component. We developed a fine-scale approach based on the definition of genetic hotspots, which have high genetic diversity and unique variants that represent their evolutionary potential and evolutionary novelties. Our hypothesis is that wide-ranging taxa with similar ecological tolerances, yet of phylogenetically independent lineages, have been and currently are shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces that result in geographically concordant genetic patterns. We mapped previously published genetic diversity and unique variants of biparentally inherited markers and chloroplast sequences for 9 species from 188 and 275 populations, respectively, of the 4 woody dominant families of the austral temperate forest, an area considered a biodiversity hotspot. Spatial distribution patterns of genetic polymorphisms differed among taxa according to their ecological tolerances. Eight genetic hotspots were detected and we recommend conservation actions for some in the southern Coastal Range in Chile. Existing spatially explicit genetic data from multiple populations and species can help to identify biodiversity hotspots and guide conservation actions to establish science-based protected areas that will preserve the evolutionary potential of key habitats and species.

  12. Persistence of trophic hotspots and relation to human impacts within an upwelling marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Sydeman, William J; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Miller, Rebecca R; Wells, Brian K

    2017-03-01

    Human impacts (e.g., fishing, pollution, and shipping) on pelagic ecosystems are increasing, causing concerns about stresses on marine food webs. Maintaining predator-prey relationships through protection of pelagic hotspots is crucial for conservation and management of living marine resources. Biotic components of pelagic, plankton-based, ecosystems exhibit high variability in abundance in time and space (i.e., extreme patchiness), requiring investigation of persistence of abundance across trophic levels to resolve trophic hotspots. Using a 26-yr record of indicators for primary production, secondary (zooplankton and larval fish), and tertiary (seabirds) consumers, we show distributions of trophic hotspots in the southern California Current Ecosystem result from interactions between a strong upwelling center and a productive retention zone with enhanced nutrients, which concentrate prey and predators across multiple trophic levels. Trophic hotspots also overlap with human impacts, including fisheries extraction of coastal pelagic and groundfish species, as well as intense commercial shipping traffic. Spatial overlap of trophic hotspots with fisheries and shipping increases vulnerability of the ecosystem to localized depletion of forage fish, ship strikes on marine mammals, and pollution. This study represents a critical step toward resolving pelagic areas of high conservation interest for planktonic ecosystems and may serve as a model for other ocean regions where ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning of pelagic ecosystems is warranted. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. HOTSPOT: The Snake River Scientifi c Drilling Project— Tracking the Yellowstone Hotspot Through Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. Williams

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The project “HOTSPOT: Scientifi c Drilling of the Snake River Plain” held its inaugural workshop in Twin Falls, Idaho, U.S.A. on 18–21 May 2006. This inter-disciplinary workshop, sponsored by the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP, explored the major scientifi c and logistical issues central to a transect of boreholes along the hotspot track and addressing the geochemical evolution of continental lithosphere in response to interaction with deepseated mantle hotspots or plumes. A series of four to six bore holes is envisioned, each about 1.5–2.0 km deep and located along the axis of the Snake River Plain. The holes will specific ally target the origin and evolution of hotspot-related volcanism in space and time. To accomplish scientific and logistical planning, sixty scientists from six countries attended the workshop.

  14. Beam Output Audit results within the EORTC Radiation Oncology Group network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkmans, Coen W; Christiaens, Melissa; Collette, Sandra; Weber, Damien Charles

    2016-12-15

    Beam Output Auditing (BOA) is one key process of the EORTC radiation therapy quality assurance program. Here the results obtained between 2005 and 2014 are presented and compared to previous results.For all BOA reports the following parameters were scored: centre, country, date of audit, beam energies and treatment machines audited, auditing organisation, percentage of agreement between stated and measured dose.Four-hundred and sixty-one BOA reports were analyzed containing the results of 1790 photon and 1366 electron beams, delivered by 755 different treatment machines. The majority of beams (91.1%) were within the optimal limit of ≤ 3%. Only 13 beams (0.4%; n = 9 electrons; n = 4 photons), were out of the range of acceptance of ≤ 5%. Previous reviews reported a much higher percentage of 2.5% or more of the BOAs with >5% deviation.The majority of EORTC centres present beam output variations within the 3% tolerance cutoff value and only 0.4% of audited beams presented with variations of more than 5%. This is an important improvement compared to previous BOA results.

  15. A survey of DICER1 hotspot mutations in ovarian and testicular sex cord-stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Niamh; Schultheis, Anne M; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Silva, Annacarolina; Guerra, Esther; Tornos, Carmen; Reuter, Victor E; Soslow, Robert A; Young, Robert H; Oliva, Esther; Weigelt, Britta

    2015-12-01

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are characterized by the presence of somatic DICER1 hotspot mutations. In this study, we sought to define the association between DICER1 hotspot mutations and different morphologic subtypes of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether DICER1 hotspot mutations occur in other ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, testicular sex cord-stromal tumors, or other female genital tract tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. We subjected a series of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (n=32), Sertoli cell tumors (n=5) and gynandroblastomas (n=5), testicular sex cord-stromal tumors (n=15) and a diverse group of female genital tract tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous morphology (n=10) to DICER1 hotspot mutation analysis using Sanger sequencing. We also tested two gynandroblastomas for the presence of FOXL2 hotspot mutations (p.C134W; c.402C>G). Twenty of 32 (63%) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors harbored a DICER1 hotspot mutation, of which 80% had the p.E1705K mutation. No association was found between DICER1 mutation status and the presence of heterologous or retiform differentiation in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. DICER1 mutations were found at similar frequencies in gynandroblastoma (2/5; 40%) and ovarian Sertoli cell tumors (5/8; 63%; P>0.1), and all mutated tumors harbored a p.E1705K mutation. DICER1 hotspot mutations were also identified in a single cervical rhabdomyosarcoma and in the rhabdomyosarcomatous component of a uterine carcinosarcoma. No DICER1 mutations were detected in testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Two DICER1 wild-type gynandroblastomas harbored a p.C134W FOXL2 hotspot mutation in both tumor components. In this study we confirmed that DICER1 hotspot mutations occur in over half of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and are unrelated to tumor differentiation. We also widened the spectrum of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors with sertoliform differentiation, in which DICER1 mutations are known to

  16. Spatial temporal clustering for hotspot using kulldorff scan statistic method (KSS): A case in Riau Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudjimartsu, S. A.; Djatna, T.; Ambarwari, A.; Apriliantono

    2017-01-01

    The forest fires in Indonesia occurs frequently in the dry season. Almost all the causes of forest fires are caused by the human activity itself. The impact of forest fires is the loss of biodiversity, pollution hazard and harm the economy of surrounding communities. To prevent fires required the method, one of them with spatial temporal clustering. Spatial temporal clustering formed grouping data so that the results of these groupings can be used as initial information on fire prevention. To analyze the fires, used hotspot data as early indicator of fire spot. Hotspot data consists of spatial and temporal dimensions can be processed using the Spatial Temporal Clustering with Kulldorff Scan Statistic (KSS). The result of this research is to the effectiveness of KSS method to cluster spatial hotspot in a case within Riau Province and produces two types of clusters, most cluster and secondary cluster. This cluster can be used as an early fire warning information.

  17. Electromagnetic evidence for volatile-rich upwelling beneath the society hotspot, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Noriko; Tarits, Pascal; Baba, Kiyoshi; Utada, Hisashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    We have conducted a seafloor magnetotelluric survey that images, for the first time, three-dimensional electrical conductivity structure in the upper mantle beneath the Society hotspot. A striking feature in our model is a high-conductivity anomaly a few hundred kilometers in diameter, which is continuous from the lowest part of the upper mantle to a depth of approximately 50 km below sea level. Using theoretical and experimental results from mineral physics, we interpret the high-conductivity anomaly as evidence of the melt fraction up to 2.2 vol.%, which is robust regardless of assumed temperature, and the existence of carbonated silicate melt beneath the hotspot. Our results suggest that the Society hotspot is a pathway for ascending volatiles from the deeper part of the upper mantle to the surface.

  18. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second

  19. New approach to explain results of the low dose radiation on the Raphanus sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, Y.; Yoshioka, K.; Yoshida, S.; Murata, I.; Takahashi, A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the researches on radiation hormesis toward the animals and plants are made abundantly. The radiation hormesis effect is that subharmful doses of radiation may evoke a stimulatory response in any organism. We did irradiation experiments of fusion (DD and DT) neutron, thermal and fast neutron, and 60-cobalt gamma-ray to the dry seeds of Raphanus stivus, and examined whether radiation hormesis effects appeared by measuring germination rate, the length of a hypocotyl and a root and the total weight on the 7th day from starring cultivation. The evaluation of radiation hormesis effects was done by using relative effectiveness which is the ratio of the mean of the measurement objects of the irradiation group to that of non-irradiation group. In the Raphanus stivus the radiation hormesis effects of the measured objects were only turned up in seed groups irradiated by the fusion (D-T) neutron. We have confirmed that absorbed dose range where the effects are revealed is from 1 cGy to 10 Gy and there the relative effectiveness is from 1.05 to 1.25. In this research the model about radiation hormesis effect on Raphanus sativus confirmed in irradiation of D-T neutrons is proposed. And it is apparent that radiation from radio activated seeds influences hormesis effect on Raphanus sativus. (author)

  20. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second is indire

  1. Radiation testing campaign results for understanding the suitability of FPGAs in detector electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citterio, M., E-mail: mauro.citterio@mi.infn.it [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Camplani, A. [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Cannon, M. [Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Chen, H.; Chen, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Deng, B.; Liu, C. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); Meroni, C. [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Kierstead, J.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Wirthlin, M. [Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States)

    2016-07-11

    SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rarely used in High Energy Physics (HEP) due to their sensitivity to radiation. The last generation of commercial FPGAs based on 28 nm feature size and on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technologies are more tolerant to radiation to the level that their use in front-end electronics is now feasible. FPGAs provide re-programmability, high-speed computation and fast data transmission through the embedded serial transceivers. They could replace custom application specific integrated circuits in front end electronics in locations with moderate radiation field. The use of a FPGA in HEP experiments is only limited by our ability to mitigate single event effects induced by the high energy hadrons present in the radiation field. - Highlights: • Radiation campaign on Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGAs. • Use of FPGAs in high energy physics. • Evaluation of configuration RAM and block RAM parameters after irradiation.

  2. Hydrothermal Manganese Mineralization Near the Samoan Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J. R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S. R.; Dunham, R.

    2006-12-01

    The thickest beds of hydrothermal manganese oxides recovered to date from the global ocean were collected from a volcanic cone in the south Pacific. In April 2005, samples were dredged aboard the R.V. Kilo Moana from a volcanic cone on the lower flank of Tulaga seamount (about 2,700 m water depth; 14° 39.222' S; 170° 1.730' W), located 115 km SW of Vailulu'u, the volcanically and hydrothermally active center of the Samoan hotspot. Additional hydrothermal manganese samples were collected off Ofu Island (dredge Alia 107), 72 km to the WSW of Vailulu'u. Manganese-oxide beds up to 9 cm thick are composed of birnessite and 10 Å manganates. Some layers consist of Mn-oxide columnar structures 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, which have not been described previously. The mean Mn and Fe contents of 18 samples are 51 weight percent and 0.76 weight percent, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Li (mean 0.11 wt. percent) are indicators of a hydrothermal origin, and distinguishes these samples, along with the high Mn and low Fe contents, from hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Other enriched elements include Ba (mean 0.14 percent), Cu (249 ppm), Mo (451 ppm), Ni (400 ppm), Zn (394 ppm), V (214 ppm), and W (132 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show large negative Ce anomalies and LREE enrichments, both characteristic of hydrothermal Mn deposits. Small negative Eu anomalies are not typical of hydrothermal deposits and can be explained either by the absence of leaching of plagioclase by the hydrothermal fluids or by the precipitation of Eu-rich minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, at depth. The high base-metal contents indicate that sulfides are not forming deeper in the hydrothermal system or that such deposits are being leached by the ascending fluids. Textures of the thickest Mn deposits indicate that the Mn oxides formed below the seabed from ascending fluids during multiple phases of waxing and waning hydrothermal pulses. The deposits were later exposed at the seafloor by

  3. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS barcodes showed the highest discrimination ability (both 41.98%) among all possible combinations. As a single barcode, psbA-trnH performed best with a relatively high performance (25.19%). Overall, the three-marker combination of ITS + psbA-trnH + matK was found to be the best DNA barcode for identifying Rhododendron species. The relatively low discriminative efficiency of DNA barcoding in this genus (~42%) may possibly be attributable to too low sequence divergences as a result of a long generation time of Rhododendron and complex speciation patterns involving recent radiations and hybridizations. Taking the morphology, distribution range and habitat of the species into account, DNA barcoding provided additional information for species identification and delivered a preliminary assessment of biodiversity for the large genus Rhododendron in the biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

  4. Reduced exposure to microwave radiation by rats: frequency specific effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Andrea, J.A.; DeWitt, J.R.; Portuguez, L.M.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that SAR hotspots are induced within the laboratory rat and that the resulting thermal hotspots are not entirely dissipated by bloodflow. Two experiments were conducted to determine if hotspot formation in the body and tail of the rat, which is radiation frequency specific, would have behavioral consequences. In the first experiment rats were placed in a plexiglas cage one side of which, when occupied by the rat, commenced microwave radiation exposure; occupancy of the other side terminated exposure. Groups of rats were tested during a baseline period to determine the naturally preferred side of the cage. Subsequent exposure to 360-MHz, 700-MHz or 2450-MHz microwave radiation was made contingent on preferred-side occupancy. A significant reduction in occupancy of the preferred side of the cage, and hence, microwaves subsequently occurred. Reduced exposure to 360-MHz and 2450-MHz microwaves at 1, 2, 6 and 10 W/kg were significantly different from 700-MHz microwaves. In the second experiment semichronic exposures revealed the threshold for reduced exposure of 2450-MHz microwaves to be located between whole-body SAR's of 2.1 and 2.8 W/kg.

  5. Research on Hotspot Discovery in Internet Public Opinions Based on Improved -Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gensheng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to discover hotspot in the Internet public opinions effectively is a hot research field for the researchers related which plays a key role for governments and corporations to find useful information from mass data in the Internet. An improved -means algorithm for hotspot discovery in internet public opinions is presented based on the analysis of existing defects and calculation principle of original -means algorithm. First, some new methods are designed to preprocess website texts, select and express the characteristics of website texts, and define the similarity between two website texts, respectively. Second, clustering principle and the method of initial classification centers selection are analyzed and improved in order to overcome the limitations of original -means algorithm. Finally, the experimental results verify that the improved algorithm can improve the clustering stability and classification accuracy of hotspot discovery in internet public opinions when used in practice.

  6. Research on hotspot discovery in internet public opinions based on improved K-means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gensheng

    2013-01-01

    How to discover hotspot in the Internet public opinions effectively is a hot research field for the researchers related which plays a key role for governments and corporations to find useful information from mass data in the Internet. An improved K-means algorithm for hotspot discovery in internet public opinions is presented based on the analysis of existing defects and calculation principle of original K-means algorithm. First, some new methods are designed to preprocess website texts, select and express the characteristics of website texts, and define the similarity between two website texts, respectively. Second, clustering principle and the method of initial classification centers selection are analyzed and improved in order to overcome the limitations of original K-means algorithm. Finally, the experimental results verify that the improved algorithm can improve the clustering stability and classification accuracy of hotspot discovery in internet public opinions when used in practice.

  7. Automatic layout feature extraction for lithography hotspot detection based on deep neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Lithography hotspot detection in the physical verification phase is one of the most important techniques in today's optical lithography based manufacturing process. Although lithography simulation based hotspot detection is widely used, it is also known to be time-consuming. To detect hotspots in a short runtime, several machine learning based methods have been proposed. However, it is difficult to realize highly accurate detection without an increase in false alarms because an appropriate layout feature is undefined. This paper proposes a new method to automatically extract a proper layout feature from a given layout for improvement in detection performance of machine learning based methods. Experimental results show that using a deep neural network can achieve better performance than other frameworks using manually selected layout features and detection algorithms, such as conventional logistic regression or artificial neural network.

  8. Experimental results obtained with the positron-annihilation-radiation telescope of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, J.E. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Ballmoos, P. von [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Smither, R.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Faiz, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Fernandez, P.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Div.; Albernhe, F. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements; Vedrenne, G. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements

    1996-04-11

    We present laboratory measurements obtained with a ground-based prototype of the focusing positron-annihilation-radiation telescope developed by the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration. This instrument has been designed to collect 511-keV photons from astrophysical sources when operating as a balloon borne observatory. The ground-based prototype consists of a crystal lens holding small cubes of diffracting germanium crystals and a 3 x 3 germanium array that detects the concentrated beam in the focal plane. Measured performances of the instrument at different line energies (511 and 662 keV) are presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations; also the advantages of combining the lens with a detector array are discussed. The results obtained in the laboratory have strengthened interest in a crystal-diffraction telescope: the balloon instrument will provide a combination of high spatial and energy resolution (15 arc sec and 2 keV, respectively) with an extremely low instrumental background resulting in a sensitivity of similar 3.10{sup -5} photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. These features will allow us to resolve a possible narrow 511-keV line both energetically and spatially within a Galactic center microquasar or in other broad-class annihilators. (orig.).

  9. Results of radiation test of the cathode front-end board for CMS endcap muon chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedon, R.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Gu, J.; Hauser, J.; Holbrook, B.; Kim, C. L.; Ling, T. Y.; von der Mey, M.; Murray, P.; Rush, C. J.; Santiard, J. C.; Tripathi, M.

    2001-10-01

    After a brief overview of the CMS EMU electronics system, results on radiation induced single event effects, total ionization dose and displacement effects will be reported. These results are obtained by irradiating the components on electronics boards with 63 MeV protons and 1 MeV neutrons. During the proton irradiation, the electronics board was fully under power, all components on the board were active and the data were read out in the same way as designed for CMS. No deterioration of analog performance for each of the three CMOS ASICs on the tested board was observed, up to a dose of 10 krad. Each of the tested FPGAs survived beyond the dose of 30 krad. No single event latch-up was detected for the CMOS ASICs up to a proton fluence of 2×10 12 cm-2. Single Event Upsets (SEU) in FPGAs were detected and their cross-sections measured. SEU mitigation with triple module redundancy and voting was implemented and tested.

  10. Results of radiation test of the cathode front-end board for CMS endcap muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Breedon, R; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Hauser, J; Holbrook, B; Kim, C L; Ling, T; Mey, M; Murray, P; Rush, C J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Tripathi, M

    2001-01-01

    After a brief overview of the CMS EMU electronics system, results on radiation induced single event effects, total ionization dose and displacement effects will be reported. These results are obtained by irradiating the components on electronics boards with 63 MeV protons and 1 MeV neutrons. During the proton irradiation, the electronics board was fully under power, all components on the board were active and the data were read out in the same way as designed for CMS. No deterioration of analog performance for each of the three CMOS ASICs on the tested board was observed, up to a dose of 10 krad. Each of the tested FPGAs survived beyond the dose of 30 krad. No single event latch-up was detected for the CMOS ASICs up to a proton fluence of 2x10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2. Single Event Upsets (SEU) in FPGAs were detected and their cross-sections measured. SEU mitigation with triple module redundancy and voting was implemented and tested.

  11. Renal elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse in children born preterm: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaffanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An emerging hypothesis from the recent literature describes how specific adverse factors related to growth retardation and low birth weight might influence renal development during fetal life and the insurgence of relevant pathologies in adulthood. Preterm births and related perinatal events can affect the mechanical proprieties of kidneys in childhood. We retrieved the laboratory medical records of 3 children born preterm, all in good condition, and investigated the elastic properties of their kidneys using the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. Shear wave velocity (SWV obtained by the ARFI technique depends on the elasticity of a parenchymatous tissue.Medical records of case patient 1 showed a shorter right kidney (5th percentile, a greater protein/creatinine ratio and higher α1-microglobulin in the urine spot if compared with controls. Patients 2 and 3 had unremarkable laboratory results. Moreover, compared with the same results of healthy full-term normal children obtained from a previous study of ours, we observed higher SWV values (m/s for the left kidney in patients 1 and 3; patient 2 had lower SWV values in both kidneys. The altered SWV values, measured in these children born preterm, may be correlated with a possible underlying renal pathology (for instance, disruption of the renal histology. Altered SWV values are generally observed also in 2 out of 3 children with a history of normal laboratory markers of renal function. Further studies are needed on larger cohorts of patients.

  12. Long-term visual results in eyes cured for retinoblastoma by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbek, S.; Ehlers, N. (Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four eyes from 18 patients cured for retinoblastoma by radiation on an average 12 years previously, were re-examined with respect to visual performance. The macular functions, i.e. visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity demonstrated performances predictable from tumour localization and radiation dose to the macula. The rod functions, i.e. visual field and dark adaptation were found to be relatively resistant to the radiation treatment. A special problem encountered in two-eyed patients was the unavoidable amblyopia dut to unequal handicaps in the two eyes at the vulnerable age. (author).

  13. Hotspot Prevention Through Runtime Reconfiguration in Network-On-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Link, G M

    2011-01-01

    Many existing thermal management techniques focus on reducing the overall power consumption of the chip, and do not address location-specific temperature problems referred to as hotspots. We propose the use of dynamic runtime reconfiguration to shift the hotspot-inducing computation periodically and make the thermal profile more uniform. Our analysis shows that dynamic reconfiguration is an effective technique in reducing hotspots for NoCs.

  14. Relativistic Flows at the Hotspots of Radio Galaxies and Quasars?

    CERN Document Server

    Georganopoulos, M; Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2003-01-01

    We review the broad band properties of X-ray detected hotspots in radio galaxies and quasars. We show that their collective properties can be unified in a framework involving frequency dependent relativistic beaming and varying orientations to the observer's line of sight. The simplest dynamic model consistent with this picture is a slowing-down relativistic flow downstream from the hotspot shock, suggesting that the jet flow remains relativistic to the hotspot distances.

  15. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamite, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46-68 years). Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  16. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  17. RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF TARGET PROGRAMS ON RADIATION ACCIDENT REMEDIATION FOR THE PERIOD TO 2010 AND PROSPECTS OF FURTHER ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains information about measures undertaken by the Ministry of Civil Defense and Emergencies of the Russian Federation in the framework of implementation of the state policy in the field of radiation accidents remediation. Results of works realized in the framework of target programs on remediation of radiation accidents at Chernobyl NPP and Production Association MAYAK, and on problems caused by nuclear weapon tests at Seminalatinsk test site are presented.

  18. Multi-frequency survey of background radiations of the Universe. The "Cosmological Gene" project. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parijskij, Yu. N.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Nizhel'Skii, N. A.; Bursov, N. N.; Berlin, A. B.; Grechkin, A. A.; Zharov, V. I.; Zhekanis, G. V.; Majorova, E. K.; Semenova, T. A.; Stolyarov, V. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Kratov, D. V.; Udovitskii, R. Yu.; Khaikin, V. B.

    2011-10-01

    The results of the first stage of the "Cosmological Gene" project of the Russian Academy of Sciences are reported. These results consist in the accumulation of multi-frequency data in 31 frequency channels in the wavelength interval 1-55 cm with maximum achievable statistical sensitivity limited by the noise of background radio sources at all wavelengths exceeding 1.38 cm. The survey region is determined by constraints 00 h microwave background are reported as well as the contribution of these noise components in millimeter-wave experiments to be performed in the nearest years. The role of dipole radio emission of fullerene-type dust nanostructures is shown to be small. The most precise estimates of the role of background radio sources with inverted spectra are given and these sources are shown to create no serious interference in experiments. The average spectral indices of the weakest sources of the NVSS and FIRST catalogs are estimated. The "saturation" data for all wavelengths allowed a constraint to be imposed on the Sunyaev-Zeldovich noise (the SZ noise) at all wavelengths, and made it possible to obtain independent estimates of the average sky temperature from sources, substantially weaker than those listed in the NVSS catalog. These estimates are inconsistent with the existence of powerful extragalactic synchrotron background associated with radio sources. Appreciable "quadrupole" anisotropy in is detected in the distribution of the spectral index of the synchrotron radiation of the Galaxy, and this anisotropy should be taken into account when estimating the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on small l. All the results are compared to the results obtained by foreign researchers in recent years.

  19. [Evaluation of uncertainty in measurement of radiated disturbance and analysis of the result].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Jiang, Sui

    2012-03-01

    This paper evaluates the uncertainty in the measurement of radiated disturbance by analyzing and calculating the components that influence the uncertainty. And the effectiveness of the uncertainty testing has been confirmed through the ability validation.

  20. Radiation testing campaign results for understanding the suitability of FPGAs in detector electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, M.; Camplani, A.; Cannon, M.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Deng, B.; Liu, C.; Meroni, C.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Wirthlin, M.; Ye, J.

    2016-07-01

    SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rarely used in High Energy Physics (HEP) due to their sensitivity to radiation. The last generation of commercial FPGAs based on 28 nm feature size and on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technologies are more tolerant to radiation to the level that their use in front-end electronics is now feasible. FPGAs provide re-programmability, high-speed computation and fast data transmission through the embedded serial transceivers. They could replace custom application specific integrated circuits in front end electronics in locations with moderate radiation field. The use of a FPGA in HEP experiments is only limited by our ability to mitigate single event effects induced by the high energy hadrons present in the radiation field.

  1. Hotspot quantification of myocardial focal tracer uptake from molecular targeted SPECT/CT images: experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sahul, Zakir; Weyman, Christopher A.; Ryder, William J.; Dione, Donald P.; Dobrucki, Lawrence W.; Mekkaoui, Choukri; Brennan, Matthew P.; Hu, Xiaoyue; Hawley, Christi; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a new single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) hotspot quantification method incorporating extra cardiac activity correction and hotspot normal limit estimation. The method was validated for estimation accuracy of myocardial tracer focal uptake in a chronic canine model of myocardial infarction (MI). Dogs (n = 4) at 2 weeks post MI were injected with Tl-201 and a Tc-99m-labeled hotspot tracer targeted at matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). An external point source filled with Tc-99m was used for a reference of absolute radioactivity. Dual-isotope (Tc-99m/Tl-201) SPECT images were acquired simultaneously followed by an X-ray CT acquisition. Dogs were sacrificed after imaging for myocardial gamma well counting. Images were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction (AC) and without AC (NAC) and were quantified using our quantification method. Normal limits for myocardial hotspot uptake were estimated based on 3 different schemes: maximum entropy, meansquared-error minimization (MSEM) and global minimization. Absolute myocardial hotspot uptake was quantified from SPECT images using the normal limits and compared with well-counted radioactivity on a segment-by-segment basis (n = 12 segments/dog). Radioactivity was expressed as % injected dose (%ID). There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.78-0.92) between the estimated activity (%ID) derived using the SPECT quantitative approach and well-counting, independent of AC. However, SPECT quantification without AC resulted in the significant underestimation of radioactivity. Quantification using SPECT with AC and the MSEM normal limit yielded the best results compared with well-counting. In conclusion, focal myocardial "hotspot" uptake of a targeted radiotracer can be accurately quantified in vivo using a method that incorporates SPECT imaging with AC, an external reference, background scatter compensation, and a suitable normal limit. This hybrid SPECT/CT approach allows for the serial

  2. Pedestrian injury and the built environment: an environmental scan of hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrian injury frequently results in devastating and costly injuries and accounts for 11% of all road user fatalities. In the United States in 2006 there were 4,784 fatalities and 61,000 injuries from pedestrian injury, and in 2007 there were 4,654 fatalities and 70,000 injuries. In Canada, injury is the leading cause of death for those under 45 years of age and the fourth most common cause of death for all ages Traumatic pedestrian injury results in nearly 4000 hospitalizations in Canada annually. These injuries result from the interplay of modifiable environmental factors. The objective of this study was to determine links between the built environment and pedestrian injury hotspots in Vancouver. Methods Data were obtained from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC for the 6 year period from 2000 to 2005 and combined with pedestrian injury data extracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry (BCTR for the same period. High incident locations (hotspots for pedestrian injury in the City of Vancouver were identified and mapped using geographic information systems (GIS, and the characteristics of the built environment at each of the hotspot locations were examined by a team of researchers. Results The analysis highlighted 32 pedestrian injury hotspot locations in Vancouver. 31 of 32 hotspots were situated on major roads. Likewise, the majority of hotspots were located on downtown streets. The 'downtown eastside' was identified as an area with multiple high-incident locations, including the 2 highest ranked pedestrian injury hotspots. Bars were present at 21 of the hotspot locations, with 11 of these locations being judged to have high alcohol establishment density. Conclusion This study highlighted the disproportionate burden of pedestrian injury centred on the downtown eastside area of Vancouver. The environmental scan revealed that important passive pedestrian safety countermeasures were only present at a

  3. Late radiation responses in man: Current evaluation from results from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, William J.

    Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.

  4. Can we detect oceanic biodiversity hotspots from space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Soccodato, Alice; Alvain, Séverine; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the variability of marine biodiversity is a central issue in microbiology. Current observational programs are based on in situ studies, but their implementation at the global scale is particularly challenging, owing to the ocean extent, its temporal variability and the heterogeneity of the data sources on which compilations are built. Here, we explore the possibility of identifying phytoplanktonic biodiversity hotspots from satellite. We define a Shannon entropy index based on patchiness in ocean color bio-optical anomalies. This index provides a high resolution (1 degree) global coverage. It shows a relation to temperature and mid-latitude maxima in accordance with those previously evidenced in microbiological biodiversity model and observational studies. Regional maxima are in remarkable agreement with several known biodiversity hotspots for plankton organisms and even for higher levels of the marine trophic chain, as well as with some in situ planktonic biodiversity estimates (from Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise). These results encourage to explore marine biodiversity with a coordinated effort of the molecular, ecological and remote sensing communities.

  5. Radiation Hardening by Software Techniques on FPGAs: Flight Experiment Evaluation and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew G.; Flatley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present our work on implementing Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBSW) techniques on the Xilinx Virtex5 FPGAs PowerPC 440 processors on the SpaceCube 2.0 platform. The techniques have been matured and tested through simulation modeling, fault emulation, laser fault injection and now in a flight experiment, as part of the Space Test Program- Houston 4-ISS SpaceCube Experiment 2.0 (STP-H4-ISE 2.0). This work leverages concepts such as heartbeat monitoring, control flow assertions, and checkpointing, commonly used in the High Performance Computing industry, and adapts them for use in remote sensing embedded systems. These techniques are extremely low overhead (typically software, remotely uploading the new experiment to the ISS SpaceCube 2.0 platform, and conducting the experiment continuously for 16 days before the platform was decommissioned. The experiment was conducted on two PowerPCs embedded within the Virtex5 FPGA devices and the experiment collected 19,400 checkpoints, processed 253,482 status messages, and incurred 0 faults. These results are highly encouraging and future work is looking into longer duration testing as part of the STP-H5 flight experiment.

  6. Experimental results obtained with the positron-annihilation- radiation telescope of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, J.E.; von Ballmoos, P.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G. [Centre d`Etude Spatial des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Smither, R.K.; Faiz, M.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We present laboratory measurements obtained with a ground-based prototype of a focusing positron-annihilation-radiation telescope developed by the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration. This balloon-borne telescope has been designed to collect 511-keV photons with an extremely low instrumental background. The telescope features a Laue diffraction lens and a detector module containing a small array of germanium detectors. It will provide a combination of high spatial and energy resolution (15 arc sec and 2 keV, respectively) with a sensitivity of {approximately}3{times}10{sup {minus}5} photons cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. These features will allow us to resolve a possible narrow 511-keV line both energetically and spatially within a Galactic center ``microquasar`` or in other broad-class annihilators. The ground-based prototype consists of a crystal lens holding small cubes of diffracting germanium crystals and a 3{times}3 germanium array that detects the concentrated beam in the focal plane. Measured performances of the instrument at different line energies (511 keV and 662 keV) are presented and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The advantages of a 3{times}3 Ge-detector array with respect to a standard-monoblock detector have been confirmed. The results obtained in the laboratory have strengthened interest in a crystal-diffraction telescope, offering new perspectives for die future of experimental gamma-ray astronomy.

  7. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y., E-mail: ykawashima@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, PS, Bldg. 817, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ego, H. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-02-11

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10{sup −12}, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10{sup −6}. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  8. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B. B.; Holikatti, A. C.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Navathe, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8-18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 μm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  9. Results of radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases of small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Takeki; Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The results of cranial irradiation for brain metastases (BM) of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were investigated. Of a total of 67 patients, aged 33 to 80, 47 patients received whole brain irradiation ranging from 30 to 57.6 Gy (mean: 44.3 Gy), and the remaining 20 with localized BM received boost irradiation up to 40-60 Gy (mean: 52.5 Gy) totally on the policy of high dose irradiation. Response to treatment was evaluated by the neurological function (NF) score proposed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), as well as tumor size on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both. The results were as follows: improvement of NF in 70%, complete response in 36%, partial response in 51%, no change in 10% and progressive disease in 1%, respectively. Overall survival rates at 1-, and 2-years from the start of cranial irradiation were 26% and 9%, respectively, resulting in a median survival time (MST) of 6.2 months. The patients who already had BM at the diagnosis of lung cancer survived much longer (p<0.01) than those who developed brain metastases after the initial treatment. Five patients with a small BM detected only by MRI had a survival of 12.9 months in MST. Multivariate analysis showed the significant prognostic factors to be a low level of serum lactate dehydrogenase, a primary lesion well-controlled at the time of cranial irradiation and age younger than 62. Our data suggest that high dose irradiation to control BM is necessary to extend survival. (author)

  10. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  11. Reduced patient anxiety as a result of radiation therapist-led psychosocial support: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Kelly; Naehrig, Diana; Halkett, Georgia K B; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2017-02-03

    Up to 49% of patients attending radiation therapy appointments may experience anxiety and distress. Anxiety is heightened during the first few visits to radiation oncology. Radiation therapists (RT) are the only health professionals in direct daily contact with patients during treatment, placing them in a unique position to explore patients' psychosocial needs. This review aims to synthesise literature regarding the effect of RT-led psychosocial support on patient anxiety. In May 2015, we searched the following electronic databases: Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed and Cochrane library. Radiation therapy-specific journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of identified studies searched. This review complies with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search identified 263 articles, of which 251 were excluded based on non-English language, duplicate article or relevance. A total of 12 articles involving 1363 patients were included and categorised into three broad themes: 'Patient Perspectives' 3 articles, 'Patient Information and Education' 5 articles and 'Screening and Needs Assessment' 4 articles. Two publications referred to the same sample and data. Quality ratings were mixed, with one study rated 'high' quality, seven 'moderate' and four 'low'. Methodological weaknesses were identified in relation to workflow, sample size and responder bias. RTs have a role in psychosocial support through increased communication and information sharing, which can benefit both patients and staff. RT-led practices such as relationship building, patient education sessions and screening and needs assessments are feasible and can reduce anxiety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  12. Upscaling methane emission hotspots in boreal peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cresto Aleina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upscaling the properties and the effects of small-scale surface heterogeneities to larger scales is a challenging issue in land surface modeling. We developed a novel approach to upscale local methane emissions in a boreal peatland from the micro-topographic scale to the landscape-scale. We based this new parameterization on the analysis of the water table pattern generated by the Hummock–Hollow model, a micro-topography resolving model for peatland hydrology. We introduce this parameterization of methane hotspots in a global model-like version of the Hummock–Hollow model, that underestimates methane emissions. We tested the robustness of the parameterization by simulating methane emissions for the next century forcing the model with three different RCP scenarios. The Hotspot parameterization, despite being calibrated for the 1976–2005 climatology, mimics the output of the micro-topography resolving model for all the simulated scenarios. The new approach bridges the scale gap of methane emissions between this version of the model and the configuration explicitly resolving micro-topography.

  13. Early Yellowstone hotspot magmatism and gold metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Willis; Unger, Derick; Saunders, James; Kamenov, George

    2009-11-01

    High-grade epithermal gold deposits in the Northern Great Basin have long been associated with regional Miocene basaltic to rhyolitic volcanism. Previous models for the low-sulfidation epithermal gold ores in this region have generally portrayed the bimodal magmas as a source of heat to drive large-scale convection of meteoritic water that leached gold from crustal sources and deposited it in hydrothermal vein systems, or required that the gold evolve from fractionated silicic magmas. New data of the present study indicate a more direct genetic link to the plume-related basaltic magmas of the region. Laser 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental heating plateau ages for single crystals of adularia from several of these low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposits range from 16.6 Ma to 15.5 Ma. Adularia from the Jumbo deposit yields three concordant plateau ages with a combined statistical result of 16.54 ± 0.04 Ma (95% confidence level, MSWD = 0.23). Plateau ages for adularia from other deposits in the region, and from gold-bearing veins in the Owyhee Mountains of southwestern Idaho, yield similar ages up to ~16.5 Ma, however some veins are as young as ca. 15.5 Ma and the grain-to-grain ages for a given sample can vary by up to ca. 0.5 Ma. Observed variations in age among the adularia crystals of a given rock sample indicate varying amounts of extraneous argon, and also loss of radiogenic 40Ar, among the population of grains for a particular sample. The single-crystal results are interpreted to indicate a 16.5-15.5 Ma interval for formation of gold-bearing adularia veins in the region. The initiation and duration of this gold-forming event appears contemporaneous (within uncertainties) with the basaltic volcanism at the Steens Mountain section and an ensuing one-million-year episode of basaltic volcanism from multiple centers in the region ( Brueseke et al., 2007). Trace amounts of lead are alloyed with gold in the deposits studied. The isotopic compositions of this lead are not

  14. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  15. Radiation Protection in Pediatric Radiology: Results of a Survey Among Dutch Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Harmen; Valk, Doreth; de Waard-Schalkx, Ischa

    2016-10-01

    A survey about radiation protection in pediatric radiology was conducted among 22 general and seven children's hospitals in the Netherlands. Questions concerned, for example, child protocols used for CT, fluoroscopy and x-ray imaging, number of images and scans made, radiation doses and measures taken to reduce these, special tools used for children, and quality assurance issues. The answers received from 27 hospitals indicate that radiation protection practices differ considerably between general and children's hospitals but also between the respective general and children's hospitals. It is recommended that hospitals consult each other to come up with more uniform best practices. Few hospitals were able to supply doses that can be compared to the national Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). The ones that could be compared exceeded the DRLs in one in five cases, which is more than was expected beforehand.

  16. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  17. Results of a 5-Week Schedule of Modern Total Skin Electron Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Stephen Lloyd, E-mail: stephen.morris@gstt.nhs.uk [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McGovern, Mark; Bayne, Sally; Wain, Mary; Child, Fiona; Whittaker, Sean [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a 5-week schedule of total skin electron beam radiation therapy (TSEB) for mycosis fungoides (MF). Methods: Over 5 years, 41 patients with confirmed MF were treated with a modern TSEB technique delivering 30 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks to the whole skin surface. Data were collected prospectively and entered into the skin tumor unit research database. Skin modified skin weighted assessment tool score data were collected to determine response, duration of response, survival, and toxicity. The outcomes were analyzed according to the patient's stage before TSEB, prognostic factors, and adjuvant treatments. Results: Seventeen patients were stage 1B, 19 were stage IIB, 3 were stage III, and 2 were stage IV. The overall response rate was 95%, with a complete response rate of 51%. Seventy-six percent of patients had relapsed at median follow-up of 18 months. The median time to relapse was 12 months, to systemic therapy was 15 months, and to modified skin weighted assessment tool progression above baseline was 44 months. The complete response rate was 59% in stage IB and 47% in stage IIB patients. The median time to skin relapse was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, 18 months versus 9 months. The median time to systemic therapy was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, >56 months versus 8 months. The median overall survival was 35 months: >56 months for stage IB, 25 months for stage IIB, 46 months for stage III, and 23.5 months for stage IV. Fifteen patients received adjuvant psoralen + ultraviolet A treatment with no difference seen in the time to relapse. Conclusions: This 5-week schedule of TSEB for MF has a high response rate with comparable duration of response to other regimens. Future studies are needed to find adjuvant and combination treatments to improve the duration of response.

  18. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  19. First results of measurements of extreme ultraviolet radiation onboard a geostationary satellite "ELECTRO-L"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Gonjukh, David

    Measurements of the intensity of EUV emission in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line were conducted by a broadband photometer VUSS-E onboard geostationary Hydrometeorological satellite "Electro" since March 2011. The solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (lambda = 121.6 nm) was monitored. The photomultiplier with LiF window used as a detector insensitive to visible light. Long-wavelength limit of the spectral band sensitivity of the instrument is about 200 nm, so the signal of the device is defined as the flux of solar radiation in the region of 123-200 nm. Its exclusion was carried out by calculation. Since the satellite "Electro" designed for remote sensing of the Earth, its line of sight focused on Earth. Alignment of instrument in the Sun direction was achieved by installing it on the solar panel, periodically moved in the solar direction. Correction of instrument readings, reduced due to the deviation of its axis from the Sun direction, carried out by calculation. Measurements were carried out every second. The first results of the measurements are presented. The difference in absolute calibration Electro-L/VUSS-E is within 5% of corresponding values for measurements TIMED satellite in those days, that is in agreement with laboratory calibrations. It is useful to measure the temperature of the instrument, as its variation on a small interval of time makes change the value of the output signal about 1-2 %. During first year of operation, the sensitivity of the apparatus remained within ± 2% of measured value, significant degradation of sensitivity was not observed. Over time of observation there have been several large flares of X class. The increase of the signal in the ultraviolet range does not exceed a few percent during these flares.

  20. Radiation results in IL-8 mediated intercellular signaling that increases adhesion between monocytic cells and aortic endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucik, Dennis; Babitz, Stephen; Dunaway, Chad; Steele, Chad

    Epidemiological evidence has established terrestrial radiation exposure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For example, a major side effect of therapeutic radiation, especially for breast and head-and-neck cancers, is atherosclerosis, which can result in stroke years after treatment. Similarly, atomic bomb survivors were significantly more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than their countrymen. Even radiation technologists, prior to 1950 (when regulations governing shielding and occupational exposure were less rigorous) had an increased risk of clinically significant atherosclerosis. We have recently shown that 600 MeV (56) Fe similarly exacerbates plaque formation in the apoE mouse atherosclerosis model at doses 4-7 fold lower than required for x-rays to produce a similar pro-atherogenic effect. This raises concern that exposure to cosmic radiation might pose a similar risk for astronauts. Because so little is known about the mechanism of pro-atherogenic radiation effects, however, the current strategy to minimize risk from terrestrial radiation sources is to limit exposure. For astronauts on deep space missions, exposure to a significant amount of radiation will be unavoidable. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced atherosclerosis will be essential in order to develop countermeasures. Radiation can cause increased adhesiveness of vascular endothelium, leading to inappropriate accumulation of monocytes and other white blood cells, which can initiate a self-perpetuating inflammatory response. This vascular inflammation is an early event in atherosclerosis that can eventually lead to clinically significant cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. We showed earlier that x-rays, (56) Fe, and (28) Si all accelerate development of atherosclerosis in the apoE -/- mouse model. We also demonstrated that both x-rays and heavy ions increase adhesion of monocytic cells to vascular human aortic endothelial

  1. A lithography aware design optimization using foundry-certified models and hotspot detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karklin, L.; Arkhipov, A.; Blakely, D.; Dingenen, M.; Mehrotra, A.; Watson, B.; Zelnik, C.; Cote, M.; Hurat, P.

    2007-10-01

    An automated litho-aware design migration solution has been implemented to enable designers to port existing IP layouts (custom, library, and block) to nanometer technologies while optimizing layout printability and silicon yield. With rapidly shrinking technology nodes, the industry consolidation toward fabless or fab-lite manufacturing, demand for second-sourcing and dramatic increase in cost of IP development, the automation of "vertical" (between nodes) and 'horizontal" (between chip manufacturers) migration becomes a very important task. The challenge comes from the fact that even within the same technology node design and process-induced rules deviate substantially among different IDMs and foundries, which leads to costly, error-prone and time consuming design modifications. At the same time, fast and reliable adjustments to design and ability to switch between processes and chip manufacturers could represent significant improvement to TTM, and respectively improving ROI. Using conservative rules (or restricted design rules) is not always a viable option because of the area, performance and yield penalties. The difficulty of migration is augmented by the fact that design rules are not sufficient to guaranty good printability, maximum process window and high yield. Model-based detection of lithography-induced systematic yield-limiting defects (a.k.a. hotspots) is becoming a vital part of the design-for-manufacturing flow for advanced technology nodes at 65nm and below. Driven by customer demand, a collaborative effort between EDA vendors provides a complete design-for-manufacturing migration solution that allows sub-65 nanometer designers to comprehensively address the impact of manufacturing variations on design yield and performance during layout migration. First, the physical hard IP is migrated from its existing 90nm process to a more advanced 65 and 45 nm processes, resulting in an area-optimized DRC-clean 65nm design retaining the original hierarchy to

  2. Unique properties of multiple tandem copies of the M26 recombination hotspot in mitosis and meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Walter W; Recor, Chelsea L; Zakrzewski, Bethany M

    2016-11-15

    The M26 hotspot of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is one of the best-characterized eukaryotic hotspots of recombination. The hotspot requires a seven bp sequence, ATGACGT, that serves as a binding site for the Atf1-Pcr1 transcription factor, which is also required for activity. The M26 hotspot is active in meiosis but not mitosis and is active in some but not all chromosomal contexts and not on a plasmid. A longer palindromic version of M26, ATGACGTCAT, shows significantly greater activity than the seven bp sequence. Here, we tested whether the properties of the seven bp sequence were also true of the longer sequence by placing one, two, or three copies of the sequence into the ade6 gene, where M26 was originally discovered. These constructs were tested for activity when located on a plasmid or on a chromosome in mitosis and meiosis. We found that two copies of the 10bp M26 motif on a chromosome were significantly more active for meiotic recombination than one, but no further increase was observed with three copies. However, three copies of M26 on a chromosome created an Atf1-dependent mitotic recombination hotspot. When located on a plasmid, M26 also appears to behave as a mitotic recombination hotspot; however, this behavior most likely results from Atf1-dependent inter-allelic complementation between the plasmid and chromosomal ade6 alleles.

  3. Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation : Results of a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, Miranda E M C; Schilstra, Cornelis; Beetz, Ivo; Muijs, C.T.; Chouvalova, Olga; Burlage, Fred R.; Doornaert, P.; Koken, P.W.; Leemans, C.R.; Rinkel, R.N.; de Bruijn, M.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Roodenburg, J.L.; van der Laan, B.F.; Slotman, B.J.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this large multicentre prospective cohort study was to identify which dose volume histogram parameters and pre-treatment factors are most important to predict physician-rated and patient-rated radiation-induced swallowing dysfunction (RISD) in order to develop

  4. New insight into the nature of scrapie from old radiation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, T.

    1993-02-01

    The author examines a modification of the infectious plasma membrane hypothesis put forward to by Gibbons and Hunter (1967) to explain the transmission of Scrapie and discusses radiation experiments in the light of the target theory, carried out to estimate the size of the transmitting agent of the disease. (UK).

  5. Ionizing radiation test results for an automotive microcontroller on board the Schiaparelli Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapani Nikkanen, Timo; Hieta, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has delivered a pressure and a humidity instrument for the ESA ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander mission. Schiaparelli is scheduled to launch towards Mars with the Trace Gas Orbiter on 14th of March 2016. The DREAMS-P (pressure) and DREAMS-H (Humidity) instruments are operated utilizing a novel FMI instrument controller design based on a commercial automotive microcontroller (MCU). A custom qualification program was implemented to qualify the MCU for the relevant launch, cruise and surface operations environment of a Mars lander. Resilience to ionizing radiation is one of the most critical requirements for a digital component operated in space or at planetary bodies. Thus, the expected Total Ionizing Dose accumulated by the MCU was determined and a sample of these components was exposed to a Co-60 gamma radiation source. Part of the samples was powered during the radiation exposure to include the effect of electrical biasing. All of the samples were verified to withstand the expected total ionizing dose with margin. The irradiated test samples were then radiated until failure to determine their ultimate TID.

  6. Preliminary results of acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) ultrasound imaging of solid suspicious breast lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ye; Liping Wang; Yuan Huang; Youbin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to make the qualitative and quantitative analysis to breast lesions usingacoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI), and assess the diagnostic value of ARFI for differentiation between benign andmalignant solid breast masses, meanwhile evaluate the influences of ARFI with breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS) of suspicious masses. Methods: Seventy-five women with 86 breast lesions underwent conventional breast ultrasoundexamination. Then B-mode BI-RADS features and assessments were recorded and standard breast US supplementedby ARFI elastographic examination were repeated. The data were recorded and analyzed as following: area ratio of breastlesion, the shear-wave velocity, the ratio of the shear-wave velocity between lesions and surrounding normal tissues, andaccording to the elastographic data reconsidered the BI-RADS category, all the results have been correlated with pathologicalresults and make statistical evaluations of ARFI for differentiation between benign and malignant solid breast masses.Meantime our study has correlated the adjusted BI-RADS category of suspicious breast lesions with the pathological resultsand made assessment. Results: Thirty-eight patients were malignant breast carcinoma (31 invasive ductal carcinoma, 5intraductal carcinoma in situ, 2 medullary carcinoma, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma), 48 patients were benign breast lesions(23 fibroadenoma, 12 benign nodular hyperplasia, 5 phyllodes tumor, 6 adenosis, 2 intraductal papilloma). Underwent conventionalbreast ultrasound exam, 42 cases were BI-RADS category 3, 23 cases were BI-RADS category 4. When addingelastographic data, 46 cases were BI-RADS category 3 and 20 cases were BI-RADS category 4. Compared with pathologicalresults showed for both the specificity of BIRADS features and the area under ROC curve has risen. Virtual touch tissue imaging(VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) data showed the area ratio (AR) between

  7. Use of radiation for plant breeding in Japan: results and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. [National Institute of Agricultural Resource, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1966, as the first breeds by radiation mutation in Japan, `Reimei`, a rice variety with increased lodging resistance by short culm mutation and Raiden`, an early variety by mutation of soybean obtained by extreme late variety with nematoda resistance were bred and registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Since these characteristics of `short culm` and early maturing` have a comparatively high mutation rate and ease of selection, among seed propagation crops many kinds of those varieties improved to have either of these characteristics or both of them at the same time by mutation breeding are bred. In Japan, varieties bred by use of mutation breeding count 107 (as of April 1998). Among crops, that with the most varieties is chrysanthemum, which has 20 varieties and the next is rice with 15 varieties. The other 38 varieties of crops such as grains, beans, industrial crops, vegetables, flowering plants, flowering trees and fruit trees, mutation breeding varieties are widely bred. Among mutagens used, gamma ray holds 80%. The recent development in the research of DNA recombination is amazing and plant bodies which have introduced useful genes which other plants have are being obtained. Radiation mutation breeding, however, has the advantages of breeding new varieties by improving only one or two characteristics of excellent races. Radiation mutation breeding and DNA recombination technologies, therefore, may need to be utilized separately according to respective purposes. In the future, for radiation mutation breeding, mutants with quality characteristics which others do not have, corresponding to the diverse demand on agricultural products must come to be required. On the other hand, by the crops like banana for which ordinary breeding is almost impossible, the expectation for radiation mutation breeding will be more and more heightened. In addition, the accumulation of studies on controlling the direction of mutation which has been regarded

  8. An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C196?

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J

    2001-01-01

    Several hotspots of FRII radio sources have previously been detected in the X-ray at a flux level consistent with the X-rays being due to inverse-Compton scattering of radio synchrotron photons (`synchrotron self-Compton'), if the magnetic fields in the hotspots are close to their equipartition values. However, the number of hotspots compact and bright enough to exhibit detectable X-ray emission is small, so it is worth searching for synchrotron self-Compton emission in the optical, in spite of the obvious observational difficulties of such an approach. In this note I report on a possible detection of an optical inverse-Compton hotspot in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation of the distant quasar 3C196, at a level which implies a hotspot magnetic field strength close to equipartition if the electrons have a low-energy cutoff around gamma ~ 500.

  9. An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C 196?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2001-07-01

    Several hotspots of FRII radio sources have previously been detected in the X-ray at a flux level consistent with the X-rays being due to inverse-Compton scattering of radio ``synchrotron photons synchrotron self-Compton'', if the magnetic fields in the hotspots are close to their equipartition values. However, the number of hotspots compact and bright enough to exhibit detectable X-ray emission is small, so it is worth searching for synchrotron self-Compton emission in the optical, in spite of the obvious observational difficulties of such an approach. In this note I report on a possible detection of an optical inverse-Compton hotspot in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation of the distant quasar 3C 196, at a level which implies a hotspot magnetic field strength close to equipartition if the electrons have a low-energy cutoff around gamma ~ 500.

  10. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  11. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Tran, Tuyet-Hanh; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Le, Vu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009), and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011). It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (Pdioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (Pdioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas. PMID:23791241

  12. Key Biodiversity Areas identification in Japan Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Natori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Priority sites within Japan Hotspot were identified using Key Biodiversity Area (KBA criteria, based on vulnerability and irreplaceability. The identification process considered 217 trigger species from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and brackish water fishes and odonates, and focused on identifying gaps in Japan’s protected-area system. We identified 228 sites as KBAs and 50 rivers as candidate KBAs. Collectively, KBAs occupy 18% of the land, about half is not protected. Sites selected include natural and semi-natural environments, and appropriate form of protection is site-dependent. Twenty percent of Japanese terrestrial area is already protected, although to varying degrees, but additional 8% should also receive protection or proper management to strengthen the conservation of biodiversity in Japan.

  13. An underappreciated hotspot of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-Lin; Li, Hu; Zhou, Xin-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Landfills are so far the most common practice for the disposals of municipal solid waste (MSW) worldwide. Since MSW landfill receives miscellaneous wastes, including unused/expired antibiotics and bioactive wastes, it gradually becomes a huge potential bioreactor for breeding antibiotic resistance....... Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill can flow to the environment through leakage of landfill leachate and pose a risk to public health. Using high throughput quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (HT-qPCR), we investigated the prevalence, diversity of ARGs and its association with various mobile...... be the potential hosts of ARGs. These findings provide evidence that groundwater near MSW landfill is an underappreciated hotspot of antibiotic resistance and contribute to the spread of ARGs via the flowing contaminated groundwater....

  14. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy after breast conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer: an intermediate result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seok Ho; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jin Ho; Lee, Young Don; Park, Heoung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Se Hoon [Gachon Medical School, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by chemotherapy (CT{sub x}.) and radiation therapy (RT) is widely performed for the treatment of early breast cancer. This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate our interim results in terms of failure patterns, survival and relative risk factors. From January 1999 through December 2003, 129 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and treated with BCS followed by RT were subject to retrospective review. The median age of the patients was 45 years (age distribution, 27 {approx} 76 years). The proportions of patients according to their tumor, nodes, and metastases (TNM) stage were 65 (50.4%) in stage I, 41 (31.7%) in stage IIa, 13 (10.1%) in stage IIb, 9 (7.0%) in stage III, and 1 patient (0.8%) in stage IIIc. For 32 patients (24.8%), axillary node metastasis was found after dissection, BCS consisted of quadrantectomy in 115 patients (89.1%) and lumpectomy in 14 patients (10.6%). Axillary node dissection at axillary level I and II was performed for 120 patients (93%). For 7 patients (5.4%), only sentinel node dissection was performed with BCS. For 2 patients (1.6%) axillary dissection of any type was not performed. Postoperative RT was given with 6 MV X-rays. A tumor dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered to the entire breast area using a tangential field with a wedge compensator. An additional dose of 9 {approx} 16 Gy was given to the primary tumor bed areas with electron beams. In 30 patients (23.3%), RT was delivered to the supraclavicular node. Most patients had adjuvant CT{sub x}. with 4 {approx} 6 cycles of CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) regimens. The median follow-up period was 50 months (range: 17 {approx} 93 months). The actuarial 5 year survival rate (5Y-OSR) was 96.9%, and the 5 year disease free survival rate (5Y-DFSR) was 93.7%. Local recurrences were noted in 2 patients (true: 2, regional node: 1) as the first sign of recurrence at a mean time of 29.3 months after surgery. Five

  15. Hotspots of land use change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Erb, Karlheinz; Estel, Stephan; Jepsen, Martin R.; Müller, Daniel; Plutzar, Christoph; Stürck, Julia; Verkerk, Pieter J.; Verburg, Peter H.; Reenberg, Anette

    2016-06-01

    Assessing changes in the extent and management intensity of land use is crucial to understanding land-system dynamics and their environmental and social outcomes. Yet, changes in the spatial patterns of land management intensity, and thus how they might relate to changes in the extent of land uses, remains unclear for many world regions. We compiled and analyzed high-resolution, spatially-explicit land-use change indicators capturing changes in both the extent and management intensity of cropland, grazing land, forests, and urban areas for all of Europe for the period 1990-2006. Based on these indicators, we identified hotspots of change and explored the spatial concordance of area versus intensity changes. We found a clear East-West divide with regard to agriculture, with stronger cropland declines and lower management intensity in the East compared to the West. Yet, these patterns were not uniform and diverging patterns of intensification in areas highly suitable for farming, and disintensification and cropland contraction in more marginal areas emerged. Despite the moderate overall rates of change, many regions in Europe fell into at least one land-use change hotspot during 1990-2006, often related to a spatial reorganization of land use (i.e., co-occurring area decline and intensification or co-occurring area increase and disintensification). Our analyses highlighted the diverse spatial patterns and heterogeneity of land-use changes in Europe, and the importance of jointly considering changes in the extent and management intensity of land use, as well as feedbacks among land-use sectors. Given this spatial differentiation of land-use change, and thus its environmental impacts, spatially-explicit assessments of land-use dynamics are important for context-specific, regionalized land-use policy making.

  16. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  17. 60Co contamination in recycled steel resulting in elevated civilian radiation doses: causes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W P; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-09-01

    Since late 1992, more than 100 building complexes containing public and private schools and nearly 1,000 apartments have been identified in Taiwan with elevated levels of gamma-radiation from construction steel contaminated with 60Co. Due to improper handling of 60Co contaminated scrap steel in late 1982 and 1983, contaminated construction materials have been widely distributed throughout the country. These contaminated construction materials have generated elevated radiation exposures to members of the public in Taiwan. As of early 1996, more than 4,000 people, including young students, have been identified as receiving more than 1 mSv y(-1) above the local background for up to 12 y. This report provides a detailed discussion of the sources of the 60Co contamination in construction steel, its discovery in the building complexes, and preliminary evaluation and remediation activities.

  18. Long-term results and complications of preoperative radiation in the treatment of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, W.P.; Garb, J.L.; Park, W.C.; Stark, A.J.; Chabot, J.R.; Friedmann, P.

    1988-02-01

    A retrospective study of 149 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1972 and 1979 was undertaken to compare survival, disease-free survival, recurrence sites, and long-term complications of 40 patients who received 4000 to 4500 rads of preoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (radiation group) with those of 109 patients treated by resection alone (control group). After a mean follow-up of 84 months and 99 months, respectively, survival of the irradiated patients was significantly better than that of controls (68% versus 52%, p less than 0.05). Disease-free survival of those patients rendered free of disease by treatment was also superior for the irradiated group (84% versus 57%, p less than 0.005). Local recurrence without signs of distant metastases developed only one-third as often in irradiated patients (6% versus 18%). Distant metastases, alone or in combination with local recurrence, were also less common after radiation (12% versus 27%). Second primary tumors developed in 15% and 10% of the respective groups, a difference that was not statistically significant. When we consider the survival benefit of preoperative radiation therapy, long-term complications were relatively mild. Delayed healing of the perineum was noted in two irradiated patients. Persistent diarrhea was severe enough to warrant treatment in only one case, and one patient required a colostomy for intestinal obstruction from pelvic fibrosis.

  19. Paradoxical reaction in tubercular meningitis resulting in involvement of optic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Parveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old woman was diagnosed to have tubercular meningitis (TBM with a right parietal infarct. She responded well to four-drug anti-tubercular treatment (ATT, systemic steroids and pyridoxine. Steroids were tapered off in one and a half months; she was put on two-drug ATT after two months. Six months after initial diagnosis she presented with sudden, bilateral visual loss. Vision was 3/200 with afferent pupillary defect and un-recordable field in the right eye; vision was 20/60 in the left eye, pupillary reaction was sluggish and the field showed a temporal hemianopia. On reintroduction of systemic corticosteroids vision improved (20/120 in right eye and 20/30 in left eye within three days; the field defects improved sequentially to a left homonymous hemianopia, then a left homonymous inferior quadrantonopia. A diagnosis of TBM, on treatment, with bilateral optic neuritis, and right optic radiation involvement was made. Since the patient had been off ethambutol for four months, the optic neuritis and optic radiation lesion were attributed to a paradoxical reaction to tubercular allergen, corroborated by prompt recovery in response to corticosteroids. This is the first report of optic radiation involvement in a paradoxical reaction in neuro-tuberculosis in a young adult.

  20. The Aurora radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of reionization: calibration and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlik, Andreas H; Schaye, Joop; Jeon, Myoungwon; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new suite of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation and reionization called Aurora. The Aurora simulations make use of a spatially adaptive radiative transfer technique that lets us accurately capture the small-scale structure in the gas at the resolution of the hydrodynamics, in cosmological volumes. In addition to ionizing radiation, Aurora includes galactic winds driven by star formation and the enrichment of the universe with metals synthesized in the stars. Our reference simulation uses 2x512^3 dark matter and gas particles in a box of size 25 comoving Mpc/h with a force softening scale of at most 0.28 kpc/h. It is accompanied by simulations in larger and smaller boxes and at higher and lower resolution, employing up to 2x1024^3 particles, to investigate numerical convergence. All simulations are calibrated to yield simulated star formation rate (SFR) functions in close agreement with observational constraints at redshift z = 7 and to achieve reionization at z = 8.3, whic...

  1. Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cionni

    2011-04-01

    column ozone is overestimated in the southern polar latitudes during spring and tropospheric column ozone is slightly underestimated. Vertical profiles of tropospheric ozone are broadly consistent with ozonesondes and in-situ measurements, with some deviations in regions of biomass burning. The tropospheric ozone radiative forcing (RF from the 1850s to the 2000s is 0.23 W m−2, lower than previous results. The lower value is mainly due to (i a smaller increase in biomass burning emissions; (ii a larger influence of stratospheric ozone depletion on upper tropospheric ozone at high southern latitudes; and possibly (iii a larger influence of clouds (which act to reduce the net forcing compared to previous radiative forcing calculations. Over the same period, decreases in stratospheric ozone, mainly at high latitudes, produce a RF of −0.08 W m−2, which is more negative than the central Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 value of −0.05 W m−2, but which is within the stated range of −0.15 to +0.05 W m−2. The more negative value is explained by the fact that the regression model simulates significant ozone depletion prior to 1979, in line with the increase in EESC and as confirmed by CCMs, while the AR4 assumed no change in stratospheric RF prior to 1979. A negative RF of similar magnitude persists into the future, although its location shifts from high latitudes to the tropics. This shift is due to increases in polar stratospheric ozone, but decreases in tropical lower stratospheric ozone, related to a strengthening of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, particularly through the latter half of the 21st century. Differences in trends in tropospheric ozone among the four RCPs are mainly driven by different methane concentrations, resulting in a range of tropospheric ozone RFs between 0.4 and 0.1 W m−2 by 2100. The ozone dataset described here has been released for the

  2. Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cionni

    2011-11-01

    total column ozone is overestimated in the southern polar latitudes during spring and tropospheric column ozone is slightly underestimated. Vertical profiles of tropospheric ozone are broadly consistent with ozonesondes and in-situ measurements, with some deviations in regions of biomass burning. The tropospheric ozone radiative forcing (RF from the 1850s to the 2000s is 0.23 W m−2, lower than previous results. The lower value is mainly due to (i a smaller increase in biomass burning emissions; (ii a larger influence of stratospheric ozone depletion on upper tropospheric ozone at high southern latitudes; and possibly (iii a larger influence of clouds (which act to reduce the net forcing compared to previous radiative forcing calculations. Over the same period, decreases in stratospheric ozone, mainly at high latitudes, produce a RF of −0.08 W m−2, which is more negative than the central Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 value of −0.05 W m−2, but which is within the stated range of −0.15 to +0.05 W m−2. The more negative value is explained by the fact that the regression model simulates significant ozone depletion prior to 1979, in line with the increase in EESC and as confirmed by CCMs, while the AR4 assumed no change in stratospheric RF prior to 1979. A negative RF of similar magnitude persists into the future, although its location shifts from high latitudes to the tropics. This shift is due to increases in polar stratospheric ozone, but decreases in tropical lower stratospheric ozone, related to a strengthening of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, particularly through the latter half of the 21st century. Differences in trends in tropospheric ozone among the four RCPs are mainly driven by different methane concentrations, resulting in a range of tropospheric ozone RFs between 0.4 and 0.1 W m−2 by 2100. The ozone dataset described here has been released for

  3. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the planktonic community of a shallow, eutrophic estuary: results of mesocosm experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Schubert, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of pelagic mesocosm experiments designed to test the effects of enhanced and reduced ultraviolet radiation (UV) on the planktonic community of a Baltic Sea estuary. The Darss-Zingst estuary consists of a series of brackish lagoons with high concentrations of chloroph

  4. RESULTS OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING OF THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT IN THE KIROV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Skolotnev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the experience of the laboratory of radiation monitoring in the the Kirov region since 1963. The results of long-term measurements of the environmental objects are presented. Gamma background measurement and investigation of radionuclides’ content in depositions are compared as methods for radioactive contamination assessment.

  5. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the planktonic community of a shallow, eutrophic estuary: results of mesocosm experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Schubert, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of pelagic mesocosm experiments designed to test the effects of enhanced and reduced ultraviolet radiation (UV) on the planktonic community of a Baltic Sea estuary. The Darss-Zingst estuary consists of a series of brackish lagoons with high concentrations of

  6. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) — A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values f...

  7. Urban rivers as hotspots of regional nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing

    2015-10-01

    Excess nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems via human activities have deteriorated water qualities on regional scales. Urban areas as settlements of over half global population, however, were usually not considered in the analysis of regional water pollution. Here, we used a 72-month monitoring data of water qualities in Hangzhou, China to test the role of urban rives in regional nitrogen pollution and how they response to the changes of human activities. Concentrations of ammonium nitrogen in urban rivers were 3-5 times higher than that in regional rivers. Urban rivers have become pools of reactive nitrogen and hotspots of regional pollution. Moreover, this river pollution is not being measured by current surface water monitoring networks that are designed to measure broader regional patterns, resulting in an underestimation of regional pollution. This is crucial to urban environment not only in China, but also in other countries, where urban rivers are seriously polluted.

  8. The Radiation Response of Sarcomas by Histologic Subtypes: A Review With Special Emphasis Given to Results Achieved With Razoxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Relatively few results are available in the literature about the radiation response of unresectable sarcomas in relation to their histology. Therefore, an attempt was made to summarize the present situation. Materials and methods. This report is based on a review of the literature and the author's own experience. Adult-type soft tissue sarcomas, chondrosarcomas, and chordomas were analyzed. Radioresponse was mainly associated with the degree of tumor shrinkage, that is, objective responses. Histopathologic responses, that is, the degree of necrosis, are only discussed in relation to radiation treatment reports of soft tissue sarcomas as a group. Results. Radiation therapy alone leads to major responses in about 50% of lipo-, fibro-, leiomyo-, or chondrosarcomas. The response rate is less than 50% in malignant fibrous histiocytomas, synovial, neurogenic, and other rare soft tissue sarcomas. The response rates may increase up to 75% through the addition of radiosensitizers such as halogenated pyrimidines or razoxane, or by the use of high-LET irradiation. Angiosarcomas become clearly more responsive if biologicals, angiomodulating, and/or tubulin affinic substances are given together with radiation therapy. Razoxane is able to increase the duration and quality of responses even in difficult-to-treat tumors like chondrosarcomas or chordomas. Conclusions. The available data demonstrate that the radioresponsiveness of sarcomas is very variable and dependent on histology, kind of radiation, and various concomitantly given drugs. The rate of complete sustained remissions by radiation therapy alone or in combination with drugs is still far from satisfactory although progress has been made through the use of sensitizing agents.

  9. The radiation response of sarcomas by histologic subtypes: a review with special emphasis given to results achieved with razoxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. Relatively few results are available in the literature about the radiation response of unresectable sarcomas in relation to their histology. Therefore, an attempt was made to summarize the present situation. Materials and methods. This report is based on a review of the literature and the author's own experience. Adult-type soft tissue sarcomas, chondrosarcomas, and chordomas were analyzed. Radioresponse was mainly associated with the degree of tumor shrinkage, that is, objective responses. Histopathologic responses, that is, the degree of necrosis, are only discussed in relation to radiation treatment reports of soft tissue sarcomas as a group. Results. Radiation therapy alone leads to major responses in about 50% of lipo-, fibro-, leiomyo-, or chondrosarcomas. The response rate is less than 50% in malignant fibrous histiocytomas, synovial, neurogenic, and other rare soft tissue sarcomas. The response rates may increase up to 75% through the addition of radiosensitizers such as halogenated pyrimidines or razoxane, or by the use of high-LET irradiation. Angiosarcomas become clearly more responsive if biologicals, angiomodulating, and/or tubulin affinic substances are given together with radiation therapy. Razoxane is able to increase the duration and quality of responses even in difficult-to-treat tumors like chondrosarcomas or chordomas. Conclusions. The available data demonstrate that the radioresponsiveness of sarcomas is very variable and dependent on histology, kind of radiation, and various concomitantly given drugs. The rate of complete sustained remissions by radiation therapy alone or in combination with drugs is still far from satisfactory although progress has been made through the use of sensitizing agents.

  10. Three-dimensional hotspots in evaporating nanoparticle sols for ultrahigh Raman scattering: solid-liquid interface effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yudie; Han, Zhenzhen; Liu, Honglin; He, Shengnan; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2015-04-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) hotspots for ultrahigh surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been experimentally demonstrated by evaporating a droplet of citrate-Ag sols on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic flat surfaces. Interestingly, the hydrophobic surface increased the Raman enhancement by two orders of magnitude and exhibits a better signal stability than the hydrophilic one. This study highlights the differences between hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in enhanced Raman scattering by the use of extremely diluted rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the SERS reporter. In situ synchrotron-radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SR-SAXS) was employed to explore the evolution of the 3D geometry of Ag nanoparticles in a single droplet and verify the influence mechanism of these two kinds of surface. The ideal situation of 3D self-assembly of nanoparticles in the evaporation process is a collaborative behaviour, but our results evidenced that a progressive 3D self-assembly of nanoparticles was more preferred due to the interface effects. Our experimental data derived from in situ SR-SAXS reveals that a truly distinct 3D geometry of the Ag particles develops during the evaporation process on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. In this type of 3D geometry, the increased uniformity of the interparticle distance induced a sharp peak of the SR-SAXS signal, differing significantly from the dry state. In particular, the fluorosilylated surface reduces the interaction with particles and decreases the electrostatic adsorption on the flat surface, which helps to control the interparticle distance to remain within a small range, produce a larger number of hotspots in 3D space, and amplify the SERS enhancement accordingly.

  11. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  12. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  13. Hotspots, Lifelines, and the Safrr Haywired Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. L.; Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Though California has experienced many large earthquakes (San Francisco, 1906; Loma Prieta, 1989; Northridge, 1994), the San Francisco Bay Area has not had a damaging earthquake for 25 years. Earthquake risk and surging reliance on smartphones and the Internet to handle everyday tasks raise the question: is an increasingly technology-reliant Bay Area prepared for potential infrastructure impacts caused by a major earthquake? How will a major earthquake on the Hayward Fault affect lifelines (roads, power, water, communication, etc.)? The U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) program's Haywired disaster scenario, a hypothetical two-year earthquake sequence triggered by a M7.05 mainshock on the Hayward Fault, addresses these and other questions. We explore four geographic aspects of lifeline damage from earthquakes: (1) geographic lifeline concentrations, (2) areas where lifelines pass through high shaking or potential ground-failure zones, (3) areas with diminished lifeline service demand due to severe building damage, and (4) areas with increased lifeline service demand due to displaced residents and businesses. Potential mainshock lifeline vulnerability and spatial demand changes will be discerned by superimposing earthquake shaking, liquefaction probability, and landslide probability damage thresholds with lifeline concentrations and with large-capacity shelters. Intersecting high hazard levels and lifeline clusters represent potential lifeline susceptibility hotspots. We will also analyze possible temporal vulnerability and demand changes using an aftershock shaking threshold. The results of this analysis will inform regional lifeline resilience initiatives and response and recovery planning, as well as reveal potential redundancies and weaknesses for Bay Area lifelines. Identified spatial and temporal hotspots can provide stakeholders with a reference for possible systemic vulnerability resulting from an earthquake sequence.

  14. Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Toosi, E.R.; Guber, A.K.; Ostrom, N.E.; Yu, J.; Azeem, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Robertson , G.P. (UAF Pakistan); (UC); (Hubei); (MSU)

    2017-06-05

    N2O is a highly potent greenhouse gas and arable soils represent its major anthropogenic source. Field-scale assessments and predictions of soil N2O emission remain uncertain and imprecise due to the episodic and microscale nature of microbial N2O production, most of which occurs within very small discrete soil volumes. Such hotspots of N2O production are often associated with decomposing plant residue. Here we quantify physical and hydrological soil characteristics that lead to strikingly accelerated N2O emissions in plant residue-induced hotspots. Results reveal a mechanism for microscale N2O emissions: water absorption by plant residue that creates unique micro-environmental conditions, markedly different from those of the bulk soil. Moisture levels within plant residue exceeded those of bulk soil by 4–10-fold and led to accelerated N2O production via microbial denitrification. The presence of large (Ø >35 μm) pores was a prerequisite for maximized hotspot N2O production and for subsequent diffusion to the atmosphere. Understanding and modelling hotspot microscale physical and hydrologic characteristics is a promising route to predict N2O emissions and thus to develop effective mitigation strategies and estimate global fluxes in a changing environment.

  15. Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, A. N.; Toosi, E. R.; Guber, A. K.; Ostrom, N. E.; Yu, J.; Azeem, K.; Rivers, M. L.; Robertson, G. P.

    2017-07-01

    N2O is a highly potent greenhouse gas and arable soils represent its major anthropogenic source. Field-scale assessments and predictions of soil N2O emission remain uncertain and imprecise due to the episodic and microscale nature of microbial N2O production, most of which occurs within very small discrete soil volumes. Such hotspots of N2O production are often associated with decomposing plant residue. Here we quantify physical and hydrological soil characteristics that lead to strikingly accelerated N2O emissions in plant residue-induced hotspots. Results reveal a mechanism for microscale N2O emissions: water absorption by plant residue that creates unique micro-environmental conditions, markedly different from those of the bulk soil. Moisture levels within plant residue exceeded those of bulk soil by 4-10-fold and led to accelerated N2O production via microbial denitrification. The presence of large (∅ >35 μm) pores was a prerequisite for maximized hotspot N2O production and for subsequent diffusion to the atmosphere. Understanding and modelling hotspot microscale physical and hydrologic characteristics is a promising route to predict N2O emissions and thus to develop effective mitigation strategies and estimate global fluxes in a changing environment.

  16. Subglacial discharges create fluctuating foraging hotspots for sea birds in tidewater glacier bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jacek Andrzej; Stempniewicz, Lech; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Dragańska-Deja, Katarzyna; Wochna, Agnieszka; Goc, Michał; Iliszko, Lech

    2017-01-01

    Although the processes occurring at the front of an ice face in tidewater glacier bays still await thorough investigation, their importance to the rapidly changing polar environment is spurring a considerable research effort. Glacier melting, sediment delivery and the formation of seabird foraging hotspots are governed by subglacial discharges of meltwater. We have combined the results of tracking black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla equipped with GPS loggers, analyses of satellite images and in situ measurements of water temperature, salinity and turbidity in order to examine the magnitude and variability of such hotspots in the context of glacier bay hydrology. Small though these hotspots are in size, foraging in them appears to be highly intensive. They come into existence only if the subglacial discharge reaches the surface, if the entrainment velocity at a conduit is high and if there is sufficient macroplankton in the entrainment layer. The position and type of subglacial discharges may fluctuate in time and space, thereby influencing glacier bay hydrology and the occurrence of foraging hotspots. PMID:28266602

  17. Subglacial discharges create fluctuating foraging hotspots for sea birds in tidewater glacier bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jacek Andrzej; Stempniewicz, Lech; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Dragańska-Deja, Katarzyna; Wochna, Agnieszka; Goc, Michał; Iliszko, Lech

    2017-03-01

    Although the processes occurring at the front of an ice face in tidewater glacier bays still await thorough investigation, their importance to the rapidly changing polar environment is spurring a considerable research effort. Glacier melting, sediment delivery and the formation of seabird foraging hotspots are governed by subglacial discharges of meltwater. We have combined the results of tracking black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla equipped with GPS loggers, analyses of satellite images and in situ measurements of water temperature, salinity and turbidity in order to examine the magnitude and variability of such hotspots in the context of glacier bay hydrology. Small though these hotspots are in size, foraging in them appears to be highly intensive. They come into existence only if the subglacial discharge reaches the surface, if the entrainment velocity at a conduit is high and if there is sufficient macroplankton in the entrainment layer. The position and type of subglacial discharges may fluctuate in time and space, thereby influencing glacier bay hydrology and the occurrence of foraging hotspots.

  18. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Adhikari

    Full Text Available Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF. The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  19. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  20. Reactive vaccination in the presence of disease hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-07

    Reactive vaccination has recently been adopted as an outbreak response tool for cholera and other infectious diseases. Owing to the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, health officials must quickly decide who and where to distribute limited vaccine. Targeted vaccination in transmission hotspots (i.e. areas with high transmission efficiency) may be a potential approach to efficiently allocate vaccine, however its effectiveness will likely be context-dependent. We compared strategies for allocating vaccine across multiple areas with heterogeneous transmission efficiency. We constructed metapopulation models of a cholera-like disease and compared simulated epidemics where: vaccine is targeted at areas of high or low transmission efficiency, where vaccine is distributed across the population, and where no vaccine is used. We find that connectivity between populations, transmission efficiency, vaccination timing and the amount of vaccine available all shape the performance of different allocation strategies. In highly connected settings (e.g. cities) when vaccinating early in the epidemic, targeting limited vaccine at transmission hotspots is often optimal. Once vaccination is delayed, targeting the hotspot is rarely optimal, and strategies that either spread vaccine between areas or those targeted at non-hotspots will avert more cases. Although hotspots may be an intuitive outbreak control target, we show that, in many situations, the hotspot-epidemic proceeds so fast that hotspot-targeted reactive vaccination will prevent relatively few cases, and vaccination shared across areas where transmission can be sustained is often best.

  1. Radiation dose in pneumatic reduction of ileo-colic intussusceptions - results from a single-institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullmann, Jennifer L.; Heverhagen, Johannes T.; Puig, Stefan [Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Institute for Diagnostic, Interventional, and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    Air enema under fluoroscopy is a well-accepted procedure for the treatment of childhood intussusception. However, the reported radiation doses of pneumatic reduction with conventional fluoroscopy units have been high in decades past. To compare current radiation doses at our institution to past doses reported by others for fluoroscopic-guided pneumatic reduction of ileo-colic intussusception in children. Since 2007 radiologists and residents in our department who perform reduction of intussusceptions have received a radiation risk training. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 children (5 months-8 years) who underwent a total of 48 pneumatic reductions of ileo-colic intussusception between 2008 and 2012. We analyzed data for screening time and dose area product (DAP) and compared these data to those reported up to and including the year 2000. Our mean screening time measured by the DAP-meter was 53.8 s (range 1-320 s, median 33.0 s). The mean DAP was 11.4 cGy circle cm{sup 2} (range 1-145 cGy circle cm{sup 2}, median 5.45 cGy circle cm{sup 2}). There was one bowel perforation, in a 1-year-old boy requiring surgical revision. Only three studies in the literature presented radiation exposure results on children who received pneumatic or hydrostatic reduction of intussusception under fluoroscopy. Screening times and dose area products in those studies, which were published in the 1990s and in the year 2000, were substantially higher than those in our sample. Low-frequency pulsed fluoroscopy and other dose-saving keys as well as the radiation risk training might have helped to improve the quality of the procedure in terms of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  2. Patient radiation doses in the most common interventional cardiology procedures in Croatia: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnić, Z; Krpan, T; Faj, D; Kubelka, D; Ramac, J Popić; Posedel, D; Steiner, R; Vidjak, V; Brnić, V; Visković, K; Baraban, V

    2010-02-01

    Apart from its benefits, the interventional cardiology (IC) is known to generate high radiation doses to patients and medical staff involved. The European Union Medical Exposures Directive 97/43/Euroatom strongly recommend patient dosimetry in interventional radiology, including IC. IC patient radiation doses in four representative IC rooms in Croatia were investigated. Setting reference levels for these procedures have difficulties due to the large difference in procedure complexity. Nevertheless, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high-dose procedures. Local and national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed as a guidance. A total of 138 diagnostic (coronary angiography, CA) and 151 therapeutic (PTCA, stenting) procedures were included. Patient irradiation was measured in terms of kerma-area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine-frames (F). KAP was recorded using calibrated KAP-meters. DRLs of KAP, FT and F were calculated as third quartile values rounded up to the integer. Skin doses were assessed on a selected sample of high skin dose procedures, using radiochromic films, and peak skin doses (PSD) were presented. A relative large range of doses in IC was detected. National DRLs were proposed as follows: 32 Gy cm(2), 6.6 min and 610 frames for CA and 72 Gy cm(2), 19 min and 1270 frames for PTCA. PSD 2 Gy in 8 % of selected patients. Measuring the patient doses in radiological procedures is required by law, but rarely implemented in Croatia. The doses recorded in the study are acceptable when compared with the literature, but optimisation is possible. The preliminary DRL values proposed may be used as a guideline for local departments, and should be a basis for radiation reduction measures and quality assurance programmes in IC in Croatia.

  3. Saturnian trapped radiation and its absorption by satellites and rings: the first results from pioneer 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Bastian, T S; Chenette, D L; Lentz, G A; McKibben, R B; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J

    1980-01-25

    Electrons and protons accelerated and trapped in a Saturnian magnetic field have been found by the University of Chicago experiments on Pioneer 11 within 20 Saturn radii (Rs) of the planet. In the innermost regions, strong absorption effects due to satellites and ring material were observed, and from approximately 4 Rs inwards to the outer edge of the A ring at 2.30 Rs (where the radiation is absorbed), the intensity distributions of protons (>/= 0.5 million electron volts) and electrons (2 to 20 million electron volts) were axially symmetric, consistent with a centered dipole aligned with the planetary rotation axis. The maximum fluxes observed for protons (> 35 million electron volts and for electrons flux increases observed between absorption features raise new questions concerning the physics of charged particle transport and acceleration. An absorption feature near 2.5 Rs has led to the discovery of a previously unknown satellite with a diameter of approximately 200 kilometers, semimajor axis of 2.51 Rs, and eccentricity of 0.013. Radiation absorption features that suggest a nonuniform distribution of matter around Saturn have also been found from 2.34 to 2.36 Rs, near the position of the F ring discovered by the Pioneer imaging experiment. Beneath the A, B, and C rings we continued to observe a low flux of high-energy electrons. We conclude that the inner Saturn magnetosphere, because of its near-axial symmetry and the many discrete radiation absorption regions, offers a unique opportunity to study the acceleration and transport of charged particles in a planetary magnetic field.

  4. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for intracranial benign tumor : preliminary results of clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Syungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1998-06-01

    With the development of stereotactic immobilization systems capable of reliable serial repositioning, fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy(FSRT) offers the potential for an improved treatment outcome by excellent dose delivery, and dose distribution characteristics with the favorable radio-biological properties of fractionated irradiation. We describe our initial experience using FSRT for the treatment of intracranial benign tumor. Between August 1995 and December 1996, 15 patients(7 males and 8 females aged 6-70 years) were treated with FSRT. The patients had the following diagnosis : pituitary adenoma(10) including one patient who previously had received radiotherapy, craniopharyngioma(2), acoustic neurinoma(1), meningioma(2). Using the Gill-Thomas-Cos-man relocatable head frame and multiple non-coplanar therapy, the daily dose of 2Gy was irradiated at 90% to 100% isodose surface of the isocenter. The collimator sizes ranged from 26mm to 70mm. In all patients except one follow-up lost, disease was well-controlled. Acute complication was negligible and no patient experienced cranial nerve neuropathies and radiation necrosis. In overall patient setup with scalp measurements, reproducibility was found to have mean of 1.1{+-}0.6mm from the baseline reading. Relocatable stereotactic system for FSRT is highly reproducible and comfortable. Although the follow-up period was relatively short, FSRT is considered to be a safe an effective radiation technique as the treatment of intracranial tumor. But the fractionation schedule(fraction size, overall treatment time and total dose) still remains to be solved by further clinical trials.

  5. Results of using low-intensity laser radiation for plumbum intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the noninvasive effect of low-intensive laser impulse radiation in the infrared spectrum region on the liver projection site in experimental lead intoxication achieved by means of intragastric administration of Pb acetate to albino rats over a period of 30 days in a dose of 30 mg/kg. We determined a number of indices in laboratory animals which characterized the state of the nervous system, immune system, muscular performance efficiency. We have also investigated the hematologic indices and the blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid content as well as the plumbum levels in the blood, urine and the animals' inner organs.

  6. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  7. Exact results for the entanglement entropy and the energy radiated by a quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We consider a spherical region with a heavy quark in the middle. We compute the extra entanglement entropy due to the presence of a heavy quark both in N=4 Super Yang Mills and in the N=6 Chern-Simons matter theory (ABJM). This is done by relating the computation to the expectation value of a circular Wilson loop and a stress tensor insertion. We also give an exact expression for the Bremsstrahlung function that determines the energy radiated by a quark in the ABJM theory.

  8. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  9. Ecohydrological Interfaces as Dynamic Hotspots of Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Joerg; Hannah, David; McDonald, Karlie; Folegot, Silvia; Baranov, Victor

    2016-04-01

    . Our results furthermore indicate that to fully understand spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of ecohydrological interface functioning, including hotspots and hot moments, detailed knowledge of the impacts of biological behavior on the physic-chemical ecosystem conditions, and vice-versa, is required.

  10. Imaging of primary and secondary radiation-Modelling and experimental results of a radioactive source and a water phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, K. A. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Joyce, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper the contribution of primary and secondary radiation from a water phantom to a pinhole volume, as a result of three neutron sources (Cf, AmBe and 5 MeV mono-energetic) and two gamma sources (Cs and Co), is separately estimated using the PTRAC particle tracking option available in MCNP. Also in this paper imaging of the mixed radiation field produced by a Van de Graaf accelerator (when a water phantom is present) is described. In the model, a spherical tally volume, 2 cm in diameter, was placed equidistantly from a radioactive source and 30×30×15 cm3 water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to investigate the level of primary and secondary radiation contributing to the pinhole volume directly from the source and from interactions in the phantom respectively. The spatial distribution of counts clearly discriminated the source and the phantom. The results have shown that the percentage of neutrons reflected from the phantom with energies above 1 MeV increases with mean energy of the source. This method has significant potential to characterise secondary radiation in proton therapy, where it would help to verify the location and the energy delivered during the treatment.

  11. SLR-induced temporal and spatial changes in hotspots to storms along the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Sanuy, Marc; Valdemoro, Herminia

    2017-04-01

    Coastal hotspots to storms can be simply defined as locations where the magnitude of the storm-induced risk is significantly higher than neighbouring areas for a given probability of occurrence. Their distribution along the coast depends on the magnitude of storm-induced hazards and on the coastal resilient capacity. Increasing damages observed in our coasts during the last decades have driven the need to include specific chapters on risk management in ICZM plans. In this context, the identification of hotspots is one of the first points to be considered. This permits to better allocate resources for risk management by concentrating efforts in specific locations. Within this context, we have identified hotspots along the Catalan coast (Spanish Mediterranean) to storm-induced erosion and inundation hazards. This has been done by using the methodology developed within the RISCKIT EU project where storm-induced hazards (erosion and inundation) are characterised in probabilistic terms by using simple inundation and erosion models as a function of water level and wave climates and local coastal morphology. The final result was a set of inundation and erosion hotspots along the coast under current conditions for selected probabilities of occurrences, P. For low return periods, Tr, few hotspots appear and they represent coastal locations frequently affected by the corresponding hazard. On the other, for high Tr, a larger number (and of larger extension) of hotspots appear, that although less frequently affected, they are subjected to a larger impact. Although this is valuable information for coastal managers, it is only valid for making decisions for a short time horizon or under steady conditions. However, since the proper time scale for coastal planning is in the order of several decades, it is not likely that conditions will remain steady. Thus, although most of existing predictions of climate-induce changes in storminess in the Mediterranean indicate the absence of

  12. Steep Decay of GRB X-Ray Flares: The Results of Anisotropic Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jin-Jun; Huang, Yong-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2017-05-01

    When an emitting spherical shell with a constant Lorentz factor turns off emission abruptly at some radii, its high-latitude emission would obey the relation of \\hat{α } (the temporal index) = 2+\\hat{β } (the spectral index). However, this relation is violated by the X-ray fares in some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), whose \\hat{α } is much more steeper. We show that the synchrotron radiation should be anisotropic when the angular distribution of accelerated electrons has a preferable orientation, and this anisotropy would naturally lead to a steeper decay for the high-latitude emission if the intrinsic emission is limb-brightened. We use this simple toy model to reproduce the temporal and spectral evolution of X-ray flares. We show that our model can well interpret the steep decay of the X-ray flares in the three GRBs selected as an example. Recent simulations on particle acceleration may support the specific anisotropic distribution of the electrons adopted in our work. Reversely, confirmation of the anisotropy in the radiation would provide meaningful clues to the details of electron acceleration in the emitting region.

  13. Nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the outer radiation belts: Van Allen Probes results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James; Vasko, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. Observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B provided long-lasting signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. The feedback from trapped particles provides steepening of parallel electric field and development of TDS seeded from initial whistler structure (well explained in terms of Particle-In-Cell model). The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system and are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts.

  14. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Bahk, S Y; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kang, T I; Kim, T J; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Oh, J K; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1 kHz/cm**2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high- radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50 Hz/cm**2, compared to only 5 Hz/cm**2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100 V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve.

  15. Recent results and future prospects of dynamic intravenous coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Sadanori [Cardio Vascular Div., Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    We have developed a dynamic intravenous coronary angiography (IVCAG) by using synchrotron radiation (SR) as a less invasive and more easy examination in place of CAG. Twelve patients suspected to have angina pectoris underwent IVCAG at the clinic in the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The patients received an intravenous injection of 40m/of contrast agent, and then irradiation was performed with a wide (130 mm x 80 mm) and monochromatic (35 KeV) X-ray beam. Images were acquired with an image intensifier and recorded with a digital fluorography system as dynamic angiography at 30 or 10 images/sec. IVCAG was repeated in 2 or 3 projections. In all patients, the dynamic images permitted clear visualization of the coronary arteries and enabled evaluation of coronary anatomy. Two patients were diagnosed to have coronary stenosis by IVCAG and were confirmed by conventional CAG. The total irradiation doses used for IVCAG were less than those for conventional angiography. Although the image definition obtained with dynamic IVCAG was somewhat less than that of conventional CAG and needs to be improved, the IVCAG can be easily used for the evaluation of coronary arteries and may be clinically used for screening and follow-up of coronary artery disease. In future, the improvement of imaging system, such as increased intensity of synchrotron radiation and high sensitivity in imaging detector, will make more advance in image quality. (author)

  16. Climate change hotspots in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Giorgi, Filippo

    2012-01-10

    We use a statistical metric of multi-dimensional climate change to quantify the emergence of global climate change hotspots in the CMIP5 climate model ensemble. Our hotspot metric extends previous work through the inclusion of extreme seasonal temperature and precipitation, which exert critical influence on climate change impacts. The results identify areas of the Amazon, the Sahel and tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and the Tibetan Plateau as persistent regional climate change hotspots throughout the 21(st) century of the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 forcing pathways. In addition, areas of southern Africa, the Mediterranean, the Arctic, and Central America/western North America also emerge as prominent regional climate change hotspots in response to intermediate and high levels of forcing. Comparisons of different periods of the two forcing pathways suggest that the pattern of aggregate change is fairly robust to the level of global warming below approximately 2°C of global warming (relative to the late-20(th)-century baseline), but not at the higher levels of global warming that occur in the late-21(st)-century period of the RCP8.5 pathway, with areas of southern Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Arctic exhibiting particular intensification of relative aggregate climate change in response to high levels of forcing. Although specific impacts will clearly be shaped by the interaction of climate change with human and biological vulnerabilities, our identification of climate change hotspots can help to inform mitigation and adaptation decisions by quantifying the rate, magnitude and causes of the aggregate climate response in different parts of the world.

  17. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: mwmcdona@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  18. An Application Of Facility Location Models With Hotspot Analysis For Optimal Location Of Abattoir Bio-Energy Plant In Anambra State Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Chukwuma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor waste management strategy in abattoir in the the study area has needs a major attention considering it negative impacts on man land and water. Sitting of centralized biogas plant in a strategic location in the state would be the major means of combating the environmental challenges of increase in abattoir waste generation as result of population explosion in the state. This study investigates optimal location for sitting central abattoir waste treatment facility in Anambra State of Nigeria using facility location models with hotspot analysis in GIS environment. The result of the study shows that Using centre of gravity model the central location was estimated to be at Xc Yc 6.900953016 6.110157865. Based on inadequacy of the model hotspot analysis operation was done the hotspot analysis delineated clusters of abattoirs significantly higher in bio-wastes production than the overall study area. The hotspot analysis shows that the West regions of the study area has many abattoir that is classified as hotspot abattoirs. Using the hotspot abattoirs as proposed sites for load-distance model three abattoirs were identified as proposed sites- Obosi slaugher house Nkpor Private slaughter house and Oye-olise Ogbunike slaugher house. Their load distance values are 17250.40058 16299.24005 and 18210.14631 respectively. The optimal location for construction of central abattoir bio-waste treatment facility based on the application of these location facility models and hotspot analysis is Nkpor private slaughter house or its environs.

  19. Offsite radiation doses from Hanford Operations for the years 1983 through 1987: A comparison of results calculated by two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report compares the results of the calculation of potential radiation doses to the public by two different environmental dosimetric systems for the years 1983 through 1987. Both systems project the environmental movement of radionuclides released with effluents from Hanford operations; their concentrations in air, water, and foods; the intake of radionuclides by ingestion and inhalation; and, finally, the potential radiation doses from radionuclides deposited in the body and from external sources. The first system, in use for the past decade at Hanford, calculates radiation doses in terms of 50-year cumulative dose equivalents to body organs and to the whole body, based on the methodology defined in ICRP Publication 2. This system uses a suite of three computer codes: PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. In the new system, 50-year committed doses are calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the ICRP Publications 26 and 30, which were adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 1985. This new system calculates dose equivalent (DE) to individual organs and effective dose equivalent (EDE). The EDE is a risk-weighted DE that is designed to be an indicator of the potential health effects arising from the radiation dose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 38 tabs.

  20. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  1. RADIATION-HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE СHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RESULTS AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An article is devoted to the analysis of the radiation situation in the dynamics during the years since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Data on the scope of activities fulfilled for the assessment of the territories radioactive contamination levels and foodstuffs contamination levels, on the values of the exposure doses for the population living on the contaminated territories, on the medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Basic norms and principles, used during the protective measures development and introduction, are considered, their effectiveness is demonstrated. Mistakes emerged during protective measures implementation are analyzed, the prognosis of the population exposure dose values for the 70-year period since the accident and main directions of activities for the contaminated territories remediation and normal life conditions restoration for the population at these territories are presented.

  2. Aerosol and Cloud Radiative Forcing in China: Preliminary Results from the EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cribb, M.; Xia, X.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.

    2005-12-01

    East Asia, and China in particular, is a region that can provide crucial and unique information concerning natural and anthropogenic aerosols and their impact on fundamental climate issues. Until very recently, few observational studies were conducted in this region of heavy aerosol loading and unique properties. The East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) is an attempt to more fully characterize the physical, optical and chemical properties of these aerosols in different parts of China. Currently, three ground observation stations have been established under the aegis of this experiment. They include Xianghe (70 km southeast of Beijing), Liaozhong (50 km west of Shenyang), and Tai Lake (central to three mega-cities Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing). Measurements have been taken continuously over different periods of time. The measurements include radiative quantities (for example, longwave and shortwave broadband and narrowband irradiances, etc.), the sky condition from a total sky imager, and aerosol quantities such as optical depth and single-scattering albedo. A preliminary analysis of the data with regards to the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface will be presented. Critical to this analysis is the identification of clear skies, which is problematic in this region due to the ubiquitous presence of aerosol in the atmosphere. Another challenge is the discrimination between haze and cloud. The synergy of multiple data sources from the ground and from satellite is shown to help in identifying sky condition so that aerosol and cloud forcing can be determined.

  3. Preliminary results of radiation monitoring near uranium mines in Namibia EJOLT Project (DRAFT version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2012-04-05

    As a part of the EJOLT (Environmental Justice Organizations Liability and Trade) project, EARTHLIFE Namibia and CRIIRAD (Commission for Independent Research and Information about Radiation) have organised visits in areas located in the vicinity of uranium mines in Namibia In the course of an on site mission carried out between September 22 and October 2 2011, scientists from the CRIIRAD laboratory took radiation measurements in situ, and collected 14 samples of top soil, 13 samples of surface sediments of the Swakop, Gawib and Khan rivers, 11 underground water samples in the alluvium of Swakop, and Khan rivers and tap water from Arandis city, and one sample of asparagus. Solid samples have been analysed at the CRIIRAD laboratory in France (measurements performed by HpGe gamma spectrometry) and water samples have been monitored for main chemicals by LDA 26 laboratory in France and for radium 226 and radon 222 at the CRIIRAD laboratory. Some of the preliminary findings are summarised in this report: 1 - The dose rate measured by CRIIRAD on the parking of Roessing mine is about 6 times above natural background value (0.9 {mu}Sv/h compared to 0.15 {mu}Sv/h); 2 - The management of waste rock dumps needs to be improved: Some waste rocks are dumped on the banks of Khan river (at the intersection with Dome Gorge) without fencing and confinement. The radiological impact of this activity has to be studied in detail but preliminary measurements show various impacts on the environment; 3 - The finest fraction of the radioactive tailings dumped on Roessing tailings dam is blown away by the wind and contaminates the surrounding environment; 4 - The high uranium concentration in underground water collected downstream Roessing uranium mine in the Khan river and Swakop river alluvium raises the question of the origin of this uranium

  4. Influential Factors and Synergies for Radiation-Gene Therapy on Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-gene therapy, a dual anticancer strategy of radiation therapy and gene therapy through connecting radiation-inducible regulatory sequence to therapeutic gene, leading to the gene being induced to express by radiation while radiotherapy is performed and finally resulting in a double synergistic antitumor effect of radiation and gene, has become one of hotspots in the field of cancer treatment in recent years. But under routine dose of radiation, especially in the hypoxia environment of solid tumor, it is difficult for this therapy to achieve desired effect because of low activity of radiation-inducible regulatory elements, low level and transient expression of target gene induced by radiation, inferior target specificity and poor biosecurity, and so on. Based on the problems existing in radiation-gene therapy, many efforts have been devoted to the curative effect improvement of radiation-gene therapy by various means to increase radiation sensitivity or enhance target gene expression and the expression’s controllability. Among these synergistic techniques, gene circuit, hypoxic sensitization, and optimization of radiation-induced sequence exhibit a good application potential. This review provides the main influential factors to radiation-gene therapy on cancer and the synergistic techniques to improve the anticancer effect of radiation-gene therapy.

  5. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh;

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic...... footprinting to precisely define factor localization at a genome-wide level during the early phase of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which allows us to obtain detailed molecular insight into how transcription factors target hotspots. We demonstrate the formation of ATF-C/EBP heterodimers at a composite...... motif on chromatin, and we suggest that this may be a general mechanism for integrating external signals on chromatin. Furthermore, we find evidence of extensive recruitment of transcription factors to hotspots through alternative mechanisms not involving their known motifs and demonstrate...

  6. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    motif on chromatin, and we suggest that this may be a general mechanism for integrating external signals on chromatin. Furthermore, we find evidence of extensive recruitment of transcription factors to hotspots through alternative mechanisms not involving their known motifs and demonstrate......Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic...... footprinting to precisely define factor localization at a genome-wide level during the early phase of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which allows us to obtain detailed molecular insight into how transcription factors target hotspots. We demonstrate the formation of ATF-C/EBP heterodimers at a composite...

  7. Detection prospects of the TA hotspot by space observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, D; Zotov, M

    2016-01-01

    In the present-day cosmic ray data, the strongest indication of anisotropy of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is the 20-degree hotspot observed by the Telescope Array with the statistical significance of 3.4{\\sigma}. In this work, we study the possibility of detection of such a spot by space-based all-sky observatories. We show that if the detected luminosity of the hotspot is attributed to a physical effect and not a statistical fluctuation, the KLYPVE and JEM-EUSO experiments would need to collect ~300 events with E>57 EeV in order to detect the hotspot at the 5{\\sigma} confidence level with the 68% probability. We also study the dependence of the detection prospects on the hotspot luminosity.

  8. Detection prospects of the Telescope Array hotspot by space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semikoz, D.; Tinyakov, P.; Zotov, M.

    2016-05-01

    In the present-day cosmic ray data, the strongest indication of anisotropy of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays is the 20-degree hotspot observed by the Telescope Array with the statistical significance of 3.4 σ . In this work, we study the possibility of detecting such a spot by space-based all-sky observatories. We show that if the detected luminosity of the hotspot is attributed to a physical effect and not a statistical fluctuation, the KLYPVE and JEM-EUSO experiments would need to collect ˜300 events with E >57 EeV in order to detect the hotspot at the 5 σ confidence level with the 68% probability. We also study the dependence of the detection prospects on the hotspot luminosity.

  9. Stability predicts genetic diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Hickerson, Michael J; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Moritz, Craig

    2009-02-06

    Biodiversity hotspots, representing regions with high species endemism and conservation threat, have been mapped globally. Yet, biodiversity distribution data from within hotspots are too sparse for effective conservation in the face of rapid environmental change. Using frogs as indicators, ecological niche models under paleoclimates, and simultaneous Bayesian analyses of multispecies molecular data, we compare alternative hypotheses of assemblage-scale response to late Quaternary climate change. This reveals a hotspot within the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot. We show that the southern Atlantic forest was climatically unstable relative to the central region, which served as a large climatic refugium for neotropical species in the late Pleistocene. This sets new priorities for conservation in Brazil and establishes a validated approach to biodiversity prediction in other understudied, species-rich regions.

  10. The Radiation Response of Sarcomas by Histologic Subtypes: A Review With Special Emphasis Given to Results Achieved With Razoxane

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Rhomberg

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. Relatively few results are available in the literature about the radiation response of unresectable sarcomas in relation to their histology. Therefore, an attempt was made to summarize the present situation. Materials and methods. This report is based on a review of the literature and the author's own experience. Adult-type soft tissue sarcomas, chondrosarcomas, and chordomas were analyzed. Radioresponse was mainly associated with the degree of tumor shrinkage, that is, objective res...

  11. Atmospheric transfer of radiation above an inhomogeneous non-Lambertian reflective ground. II - Computational considerations and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1984-10-01

    The theoretical foundation for solution of the three-dimensional radiative transfer problem described in the preceding paper is reviewed. Practical considerations involved in implementing the Fourier transform/Gauss-Seidel method on a minicomputer are discussed, along with derivations of symmetry relations and approximations which can be used to enhance the computational efficiency. Model results for a surface whose albedo varies as a step function are presented and compared with published solutions obtained by using the Monte Carlo method.

  12. Investigating avian influenza infection hotspots in old-world shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gaidet

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May. This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered.

  13. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Results From the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Oregon Health Science Center Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, Oregon (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Fuller, Clifton D., E-mail: cdfuller@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Oregon Health Science Center Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze survey information regarding mentorship practices and cross-correlate the results with objective metrics of academic productivity among academic radiation oncologists at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residency training programs. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved survey for the Radiation Oncology Academic Development and Mentorship Assessment Project (ROADMAP) was sent to 1031 radiation oncologists employed at an ACGME-accredited residency training program and administered using an international secure web application designed exclusively to support data capture for research studies. Data collected included demographics, presence of mentorship, and the nature of specific mentoring activities. Productivity metrics, including number of publications, number of citations, h-index, and date of first publication, were collected for each survey respondent from a commercially available online database, and m-index was calculated. Results: A total of 158 academic radiation oncologists completed the survey, 96 of whom reported having an academic/scientific mentor. Faculty with a mentor had higher numbers of publications, citations, and h- and m-indices. Differences in gender and race/ethnicity were not associated with significant differences in mentorship rates, but those with a mentor were more likely to have a PhD degree and were more likely to have more time protected for research. Bivariate fit regression modeling showed a positive correlation between a mentor's h-index and their mentee's h-index (R{sup 2} = 0.16; P<.001). Linear regression also showed significant correlates of higher h-index, in addition to having a mentor (P=.001), included a longer career duration (P<.001) and fewer patients in treatment (P=.02). Conclusions: Mentorship is widely believed to be important to career development and academic productivity. These results emphasize the importance of

  14. Results of radiation therapy in stage 1B cervical carcinoma at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital: fifteen-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertbutsayanukul, C; Lertsanguansinchai, P; Shotelersuk, K; Khorprasert, C; Rojpornpradit, P; Asavametha, N; Pataramontree, J; Suriyapee, S; Tresukosol, D; Termrungruanglert, W

    2001-06-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 131 patients with stage 1B cervical carcinoma who were referred and treated with external beam radiation and intracavitary brachytherapy at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between February 1985 and February 2000. Primary outcomes were overall survival rate, progression free survival rate, recurrence, and treatment-related complications. The treatment results from different sources of intracavitary radiation therapy were secondary endpoints. The number of patients treated with Ra-226, Cs-137, and Ir-192 intracavitary irradiation were 12, 84, and 35 patients respectively. The median follow-up times were 69, 59, and 21 months for Ra-226, Cs-137, and Ir-192, respectively. Actuarial 5-year overall survival rate was 89 per cent. The 5-year progression free survival rate was 80 per cent. Actuarial 5-year survival and progression free survival rate were comparable among different sources of intracavitary brachytherapy (p = 0.553 and p=0.793, respectively). The overall recurrent rate was 16.8 per cent. Of the recurrence; 40.9 per cent was locoregional, 54.6 per cent was distant failure, and 4.5 per cent was combined locoregional and distant failure. The overall complication rate was 25.95 per cent. The severe complication rates (Grade III-V) from treatment occurred in the urinary bladder (0.76%) and in the small bowel (0.76%.) These results suggest that radiation therapy alone is an effective treatment for stage 1B cervical carcinoma. Additionally, all types of intracavitary brachytherapy provide comparable clinical results.

  15. [Preoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cervix cancer: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochbati, Lotfi; Ben Ammar, Chiraz Nasr; Benna, Farouk; Hechiche, Monia; Boussen, Hamouda; Besbes, Mounir; Ben Abdallah, Mansour; Rahal, Khaled; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Ben Romdhane, Khaked; Maalej, Mongi

    2005-03-01

    This is a retrospective study of patients treated for cervix cancer staged IB2, IIA or IIB with bulky tumor (> 4cm). Treatment was concurrent radiotherapy (45Gy with 1,8Gy daily fraction) and chemotherapy (5 cycles of Platinum 40mg/m2/week). All patients underwent Brachytherapy (15Gy on the reference isodose according to Paris system) followed by surgery (radical abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy: Piver 3) Between October 1999 and December 2002, forty five patients were treated in this protocol. Median age was 46 years (21- 68). Histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% and glandular carcinoma in 7%. Average external radiation dose was 44Gy (20-50). Ninety three percent of patients had at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy and 46,5% received the planned 5 cycles. On the operative specimens, there was 62,5% complete response and only 7 pelvic node involvement (17,5%). Four postoperative complications were noted (one vascular injury, one urinary fistula, one phlebitis and one lymph collection). Preoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the early bulky stages of uterine cervix cancer is well tolerated and "gives" a high rate of sterilisation. There was no increase in surgical morbidity.

  16. Assessment of liver steatosis in chicken by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman Aroca, Florentina; Serrano, Laura; Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Ayala, Ignacio [University of Murcia, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Murcia (Spain); Castell, Maria T. [University of Murcia, Department of Cell Biology, Murcia (Spain); Garcia-Perez, Bartolome [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Internal Medicine Service, El Palmar, Murcia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a non-invasive tool for quantification of the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. We used two different diets: a standard diet (SD group) and a hyperlipidaemic diet (HD group). The ARFI technique was performed in all the animals in the right hepatic lobe and shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured and expressed in metres per second (m/s). Plasma lipid levels were analysed. Steatosis was quantified by using semiquantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was used and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Mean SWV was 0.94 {+-} 0.16 m/s (range 0.8-1.3 m/s) in the SD group and 1.91 {+-} 0.25 m/s (range 1.3-2.2 m/s) in the HD group (p < 0.001). The lowest SWVs ({<=}1.3 m/s) corresponded to the chickens in the SD group, with 100% of the animals returning a score of 0, whereas the range of SWV in the HD group chickens was between 1.6 and 2.2 m/s. A substantial correlation was observed between SWVs with histological semiquantitative analysis of steatosis (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). ARFI imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allows discrimination between the grades of liver steatosis in chickens. (orig.)

  17. The Impact of Hotspot-Targeted Interventions on Malaria Transmission in Rachuonyo South District in the Western Kenyan Highlands: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun Bousema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities.Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya. In a cluster-randomized trial from 22 March to 15 April 2012, we randomly allocated five clusters to hotspot-targeted interventions with larviciding, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and focal mass drug administration (2,082 individuals in 432 compounds; five control clusters received malaria control following Kenyan national policy (2,468 individuals in 512 compounds. Our primary outcome measure was parasite prevalence in evaluation zones up to 500 m outside hotspots, determined by nested PCR (nPCR at baseline and 8 wk (16 June-6 July 2012 and 16 wk (21 August-10 September 2012 post-intervention by technicians blinded to the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures were parasite prevalence inside hotpots, parasite prevalence in the evaluation zone as a function of distance from the hotspot boundary, Anopheles mosquito density, mosquito breeding site productivity, malaria incidence by passive case detection, and the safety and acceptability of the interventions. Intervention coverage exceeded 87% for all interventions. Hotspot-targeted interventions did not result in a change in nPCR parasite prevalence outside hotspot boundaries (p ≥ 0.187. We observed an average reduction in nPCR parasite prevalence of 10.2% (95% CI -1.3 to 21.7% inside hotspots 8 wk post-intervention that was

  18. Fixation of three-dimensional states of deformation in polymers by ionizing radiation - III. Experimental results and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaudy, R.; Wendrinsky, J.; Beer, R.J.; Eberhardsteiner, J

    1998-06-01

    Photoelastic investigations using transparent polymeric materials are still a potential tool in mechanical engineering, in civil engineering and more recently in biomechanics. They allow the analysis of deformations or stresses even in complex three-dimensional bodies. In order to extend the application of such plastic models at ambient temperature it was necessary to improve the fixation of deformations in the loaded state. This could be realized by the study and proper modification of some radiation-curable polymer systems (Schaudy et al., 1995, 1996). The experimental results reveal a broad variety of properties due to the type of the polymer system and to the degree of crosslinking caused by the radiation dose applied. Simple spatial models are as well discussed as the industrial and scientific implementation of the new materials.

  19. Long-term results of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy for nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingtai; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jianwei; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Dongbing; Tian, Yantao; Li, Yexiong; Feng, Qinfu; Zhang, Zhihui; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhang, Shuisheng; Tang, Xiaolong; Huang, Xianghui; Chu, Yunmian; Zhang, Jianghu; Sun, Yuemin; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Chengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess prognostic benefits of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment after IOERT. A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Cancer Center. Two hundred forty-seven consecutive patients with nonmetastatic LAPC who underwent IOERT between January 2008 and May 2015 were identified and included in the study. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the day of IOERT. Prognostic factors were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40%, 14%, and 7.2%, respectively, with a median OS of 9.0 months. On multivariate analysis, an IOERT applicator diameter < 6 cm (hazards ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.97), no intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32–0.66), and receipt of postoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy (HR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04–0.25) were significantly associated with improved OS. Pain relief after IOERT was achieved in 111 of the 117 patients, with complete remission in 74 and partial remission in 37. Postoperative complications rate and mortality were 14.0% and 0.4%, respectively. Nonmetastatic LAPC patients with smaller size tumors could achieve positive long-term survival outcomes with a treatment strategy incorporating IOERT and postoperative adjuvant treatment. Chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy might be a recommended adjuvant treatment strategy for well-selected cases. Intraoperative interstitial sustained-release 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy should not be recommended for patients with nonmetastatic LAPC. PMID:27661028

  20. Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking: Worldwide Programs and Needs—Results from the First IAEA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Madan M.; Frush, Donald P.; Berris, Theocharis; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of patient radiation exposure tracking internationally, gauge interest and develop recommendations for implementation. A survey questionnaire was distributed to representatives of countries to obtain information, including the existence of a patient exposure tracking program currently available in the country, plans for future programs, perceived needs and goals of future programs, which examinations will be tracked, whether procedure tracking alone or dose tracking is planned, and which dose quantities will be tracked. Responses from 76 countries, including all of the six most populous countries and 16 of the 20 most populous, showed that although no country has yet implemented a patient exposure tracking program at a national level, there is increased interest in this issue. Eight countries (11%) indicated that such a program is actively being planned and 3 (4%) stated that they have a program for tracking procedures only, but not for dose. Twenty-two (29%) feel that such a program will be “extremely useful”, 46 (60%) “very useful” and 8 (11%) “moderately useful”, with no respondents stating “Mildly useful” or “Not useful”. Ninety-nine percent of countries indicated an interest in developing and promoting such a program. In a first global survey covering 76 countries, it is clear that no country has yet achieved exposure tracking at a national level, although there are successful examples at sub-national level. Almost all have indicated interest and some have plans to achieve dose tracking in the near future. PMID:22840382

  1. Radiation therapy for oligorecurrence in prostate cancer. Preliminary results of our centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ruiz de León, C; Ramírez Backhaus, M; Sobrón Bustamante, M; Casaña, J; Arribas, L; Rubio-Briones, J

    2017-07-21

    There is growing interest in the use of more aggressive therapeutic modalities for treating metastatic prostate cancer. In this study, we examine the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with oligorecurrent prostate cancer. We analysed the biochemical response and toxicity of patients who underwent this therapy at our centre. We selected patients who experienced oligorecurrence between January 2015 to December 2016 and were administered SBRT. The association of androgen deprivation (AD) was left in each case to the decision of the tumour committee. We describe the clinical situation at diagnosis of oligorecurrence, the treatment administered and the biochemical response. We considered a biochemical response to be a 50% reduction in the absolute prostate-specific antigen (PSA) readings. SBRT was administered to 11 patients with bone (82%) and/or lymph node oligometastasis (18%). The treatment regimen for bone oligometastasis was 27Gy divided into 3 sessions, while the treatment for lymph node oligometastasis reached 70Gy. Seven patients had no treatment at the time of diagnosis, 2 were in the castration-resistant phase, 1 patient was in the off phase of intermittent AD, and 1 patient had adjuvant AD for pN1. Seven patients presented a biochemical response with a PSA reduction of 75-100%. The response was not assessable in 4 patients due to the continuing adjuvant AD. With a mean follow-up of 10.5 months, only 2 patients had progressed. Grade 1 gastrointestinal toxicity was detected in only 1 patient. Our data suggest that the use of SBRT in carefully selected patients with metastatic oligorecurrence of prostate cancer can achieve biochemical response and potentially delay progression and the use of systemic treatments. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrological droughts in the 21st century, hotspots and uncertainties from a global multimodel ensemble experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhomme, Christel; Giuntoli, Ignazio; Robinson, Emma L; Clark, Douglas B; Arnell, Nigel W; Dankers, Rutger; Fekete, Balázs M; Franssen, Wietse; Gerten, Dieter; Gosling, Simon N; Hagemann, Stefan; Hannah, David M; Kim, Hyungjun; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-04

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are expected to modify the global water cycle with significant consequences for terrestrial hydrology. We assess the impact of climate change on hydrological droughts in a multimodel experiment including seven global impact models (GIMs) driven by bias-corrected climate from five global climate models under four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Drought severity is defined as the fraction of land under drought conditions. Results show a likely increase in the global severity of hydrological drought at the end of the 21st century, with systematically greater increases for RCPs describing stronger radiative forcings. Under RCP8.5, droughts exceeding 40% of analyzed land area are projected by nearly half of the simulations. This increase in drought severity has a strong signal-to-noise ratio at the global scale, and Southern Europe, the Middle East, the Southeast United States, Chile, and South West Australia are identified as possible hotspots for future water security issues. The uncertainty due to GIMs is greater than that from global climate models, particularly if including a GIM that accounts for the dynamic response of plants to CO2 and climate, as this model simulates little or no increase in drought frequency. Our study demonstrates that different representations of terrestrial water-cycle processes in GIMs are responsible for a much larger uncertainty in the response of hydrological drought to climate change than previously thought. When assessing the impact of climate change on hydrology, it is therefore critical to consider a diverse range of GIMs to better capture the uncertainty.

  3. Preliminary Results for the Radiation Environment Observed by RD3-B3 Radiometerdosimeter Inside Bion-M # 1 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Bankov, Nikolay; Petrov, Vladisloav; Shurshakov, Viacheslav; Ivanova, Olga; Häder, Donat-Peter; Lebert, Michael; Schuster, Martin; Reitz, Günter; Horneck, Gerda; Ploc, Ondrej

    2013-12-01

    Space radiation has been monitored using the P#xd0bb;3-킑3 (further is used the Latin transcription RD3-B3) spectrometer-dosimeter on board a recent space flight on the Russian recoverable satellite 킑킍OH-M No.1 (further is used the Latin transcription BIONM No. 1). The instrument was mounted inside of the satellite in pressurized volume together with biological objects and samples. RD3-B3 instrument is a battery operated version of the spare model of the R3D-B3 instrument developed and built for the ESA BIOPAN-6 facility on Foton M3 satellite flown in September 2007. Cosmic ionizing radiation has been monitored and separated in 256 deposited energy spectra, which were further used for determination of the absorbed dose rate and flux. The report summarizes the first results for the Earth radiation environment at the altitude (253-585 km) of the BION-M No.1 spacecraft.

  4. Spatial variations in immediate greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions and resulting radiative forcing from wildfires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Li, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Boreal fires can cool the climate; however, this conclusion came from individual fires and may not represent the whole story. We hypothesize that the climatic impact of boreal fires depends on local landscape heterogeneity such as burn severity, prefire vegetation type, and soil properties. To test this hypothesis, spatially explicit emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and their resulting radiative forcing are required as an important and necessary component towards a full assessment. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (Landsat and MODIS) and models (carbon consumption model, emission factors model, and radiative forcing model) to calculate the carbon consumption, GHGs and aerosol emissions, and their radiative forcing of 2001–2010 fires at 30 m resolution in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska. Total carbon consumption showed significant spatial variation, with a mean of 2,615 g C m−2 and a standard deviation of 2,589 g C m−2. The carbon consumption led to different amounts of GHGs and aerosol emissions, ranging from 593.26 Tg (CO2) to 0.16 Tg (N2O). When converted to equivalent CO2 based on global warming potential metric, the maximum 20 years equivalent CO2 was black carbon (713.77 Tg), and the lowest 20 years equivalent CO2 was organic carbon (−583.13 Tg). The resulting radiative forcing also showed significant spatial variation: CO2, CH4, and N2O can cause a 20-year mean radiative forcing of 7.41 W m−2 with a standard deviation of 2.87 W m−2. This emission forcing heterogeneity indicates that different boreal fires have different climatic impacts. When considering the spatial variation of other forcings, such as surface shortwave forcing, we may conclude that some boreal fires, especially boreal deciduous fires, can warm the climate.

  5. A Double Hotspot Model for the Origin of Line Islands Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Barth, G. A.; Wertman, C.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the various seamount chains in the central Pacific is often difficult to reconstruct due to the number of potential volcanic sources and the criss-crossing patterns associated with plate motion history. One particularly difficult seamount chain to reconstruct is the Line Islands Ridge and the possibly-related Mid-Pacific Mountains and Tuamotu Chain. While the general geographic and age-progressive trends of these features resemble the predicted pattern for Pacific plate motion over the past 120 to 130 My, the relative ages of volcanism along the Line Islands Ridge are not consistent with a conventional hotspot model. To explore potential models of the origin of the Line Islands Ridge, we use GPlates software in conjunction with published seamount dates and known hotspot locations to constrain tectonic reconstructions. Our primary results suggest the Line Islands Ridge was formed by at least two different volcanic sources. The initial source formed the southern section of the Line Island Ridge (4˚N to 1˚S) around 95 to 83 Ma and corresponds to the present-day Crough hotspot. The hotspot also likely generated the linear Boudeuse Ridge (a.k.a. Southern Line Islands) volcanic chain (5˚S to 13˚S) from about 70 to 50 Ma. The second volcanic source, which we call the Larson Hotspot in memory of Roger Larson, formed the northern section of the Line Islands Ridge (7˚N to 4˚N) around 77 to 64 Ma and corresponds to a new "hotspot" region centered on 17˚S and 125˚W near the eastern extension of the Pukapuka Ridge. This source may also account for the formation of the Mid-Pacific Mountains (130 to 105 Ma), the Necker Ridge (105 to 90 Ma), and the later volcanism on the southern section of the Line Island Ridge (65 to 55 Ma). This volcanic source also roughly coincides with the Pukapuka Ridge and more recent volcanism along the same trend, but closer to the East Pacific Rise.

  6. Detecting hotspots of atmosphere-vegetation interaction via slowing down – Part 2: Application to a global climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fraedrich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Early Warning Signals (EWS have become a popular statistical tool to infer stability properties of the climate system. In Part 1 of this two-part paper we have presented a diagnostic method to find the hotspot of a sudden transition as opposed to regions that experience an externally induced tipping as a mere response. Here, we apply our method to the atmosphere-vegetation model PlanetSimulator (PlaSim – VECODE using a surrogate stochastic toy model. For each of two vegetation collapses in PlaSim-VECODE we find a hotspot of one particular grid cell. We demonstrate with additional experiments that the detected hotspots are indeed a particularly sensitive region in the model and give a physical explanation for these results. The method can thus provide information on the causality of sudden transitions and may help to improve the knowledge on the vulnerability of certain subsystems in climate models.

  7. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  8. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Knetsch, G J

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, powdered milk, game, poultry, blueberry and chanterelle). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates were obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. The levels of radioactivity in the Dutch environment were not elevated in 2001

  9. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, G.J. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, powdered milk, game, poultry, blueberry and chanterelle). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates were obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. The levels of radioactivity in the Dutch environment were not elevated in 2001.

  10. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu-Anh Le

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009, and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011. It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology: To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results: After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (P<0.05. Ninety-eight percent were willing to follow advice on preventing dioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (P<0.05. After intervention, 60.4% of households undertook exposure preventive measures, significantly higher than that of the pre-intervention survey (39.6%; χ2=40.15, P<0.001. High-risk foods had quite low rates of daily consumption (from 0 to 2.5% and were significantly reduced (P<0.05. Conclusions: This is seen as an effective intervention strategy toward reducing the risk of human exposure to dioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas.

  11. A model to identify urban traffic congestion hotspots in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of population in urban areas is jeopardizing the mobility and air quality worldwide. One of the most notable problems arising is that of traffic congestion. With the advent of technologies able to sense real-time data about cities, and its public distribution for analysis, we are in place to forecast scenarios valuable for improvement and control. Here, we propose an idealized model, based on the critical phenomena arising in complex networks, that allows to analytically predict congestion hotspots in urban environments. Results on real cities' road networks, considering, in some experiments, real-traffic data, show that the proposed model is capable of identifying susceptible junctions that might becomes hotspots if mobility demand increases.

  12. A model to identify urban traffic congestion hotspots in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-10-01

    The rapid growth of population in urban areas is jeopardizing the mobility and air quality worldwide. One of the most notable problems arising is that of traffic congestion. With the advent of technologies able to sense real-time data about cities, and its public distribution for analysis, we are in place to forecast scenarios valuable for improvement and control. Here, we propose an idealized model, based on the critical phenomena arising in complex networks, that allows to analytically predict congestion hotspots in urban environments. Results on real cities' road networks, considering, in some experiments, real traffic data, show that the proposed model is capable of identifying susceptible junctions that might become hotspots if mobility demand increases.

  13. Analysis of miRNA market trends reveals hotspots of research activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosta, Gary; Razvi, Enal

    2012-04-01

    We have conducted an analysis of the miRNA research marketplace by evaluating the publication trends in the field. In this article, we present the results of our analysis which reveals that hotspots exist in terms of research activities in the miRNA space--these hotspots illustrate the areas in the miRNA research space where specific miRNAs have been extensively studied, and other areas that represent new territory. We frame these data into the context of areas of opportunity for miRNA content harvest versus segments of opportunity for the development of research tools. Also presented in this article are the primary market data from online surveys we have performed with researchers involved in miRNA research around the world. Taken together, these data frame the current state of the miRNA marketplace and provide niches of opportunity for new entrants into this space.

  14. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  15. Limited latitudinal mantle plume motion for the Louisville hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Geldmacher, Jörg; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Pressling, Nicola; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Geldmacher, Jörg; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Pressling, Nicola; Hoshi, Hiroyuki; Anderson, L.; Beier, C.; Buchs, D. M.; Chen, L.-H.; Cohen, B. E.; Deschamps, F.; Dorais, M. J.; Ebuna, D.; Ehmann, S.; Fitton, J. G.; Fulton, P. M.; Ganbat, E.; Hamelin, C.; Hanyu, T.; Kalnins, L.; Kell, J.; Machida, S.; Mahoney, J. J.; Moriya, K.; Nichols, A. R. L.; Rausch, S.; Sano, S.-I.; Sylvan, J. B.; Williams, R.

    2012-12-01

    Hotspots that form above upwelling plumes of hot material from the deep mantle typically leave narrow trails of volcanic seamounts as a tectonic plate moves over their location. These seamount trails are excellent recorders of Earth's deep processes and allow us to untangle ancient mantle plume motions. During ascent it is likely that mantle plumes are pushed away from their vertical upwelling trajectories by mantle convection forces. It has been proposed that a large-scale lateral displacement, termed the mantle wind, existed in the Pacific between about 80 and 50 million years ago, and shifted the Hawaiian mantle plume southwards by about 15° of latitude. Here we use 40Ar/39Ar age dating and palaeomagnetic inclination data from four seamounts associated with the Louisville hotspot in the South Pacific Ocean to show that this hotspot has been relatively stable in terms of its location. Specifically, the Louisville hotspot--the southern hemisphere counterpart of Hawai'i--has remained within 3-5° of its present-day latitude of about 51°S between 70 and 50 million years ago. Although we cannot exclude a more significant southward motion before that time, we suggest that the Louisville and Hawaiian hotspots are moving independently, and not as part of a large-scale mantle wind in the Pacific.

  16. Dynamically supported geoid highs over hotspots: Observation and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Sleep, N. H.

    1986-01-01

    Hotspots are associated with long wavelength geoid highs, an association that is even stronger when the geoid highs associated with subduction zones are removed. These associations are quantified by expanding the hotspot distribution in spherical harmonics and calculating correlation coefficients as a function of harmonic degree. The hotspot distribution spectrum is essentially white, with peaks at degrees 2 and 6. It is correlated positively with the slab residual geoid for degrees 2 to 6, with low seismic velocity in the lower mantle at degree 2, and with low seismic velocity in the upper mantle at degree 6. A variety of fluid mechanical models were tested for hotspots, including lithospheric delamination and hot plumes, by calculating their predicted dynamic geoid responses and comparing them to the observations. These models include the effects of temperature dependent rheology. The preferred hotspot model, based on observations of the geoid and seismic tomography, has plumes preferentially occurring in regions of large scale background temperature highs in a mantle with substantial viscosity increase with depth, although other models are possible.

  17. Dynamically supported geoid highs over hotspots - Observation and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark A.; Hager, Bradford H.; Sleep, Norman H.

    1988-01-01

    Hotspots are associated with long wavelength geoid highs, an association that is even stronger when the geoid highs associated with subduction zones are removed. These associations are quantified by expanding the hotspot distribution in spherical harmonics and calculating correlation coefficients as a function of harmonic degree. The hotspot distribution spectrum is essentially white, with peaks at degrees 2 and 6. It is correlated positively with the slab residual geoid for degrees 2 to 6, with low seismic velocity in the lower mantle at degree 2, and with low seismic velocity in the upper mantle at degree 6. A variety of fluid mechanical models were tested for hotspots, including lithospheric delamination and hot plumes, by calculating their predicted dynamic geoid responses and comparing them to the observations. These models include the effects of temperature dependent rheology. The preferred hotspot model, based on observations of the geoid and seismic tomography, has plumes preferentially occurring in regions of large scale background temperature highs in a mantle with substantial viscosity increase with depth, although other models are possible.

  18. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Knetsch, G J

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health in 2000. Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in airborne particulates, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, game, blueberry and mushrooms). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates have been obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. No measurements were done in milk. In 2000 no elevated levels of radioactivity were found in the Dutch environment

  19. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, G.J. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health in 2000. Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in airborne particulates, deposition, surface water, seawater, drinking water and food (honey, game, blueberry and mushrooms). Results for ambient dose equivalent rates have been obtained from the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network. No measurements were done in milk. In 2000 no elevated levels of radioactivity were found in the Dutch environment.

  20. The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Mission Description and Early Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rottman, G; George, V

    2005-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the art instruments for measuring the solar irradiance from soft x-ray to the near infrared and the total solar irradiance. Furthermore, the SORCE mission and early results on solar variability are presented along with papers that provide an overview of solar influences on Earth.

  1. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; RIZA; RIKZ; LSO

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2001. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health. Radioactivity measurements were carried out on airborne particles, deposition,

  2. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; RIZA; RIKZ; KvW; LSO; IMD

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch government is compelled to measure radioactivity in the environment under terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the Dutch environment in 2002. The measurements were carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health

  3. Monitoring of radiation in the environment in the Netherlands. Results in 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; LSO; RIZA; RIKZ; Keuringsdienst van Waren

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by RIVM, RIZA, RIKZ and Inspectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health in 2000. Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in airborne particulates, deposition,

  4. Monitoring of radiation in atmosphere, water and a food chain. Results in the Netherlands in 1991

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman PJM; Aldenkamp FJ; de Vries LJ; Drost RMS; Tijsmans MH; Koolwijk AC; Ockhuizen A

    1993-01-01

    This 1991 annual report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in biosphere samples taken in the Netherlands. The National Measurement Programme (NMP), considered essential for an adequate assessment of radioactivity in the biospere, includes the monitoring of air, deposition and surfac

  5. Monitoring of Radiation in the Environment. Results in the Netherlands in 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs JEM; RIZA; RIKZ; Keuringsdienst van Waren; LSO

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by four organisations in 1998. The yearly averaged gross alfa- and gross beta-activity concentrations in air dust in Bilthoven were 0.0812 and 0.398 mBq4m-3, respectively. The yearly

  6. Evaluating the intensity of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging: Preliminary in vitro results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cho-Chiang; Lai, Ting-Yu; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The ability to measure the elastic properties of plaques and vessels is significant in clinical diagnosis, particularly for detecting a vulnerable plaque. A novel concept of combining intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has recently been proposed. This method has potential in elastography for distinguishing between the stiffness of plaques and arterial vessel walls. However, the intensity of the acoustic radiation force requires calibration as a standard for the further development of an ARFI-IVUS imaging device that could be used in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-frequency transducer with 11MHz and 48MHz was used to measure the association between the biological tissue displacement and the applied acoustic radiation force. The output intensity of the acoustic radiation force generated by the pushing element ranged from 1.8 to 57.9mW/cm(2), as measured using a calibrated hydrophone. The results reveal that all of the acoustic intensities produced by the transducer in the experiments were within the limits specified by FDA regulations and could still displace the biological tissues. Furthermore, blood clots with different hematocrits, which have elastic properties similar to the lipid pool of plaques, with stiffness ranging from 0.5 to 1.9kPa could be displaced from 1 to 4μm, whereas the porcine arteries with stiffness ranging from 120 to 291kPa were displaced from 0.4 to 1.3μm when an acoustic intensity of 57.9mW/cm(2) was used. The in vitro ARFI images of the artery with a blood clot and artificial arteriosclerosis showed a clear distinction of the stiffness distributions of the vessel wall. All the results reveal that ARFI-IVUS imaging has the potential to distinguish the elastic properties of plaques and vessels. Moreover, the acoustic intensity used in ARFI imaging has been experimentally quantified. Although the size of this two-element transducer is unsuitable for IVUS imaging, the

  7. Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Nitin K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The methodology and the results from this study could be useful for public health officers to develop a system to monitor and prevent diarrhea outbreaks. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA, nearest neighbour analysis (NNA, and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA, were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA and kernel density (KD estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level. Results The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales. Conclusion Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea.

  8. Three-dimensional conductivity image of the Society hotspot using marine magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Noriko; Tarits, Pascal; Baba, Kiyoshi; Utada, Hisashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2016-04-01

    The mantle upwellings are one of the most important features for understanding the mantle dynamics. A large-scale mantle upwelling beneath the French Polynesia region in the South Pacific has been suggested from seismic studies, which is called the South Pacific superplume, and a slow velocity anomaly continues from the core mantle boundary to the upper mantle just beneath the Society hotspot (e.g., Suetsugu et al., 2009). However, the previous studies are not enough to understand the geometry, temperature, and composition of the Society hotspot. Then, we carried out the TIARES project that composed of multi-sensor stations that include broadband ocean bottom seismometers, ocean bottom electromagnetometers (OBEMs), and differential pressure gauges from 2009 to 2010 (Suetsugu et al., 2012). In this study, we will present the results of observed data obtained from OBEMs. In order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) image of the upwelling of the Society hotspot in terms of electrical conductivity, we newly settled eleven OBEMs. In addition to these data, the old data obtained by Nolasco et al. (1998) was reanalyzed, and we obtained magnetotelluric (MT) responses at 20 sites totally. A 3-D marine MT inversion program (Tada et al., 2012; Baba et al., 2013), which can treat topographic change distorting EM data, was applied to these MT responses to estimate 3-D electrical conductivity image beneath the seafloor. The result detected a 3-D shaped high conductive anomaly, like a thumb, elongating from the mantle transition zone to the uppermost upper mantle just below the Society hotspot. With regard to interpretations, we will make a presentation at another session (GD3.3/EMRP4.3/GMPV3.3/SM6.11).

  9. Climate change hotspots over South America: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 multi-model datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Marengo, Jose Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies possible hotspots of climate change in South America through an examination of the spatial pattern of the Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) over the region by the end of the twenty-first century. The RCCI is a qualitative index that can synthesize a large number of climate model projections, and it is suitable for identifying those regions where climate change could be more pronounced in a warmer climate. The reliability and uncertainties of the results are evaluated by using numerous state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) and forcing scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5. The results show that southern Amazonia and the central-western region and western portion of Minas Gerais state in Brazil are persistent climate change hotspots through different forcing scenarios and GCM datasets. In general, as the scenarios vary from low- to high-level forcing, the area of high values of RCCI increase and the magnitude intensify from central-western and southeast Brazil to northwest South America. In general, the climatic hotspots identified in this study are characterized by an increase of mean surface air temperature, mainly in the austral winter; by an increase of interannual temperature variability, predominantly in the austral summer; and by a change in the mean and interannual variability of precipitation during the austral winter.

  10. Situation of young radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation biologists in German-speaking countries : Results from a web-based survey of the Young DEGRO working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, David; Baumann, Rene; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Fokas, Emmanouil; Gauer, Tobias; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2016-08-01

    The working group "Young DEGRO" (yDEGRO) was established in 2014 by the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). We aimed to assess the current situation of young radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation biologists. An online survey that included 52 questions or statements was designed to evaluate topics related to training, clinical duties and research opportunities. Using the electronic mailing list of the DEGRO and contact persons at university hospitals in Germany as well as at four hospitals in Switzerland and Austria, young professionals employed in the field of radiation oncology were invited to participate in the survey. A total of 260 responses were eligible for analysis. Of the respondents 69 % had a professional background in medicine, 23 % in medical physics and 9 % in radiation biology. Median age was 33 years. There was a strong interest in research among the participants; however a clear separation between research, teaching and routine clinical duties was rarely present for radiation oncologists and medical physicists. Likewise, allocated time for research and teaching during regular working hours was often not available. For radiation biologists, a lack of training in clinical and translational research was stated. This survey details the current state of education and research opportunities in young radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation biologists. These results will form the basis for the future working program of the yDEGRO.

  11. Biological image construction by using Raman radiation and Pca: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DIC, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Hugo R, V., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Tonala, Morelos No. 180, 69584 Tonala, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In the last years, the Raman spectroscopy (Rs) technique has had some applications in the study and analysis of biological samples, due to it is able to detect concentrations or presence of certain organic and inorganic compounds of medical interest. In this work, raw data were obtained through measurements in selected points on a square regions in order to detect specific organic / inorganic compounds on biological samples. Gold nano stars samples were prepared and coated with membrane markers (CD 10+ and CD 19+) and diluted in leukemic B lymphocytes. Each data block was evaluated independently by the method of principal component analysis (Pca) in order to find representative dimensionless values (Cp) for each Raman spectrum in a specific coordinate. Each Cp was normalized in a range of 0-255 in order to generate a representative image of 8 bits of the region under study. Data acquisition was performed with Raman microscopy system Renishaw in Via in the range of 550 to 1700 cm-1 with a 785 nm laser source, with a power of 17 m W and 15 s of exposure time were used for each spectrum. In preliminary results could detect the presence of molecular markers CD 10+ and CD 19+ with gold nano stars and discrimination between both markers. The results suggest conducting studies with specific concentrations organic and inorganic materials. (Author)

  12. A Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code Comparison for Laser-Produced Plasmas: FLASH versus HYDRA and the Results of Validation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q

    2013-01-01

    The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...

  13. A comparison between experimental results and a mathematical model of the oxidation reactions induced by radiation of ferrous ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G. [Departamento de Anatomia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: millang@servidor.unam.mx; Frias, D. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Universidad Estadual de Santa Cruz, Bahia (Brazil); Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    The dependence of the response of chemical dosimeters as a function of the irradiation temperature is an important issue that has not yet been addressed within a mathematical modeling framework. The temperature dependence of the dose-response function has to be taken into account in practical applications, mainly in frozen food sterilization by radiation. Significant errors may occur if the dependence of the dosimeter response on the irradiation temperature is not taken into account properly. The experimental results obtained irradiating iron salt solutions at different temperatures below and above 0 deg. C show that the change in the valence of Fe{sup 2+} as a function of dose are linear for both liquid and frozen solutions. This led us to conclude that the iron salt solution seems suitable for low-temperature applications having a linear dose-response up to 600 Gy, despite a progressive decrease of sensitivity as temperature decreases. A nonlinear differential model for the kinetics of reactions induced by radiation in iron salt solutions was established. In the model a temperature correction factor was included in order to take into account abrupt changes observed in the kinetics of the chemical process when the irradiated solution's allotropic phase changes from liquid to solid (ice). Fitting the kinetic model to the experimental results at different temperatures we found the temperature correction factors.

  14. Interventions to reduce suicides at suicide hotspots: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Georgina R; Owens, Christabel; Robinson, Jo; Nicholas, Angela; Lockley, Anne; Williamson, Michelle; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Pirkis, Jane

    2013-03-09

    'Suicide hotspots' include tall structures (for example, bridges and cliffs), railway tracks, and isolated locations (for example, rural car parks) which offer direct means for suicide or seclusion that prevents intervention. We searched Medline for studies that could inform the following question: 'What interventions are available to reduce suicides at hotspots, and are they effective?' There are four main approaches: (a) restricting access to means (through installation of physical barriers); (b) encouraging help-seeking (by placement of signs and telephones); (c) increasing the likelihood of intervention by a third party (through surveillance and staff training); and (d) encouraging responsible media reporting of suicide (through guidelines for journalists). There is relatively strong evidence that reducing access to means can avert suicides at hotspots without substitution effects. The evidence is weaker for the other approaches, although they show promise. More well-designed intervention studies are needed to strengthen this evidence base.

  15. Isotopic identification of nitrogen hotspots across natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N influences local biological processes, ecosystem productivity, the composition of the atmospheric-climate system, and the human endeavour as a whole. Here we use natural variations in N isotopes, coupled with two models, to trace global pathways of N loss from the land to the water and atmosphere. We show that denitrification accounts for approximately 35 % of total N losses from the natural soil, with NO, N2O, and N2 fluxes equal to 15.7 ± 4.7 Tg N yr−1, 10.2 ± 3.0 Tg N yr−1, and 21.0 ± 6.1 Tg N yr−1, respectively. Our analysis points to tropical regions as the major "hotspot" of nitrogen export from the terrestrial biosphere, accounting for 71 % of global N losses from the natural land surface. The poorly studied Congo Basin is further identified as one of the major natural sources of atmospheric N2O. Extra-tropical areas, by contrast, lose a greater fraction of N via leaching pathways (~77 % of total N losses than do tropical biomes, likely contributing to N limitations of CO2 uptake at higher latitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on global models of the N cycle among different regions of the unfertilized biosphere.

  16. Lead Polluted Hotspot: Environmental Implication of Unplanned Industrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikta Sharmin Yousuf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Rayer Bazaar, different industries like tannery, plastic, textile, battery recycling industry etc. are increasing rapidly without considering the environmental issues and deterioration. Since chromium (Cr pollution of this area has been widely investigated due to the presence of tannery industries, this study was focused on examining other environmental factors. Field visits and analytical results of semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis as well as three dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (3DEEM of water, soil and vegetative tissues indicated that, the area is highly polluted in term of different environmental parameters and metal content. The extremely high lead (Pb content of the soil (1171.7 mg/kg in summer, 2157.1 mg/kg in winter and blackish materials of vegetative tissues (6585.6 mg/kg in summer, 1974.1 mg/kg in winter indicates excessive lead deposition of this area that makes it a lead polluted hotspot. One of the possible sources of the extremely high lead concentration is adjacent battery recycling industry and/or other industries surrounding this area. So it is urgent to take necessary steps to find out immediate options for possible mitigation.

  17. Incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Callmander, Martin W; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Labat, Jean-Noël; Forest, Félix

    2015-02-19

    There is increased evidence that incorporating evolutionary history directly in conservation actions is beneficial, particularly given the likelihood that extinction is not random and that phylogenetic diversity (PD) is lost at higher rates than species diversity. This evidence is even more compelling in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, where less than 10% of the original vegetation remains. Here, we use the Leguminosae, an ecologically and economically important plant family, and a combination of phylogenetics and species distribution modelling, to assess biodiversity patterns and identify regions, coevolutionary processes and ecological factors that are important in shaping this diversity, especially during the Quaternary. We show evidence that species distribution and community PD are predicted by watershed boundaries, which enable the identification of a network of refugia and dispersal corridors that were perhaps important for maintaining community integrity during past climate change. Phylogenetically clustered communities are found in the southwest of the island at low elevation and share a suite of morphological characters (especially fruit morphology) indicative of coevolution with their main dispersers, the extinct and extant lemurs. Phylogenetically over-dispersed communities are found along the eastern coast at sea level and may have resulted from many independent dispersal events from the drier and more seasonal regions of Madagascar.

  18. Isotopic identification of global nitrogen hotspots across natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N influences local biological processes, ecosystem productivity, the composition of the atmospheric-climate system, and the human endeavour as a whole. Here we use natural variations in N's isotopes, coupled with two models, to trace global pathways of N loss from the land to the water and atmosphere. We show that denitrification accounts for approximately 35% of total N losses from natural soil, with NO, N2O, and N2 fluxes equal to 15.7 ± 4.7 Tg N yr−1, 10.2 ± 3.0 Tg N yr−1, and 21.0 ± 6.1 Tg N yr−1, respectively. Our analysis points to tropical regions as the major "hotspot" of nitrogen export from the terrestrial biosphere, accounting for 71% of global N losses from the natural land surface. The poorly studied Congo basin is further identified as one of the major natural sources of atmospheric N2O. Extra-tropical areas, by contrast, lose a greater fraction of N via leaching pathways (~77% of total N losses, than do tropical biomes, likely contributing to N limitations of CO2 uptake at higher latitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on global models of the N cycle among different regions of the unmanaged biosphere.

  19. Predicting foraging hotspots for Yelkouan Shearwater in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortega, María; İsfendiyaroğlu, Süreyya

    2017-07-01

    The Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) is a vulnerable species endemic to the Mediterranean Region, but there is little information of its ecology particularly when at sea. In this study, we assessed the habitat use by Yelkouan shearwater in the Black Sea during the breeding (March-July) and non-breeding (August-February) periods of 2013, using boat-based surveys and shore-based counts. We created a species distribution model (SDM) based on the environmental variables that most accurately reflected the oceanographic habitat of this species in order to delineate foraging hotspots. Our habitat modelling analyses suggest that Yelkouan shearwaters respond to complex bio-physical coupling, as evidenced by their association with oceanographic variables. Foraging Yelkouan shearwaters mainly occurred on the western Black Sea continental shelf, indicating that Yelkouan shearwaters were foraging in shallow, cold and coastal waters. In the non-breeding period, Yelkouan Shearwater occurred beyond the Black Sea continental shelf, a wide pelagic extension of sea, indicating that shearwaters foraged in deep, warm and pelagic waters. These results are consistent with earlier studies, which identified the Black Sea as an important congregation site for Mediterranean Yelkouan shearwater populations outside the breeding season. This study demonstrates how the integration of boat-based survey data, shore-based counts and modelling can provide a wider understanding of the linkage between marine ecosystems that is mediated by marine megafauna such as pelagic seabirds.

  20. Kitobo Forest of Kenya, a unique hotspot of herpetofaunal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Malonza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpetologically, the remoteness of Kitobo forest in south-eastern Kenya has partly contributed to it remaining virtually un-explored until 2007. Three surveys were conducted in December 2007, December 2009 and April 2010 aimed at generating a comprehensive list of the forest amphibians and reptiles. Using largely timed-species count method, 13 species of amphibians representing eight families and 32 reptiles belonging to 11 families were recorded. Overall species diversity was highest during the 2007 sampling. The richness and abundance of amphibians was highest during the April 2010 sampling period when the amount of rainfall was also highest. The results of species accumulation curves of the three sampling periods did not plateau demonstrating that more species occur in this forest. Pressure on this forest fragment from the adjacent local people is high which in addition to the annual floods threatens its long-term survival. For example the distribution and abundance of some forest associated species such as the tree frogs Leptopelis flavomaculatus and Hyperolius puncticulatus appear to fluctuate with flood events and may decline in future. Considering the forest associated herpetofanua recorded, Kitobo forest is zoogeographically assignable to the East African coastal forest biodiversity hotspot. The documentation of high species richness and diversity in this small forest fragment strongly highlight its biodiversity importance and place it among the most important sites for the conservation of reptiles and amphibians in Kenya.

  1. Radiation induced peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids: recent results on formation of hydroperoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauville, C.; Remita, S. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Therond, P. [Lab. de Biochimie, Hopital de Bicetre, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Jore, D.; Gardes-Albert, M. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Aqueous solutions of linoleic acid were irradiated in air with {gamma}-rays of {sup 137}Cs. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was been used to separate and measure the production of hydroperoxides. The results obtained after reverse phase chromatography, associated with a microperoxydase for hydroperoxide detection, indicate the presence of two different hydroperoxides. One type of hydroperoxide was the major product obtained when the initial linoleic concentrations were below the critical micellar concentration (2 mM), and the second type was produced when the concentrations were above 2 mM. A further separation carried out on the second hydroperoxide by direct phase HPLC showed that it contains three compounds, mainly HPODE 9 and 13. (author)

  2. Protecting LHC Components Against Radiation Resulting From an Unsynchronized Beam Abort

    CERN Document Server

    Drozhdin, A I; Mokhov, N V; Rakhno, I L; Weisse, E

    2001-01-01

    The effect of possible accidental beam loss in the LHC on the IP5 and IP6 insertion elements is studied via realistic Monte Carlo simulations. The scenario studied is beam loss due to unsynchronized abort at an accidental prefire of one of the abort kicker modules. Simulations show that this beam loss would result in severe heating of the IP5 and IP6 superconducting (SC) quadrupoles. Contrary to the previous considerations with a stationary set of collimators in IP5, collimators in IP6 close to the cause are proposed: a movable collimator upstream of the Q4 quadrupole and a stationary one upstream of the extraction septum MSD. The calculated temperature rise in the optimal set of collimators is quite acceptable. All SC magnets are protected by these collimators against damage.

  3. Radioactivity in drinking water: regulations, monitoring results and radiation protection issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nuccetelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drinking waters usually contain several natural radionuclides: tritium, radon, radium, uranium isotopes, etc. Their concentrations vary widely since they depend on the nature of the aquifer, namely, the prevailing lithology and whether there is air in it or not. AIMS: In this work a broad overview of the radioactivity in drinking water is presented: national and international regulations, for limiting the presence of radioactivity in waters intended for human consumption; results of extensive campaigns for monitoring radioactivity in drinking waters, including mineral bottled waters, carried out throughout the world in recent years; a draft of guidelines for the planning of campaigns to measure radioactivity in drinking water proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA of Lombardia.

  4. Meta-analysis of beta radiation augmentation for trabeculectomy - results in distinct ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Issa de Fendi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis on the efficacy of trabeculectomy (TREC followed by beta irradiation (BRT/TREC compared to TREC alone for glaucoma in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP control and adverse effects of treatment in different ethnic groups. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed comparing adjunct BRT treatment for glaucoma with standard TREC after 12 months. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases and recent studies of relevant journals were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed relevant reports and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria. RESULTS: Of a total of 1,350 citations, eight studies (five cohorts, three randomized were identified and only 3 RCT were included in this meta-analysis. Higher IOP reductions were verified in the BRT arm compared to the control arm (mean difference=1.68 mmHg, 95% CI= 0.61-2.68, P=0.002. Uncontrolled postoperative IOP (>21 mmHg was less frequent when BRT was used (BRT/ TREC arm compared to the control arm (38/218=17.4% versus 9/239=3.8%; OR=6.7; 95% CI 3.2-14.3, P<0.0001. Although better IOP control was observed in all patients treated with adjuvant BRT, only Black patients displayed a significant difference (P=0.005. There were no significant differences between the BRT and control arms regarding loss of visual acuity, postoperative complications and necessity of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Adjunct BRT increases the success rate of TREC, with better results in non Caucasian patients, and does not influence the occurrence of postoperative complications.

  5. Radiative and Dynamical Feedbacks Over the Equatorial Cold-Tongue: Results from Seven Atmospheric GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, D; Zhang, T; Covey, C; Klein, S; Collins, W; Kiehl, J; Meehl, J; Held, I; Suarez, M

    2005-01-04

    The equatorial Pacific is a region with strong negative feedbacks. Yet coupled GCMs have exhibited a propensity to develop a significant SST bias in that region, suggesting an unrealistic sensitivity in the coupled models to small energy flux errors that inevitably occur in the individual model components. Could this 'hypersensitivity' exhibited in a coupled model be due to an underestimate of the strength of the negative feedbacks in this region? With this suspicion, the feedbacks in the equatorial Pacific in seven atmospheric GCMs (AGCMs) have been quantified using the interannual variations in that region and compared with the corresponding calculations from the observations. The seven AGCMs are: the NCAR CAM1, the NCAR CAM2,the NCAR CAM3, the NASA/NSIPP Atmospheric Model, the Hadley Center Model, the GFDL AM2p10, and the GFDL AM2p12. All the corresponding coupled runs of these seven AGCMs have an excessive cold-tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The net atmospheric feedback over the equatorial Pacific in the two GFDL models is found to be comparable to the observed value. All other models are found to have a weaker negative net feedback from the atmosphere--a weaker regulating effect on the underlying SST than the real atmosphere. A weaker negative feedback from the cloud albedo and a weaker negative feedback from the atmospheric transport are the two leading contributors to the weaker regulating effect from the model atmosphere. All models overestimate somewhat the positive feedback from water vapor. These results confirm the suspicion that an underestimate of negative feedbacks from the atmosphere over the equatorial Pacific region is a prevalent problem. The results also suggest, however, that a weaker regulatory effect from the atmosphere is unlikely solely responsible for the 'hypersensitivity' in all models. The need to validate the feedbacks from the ocean transport is therefore highlighted.

  6. Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedts Stefaan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles in the van Allen radiation belts and in solar energetic particle events can damage satellites on orbit leading to malfunctions and loss of satellite service. Here we describe some recent results from the SPACECAST project on modelling and forecasting the radiation belts, and modelling solar energetic particle events. We describe the SPACECAST forecasting system that uses physical models that include wave-particle interactions to forecast the electron radiation belts up to 3 h ahead. We show that the forecasts were able to reproduce the >2 MeV electron flux at GOES 13 during the moderate storm of 7–8 October 2012, and the period following a fast solar wind stream on 25–26 October 2012 to within a factor of 5 or so. At lower energies of 10 – a few 100 keV we show that the electron flux at geostationary orbit depends sensitively on the high-energy tail of the source distribution near 10 RE on the nightside of the Earth, and that the source is best represented by a kappa distribution. We present a new model of whistler mode chorus determined from multiple satellite measurements which shows that the effects of wave-particle interactions beyond geostationary orbit are likely to be very significant. We also present radial diffusion coefficients calculated from satellite data at geostationary orbit which vary with Kp by over four orders of magnitude. We describe a new automated method to determine the position at the shock that is magnetically connected to the Earth for modelling solar energetic particle events and which takes into account entropy, and predict the form of the mean free path in the foreshock, and particle injection efficiency at the shock from analytical theory which can be tested in simulations.

  7. Genome-wide signatures of 'rearrangement hotspots' within segmental duplications in humans.

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    Mohammed Uddin

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to create a genome-wide high resolution map (i.e., >100 bp of 'rearrangement hotspots' which can facilitate the identification of regions capable of mediating de novo deletions or duplications in humans. A hierarchical method was employed to fragment segmental duplications (SDs into multiple smaller SD units. Combining an end space free pairwise alignment algorithm with a 'seed and extend' approach, we have exhaustively searched 409 million alignments to detect complex structural rearrangements within the reference-guided assembly of the NA18507 human genome (18× coverage, including the previously identified novel 4.8 Mb sequence from de novo assembly within this genome. We have identified 1,963 rearrangement hotspots within SDs which encompass 166 genes and display an enrichment of duplicated gene nucleotide variants (DNVs. These regions are correlated with increased non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR event frequency which presumably represents the origin of copy number variations (CNVs and pathogenic duplications/deletions. Analysis revealed that 20% of the detected hotspots are clustered within the proximal and distal SD breakpoints flanked by the pathogenic deletions/duplications that have been mapped for 24 NAHR-mediated genomic disorders. FISH Validation of selected complex regions revealed 94% concordance with in silico localization of the highly homologous derivatives. Other results from this study indicate that intra-chromosomal recombination is enhanced in genic compared with agenic duplicated regions, and that gene desert regions comprising SDs may represent reservoirs for creation of novel genes. The generation of genome-wide signatures of 'rearrangement hotspots', which likely serve as templates for NAHR, may provide a powerful approach towards understanding the underlying mutational mechanism(s for development of constitutional and acquired diseases.

  8. RecBCD Enzyme "Chi Recognition" Mutants Recognize Chi Recombination Hotspots in the Right DNA Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Susan K; Sharp, Jake W; Smith, Gerald R

    2016-09-01

    RecBCD enzyme is a complex, three-subunit protein machine essential for the major pathway of DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination in Escherichia coli Upon encountering a Chi recombination-hotspot during DNA unwinding, RecBCD nicks DNA to produce a single-stranded DNA end onto which it loads RecA protein. Conformational changes that regulate RecBCD's helicase and nuclease activities are induced upon its interaction with Chi, defined historically as 5' GCTGGTGG 3'. Chi is thought to be recognized as single-stranded DNA passing through a tunnel in RecC. To define the Chi recognition-domain in RecC and thus the mechanism of the RecBCD-Chi interaction, we altered by random mutagenesis eight RecC amino acids lining the tunnel. We screened for loss of Chi activity with Chi at one site in bacteriophage λ. The 25 recC mutants analyzed thoroughly had undetectable or strongly reduced Chi-hotspot activity with previously reported Chi sites. Remarkably, most of these mutants had readily detectable, and some nearly wild-type, activity with Chi at newly generated Chi sites. Like wild-type RecBCD, these mutants had Chi activity that responded dramatically (up to fivefold, equivalent to Chi's hotspot activity) to nucleotide changes flanking 5' GCTGGTGG 3'. Thus, these and previously published RecC mutants thought to be Chi-recognition mutants are actually Chi context-dependence mutants. Our results fundamentally alter the view that Chi is a simple 8-bp sequence recognized by the RecC tunnel. We propose that Chi hotspots have dual nucleotide sequence interactions, with both the RecC tunnel and the RecB nuclease domain.

  9. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  10. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Thoreson, Gregory G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Horne, Steven M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex, scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  11. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  12. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Thoreson, Gregory G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Horne, Steven M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  13. Invasive fishes generate biogeochemical hotspots in a nutrient-limited system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista A Capps

    Full Text Available Fishes can play important functional roles in the nutrient dynamics of freshwater systems. Aggregating fishes have the potential to generate areas of increased biogeochemical activity, or hotspots, in streams and rivers. Many of the studies documenting the functional role of fishes in nutrient dynamics have focused on native fish species; however, introduced fishes may restructure nutrient storage and cycling freshwater systems as they can attain high population densities in novel environments. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a non-native catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys on nitrogen and phosphorus remineralization and estimate whether large aggregations of these fish generate measurable biogeochemical hotspots within nutrient-limited ecosystems. Loricariids formed large aggregations during daylight hours and dispersed throughout the stream during evening hours to graze benthic habitats. Excretion rates of phosphorus were twice as great during nighttime hours when fishes were actively feeding; however, there was no diel pattern in nitrogen excretion rates. Our results indicate that spatially heterogeneous aggregations of loricariids can significantly elevate dissolved nutrient concentrations via excretion relative to ambient nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations during daylight hours, creating biogeochemical hotspots and potentially altering nutrient dynamics in invaded systems.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Hotspots of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchaphon Samphutthanon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD is an emerging viral disease, and at present, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to control it. Outbreaks have persisted for the past 10 years, particularly in northern Thailand. This study aimed to elucidate the phenomenon of HFMD outbreaks from 2003 to 2012 using general statistics and spatial-temporal analysis employing a GIS-based method. The spatial analysis examined data at the village level to create a map representing the distribution pattern, mean center, standard deviation ellipse and hotspots for each outbreak. A temporal analysis was used to analyze the correlation between monthly case data and meteorological factors. The results indicate that the disease can occur at any time of the year, but appears to peak in the rainy and cold seasons. The distribution of outbreaks exhibited a clustered pattern. Most mean centers and standard deviation ellipses occurred in similar areas. The linear directional mean values of the outbreaks were oriented toward the south. When separated by season, it was found that there was a significant correlation with the direction of the southwest monsoon at the same time. An autocorrelation analysis revealed that hotspots tended to increase even when patient cases subsided. In particular, a new hotspot was found in the recent year in Mae Hong Son province.

  15. The building of a biodiversity hotspot across a land-bridge in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Lavergne, Sébastien; Arroyo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Many of the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day phylogenetic patterns were caused by geological events such as plate tectonics and temporary land-bridges. The study of spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity can provide insights into these past events. Here we focus on a western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot located in the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa, two regions that are separated by the Strait of Gibraltar. We explore the spatial structure of the phylogenetic relationships within and across large-scale plant assemblages. Significant turnover in terminal lineages tends to occur between landmasses, whereas turnover in deep lineages tends to occur within landmasses. Plant assemblages in the western ecoregions of this hotspot tend to be phylogenetically overdispersed but are phylogenetically clustered on its eastern margins. We discuss our results in the light of potential scenarios of niche evolution (or conservatism) and lineage diversification. The significant turnover between landmasses suggests a common scenario of allopatric speciation that could have been facilitated by the intermittent joining of the two continents. This may have constituted an important stimulus for diversification and the emergence of this western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. PMID:26246551

  16. Micron-scale Reactive Atomistic Simulation of Void Collapse and Hotspot Growth in PETN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Wixom, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Material defects and other heterogeneities such as dislocations, micro-porosity, and grain boundaries play key roles in the shock-induced initiation of detonation in energetic materials. We performed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to explore the effect of nanoscale voids on hotspot growth and initiation in micron-scale pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) crystals under weak shock loading (Up = 1.25 km/s; Us = 4.5 km/s). We used the ReaxFF potential implemented in LAMMPS. We built a pseudo-2D PETN crystal with dimensions 0.3 μm × 0.22 μm × 1.3 nm containing a 20 nm cylindrical void. Once the initial shockwave traversed the entire sample, the shock-front absorbing boundary condition was applied, allowing the simulation to continue beyond 1 nanosecond. Results show an exponentially increasing hotspot growth rate. The hotspot morphology is initially symmetric about the void axis, but strong asymmetry develops at later times, due to strong coupling between exothermic chemistry, temperature, and divergent secondary shockwaves emanating from the collapsing void. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Formayer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily globalradiation (RG values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequentcrop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis ofthe RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central Europeanclimate conditions. The research was conducted i at the eight individual sites in Austria andthe Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, withseven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii for the agricultural areas of the CzechRepublic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In thelatter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the ångström-Prescottformula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At thesite level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showedthe lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs.When the ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviationsgreater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 percent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lowerwhen RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent. The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We

  18. Treatment results of radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langsenlehner, Tanja; Doeller, Carmen; Stranzl-Lawatsch, Heidi; Kapp, Karin S. [Univ. Clinic of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, Franz [Inst. for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, Uwe [Internal Outpatient Dept., Steiermaerkische GKK, Graz (Austria); Pummer, Karl [Dept. of Urology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To assess local control and survival rates in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external-beam radiotherapy and to investigate prognostic factors. Patients and methods: Between 1997 and 2007, 75 patients (male, n = 58; female, n = 17, median age, 74.2 years) with localized transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (T2, n = 34; T3, n = 32; T4, n = 9) not suitable for radical surgery due to advanced age, comorbidity or inoperability underwent external-beam radiotherapy without simultaneous chemotherapy at the University Clinic of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. A conformal four-field technique was used in all patients to treat the tumor and regional lymph nodes with single daily fractions of 1.8-2 Gy to a total dose of 50-50.4 Gy, followed by a cone-down to encompass the empty bladder which was boosted to 70-70.4 Gy. All patients had undergone transurethral tumor resection prior to radiotherapy which was macroscopically incomplete in 62 patients. Results: Complete response was achieved in 65% of patients. Actuarial 3-year local control and metastases-free survival rates were 52.5% and 63.7%, 3-year local recurrence-free survival rate in complete responders was 71%. In univariate analysis, hydronephrosis, lymph vessel invasion, and macroscopic residual tumor were significantly predictive of disease progression. Hydronephrosis and lymph vessel invasion were also associated with a higher risk of local recurrence. The actuarial 3-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 40.1% and 56.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is an effective treatment option in terms of local control and survival even in elderly patients with locally advanced bladder cancer not suitable for cystectomy. (orig.)

  19. Photothermal probing of plasmonic hotspots with nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures (hotspots) are key components e.g. in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, plasmonic solar cells, or as nano heat sources. The characterization of single hotspots is still challenging due to a lack of experimental tools. We present the direct photothermal probing and mapping...... of single plasmonic nanoslits via the thermally induced detuning of nanomechanical string resonators. A maximum relative frequency detuning of 0.5 % was measured for a single plasmonic nanoslit for a perpendicularly polarized laser with a power of 1350 nW. Finally, we show the photothermal scan over...

  20. Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition

    CERN Document Server

    Jeet, Justin; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 \\mbox{eV}$ and $8.8 \\mbox{eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2)\\mbox{s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600)\\mbox{s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  1. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy (229)Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-06-26

    We report the results of a direct search for the (229)Th (I(π)=3/2(+)←5/2(+)) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing (229)Th-doped LiSrAlF(6) crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s≲τ≲(2000-5600)  s. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  2. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  3. Seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air and resulting radiation dose to human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is essential to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics of the radon progenies, which are either attached or unattached to aerosol particles, because the dose is strongly dependent on the location of deposition in respiratory tract and hence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosol particles. This paper presents the seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air under domestic conditions at Nagoya University, Japan. A low pressure cascade impactor as an instrument for classifying aerosol sizes and imaging plate as a radiation detector have been employed to characterize the activity size distribution of short-lived radon decay products. In parallel, radon and its progenies concentrations were measured. Taking into account the progeny characteristics, the inhalation dose in the different seasons was also estimated based on a lung dose model with the structure that is related to the ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The result evident that, the highest dose 0.22 mSvy−1 was observed during the winter where the highest value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC and lowest value of the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD were found in this season; whereas, the dose in spring appeared to be lowest 0.02 mSvy−1.

  4. Measurement of personal dose equivalent of X and gamma radiation by ring dosimeter: Results of intercomparison measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamowicz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to present the results of the interlaboratory comparisons for ring dosimeters and to confirm that the applied method is suitable for measuring the personal dose equivalent HP(0.07. In addition, calibration procedures used in dosimetric measurements in persons occupationally exposed to ionizing photon radiation X and γ were presented. Materials and Methods: Ring dosimeters made of flexible plastics with the diameter of approximately 20 mm, equipped with two thermoluminescence (TL detectors type MTS-N, were the subject of interlaboratory comparisons. Irradiated detectors were red out using a new manual TLD's reader (FIMEL, France. All TLD exposures were done for validation of TLD readers and were performed using the reference X-ray and γ beams with the ISO rod phantom. The methodology of performed exposures corresponded with the methods applied by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS, the European organizer of interlaboratory comparisons. Results: The energy, dose and angular characteristics of the ring dosimeter allowed to elaborate the formula for estimating and verifying the personal dose equivalent HP(0.07. The test was performed to check and confirm the correctness of the estimated characteristics. The test results were satisfactory, and thus the readiness to implement TLD reader in the used method and to participate in interlaboratory comparisons was confirmed. Conclusions: According to the requirements of the Polish Centre for Accreditation, the laboratory was participating in the interlaboratory comparison organized by EURADOS in terms of the personal dose equivalent HP(0.07. The result of the comparison was satisfactory, therefore the correctness of the testing procedure was confirmed. Med Pr 2013;64(5:631–637

  5. Efficient Assessment of Social Hotspots in the Supply Chains of 100 Product Categories Using the Social Hotspots Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benoît Norris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories during just a few months’ time, adopting a streamlined approach was essential. The Social Hotspots Database system was developed by New Earth over 5 years. It includes a Global Input Output (IO model derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project, a Worker Hours Model constructed using annual wage payments and wage rates by country and sector, and Social Theme Tables covering 22 themes within five Social Impact Categories—Labor Rights and Decent Work, Health and Safety, Human Rights, Governance and Community Impacts. The data tables identify social risks for over 100 indicators. Both the ranking of worker hour intensity and the risk levels across multiple social themes for the Country Specific Sectors (CSS within a product category supply chain are used to calculate Social Hotspots Indexes (SHI using an additive weighting method. The CSS with the highest SHI are highlighted as social hotspots within the supply chain of the product in question. This system was tested in seven case studies in 2011. In order to further limit the number of hotspots, a set of prioritization rules was applied. This paper will review the method implemented to study the social hotspots of the 100 product categories and provide one detailed example. Limitations of the approach and recommended research avenues will be outlined.

  6. ANALYSIS OF LINK STATE RESOURCE RESERVATION PROTOCOL FOR CONGESTION MANAGEMENT IN SMART WEB HOTSPOT ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anulika Okoye Joy1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the wide spread of WiFi hotspots, concentrated traffic workload on Smart Web (SW can slow down the network performance. This paper presents a congestion management strategy considering real time activities in today’s smart web. With the SW context, cooperative packet recovery using resource reservation procedure for TCP flows was adapted for mitigating packet losses. This is to maintain data consistency between various access points of smart web hotspot. Using a real world scenario, it was confirmed that generic TCP cannot handle traffic congestion in a SW hotspot network. With TCP in scalable workload environments, continuous packet drops at the event of congestion remains obvious. This is unacceptable for mission critical domains. An enhanced Link State Resource Reservation Protocol (LSRSVP which serves as dynamic feedback mechanism in smart web hotspots is presented. The contextual behaviour was contrasted with the generic TCP model. For the LS-RSVP, a simulation experiment for TCP connection between servers at the remote core layer and the access layer was carried out while using selected benchmark metrics. From the results, under realistic workloads, a steady-state throughput response was achieved by TCP LS-RSVP to about 3650Bits/secs compared with generic TCP plots in a previous study. Considering network service availability, this was found to be dependent on fault-tolerance of the hotspot network. From study, a high peak threshold of 0.009 (i.e. 90% was observed. This shows fairly acceptable service availability behaviour compared with the existing TCP schemes. For packet drop effects, an analysis on the network behaviour with respect to the LS-RSVP yielded a drop response of about 0.000106 bits/sec which is much lower compared with the case with generic TCP with over 0.38 bits/sec. The latency profile of average FTP download response was found to be 0.030secs, but with that of FTP pload response, this yielded about 0.028 sec. The

  7. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) — A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.;

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values...... for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments, on the test and comparison of models to assess the transfer of tritium and 14C to biota and humans, on the validation of models for dose reconstruction due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident, on modelling the transfer of radionuclides...... in aquatic systems, on remediation of rural and urban sites with radioactive residues, and on the impact of environmental radioactivity on non-human species. The book concludes with a summary of the outcomes of the EMRAS programme and is accompanied by a CD-ROM which provides details of the work...

  8. [Radiation preconditioning of mouse retina results in tolerance to MNU-induced degeneration and stimulates retinal recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronov, V A; Vinogradova, Yu V; Poplinskaya, V A; Nekrasova, E I; Ostrovsky, M A

    2015-01-01

    Emerging body of data indicate protecting effect of low level of stress (preconditioning) on retina. Our previous studies have revealed a non-linear dose-response relationship for cytotoxic effect of both ionizing radiation and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on mouse retina. Moreover, non-cytotoxic dose of MNU increased tolerance of retina to following challenge dose of MNU. This result displays protection of retina through mechanism of recovery. In the present study we used the mouse model for MNU-induced retinal degeneration to evaluate the adaptive response of the retina to proton irradiation and implication of glial Muller cells in this response. In this paper, we have shown that the recovery of the retina after exposure to genotoxic agents is associated with an increased efficiency of DNA damage repair and lowered death of retinal photoreceptors.

  9. An Autonomous System for Experimental Evolution of Microbial Cultures: Test Results Using Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouandji, Cynthia; Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Lee, Alonzo; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    At its core, the field of microbial experimental evolution seeks to elucidate the natural laws governing the history of microbial life by understanding its underlying driving mechanisms. However, observing evolution in nature is complex, as environmental conditions are difficult to control. Laboratory-based experiments for observing population evolution provide more control, but manually culturing and studying multiple generations of microorganisms can be time consuming, labor intensive, and prone to inconsistency. We have constructed a prototype, closed system device that automates the process of directed evolution experiments in microorganisms. It is compatible with any liquid microbial culture, including polycultures and field samples, provides flow control and adjustable agitation, continuously monitors optical density (OD), and can dynamically control environmental pressures such as ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation and temperature. Here, the results of the prototype are compared to iterative exposure and survival assays conducted using a traditional hood, UV-C lamp, and shutter system.

  10. The Yellowstone hotspot, Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, and human geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Good, John M.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann.

    2007-01-01

    Active geologic processes associated with the Yellowstone hotspot are fundamental in shaping the landscapes of the greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE), a high volcanic plateau flanked by a crescent of still higher mountainous terrain. The processes associated with the Yellowstone hotspot are volcanism, faulting, and uplift and are observed in the geology at the surface. We attribute the driving forces responsible for the northeastward progression of these processes to a thermal plume rising through the Earth’s mantle into the base of the southwest-moving North American plate. This progression began 16 million years ago (Ma) near the Nevada-Oregon border and arrived at Yellowstone about 2 Ma. Before arrival of the hotspot, an older landscape existed, particularly mountains created during the Laramide orogeny about 70–50 Ma and volcanic terrain formed by Absaroka andesitic volcanism mostly between 50–45 Ma. These landscapes were more muted than the present, hotspot-modified landscape because the Laramide-age mountains had worn down and an erosion surface of low relief had developed on the Absaroka volcanic terrain.

  11. A Glance at Recombination Hotspots in the Domestic Cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Recombination has essential roles in increasing genetic variability within a population and in ensuring successful meiotic events. The objective of this study is to (i infer the population-scaled recombination rate (ρ, and (ii identify and characterize regions of increased recombination rate for the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus. SNPs (n = 701 were genotyped in twenty-two East Asian feral cats (random bred. The SNPs covered ten different chromosomal regions (A1, A2, B3, C2, D1, D2, D4, E2, F2, X with an average region size of 850 Kb and an average SNP density of 70 SNPs/region. The Bayesian method in the program inferRho was used to infer regional population recombination rates and hotspots localities. The regions exhibited variable population recombination rates and four decisive recombination hotspots were identified on cat chromosome A2, D1, and E2 regions. As a description of the identified hotspots, no correlation was detected between the GC content and the locality of recombination spots, and the hotspots enclosed L2 LINE elements and MIR and tRNA-Lys SINE elements.

  12. Handwritten Character Classification using the Hotspot Feature Extraction Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction techniques can be important in character recognition, because they can enhance the efficacy of recognition in comparison to featureless or pixel-based approaches. This study aims to investigate the novel feature extraction technique called the hotspot technique in order to use it

  13. Identifying biodiversity hotspots for threatened mammal species in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farashi, Azita; Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Hosseini, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology has much more attention for biodiversity hot spots than before. In order to recognize the hotspots for Iranian terrestrial mammal species that are listed in any red list, nationally or globally, ten Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been applied. The SDMs evaluation

  14. Rainfall-induced landslides in Europe: hotspots and thresholds (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J.; Jaedicke, C.; Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2010-12-01

    This contribution presents preliminary results of the European project SafeLand. SafeLand is a large-scale integrating collaborative research project on landslide risks in Europe, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) of the European Commission. SafeLand was launched in May 2009 and will run for three years. The project team, which comprises 27 institutions from 12 European countries, is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) in Norway. SafeLand aims to develop and implement an integrated and comprehensive approach to help and guide decision-making in connection with mitigation of landslide risks. Quantifying the effects of global change (changes in demography and climate change) on evolution of landslide risk in Europe is one of the main goals of SafeLand. The methodologies are tested in selected hazard and risk "hotspots” in Europe, in turn improving knowledge, methodologies and integration strategies for the management of landslide risk. The present contribution is focused on two components of SafeLand: (1) the identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots and (2) the estimation and assessment of rainfall thresholds for triggering of landslides. Hotspots of landslide hazard and risk were identified by an objective GIS-based analysis. The results show clearly where landslide pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. In absolute numbers, Italy is the country with the highest amount of area and population exposed. Relative to absolute number of inhabitants and area, small alpine countries such as Lichtenstein and Montenegro score highest where as much as 40% of the population could be exposed. It is obvious that the type and quality of the input data are decisive for the quality of the results. Especially the estimation of extreme precipitation events needs improvement. These preliminary results are

  15. O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O radiative forcing resulting from a supersonic jet transport emission scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, A.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Penner, J.E.; Grant, K.E.; Tamaresis, J.; Connell, P.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Atmospheric Science Research Div.

    1996-01-01

    The tropospheric radiative forcing has been calculated for ozone and water vapor perturbations caused by a realistic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft emission scenario. Atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone were obtained using the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model (CRT) of the global troposphere and stratosphere. IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. UV-Visible-Near IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL two stream solar radiation model. For the case of water vapor the IR and Near IR radiative forcing was determined at five different latitudes and then averaged using an appropriate latitudinal average to obtain the global average value. Global average values of radiative forcing were approximately 1.2--2.6 10{sup {minus}3} W/m{sup 2}, depending on the background atmospheric water vapor profile. This result is consistent with prior published values for a similar aircraft scenario and supports the conclusion that the water vapor climate forcing effect is very small. The radiative forcing in the IR and UV-Visible spectral ranges, due to the ozone perturbation, was calculated for the globally averaged atmosphere. Global average values of the radiative forcing were 0.034 W/m{sup 2} for the UV-Visible spectral range and 0.006 W/m{sup 2} for the IR spectral range (0.04 W/m{sup 2} total). This result is also consistent with the range of published values obtained for a similar HSCT scenario. As was the case for water vapor, the ozone forcing is too small to be of major consequence.

  16. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity.

  17. The quality of radiation care: the results of focus group interviews and concept mapping to explore the patient's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.L.; Sixma, H.; Triest, B. van; Keus, R.B.; Hendriks, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: In this study, we explore the quality aspects of radiation care from the patient’s perspective in order to develop a draft Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Radiation Care instrument. Materials and methods: Four focus group discussions with (former) cancer patients were held to ex

  18. Feasibility of Endovascular Radiation Therapy Using Holmium-166 Filled Balloon Catheter in a Swine Hemodialysis Fistula Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Jung [Dept. of Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To describe how to make a swine hemodialysis fistula model and report our initial experience to test the feasibility of endovascular radiation therapy with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. The surgical formation of arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was performed by end-to-side anastomosis of the bilateral jugular vein and carotid artery of 6 pigs. After 4 weeks, angiograms were taken and endovascular radiation was delivered to the venous side of AVF with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. Pigs were sacrificed 4 weeks after the radiation and AVFs were harvested for histological examination. All animals survived without any morbidity during the experimental periods. The formation of fistula on the sides of necks was successful in 11 of the 12 pigs (92%). One AVF failed from the small jugular vein. On angiograms, 4 of the 11 AVFs showed total occlusion or significant stenosis and therefore, endovascular radiation could not be performed. Of 7 eligible AVFs, five underwent successful endovascular radiation and two AVFs did not undergo radiation for the control. Upon histologic analysis, one non-radiated AVF showed total occlusion and others showed intimal thickening from the neointimal hyperplasia. Formation of the swine carotid artery-jugular vein hemodialysis fistula model was successful. Endovascular radiation using a Holmium-166 filled balloon catheter was safe and feasible.

  19. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Brassica rapa Reveals QTL Hotspots and Epistatic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Ram K; Duwal, Anita; Tiwari, Dev N; Xiao, Dong; Monakhos, Sokrat; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Groot, Steven P C; Bonnema, Guusje; Maliepaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding.

  20. How plume-ridge interaction shapes the crustal thickness pattern of the Réunion hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, Eva; Steinberger, Bernhard; Gassmöller, Rene; Dannberg, Juliane

    2017-08-01

    The Réunion mantle plume has shaped a large area of the Earth's surface over the past 65 million years: from the Deccan Traps in India along the hotspot track comprising the island chains of the Laccadives, Maldives, and Chagos Bank on the Indian plate and the Mascarene Plateau on the African plate up to the currently active volcanism at La Réunion Island. This study addresses the question how the Réunion plume, especially in interaction with the Central Indian Ridge, created the complex crustal thickness pattern of the hotspot track. For this purpose, the mantle convection code ASPECT was used to design three-dimensional numerical models, which consider the specific location of the plume underneath moving plates and surrounded by large-scale mantle flow. The results show the crustal thickness pattern produced by the plume, which altogether agrees well with topographic maps. Especially two features are consistently reproduced by the models: the distinctive gap in the hotspot track between the Maldives and Chagos is created by the combination of the ridge geometry and plume-ridge interaction; and the Rodrigues Ridge, a narrow crustal structure which connects the hotspot track and the Central Indian Ridge, appears as the surface expression of a long-distance sublithospheric flow channel. This study therefore provides further insight how small-scale surface features are generated by the complex interplay between mantle and lithospheric processes.

  1. Gaps in Radiation Therapy Awareness: Results From an Educational Multi-institutional Survey of US Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdian, Narek; Yoo, Sun Mi; Cook, Ryan; Chang, Eric M; Jiang, Naomi; Yuan, Ye; Sandler, Kiri; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy

    2017-08-01

    Internists and primary care providers play a growing role in cancer care. We therefore evaluated the awareness of radiation therapy in general and specifically the clinical utility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among current US internal medicine residents. A web-based institutional review board-approved multi-institutional survey was distributed to US internal medicine residency programs. The survey evaluated trainee demographic characteristics, baseline radiation oncology awareness, knowledge of the role of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC, and whether the survey successfully improved awareness. Thirty US internal medicine programs participated, with an overall participant response rate of 46% (1177 of 2551). Of the trainees, 93% (n=1076) reported no radiation oncology education in their residency, 39% (n=452) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in an oncologic emergency, and 26% (n=293) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in the setting of a newly diagnosed cancer. Of the participants, 76% (n=850) correctly identified that surgical resection is the standard treatment in operable early-stage NSCLC, but only 50% (n=559) of participants would recommend SBRT to a medically inoperable patient, followed by 31% of participants (n=347) who were unsure of the most appropriate treatment, and 10% (n=117) who recommended waiting to offer palliative therapy. Ninety percent of participants (n=1029) agreed that they would benefit from further training on when to consult radiation oncology. Overall, 96% (n=1072) indicated that the survey increased their knowledge and awareness of the role of SBRT. The majority of participating trainees received no education in radiation oncology in their residency, reported a lack of confidence regarding when to consult radiation oncology, and overwhelmingly agreed that they would benefit from further training. These findings

  2. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  3. Report on results of seventeen years in consultations of radiation exposed pregnant women. Bericht ueber 17jaehrige Erfahrungen bei der Beratung strahlenbelasteter Schwangerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, L. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Klinisch-Diagnostischer Bereich); Arndt, D. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Klinisch-Diagnostischer Bereich); Laude, G. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Klinisch-Diagnostischer Bereich)

    1992-06-01

    In a survey it will be given results of consultations of pregnant women exposed during the pregnancy in the period of 1976 to 1992 formerly in the National Board of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR and since 1990 in the Clinic-diagnostical Division of the Federal Health Office. The report includes dose estimations of the embryo and medical assessments of 430 pregnant women. The radiation exposure were mainly received by X-ray diagnostic (n = 406 cases) and the others by applications of radiation in nuclear medicine, research and vocational training (n = 24 cases). Results of dose and risk estimation were summarized in tables. Women having incurred fetal doses in excess of 100 mGy were recommended to interrupt pregnancy. A fetal dose above 100 mGy occured in 9 cases. The anatomico-pathological and embryological findings of the embryo or fetus showed only in one case a reference of teratogenic radiation damage. (orig.)

  4. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  5. Emission, transport, and radiative effects of mineral dust from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts: comparison of measurements and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Kang, Litai; Wang, Hao; Ma, Xiaojun; He, Yongli; Yuan, Tiangang; Yang, Ben; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-02-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF-Chem model) was used to investigate a typical dust storm event that occurred from 18 to 23 March 2010 and swept across almost all of China, Japan, and Korea. The spatial and temporal variations in dust aerosols and the meteorological conditions over East Asia were well reproduced by the WRF-Chem model. The simulation results were used to further investigate the details of processes related to dust emission, long-range transport, and radiative effects of dust aerosols over the Taklimakan Desert (TD) and Gobi Desert (GD). The results indicated that weather conditions, topography, and surface types in dust source regions may influence dust emission, uplift height, and transport at the regional scale. The GD was located in the warm zone in advance of the cold front in this case. Rapidly warming surface temperatures and cold air advection at high levels caused strong instability in the atmosphere, which strengthened the downward momentum transported from the middle and low troposphere and caused strong surface winds. Moreover, the GD is located in a relatively flat, high-altitude region influenced by the confluence of the northern and southern westerly jets. Therefore, the GD dust particles were easily lofted to 4 km and were the primary contributor to the dust concentration over East Asia. In the dust budget analysis, the dust emission flux over the TD was 27.2 ± 4.1 µg m-2 s-1, which was similar to that over the GD (29 ± 3.6 µg m-2 s-1). However, the transport contribution of the TD dust (up to 0.8 ton d-1) to the dust sink was much smaller than that of the GD dust (up to 3.7 ton d-1) because of the complex terrain and the prevailing wind in the TD. Notably, a small amount of the TD dust (PM2.5 dust concentration of approximately 8.7 µg m-3) was lofted to above 5 km and transported over greater distances under the influence of the westerly jets. Moreover, the direct radiative forcing induced by dust

  6. Comparing outcomes in poorly-differentiated versus anaplastic thyroid cancers treated with radiation: A surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Arora

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first large population-based study evaluating PDTC and ATC outcomes in patients who received radiation treatment. Radioisotope use and timing of radiotherapy (postoperative vs. preoperative were associated with improved CSS in both histologies.

  7. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: results of hearing preservation in relation to the cochlear radiation dose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Beynon, A.J.; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Graamans, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to evaluate hearing preservation after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and to determine the relation between hearing preservation and cochlear radiation dose in patients with a sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). METHODS: Prospective study involving

  8. The value of the internship for radiation oncology training: results of a survey of current and recent trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen R; Romero, Michelle J; Geannette, Christian; Patel, Amish

    2009-07-15

    Although a 12-month clinical internship is the traditional precursor to a radiation oncology residency, the continuance of this mandated training sequence has been questioned. This study was performed to evaluate the perceptions of current radiation oncology residents with respect to the value of their internship experience. A survey was sent to all US radiation oncology residents. Each was queried about whether they considered the internship to be a necessary prerequisite for a career as a radiation oncologist and as a physician. Preferences were listed on a Likert scale (1 = not at all necessary to 5 = absolutely necessary). Seventy-one percent considered the internship year mostly (Likert Scale 4) or absolutely necessary (Likert Scale 5) for their development as a radiation oncologist, whereas 19.1% answered hardly or not at all (Likert Scale 2 and 1, respectively). With respect to their collective considerations about the impact of the internship year on their development as a physician, 89% had a positive response, 5.8% had a negative response, and 4.7% had no opinion. Although both deemed the preliminary year favorably, affirmative answers were more frequent among erstwhile internal medicine interns than former transitional program interns. A majority of radiation oncology residents positively acknowledged their internship for their development as a specialist and an even greater majority valued it for their development as a physician. This affirmative opinion was registered more frequently by those completing an internal medicine internship compared with a transitional internship.

  9. RADIATION DOSE TO HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN BIOTA IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA RESULTING FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG-KWON KEUM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the radiation doses to human and non-human biota in the Republic of Korea, as a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident. By using the measured airborne activity and ground deposition, the effective and thyroid doses of five human age groups (infant, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult were estimated by the ECOSYS code, and the whole body absorbed dose rate of the eight Korean reference animals and plants (RAPs was estimated by the K-BIOTA (the Korean computer code to assess the risk of radioactivity to wildlife. The first-year effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 5.7E-5 mSv in the infant group to 2.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 5.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.4E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The life-time (70 years effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 1.5E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 6.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.5E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The estimated maximum whole body absorbed dose rate to the Korean RAPs was 6.7E-7 mGy/d for a snake living in soil (terrestrial biota, and 2.0E-5 mGy/d for freshwater fish (aquatic biota, both of which were far less than the generic dose criteria to protect biota from ionizing radiation. Also, the screening level assessment for ERICA's (Environmental Risks from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessments and management limiting organisms showed that the risk quotient (RQ for the estimated maximum soil and water activity was significantly less than unity for both the terrestrial and freshwater organisms. Conclusively, the radiological risk of the radioactivity released into the environment by the Fukushima nuclear accident to the public and the non-human biota in the republic of Korea is considered negligible.

  10. First diffraction topographic results at a third generation synchrotron radiation facility: application to crystals under an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejmankova, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Baruchel, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    1995-05-01

    Diffraction topographic techniques allow the observation of inhomogeneities (defects, domains,..) within a single crystal. The unique capabilities of third generation synchrotron radiation facilities, like the ESRF, add new possibilities to these techniques: (1) the exposure time to record a topograph can be reduced to similar 10{sup -2} s, i.e. a factor 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} below the present standards; (2) an improved resolution associated with the small source size, even when setting the film far ( similar 60 cm) from the sample, allows the size of the sample environment devices to be increased; (3) high sensitivity to small ({>=}10{sup -7}) distortions (misorientations and/or lattice parameter variations); (4) investigation of thick or heavy materials, which were up to now the exclusive field of neutron diffraction. We briefly describe the future Topography and High Resolution Diffraction beamline ID 19, which is designed to optimize the required experimental conditions, and which will be operational at the end of 1995. The first topographic white beam experiments which illustrate these new possibilities were carried out on two (ID11 and D5) of the presently operational beamlines of the ESRF. In this work, particular attention is dedicated to observations performed on crystals under an electric field ({alpha}-LiIO{sub 3}, KTP, LiNbO{sub 3}). Very interesting and encouraging results were obtained, particularly when using ``section`` topography. (orig.).

  11. THE VALIDATION OF THE RESULTS OF MICROARRAY STUDIES OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Khalyuzova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results from the selective validation research into the association between genetic polymorphisms and the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities on a large independent sample are analyzed. These polymorphisms have been identified previously during own microarray studies. It has been shown an association with the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes induced by radiation exposure. The study was conducted among Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises healthy employees (n = 573 exposed to professional irradiation in a dose range of 40–400 mSv. We have found that 5 SNP are confirmed to be associated with the frequency of dicentric and ring: INSR rs1051690 – insulin receptor gene; WRNrs2725349 – Werner syndrome gene, RecQ helicase-like; VCAM1 rs1041163 – vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 gene; PCTP rs2114443 – phosphatidylcholine transfer protein gene; TNKS rs7462102 – tankyrase gene; TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase. IGF1 rs2373721 – insulin-like growth factor 1 gene has not confirmed to be associated with the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes.

  12. Results of simultaneous combination therapy with radiation and chemotherapeutics in stage I. II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yutaka

    1989-01-01

    From October 1973 through August 1986, 100 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (Male 61, Female 39, Mean age 56 yr) were treated in our department. Diffuse large cell type was the most predominant histologic type (63 patients). There were 29 Stage I, 45 Stage II, 14 Stage III and 12 Stage IV patients. Since Aug. 1981, simultaneous therapy combinations involving radiation and chemotherapeutic techniques in Stage I,II patients were used. Complication such as leucopenia, mucositis and fever were encounterd occasionally, but the therapy was completed when the administration of drugs had been stopped for a few weeks. Treatment results of combination therapy were quite excellent compared to previous ones; 5 year survival was 100% vs 67% in Stage I (not significant) and 92% vs 44% in Stage II (p<0.01). As for radiologic examination for staging, it was concluded that CT-scans, lymphography, /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and GI study are indispensable, bone scintigraphy is desirable and liver-spleen scitigraphy is not necessary.

  13. Detecting Hotspots from Taxi Trajectory Data Using Spatial Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. X.; Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, C. K.; Chen, Y. X.

    2015-07-01

    A method of trajectory clustering based on decision graph and data field is proposed in this paper. The method utilizes data field to describe spatial distribution of trajectory points, and uses decision graph to discover cluster centres. It can automatically determine cluster parameters and is suitable to trajectory clustering. The method is applied to trajectory clustering on taxi trajectory data, which are on the holiday (May 1st, 2014), weekday (Wednesday, May 7th, 2014) and weekend (Saturday, May 10th, 2014) respectively, in Wuhan City, China. The hotspots in four hours (8:00-9:00, 12:00-13:00, 18:00-19:00 and 23:00-24:00) for three days are discovered and visualized in heat maps. In the future, we will further research the spatiotemporal distribution and laws of these hotspots, and use more data to carry out the experiments.

  14. Recent hotspot volcanism on Venus from VIRTIS emissivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E; Stofan, Ellen R; Mueller, Nils; Treiman, Allan; Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Helbert, Joern; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2010-04-30

    The questions of whether Venus is geologically active and how the planet has resurfaced over the past billion years have major implications for interior dynamics and climate change. Nine "hotspots"--areas analogous to Hawaii, with volcanism, broad topographic rises, and large positive gravity anomalies suggesting mantle plumes at depth--have been identified as possibly active. This study used variations in the thermal emissivity of the surface observed by the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer on the European Space Agency's Venus Express spacecraft to identify compositional differences in lava flows at three hotspots. The anomalies are interpreted as a lack of surface weathering. We estimate the flows to be younger than 2.5 million years and probably much younger, about 250,000 years or less, indicating that Venus is actively resurfacing.

  15. Preferential Formation of Benzo[a]pyrene Adducts at Lung Cancer Mutational Hotspots in P53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Mikhail F.; Pao, Annie; Tang, Moon-Shong; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoke carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene are implicated in the development of lung cancer. The distribution of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) adducts along exons of the P53 gene in BPDE-treated HeLa cells and bronchial epithelial cells was mapped at nucleotide resolution. Strong and selective adduct formation occurred at guanine positions in codons 157, 248, and 273. These same positions are the major mutational hotspots in human lung cancers. Thus, targeted adduct formation rather than phenotypic selection appears to shape the P53 mutational spectrum in lung cancer. These results provide a direct etiological link between a defined chemical carcinogen and human cancer.

  16. Magnetic hot-spots in hollow silicon cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Evlyukhin, A. B.; Shalin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanoparticles can possess magnetic Mie-resonant response in the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges. In this paper, we consider numerically the features of magnetic hot-spots realized inside silicon nanocylinders at the conditions of the optical magnetic resonances, and show that the intensity of the magnetic field inside nanoparticles with a coaxial through hole can be much stronger than the intensity of incident light waves.

  17. An examination of the relationship between hotspots and recombination associated with chromosome 21 nondisjunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Renee Oliver

    Full Text Available Trisomy 21, resulting in Down Syndrome (DS, is the most common autosomal trisomy among live-born infants and is caused mainly by nondisjunction of chromosome 21 within oocytes. Risk factors for nondisjunction depend on the parental origin and type of meiotic error. For errors in the oocyte, increased maternal age and altered patterns of recombination are highly associated with nondisjunction. Studies of normal meiotic events in humans have shown that recombination clusters in regions referred to as hotspots. In addition, GC content, CpG fraction, Poly(A/Poly(T fraction and gene density have been found to be significant predictors of the placement of sex-averaged recombination in the human genome. These observations led us to ask whether the altered patterns of recombination associated with maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21 could be explained by differences in the relationship between recombination placement and recombination-related genomic features (i.e., GC content, CpG fraction, Poly(A/Poly(T fraction or gene density on 21q or differential hot-spot usage along the nondisjoined chromosome 21. We found several significant associations between our genomic features of interest and recombination, interestingly, these results were not consistent among recombination types (single and double proximal or distal events. We also found statistically significant relationships between the frequency of hotspots and the distribution of recombination along nondisjoined chromosomes. Collectively, these findings suggest that factors that affect the accessibility of a specific chromosome region to recombination may be altered in at least a proportion of oocytes with MI and MII errors.

  18. Europa's surface composition from near-infrared observations: A comparison of results from linear mixture modeling and radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, James H.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Dalton, J. Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative estimates of the abundance of surface materials and of water ice particle grain sizes at five widely separated locations on the surface of Europa have been obtained by two independent methods in order to search for possible discrepancies that may be attributed to differences in the methods employed. Results of radiative transfer (RT) compositional modeling (also known as intimate mixture modeling) from two prior studies are here employed without modification. Areal (or "checkerboard") mixture modeling, also known as linear mixture (LM) modeling, was performed to allow direct comparisons. The failure to model scattering processes (whose effects may be strongly nonlinear) in the LM approach is recognized as a potential source of errors. RT modeling accounts for nonlinear spectral responses due to scattering but is subject to other uncertainties. By comparing abundance estimates for H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice, obtained through both methods as applied to identical spectra, we may gain some insight into the importance of "volume scattering" effects for investigations of Europa's surface composition. We find that both methods return similar abundances for each location analyzed; linear correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.98 are found between the derived H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice abundances returned by both methods. We thus find no evidence of a significant influence of volume scattering on the compositional solutions obtained by LM modeling for these locations. Some differences in the results obtained for water ice grain sizes are attributed to the limited selection of candidate materials allowed in the RT investigations.

  19. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  20. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease. Recently, the availability of large-scale human-sensing datasets enables us to analyze human mobility patterns and the relationships between humans and their living environments on an unprecedented spatial and temporal scale to improve decision-making regarding the quality of life of citizens. This study aims to characterize the urban spatial-temporal dynamic from the perspective of human mobility hotspots by using mobile phone location data. We propose a workflow to identify human convergent and dispersive hotspots that represent the status of human mobility in local areas and group these hotspots into different classes according to clustering their temporal signatures. To illustrate our proposed approach, a case study of Shenzhen, China, has been conducted. Six typical spatial-temporal patterns in the city are identified and discussed by combining the spatial distribution of these identified patterns with urban functional areas. The findings enable us to understand the human dynamics in a different area of the city, which can serve as a reference for urban planning and traffic management.

  1. Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection.

  2. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  3. Factors that affect the nearshore aggregations of Antarctic krill in a biological hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kim S.; Cimino, Megan; Fraser, William; Kohut, Josh; Oliver, Matthew J.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna; Schofield, Oscar M. E.; Statscewich, Hank; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Winsor, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is a highly abundant and ecologically important zooplankton species in the Southern Ocean. Regions of elevated Antarctic krill biomass exist around Antarctica, often as a result of the concentrating effect of bathymetry and ocean currents. Such areas are considered biological hotspots and are key foraging grounds for numerous top predators in the region. A hotspot of Antarctic krill biomass exists off the southern extent of Anvers Island, Western Antarctic Peninsula, and supports a population of Adélie penguins that feed almost exclusively on it, as well as numerous other top predators. We investigated the spatio-temporal variability in Antarctic krill biomass and aggregation structure over four consecutive summer seasons, identifying environmental factors that were responsible. We identified three distinct krill aggregation types (Large-dense, Small-close and Small-sparse), and found that the relative proportion of each type to total aggregation numbers varied significantly between survey days. Large-dense aggregations occurred more frequently when westerly winds predominated and when the local mixed tide was in the diurnal regime. Small-close aggregations were also more frequent during diurnal tides and were negatively correlated with phytoplankton biomass. Small-sparse aggregations, on the other hand, were more prevalent when the mixed tide was in the semi-diurnal phase. We suggest that, under certain conditions (i.e. diurnal tides and westerly winds), the biological hotspot in the nearshore waters off Palmer Station, Anvers Island, functions as a zone of accumulation, concentrating krill biomass. Our findings provide important information on the dynamics of Antarctic krill at the local scale.

  4. Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Erbe

    Full Text Available The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC, Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot" maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert. These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise.

  5. Cannabis cultivation in Quebec: between space-time hotspots and coldspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadillon-Farinacci, Véronique; Apparicio, Philippe; Morselli, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis cultivation has become increasingly localized, whether soil-based or hydroponic growing methods are used. Characteristics of a given location, such as its climate and the equipment it requires may influence general accessibility or attract different types of offenders based on potential profits. The location of crops, especially hydroponic crops, suggests a certain proximity to the consumer market via semi-urban and urban environments, while making it possible to avoid detection. This article examines the cannabis market through its cultivation. The stability of temporal and spatial clusters of cannabis cultivation, hotspots, and coldspots between 2001 and 2009 in the province of Quebec, Canada, are addressed. Studying the geography of crime is not a new endeavor, but coldspots are rarely documented in drug market research. Using arrests and general population data, as well as Kulldorff's scan statistics, results show that the temporal distribution of cannabis cultivation is highly seasonal for soil-based methods. Hydroponic production shows adaptation to its soil-based counterpart. Stable patterns are found for both spatial distributions. Hotspots for soil-based cultivation are found near several urban centers and the Ontario border. For hydroponic cannabis cultivation, a new hotspot suggests the emergence of an American demand for Quebec-grown cannabis between 2007 and 2009. Curiously, the region surrounding Montreal, the largest urban center in Quebec, is a recurrent and stable coldspot for both methods of cultivation. For all periods, spatial clusters are stronger for soil-based methods than in the hydroponic context. Temporal differences and spatial similarities between soil-based cultivation and hydroponic cultivation are discussed. The role of the metropolis is also addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Ca2+ hotspots between Lymnaea neurons during synaptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhong-Ping; Grigoriev, Nikita; Munno, David; Lukowiak, Ken; MacVicar, Brian A; Goldberg, Jeffrey I; Syed, Naweed I

    2002-02-15

    Calcium (Ca2+) channel clustering at specific presynaptic sites is a hallmark of mature synapses. However, the spatial distribution patterns of Ca2+ channels at newly formed synapses have not yet been demonstrated. Similarly, it is unclear whether Ca2+ 'hotspots' often observed at the presynaptic sites are indeed target cell contact specific and represent a specialized mechanism by which Ca2+ channels are targeted to select synaptic sites. Utilizing both soma-soma paired (synapsed) and single neurons from the mollusk Lymnaea, we have tested the hypothesis that differential gradients of voltage-dependent Ca2+ signals develop in presynaptic neuron at its contact point with the postsynaptic neuron; and that these Ca2+ hotspots are target cell contact specific. Fura-2 imaging, or two-photon laser scanning microscopy of Calcium Green, was coupled with electrophysiological techniques to demonstrate that voltage-induced Ca2+ gradients (hotspots) develop in the presynaptic cell at its contact point with the postsynaptic neuron, but not in unpaired single cells. The incidence of Ca2+ hotspots coincided with the appearance of synaptic transmission between the paired cells, and these gradients were target cell contact specific. In contrast, the voltage-induced Ca2+ signal in unpaired neurons was uniformly distributed throughout the somata; a similar pattern of Ca2+ gradient was observed in the presynaptic neuron when it was soma-soma paired with a non-synaptic partner cell. Moreover, voltage clamp recording techniques, in conjunction with a fast, optical differential perfusion system, were used to demonstrate that the total whole-cell Ca2+ (or Ba2+) current density in single and paired cells was not significantly different. However, the amplitude of Ba2+ current was significantly higher in the presynaptic cell at its contact side with the postsynaptic neurons, compared with non-contacted regions. In summary, this study demonstrates that voltage-induced Ca2+ hotspots develop

  7. Correlates of Injecting in an HIV Incidence Hotspot among Substance Users in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, Nana; Roth, Alexis M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use and HIV are growing problems in the Mexico-U.S. border city of Tijuana, a sex tourism destination situated on a northbound drug trafficking route. In a previous longitudinal study of injection drug users (IDUs), we found that >90% of incident HIV cases occurred within an ‘HIV incidence hotspot,’ consisting of 2.5-blocks. This study examines behavioral, social, and environmental correlates associated with injecting in this HIV hotspot. Methods From 4/06–6/07, IDUs aged ≥18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants underwent antibody testing for HIV and syphilis and interviewer-administered surveys eliciting information on demographics, drug use, sexual behaviors, and socio-environmental influences. Participants were defined as injecting in the hotspot if they most frequently injected within a 3 standard deviational ellipse of the cohort’s incident HIV cases. Logistic regression was used to identify individual and structural factors associated with the HIV ‘hotspot’. Results Of 1,031 IDUs, the median age was 36 years; 85% were male; HIV prevalence was 4%. As bivariate analysis indicated different correlates for males and females, models were stratified by sex. Factors independently associated with injecting in the HIV hotspot for male IDUs included homelessness (AOR 1.72; 95%CI 1.14–2.6), greater intra-urban mobility (AOR 3.26; 95% CI 1.67–6.38), deportation (AOR 1.58; 95% CI 1.18–2.12), active syphilis (AOR 3.03; 95%CI 1.63–5.62), needle sharing (AOR 0.57; 95%CI 0.42–0.78), various police interactions, perceived HIV infection risk (AOR 1.52; 95%CI 1.13–2.03), and health insurance status (AOR 0.53; 95%CI 0.33–0.87). For female IDUs, significant factors included sex work (AOR 8.2; 95%CI 2.2–30.59), lifetime syphilis exposure (AOR 2.73; 95%CI 1.08–6.93), injecting inside (AOR 5.26; 95%CI 1.54–17.92), arrests for sterile syringe possession (AOR 4.87; 95%CI 1.56–15.15), prior HIV

  8. Measurement of and activities of Wheat and Corn Products in Ilam Province Iran and Resultant Annual Ingestion Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Changizi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Natural background radiation is the main source of human exposure to radioactive material. Soils naturally have radioactive mineral contents. The aim of this study is to determine natural ( , , and artificial ( radioactivity levels in wheat and corn fields of Eilam province.Methods: HPGe detector was used to measure the concentration activity of and series, and in wheat and corn samples taken from different regions of Eilam province, in Iran.Results: In wheat and corn samples, the average activity concentrations of , , and were found to be 1,67, 0.5, 91.73, 0.01 and 0.81, 0.85, 101.52, 0.07Bq/kg (dry weight, respectively. Hex and Hin in the present work are lower than 1. The average value of Hex was found to be 0.02 and 0.025 and average value of Hin to be found 0.025 and 0.027 in wheat fields samples and corn samples in Eilam provinces, respectively. The obtained values of AGDE are 30.49 mSv/yr for wheat filed samples and 37.89 mSv/yr for corn samples; the AEDE rate values are 5.28 mSv/yr in wheat filed samples and this average value was found to be 6.13 mSv/yr in corn samples in Eilam. Transfer factors (TFs of long lived radionuclide such as , , and from soils to corn and wheat plants have been studied by radiotracer experiments.Conclusion: The natural radioactivity levels in Eilam province are not at the range of high risk of morbidity and are under international standards.

  9. Structural health management of aerospace hotspots under fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sunilkumar

    Sustainability and life-cycle assessments of aerospace systems, such as aircraft structures and propulsion systems, represent growing challenges in engineering. Hence, there has been an increasing demand in using structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques for continuous monitoring of these systems in an effort to improve safety and reduce maintenance costs. The current research is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary effort to develop a robust SHM framework resulting in improved models for damage-state awareness and life prediction, and enhancing capability of future aircraft systems. Lug joints, a typical structural hotspot, were chosen as the test article for the current study. The thesis focuses on integrated SHM techniques for damage detection and characterization in lug joints. Piezoelectric wafer sensors (PZTs) are used to generate guided Lamb waves as they can be easily used for onboard applications. Sensor placement in certain regions of a structural component is not feasible due to the inaccessibility of the area to be monitored. Therefore, a virtual sensing concept is introduced to acquire sensor data from finite element (FE) models. A full three dimensional FE analysis of lug joints with piezoelectric transducers, accounting for piezoelectrical-mechanical coupling, was performed in Abaqus and the sensor signals were simulated. These modeled sensors are called virtual sensors. A combination of real data from PZTs and virtual sensing data from FE analysis is used to monitor and detect fatigue damage in aluminum lug joints. Experiments were conducted on lug joints under fatigue loads and sensor signals collected were used to validate the simulated sensor response. An optimal sensor placement methodology for lug joints is developed based on a detection theory framework to maximize the detection rate and minimize the false alarm rate. The placement technique is such that the sensor features can be directly correlated to damage. The technique accounts for a

  10. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: results of hearing preservation in relation to the cochlear radiation dose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Beynon, A.J.; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Graamans, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to evaluate hearing preservation after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and to determine the relation between hearing preservation and cochlear radiation dose in patients with a sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). METHODS: Prospective study involving pa

  11. Nitrous oxide emission hotspots from organic soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Leppelt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils are a main source of direct nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, an important greenhouse gas (GHG. Observed N2O emissions from organic soils are highly variable in space and time which causes high uncertainties in national emission inventories. Those uncertainties could be reduced when relating the upscaling process to a priori identified key drivers by using available N2O observations from plot scale in empirical approaches. We used the empirical fuzzy modelling approach MODE to identify main drivers for N2O and utilize them to predict the spatial emission pattern of European organic soils. We conducted a meta study with a total amount of 659 annual N2O measurements which was used to derive separate models for different land use types. We applied our models to available, spatial explicit input driver maps to upscale N2O emissions on European level and compared the inventory with recently published IPCC emission factors. The final statistical models explained up to 60% of the N2O variance. Our study results showed that cropland and grasslands emitted the highest N2O fluxes 0.98 ± 1.08 and 0.58 ± 1.03 g N2O-N m−2 a−1, respectively. High fluxes from cropland sites were mainly controlled by low soil pH-value and deep drained groundwater tables. Grassland hotspot emissions were strongly related to high amount of N-fertilizer inputs and warmer winter temperatures. In contrast N2O fluxes from natural peatlands were predominantly low (0.07±0.27 g N2O-N m−2 a−1 and we found no relationship with the tested drivers. The total inventory for direct N2O emissions from organic soils in Europe amount up to 149.5 Gg N2O-N a−1, which included also fluxes from forest and peat extraction sites and exceeds the inventory calculated by IPCC emission factors of 87.4 Gg N2O-N a−1. N2O emissions from organic soils represent up to 13% of total European N2O emissions reported in the European Union (EU greenhouse gas inventory of 2011 from only 7% of

  12. Identification of evolutionary hotspots based on genetic data from multiple terrestrial and aquatic taxa and gap analysis of hotspots in protected lands encompassed by the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Snider, M.; Duke, J.; Moyer, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    (displaying low genetic divergence and greater than average levels of genetic diversity) . Our results show the utility o f genetic data sets for identifying cross - species patterns of genetic  diversity and divergence (i.e., evolutionary hotspots) in aquatic and terrestrial environments for use in conservation design and delivery across the southeastern United States. 

  13. Species compositions and ecology of the riverine ichthyofaunas in two Sulawesian islands in the biodiversity hotspot of Wallacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedley, J R; Bird, D J; Potter, I C; Gill, H S; Miller, P J; O'Donovan, G; Tjakrawidjaja, A H

    2013-06-01

    This account of the riverine ichthyofaunas from the islands of Buton and Kabaena, off south-eastern mainland Sulawesi, represents the first detailed quantitative checklist and ecological study of the riverine fish faunas in the biological hotspot of Wallacea. The results are based on analysis of samples collected by electrofishing at a wide range of sites from July to September in both 2001 and 2002. While the fauna was diverse, with the 2179 fishes caught comprising 64 species representing 43 genera and 22 families, the catches were dominated by the Gobiidae (26 species and 25% by numbers), Eleotridae (seven species and 27% by numbers), Zenarchopteridae (three species and 22% by numbers) and Anguillidae (two species and 12% by numbers). The most abundant species were the eleotrids Eleotris aff. fusca-melanosoma and Ophieleotris aff. aporos, the anguillid Anguilla celebesensis, the zenarchopterids Nomorhamphus sp. and Nomorhamphus ebrardtii and the gobiids Sicyopterus sp. and Glossogobius aff. celebius-kokius. The introduced catfish Clarias batrachus was moderately abundant at a few sites. Cluster analysis, allied with the similarity profiles routine SIMPROF, identified seven discrete groups, which represented samples from sites entirely or predominantly in either Buton (five clusters) or Kabaena (two clusters). Species composition was related to geographical location, distance from river mouth, per cent contribution of sand and silt, altitude and water temperature. The samples from the two islands contained only one species definitively endemic to Sulawesi, i.e. N. ebrardtii and another presumably so, i.e. Nomorhamphus sp., contrasting starkly with the 57 species that are endemic to Sulawesi and, most notably, its large central and deep lake systems on the mainland. This accounts for the ichthyofaunas of these two islands, as well as those of rivers in northern mainland Sulawesi and Flores, being more similar to each other than to those of the central mainland

  14. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbo; Gibbs, David; Zhang, Lang; Ferrier, Graham; Cai, Yongli

    2017-04-15

    Rapid urbanization has altered many ecosystems, causing a decline in many ecosystem services, generating serious ecological crisis. To cope with these challenges, we presented a comprehensive framework comprising five core steps for identifying and managing hotspots of critical ecosystem services in a rapid urbanizing region. This framework was applied in the case study of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Region. The study showed that there was large spatial heterogeneity in the hotspots of ecosystem services in the region, hotspots of supporting services and regulating services aggregately distributing in the southwest mountainous areas while hotspots of provisioning services mainly in the northeast plain, and hotspots of cultural services widespread in the waterbodies and southwest mountainous areas. The regionalization of the critical ecosystem services was made through the hotspot analysis. This study provided valuable information for environmental planning and management in a rapid urbanizing region and helped improve China's ecological redlines policy at regional scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eikonal Simulations for the Energy Transfer in the Deep Ocean Internal Wave Field near Mixing Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, T.; Hibiya, T.

    2016-02-01

    In the proximity of mixing hotspots, the observed internal wave spectra are usually distorted from the Garrett-Munk (GM) spectrum and are characterized by the high energy level E as well as the shear/strain ratio Rω quite different from the corresponding value for the GM spectrum (Rω = 3). Accurate parameterization of the energy transfer toward dissipation scales that takes into account the effects of E and Rω is therefore indispensable to quantify the deep ocean mixing. In this study, a series of eikonal simulations are carried out to examine energy transfer within such distorted internal wave spectra. The obtained results are used to assess the recently proposed parameterization for energy dissipation in the distorted internal wave field near mixing hotspots (Ijichi and Hibiya, 2015). In particular, several factors neglected by these authors in formulating the parameterization such as the background vertical divergence and the WKB horizontal scale-separation between small-scale test waves and the background waves are all taken into account throughout the eikonal simulations. It is shown that the calculated energy transfer rate ɛ is fairly consistent with the scaling ɛ E2N2f with N the local buoyancy frequency and f the local inertial frequency. Furthermore, the calculated results exhibit strong Rω dependence quite similar to that predicted from the parameterization by Ijichi and Hibiya (2015), suggesting the validity of their formulation.

  16. Spherical disharmonics in the Earth sciences and the spatial solution: Ridges, hotspots, slabs, geochemistry and tomography correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Anderson, Don L.

    1994-01-01

    strongest correlation is with lowermost mantle tomography, which is probably spurious. The most striking correlations are between mantle tomography and post-Pangean subducted slabs. The integrated locations of slabs correlate strongly with fast areas near the transition zone and the core-mantle boundary and with slow regions from 1022-1248 km depth. This seems to be consistent with the 'avalanching' downwellings which have been indicated by models of the mantle which include an endothermic phase transition at the 670-km discontinuity, although this is not a unique interpretation. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that slabs and associated cold downwellings are the dominant feature of mantle convection. Hotspot locations are no better correlated with lower mantle tomography than are ridge locations.

  17. Results of performance tests on chemical and radiation measurement systems for use at a dig-face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    Chemical and radiation measurement systems are being developed for use at a dig-face to provide sensing capability during the excavation of previously buried waste. it is believed that on-line dig-face characterization will reduce environmental, health, and safety risks during the cleanup of buried waste sites as well as improve the efficiency of the cleanup process. This report describes progress in the development of three measurement systems: (a) a {gamma}/neutron monitor that scans the dig-face for high levels of radiation prior to excavation, (b) a Ge spectrometer that identifies specific radionuclides located with the {gamma}/neutron monitor, and (c) a prompt {gamma} neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system that measures the presence of chlorine and chlorinated compounds often associated with hazardous waste. The Ge spectrometer and PGNAA system also will provide off-line but on-site capability of radionuclide and elemental identification of excavated waste prior to handling, treatment, transportation, or disposal.

  18. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-I» NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE. REPORT 1: GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE ACCIDENT AND RADIATION SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary assessment of the accident scale, level of its radiation effect on the population and response of national authorities of various countries for the population radiation protection provisions. High levels of the environmental radioactive contamination demanded the application of complex measures for the radiation protection of the population from adjacent territories of Japan. Radionuclides from the region of damaged NPP can get to the other countries by means of the long-distant air and sea water mass transfer. Specific activity of cesium radionuclides in the sea biota can reach the level recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission as the safe level for the international trade or exceed it. Significant radioactive contamination of the territories of other countries resulting from the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident did not occur. Many world countries applied measures of the Japanese food products import control on the base of the radiation monitoring data. These prohibitions are consequently remitted following the radiation situation improvement.

  19. Radiation investigations with Liulin-5 charged particle telescope on the International Space Station: review of results for years 2007-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Rositza; Semkova, Jordanka; Krastev, Krasimir; Bankov, Nikolay; Malchev, Stefan; Benghin, Victor; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    The radiation field around the Earth is complex, composed of galactic cosmic rays, trapped particles of the Earth's radiation belts, solar energetic particles, albedo particles from the Earth's atmosphere and secondary radiation produced in the space vehicle shielding materials around the biological objects. Dose characteristics in near Earth and space radiation environment also depend on many other parameters such as the orbit parameters, solar cycle phase and current helio-and geophysical conditions. Since June 2007 till 2015 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope has been observing the radiation characteristics in two different modules of the International Space Station (ISS). In the period from 2007 to 2009 measurements were conducted in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of MATROSHKA-R project located in the PIRS module of ISS. In the period from 2012 to 2015 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the Small Research Module of ISS. In this presentation attention is drawn to the obtained results for the dose rates, particle fluxes and dose equivalent rates in and outside the phantom from the galactic cosmic rays, trapped protons and solar energetic particle events which occurred in that period.

  20. An evaluation of Arctic cloud and radiation processes during the SHEBA year: simulation results from eight Arctic regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, K.; Willen, U. [Rossby Centre, SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Jones, C.G.; Du, P.; Girard, E.; Laprise, R. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics Network, Montreal (Canada); Cassano, J.; Serreze, M.; Shaw, M.J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Christensen, J.H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Curry, J.A. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit, Potsdam (Germany); Haugen, J.-E.; Koeltzow, M. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lynch, A. [Monash University, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Melbourne (Australia); Tjernstroem, M.; Zagar, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    Eight atmospheric regional climate models (RCMs) were run for the period September 1997 to October 1998 over the western Arctic Ocean. This period was coincident with the observational campaign of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project. The RCMs shared common domains, centred on the SHEBA observation camp, along with a common model horizontal resolution, but differed in their vertical structure and physical parameterizations. All RCMs used the same lateral and surface boundary conditions. Surface downwelling solar and terrestrial radiation, surface albedo, vertically integrated water vapour, liquid water path and cloud cover from each model are evaluated against the SHEBA observation data. Downwelling surface radiation, vertically integrated water vapour and liquid water path are reasonably well simulated at monthly and daily timescales in the model ensemble mean, but with considerable differences among individual models. Simulated surface albedos are relatively accurate in the winter season, but become increasingly inaccurate and variable in the melt season, thereby compromising the net surface radiation budget. Simulated cloud cover is more or less uncorrelated with observed values at the daily timescale. Even for monthly averages, many models do not reproduce the annual cycle correctly. The inter-model spread of simulated cloud-cover is very large, with no model appearing systematically superior. Analysis of the co-variability of terms controlling the surface radiation budget reveal some of the key processes requiring improved treatment in Arctic RCMs. Improvements in the parameterization of cloud amounts and surface albedo are most urgently needed to improve the overall performance of RCMs in the Arctic. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary Results on FeCrAl Alloys in the As-received and Welded State Designed to Have Enhanced Weldability and Radiation Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Xunxiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The present report summarizes and discusses the recent results on developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability. The alloys used for these investigations are modern FeCrAl alloys based on a Fe-13Cr-5Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.05Y alloy (in wt.%, designated C35M). Development efforts have focused on assessing the influence of chemistry and microstructure on the fabricability and performance of these newly developed alloys. Specific focus was made to assess the weldability, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance.

  2. Long-term results of forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Boram; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Rena; Moon, Byung In [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To observe long-term clinical outcomes for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including local control and clinical toxicities. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 214 patients with stage I-II breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant breast radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. All patients were treated using forward IMRT. The whole breast was irradiated to a dose of 50 to 50.4 Gy followed by an 8 to 12 Gy electron boost to the surgical bed. The median age was 46 years (range, 21 to 82 years) and the medial follow-up time was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11.7 years). Stage T1 was 139 (65%) and T2 was 75 (35%), respectively. Ipsilateral breast recurrence was observed in 3 patients. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 99.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated according to the Harvard scale and 89.4% of patients were scored as excellent or good. The whole breast radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment using a forward IMRT technique showed excellent long-term local control as well as favorable outcomes of toxicity and cosmesis.

  3. Validation of Hotspots Detected by Satellites in Sentinel Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Sentinel Asia (SA) initiative is a collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia- Pacific region. It aims to: "EImprove safety in society by ICT and space technology "EImprove speed and accuracy of disaster preparedness and early warning "EMinimize the number of victims and social/economic losses. SA is a voluntary initiative led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share disaster information in near-real-time across the Asia-Pacific region. Wildfire is a major and recurring phenomenon that has a serious impact on property and human health, affecting many countries in the Asia region. Compared to other disasters in the area, it does not necessarily cause many immediate fatalities. However, it causes serious impact on property and human health due to smoke. Furthermore, its effects are of great relevance both at a regional and global level, and accordingly bear substantial influence on global warming. Responding to requirements from Asian countries, under Sentinel Asia a dedicated Wildfire Working Group (WG) has been established to apply remote sensing technology to the management of wildfire. Having accurate information on the location and intensity of the fires, and subsequent control of wildfire, are therefore very important and urgent tasks across the region. SA primarily addresses the issue of near-real-time information distribution on wildfires in the region. Concerning hotspot data obtained by satellites, it is essential to validate and improve its accuracy. In the framework of Sentinel Asia Wildfire WG, various approaches to hotspot detection, including MOD14 algorithm for MODIS hotspots, were studied, and their validations were carried out, comparing them with active fires extracted from satellite imagery and ground truth data in Chiengmai, Thailand and in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  4. The critical parameters of the thermal explosion micro hot-spot model dependence on the pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenskii, A. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Galkina, E. V.

    2017-05-01

    The dependencies of critical laser initiation energy density of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) - aluminum nanoparticles, PETN - cobalt nanoparticles and lead azide - lead nanoparticles on pulse duration were calculated in terms of the refined micro hot-spot model. It was shown that the absorption efficiency of the laser irradiation taken into account makes the initiation criterion change. According to the calculation results, the criterion in the limit of short pulses is energy density matching the experimental data. If the neodymium pulses duration is less than 50 ns, the radius of the nanoparticles with highest temperature varies insignificantly. The expression for the critical hot-spot temperature dependence on the pulse duration was derived. The conclusion was made that the model refining with nanoparticles absorption efficiency dependence on their radius is sufficient for the “small particles’ paradox” solution.

  5. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H Saranholi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.

  6. Counting complete? Finalising the plant inventory of a global biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Treurnicht

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Floristic Region—the world’s smallest and third richest botanical hotspot—has benefited from sustained levels of taxonomic effort and exploration for almost three centuries, but how close is this to resulting in a near-complete plant species inventory? We analyse a core component of this flora over a 250-year period for trends in taxonomic effort and species discovery linked to ecological and conservation attributes. We show that >40% of the current total of species was described within the first 100 years of exploration, followed by a continued steady rate of description. We propose that <1% of the flora is still to be described. We document a relatively constant cohort of taxonomists, working over 250 years at what we interpret to be their ‘taxonomic maximum.’ Rates of description of new species were independent of plant growth-form but narrow-range taxa have constituted a significantly greater proportion of species discoveries since 1950. This suggests that the fraction of undiscovered species predominantly comprises localised endemics that are thus of high conservation concern. Our analysis provides important real-world insights for other hotspots in the context of global strategic plans for biodiversity in informing considerations of the likely effort required in attaining set targets of comprehensive plant inventories. In a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, we argue for a focused research agenda across disciplines to increase the rate of species descriptions in global biodiversity hotspots.

  7. The highly-cited Electrocardiogram-related articles in science citation index expanded: characteristics and hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianglin; Gu, Jiaojiao; Yan, Hong; Xu, Zhi; Ren, Bing; Yang, Yaming; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Qi; Tan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    We used bibliometric analysis methodology in the expanded Science Citation Index to identify highly-cited electrocardiogram (ECG)-related articles with total citations (TC2012) exceeding 100 from the publication year to 2012. Web of Science search tools were used to identify the highly-cited articles. The aspects analyzed for highly cited publications included effect of time on citation analysis, journals and Web of Science categories, number of authors per publication, originating institutions and countries, total citation and total citation per year life cycles of articles (C2012) and research hotspots. Results showed that a total of 467 electrocardiogram-related publications were regarded as the highly-cited publications. TC2012 ranged from 101 to 2879, with 215 as the average number of citations. No highly-cited publications have emerged yet during the first two years of the present 2010 Decade. All 11 countries and institutions originating highly-cited ECG-related publications were developed countries, USA in 9 of them. Four subject categories were identified as hotspots by total citations TC2012 and C2012: atrial fibrillation, long QT syndrome, angina and myocardial infarction, and risk factor analysis and health evaluation.

  8. Hotspot detection using image pattern recognition based on higher-order local auto-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shimon; Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Ogawa, Ryuji; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Miyairi, Masahiro; Kotani, Toshiya; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Kei; Saito, Tamaki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Inoue, Soichi; Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Takumi; Murakawa, Masahiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Eiichi; Otsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Below 40nm design node, systematic variation due to lithography must be taken into consideration during the early stage of design. So far, litho-aware design using lithography simulation models has been widely applied to assure that designs are printed on silicon without any error. However, the lithography simulation approach is very time consuming, and under time-to-market pressure, repetitive redesign by this approach may result in the missing of the market window. This paper proposes a fast hotspot detection support method by flexible and intelligent vision system image pattern recognition based on Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation. Our method learns the geometrical properties of the given design data without any defects as normal patterns, and automatically detects the design patterns with hotspots from the test data as abnormal patterns. The Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation method can extract features from the graphic image of design pattern, and computational cost of the extraction is constant regardless of the number of design pattern polygons. This approach can reduce turnaround time (TAT) dramatically only on 1CPU, compared with the conventional simulation-based approach, and by distributed processing, this has proven to deliver linear scalability with each additional CPU.

  9. Counting complete? Finalising the plant inventory of a global biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Jonathan F.; Joppa, Lucas N.; Huyser, Onno; Manning, John

    2017-01-01

    The Cape Floristic Region—the world’s smallest and third richest botanical hotspot—has benefited from sustained levels of taxonomic effort and exploration for almost three centuries, but how close is this to resulting in a near-complete plant species inventory? We analyse a core component of this flora over a 250-year period for trends in taxonomic effort and species discovery linked to ecological and conservation attributes. We show that >40% of the current total of species was described within the first 100 years of exploration, followed by a continued steady rate of description. We propose that description of new species were independent of plant growth-form but narrow-range taxa have constituted a significantly greater proportion of species discoveries since 1950. This suggests that the fraction of undiscovered species predominantly comprises localised endemics that are thus of high conservation concern. Our analysis provides important real-world insights for other hotspots in the context of global strategic plans for biodiversity in informing considerations of the likely effort required in attaining set targets of comprehensive plant inventories. In a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, we argue for a focused research agenda across disciplines to increase the rate of species descriptions in global biodiversity hotspots. PMID:28243528

  10. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  11. Environmental risk factors and hotspot analysis of dengue distribution in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    This study is an attempt to find out the factors responsible for sudden dengue outbreak in different cities of Pakistan during 2011. For this purpose, spatio-temporal distribution of dengue in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi has been taken into account. According to the available data, the factors responsible for this spread includes climate covariates like rainfall, temperature, and wind speed; social covariates like population, and area of locality, and environmental risk factors like drainage pattern and geo-hydrological conditions. Reported dengue cases from localities and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) of study areas have been processed for hotspots, regression model and stream density in the localities of high dengue incidence. The relationship of daily dengue incidence with climate covariates during the months of July-October of the study year is analyzed. Results show that each dry spell of 2-4 days provides suitable conditions for the development and survival of dengue vectors during the wet months of July and August in the areas of high stream density and population. Very few cases have been reported in July while higher number of cases reported in the months of August, September, until late October. Hotspot analysis highlights the areas of high dengue incidence while regression analysis shows the relationship between the population and the areas of localities with the dengue incidence.

  12. Using expert informed GIS to locate important marine social-ecological hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Pouyan; Parkes, Margot; Stephen, Craig; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-01

    The marine environment provides significant benefits to many local communities. Pressure to develop coastal waterways worldwide creates an urgent need for tools to locate marine spaces that have important social or ecological values, and to quantify their relative importance. The primary objective of this study was to develop, apply and critically assess a tool to identify important social-ecological hotspots in the marine environment. The study was conducted in a typical coastal community in northern British Columbia, Canada. This expert-informed GIS, or xGIS, tool used a survey instrument to draw on the knowledge of local experts from a range of backgrounds with respect to a series of 12 social-ecological value attributes, such as biodiversity, cultural and economic values. We identified approximately 1500 polygons on marine maps and assigned relative values to them using a token distribution exercise. A series of spatial statistical analyses were performed to locate and quantify the relative social-ecological importance of marine spaces and the results were ultimately summarized in a single hotspot map of the entire study area. This study demonstrates the utility of xGIS as a useful tool for stakeholders and environmental managers engaged in the planning and management of marine resources at the local and regional levels.

  13. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  14. Generation of mutation hotspots in ageing bacterial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekowska, Agnieszka; Wendel, Sofie; Christian Fischer, Emil

    2016-01-01

    How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation......: most mutations were located in just a few hotspots in the genome, and over time, mutations increasingly were consistent with the involvement of 8-oxo-guanosine, formed exclusively on the transcribed strand. This work provides strong support for retromutagenesis as a general process creating adaptive...... mutations during ageing....

  15. General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.

  16. Identifying Spatio-Temporal Landslide Hotspots on North Island, New Zealand, by Analyzing Historical and Recent Aerial Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hölbling

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mapping of landslides and the reliable identification of areas most affected by landslides are essential for advancing the understanding of landslide erosion processes. Remote sensing data provides a valuable source of information on the spatial distribution and location of landslides. In this paper we present an approach for identifying landslide-prone “hotspots” and their spatio-temporal variability by analyzing historical and recent aerial photography from five different dates, ranging from 1944 to 2011, for a study site near the town of Pahiatua, southeastern North Island, New Zealand. Landslide hotspots are identified from the distribution of semi-automatically detected landslides using object-based image analysis (OBIA, and compared to hotspots derived from manually mapped landslides. When comparing the overlapping areas of the semi-automatically and manually mapped landslides the accuracy values of the OBIA results range between 46% and 61% for the producer’s accuracy and between 44% and 77% for the user’s accuracy. When evaluating whether a manually digitized landslide polygon is only intersected to some extent by any semi-automatically mapped landslide, we observe that for the natural-color images the landslide detection rate is 83% for 2011 and 93% for 2005; for the panchromatic images the values are slightly lower (67% for 1997, 74% for 1979, and 72% for 1944. A comparison of the derived landslide hotspot maps shows that the distribution of the manually identified landslides and those mapped with OBIA is very similar for all periods; though the results also reveal that mapping landslide tails generally requires visual interpretation. Information on the spatio-temporal evolution of landslide hotspots can be useful for the development of location-specific, beneficial intervention measures and for assessing landscape dynamics.

  17. Sequence- and interactome-based prediction of viral protein hotspots targeting host proteins: a case study for HIV Nef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available Virus proteins alter protein pathways of the host toward the synthesis of viral particles by breaking and making edges via binding to host proteins. In this study, we developed a computational approach to predict viral sequence hotspots for binding to host proteins based on sequences of viral and host proteins and literature-curated virus-host protein interactome data. We use a motif discovery algorithm repeatedly on collections of sequences of viral proteins and immediate binding partners of their host targets and choose only those motifs that are conserved on viral sequences and highly statistically enriched among binding partners of virus protein targeted host proteins. Our results match experimental data on binding sites of Nef to host proteins such as MAPK1, VAV1, LCK, HCK, HLA-A, CD4, FYN, and GNB2L1 with high statistical significance but is a poor predictor of Nef binding sites on highly flexible, hoop-like regions. Predicted hotspots recapture CD8 cell epitopes of HIV Nef highlighting their importance in modulating virus-host interactions. Host proteins potentially targeted or outcompeted by Nef appear crowding the T cell receptor, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Scanning of HIV Nef motifs on multiple alignments of hepatitis C protein NS5A produces results consistent with literature, indicating the potential value of the hotspot discovery in advancing our understanding of virus-host crosstalk.

  18. HotSpot Wizard 2.0: automated design of site-specific mutations and smart libraries in protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Stourac, Jan; Sebestova, Eva; Vavra, Ondrej; Musil, Milos; Brezovsky, Jan; Damborsky, Jiri

    2016-07-01

    HotSpot Wizard 2.0 is a web server for automated identification of hot spots and design of smart libraries for engineering proteins' stability, catalytic activity, substrate specificity and enantioselectivity. The server integrates sequence, structural and evolutionary information obtained from 3 databases and 20 computational tools. Users are guided through the processes of selecting hot spots using four different protein engineering strategies and optimizing the resulting library's size by narrowing down a set of substitutions at individual randomized positions. The only required input is a query protein structure. The results of the calculations are mapped onto the protein's structure and visualized with a JSmol applet. HotSpot Wizard lists annotated residues suitable for mutagenesis and can automatically design appropriate codons for each implemented strategy. Overall, HotSpot Wizard provides comprehensive annotations of protein structures and assists protein engineers with the rational design of site-specific mutations and focused libraries. It is freely available at http://loschmidt.chemi.muni.cz/hotspotwizard.

  19. The GULLS project: a comparison of vulnerabilities across selected ocean hotspots and implications for adaptation to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, K.; Hobday, A. J.; Aswani, S.; Byfield, V.; Dutra, L.; Gasalla, M.; Haward, M.; Paytan, A.; Pecl, G.; Plaganyi-Lloyd, E.; Popova, K.; Salim, S. S.; Savage, C.; Sauer, W.; van Putten, I. E.; Visser, N.; Team, T G

    2016-12-01

    The GULLS project, `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' has been underway since October 2014. The project has been investigating six regional `hotspots': marine areas experiencing rapid warming. These are south-east Australia, Brazil, India, Solomon Islands, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and Madagascar. Rapid warming could be expected to have social, cultural and economic impacts that could affect these countries in different ways and may already be doing so. GULLS has focused on contributing to assessing and reducing the vulnerability of coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources and to facilitate adaptation to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. It includes participants from Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The research programme has been divided into six inter-linked components: ocean models, biological and ecological sensitivity analyses, system models, social vulnerability, policy mapping, and communication and education. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each of these components and describe the benefits that have resulted from the collaborative and transdisciplinary approach of GULLS. Following the standard vulnerability elements of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, the vulnerabilities of coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources in the five hotspots will be compared using a set of indicators derived and populated from results of the research programme. The implications of similarities and differences between the hotspots for adaptation planning and options will be described.

  20. Nondestructive characterization of the contaminated biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) was employed to elucidate the elemental characteristics of contaminated biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste (BFMSW). Six sectioned BFMSW samples were selected for SR-μXRF mapping and 50 individual fine particles sorbed onto BFMSW were analyzed using SR-μXRF point scanning. The results showed that heavy metals tended to be concentrated on the surface of BFMSW and highly localized to some "hot-spots". Marked differences in heavy metal sequestering potentials among various kinds of BFMSW, and the significant role of heavy metal "hot-spots" in BFMSW contamination were identified. The lower heavy metal levels in the simulated samples compared to field samples (with longer and more intense mixing) indicated that inter-contamination during waste handling contributed significantly to heavy metal accumulation in BFMSW. Furthermore, additional information regarding elemental characteristics of individual particles could be acquired using SR-μXRF.

  1. Multileaf Collimator Tracking Improves Dose Delivery for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy: Results of the First Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy T; O'Brien, Ricky T;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking improves the consistency between the planned and delivered dose compared with the dose without MLC tracking, in the setting of a prostate cancer volumetric modulated arc therapy trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Multileaf...... collimator tracking was implemented for 15 patients in a prostate cancer radiation therapy trial; in total, 513 treatment fractions were delivered. During each treatment fraction, the prostate trajectory and treatment MLC positions were collected. These data were used as input for dose reconstruction...

  2. Biodiversity hotspots: A shortcut for a more complicated concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Marchese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of human activities, global environmental changes, habitat loss and species extinction, conservation strategies are a crucial step toward minimizing biodiversity loss. For instance, oceans acidification and land use are intensifying in many places with negative and often irreversible consequences for biodiversity. Biodiversity hotspots, despite some criticism, have become a tool for setting conservation priorities and play an important role in decision-making for cost-effective strategies to preserve biodiversity in terrestrial and, to some extent, marine ecosystems. This area-based approach can be applied to any geographical scale and it is considered to be one of the best approaches for maintaining a large proportion of the world’s biological diversity. However, delineating hotspots includes quantitative criteria along with subjective considerations and the risk is to neglect areas, such as coldspots, with other types of conservation value. Nowadays, it is widely acknowledged that biodiversity is much more than just the number of species in a region and a conservation strategy cannot be based merely on the number of taxa present in an ecosystem. Therefore, the idea that strongly emerges is the need to reconsider conservation priorities and to go toward an interdisciplinary approach through the creation of science-policy partnerships.

  3. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray hotspots from tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Daniel N.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-04-01

    We consider the possibility that tidal disruption events (TDEs) caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in nearby galaxies can account for the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) hotspot reported recently by the Telescope Array (TA) and the warm spot by Pierre Auger Observatory. We describe the expected cosmic ray signal from a TDE and derive the constraints set by the time-scale for dispersion due to Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields and the accretion time of the SMBH. We find that TDEs in M82 can explain the hotspot detected by the TA regardless of whether the UHECRs are composed of protons or heavier nuclei. We then check for consistency of the hot and warm spots from M82 and Cen A with the full-sky isotropic signal from all SMBHs within the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) radius. This analysis applies to any scenario in which the hot/warm spots are real and due to M82 and Cen A, regardless of whether TDEs are the source of UHECRs. We find that the isotropic flux implied by the luminosity density inferred from M82 and Cen A is bigger than that observed by roughly an order of magnitude, but we provide several possible explanations, including the possibility of a local overdensity and the possibility of intermediate-mass nuclei in UHECRs, to resolve the tension.

  4. Mesoscale structure and oceanographic determinants of krill hotspots in the California Current: Implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Sydeman, William J.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Wells, Brian K.; Field, John C.

    2011-12-01

    Krill (crustaceans of the family Euphausiacea) comprise an important prey field for vast array of fish, birds, and marine mammals in the California Current and other large marine ecosystems globally. In this study, we test the hypothesis that mesoscale spatial organization of krill is related to oceanographic conditions associated with coastal upwelling. To test this, we compiled a climatology of krill distributions based on hydroacoustic surveys off California in May-June each year between 2000 and 2009 (missing 2007). Approximately 53,000 km of ocean habitat was sampled, resulting in a comprehensive geo-spatial data set from the Southern California Bight to Cape Mendocino. We determined the location and characteristics of eight definite and two probable krill “hotspots” of abundance. Directional-dependence analysis revealed that krill hotspots were oriented in a northwest-southeast (135°) direction, corresponding to the anisotropy of the 200-2000 m isobath. Krill hotspots were disassociated (inversely correlated) with three upwelling centers, Point Arena, Point Sur, and Point Conception, suggesting that krill may avoid locations of strong offshore transport or aggregate downstream from these locations. While current fisheries management considers the entire coast out to the 2000 m isobath critical habitat for krill in this ecosystem, we establish here smaller scale structuring of this critical mid-trophic level prey resource. Identifying mesoscale krill hotspots and their oceanographic determinants is significant as these smaller ecosystem divisions may warrant protection to ensure key ecosystem functions (i.e., trophic transfer) and resilience. Furthermore, delineating and quantifying krill hotspots may be important for conservation of krill-predators in this system.

  5. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mea