WorldWideScience

Sample records for resulting mechanical evaluation

  1. The use of fracture mechanics methodologies for NDT results evaluation and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reale, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the general frame of analysing the interactions amongst the information from non destructive evaluation (NDE) and the methodologies to assess the integrity of a defective structure (such as fracture mechanics), the aim of the paper is to analyse and compare, in terms of indices related to safety margins, NDE results from round robin testing trials to acheive assessments of capabilities and limitations.A structural integrity/fracture mechanics approach for evaluating and comparing results from non destructive techniques is presented. Safety factors can be associated to flaws detected and characterized by inspections (estimated flaws) and to flaws actually present (reference flaws). The mismatch between safety factors associated to estimated flaws and safety factors associated to reference flaws can be used to assess capabilities and limitations of procedures and techniques in use for inspections.As an example, to show how the above procedure is applied and its potential as a method of data evaluation and comparison, the NDE results produced by the PISC (project for the inspection of steel components) activity have been considered. (orig.)

  2. Failure mechanism dependence and reliability evaluation of non-repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Liu; Ye, Cui; Kang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Reliability study of electronic system with the physics-of-failure method has been promoted due to the increase knowledge of electronic failure mechanisms. System failure initiates from independent failure mechanisms, have effect on or affect by other failure mechanisms and finally result in system failure. Failure mechanisms in a non-repairable system have many kinds of correlation. One failure mechanism developing to a certain degree will trigger, accelerate or inhibit another or many other failure mechanisms, some kind of failure mechanisms may have the same effect on the failure site, component or system. The destructive effect will be accumulated and result in early failure. This paper presents a reliability evaluation method considering correlativity among failure mechanisms, which includes trigger, acceleration, inhibition, accumulation, and competition. Based on fundamental rule of physics of failure, decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. With a case, reliability of electronic system is evaluated considering failure mechanism dependence. - Highlights: • Five types of failure mechanism correlations are described. • Decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. • A reliability evaluation method considering mechanism dependence is proposed. • Results are quite different to results under failure independence assumption

  3. Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)

  4. Optimization evaluation of cutting technology based on mechanical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between the mechanical manufacturing process and the carbon emission is studied on the basis of the process of the mechanical manufacturing process. The formula of carbon emission calculation suitable for mechanical manufacturing process is derived. Based on this, a green evaluation method for cold machining process of mechanical parts is proposed. The application verification and data analysis of the proposed evaluation method are carried out by an example. The results show that there is a great relationship between the mechanical manufacturing process data and carbon emissions.

  5. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    1999-01-01

    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  6. Maxillary incisor retraction: evaluation of different mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To mechanically evaluate different systems used for incisors retraction. METHODS: Three different methods for incisors retraction using 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel wire were evaluated. The samples were divided into three groups: Group A (retraction arch with 7-mm high vertical hooks; Group G3 (elastic chain attached to the miniimplant and to the 3-mm stainless steel hook soldered to the retraction arch; Group G6 (elastic chain attached to the mini-implant and to the 6-mm stainless steel hook soldered to the retraction arch. A dental mannequin was used for evaluation in order to simulate the desired movements when the device was exposed to a heat source. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey test were used (p < 0.05. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that Groups G3 and G6 exhibited less extrusion and less incisor inclination during the retraction phase (p < 0.05. With regard to incisor extrusion, statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and G3, and between Groups A and G6 (p < 0.05. Regarding incisor inclination, statistically significant differences were observed between the three systems evaluated (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Arches with 6-mm vertical hooks allow the force to be applied on the center of resistance of the incisors, thus improving mechanical control when compared with the other two systems.

  7. [Research progress on mechanical performance evaluation of artificial intervertebral disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of artificial intervertebral disc (AID) are related to long-term reliability of prosthesis. There are three testing methods involved in the mechanical performance evaluation of AID based on different tools: the testing method using mechanical simulator, in vitro specimen testing method and finite element analysis method. In this study, the testing standard, testing equipment and materials of AID were firstly introduced. Then, the present status of AID static mechanical properties test (static axial compression, static axial compression-shear), dynamic mechanical properties test (dynamic axial compression, dynamic axial compression-shear), creep and stress relaxation test, device pushout test, core pushout test, subsidence test, etc. were focused on. The experimental techniques using in vitro specimen testing method and testing results of available artificial discs were summarized. The experimental methods and research status of finite element analysis were also summarized. Finally, the research trends of AID mechanical performance evaluation were forecasted. The simulator, load, dynamic cycle, motion mode, specimen and test standard would be important research fields in the future.

  8. Evaluating the reliability of multi-body mechanisms: A method considering the uncertainties of dynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism reliability is defined as the ability of a certain mechanism to maintain output accuracy under specified conditions. Mechanism reliability is generally assessed by the classical direct probability method (DPM) derived from the first order second moment (FOSM) method. The DPM relies strongly on the analytical form of the dynamic solution so it is not applicable to multi-body mechanisms that have only numerical solutions. In this paper, an indirect probability model (IPM) is proposed for mechanism reliability evaluation of multi-body mechanisms. IPM combines the dynamic equation, degradation function and Kaplan–Meier estimator to evaluate mechanism reliability comprehensively. Furthermore, to reduce the amount of computation in practical applications, the IPM is simplified into the indirect probability step model (IPSM). A case study of a crank–slider mechanism with clearance is investigated. Results show that relative errors between the theoretical and experimental results of mechanism reliability are less than 5%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Highlights: • An indirect probability model (IPM) is proposed for mechanism reliability evaluation. • The dynamic equation, degradation function and Kaplan–Meier estimator are used. • Then the simplified form of indirect probability model is proposed. • The experimental results agree well with the predicted results.

  9. Mechanical Evaluation for the Quality Control of Biomass Pellets and Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Seabra da Rocha, Saulo Henrique [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). KoBrA - Coking, Briquetting and Thermal Waste Treatment Group

    2006-07-15

    Biomass densification through compression machine leads to numerous benefits, such as decreased dust emission, transportation, and maintenance costs. However, if the mechanical strength of the Pellets and briquettes is not high enough, breaks and abrasion lead to low efficiency. Quality evaluation before pelleting or briquetting can avoid these problems. The most common mechanical strength evaluation methods are simple and fast, but their accuracy and precision are limited. In this paper three methods for mechanical strength evaluation are reviewed, tested and statistically compared. Compacted bodies in different dimensions of typical materials, like sawdust, bark and lignite, were produced, and tested with the mentioned methods to get different values of mechanical strength. The correlation coefficient was used to compare the accuracy and precision of those methods. The Point Load Strength method showed a linear variation error and a poor correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.71-0.78). The Brazilian Test had a reasonably constant result, but the relative standard deviation was 22%, insufficient for a practical process optimization. The best results were produced from the Extended Planar Strength, with an excellent correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.98). This technique will help to increase efficiency and save energy in the production process.

  10. Evaluation of Worktext in Mechanical Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich D. Cruz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate Worktext in Drafting Technology 4 (Mechanical Drafting for Bachelor of Technology (BT major in Drafting Technology. It was conducted at University of Rizal System with twenty Drafting and Mechanical Technology professors as respondents. The study used the descriptive evaluative method to describe and evaluate the developed Worktext in DT 4 using the questionnaire-checklist in gathering data. They were asked to evaluate the worktext through the following: objectives, contents, activities, presentation and style, organization, creativity, evaluation, accuracy, completeness and appropriateness. It was found out that the developed worktext with respect to objectives was highly agree, contents was highly agree, activities was highly agree, presentation and style was agree, creativity was highly agree and evaluation was highly agree. Meaning that the items with highly agree interpretations attained excellent level of acceptability while those with agree interpretations obtained extensive level of acceptability with fully achieved and above average Drafting standards, respectively. It was also found out that the developed worktext in terms of accuracy was high, completeness was very high and appropriateness was likewise very high. The researcher recommends that the developed Worktext in Drafting Technology 4 may be adopted for use by the Bachelor of Technology major in Drafting Technology students.

  11. Methods for evaluation of mechanical stress condition of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchev Yordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary attention is given to the following methods: method by drilling cylindrical holes (drill method and integrated ultrasonic method using volume (longitudinal and transverse, surface, and sub-surface waves. Drill method allows determination of residual mechanical stress in small depth of material surfaces, assessing type, size, and orientation of principal stresses. For the first time, parallel studies are carried out of mechanical stress in materials using the electroacoustic effect of volume, surface and sub-surface waves on the one hand, and effective mechanical stresses on the other. The experimental results present electroacoustic coefficients for different types of waves in the material of gas pipeline tube of 243 mm diameter and 14 mm thickness. These are used to evaluate mechanical stresses in pipelines, according to active GOST standards.

  12. Mechanics of Nanostructures: Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2003-03-01

    We continue to develop and use new tools to measure the mechanics and electromechanics of nanostructures. Here we discuss: (a) methods for making nanoclamps and the resulting: nanoclamp geometry, chemical composition and type of chemical bonding, and nanoclamp strength (effectiveness as a nanoclamp for the mechanics measurements to be made); (b) mechanics of carbon nanocoils. We have received carbon nanocoils from colleagues in Japan [1], measured their spring constants, and have observed extensions exceeding 100% relative to the unloaded length, using our scanning electron microscope nanomanipulator tool; (c) several new devices that are essentially MEMS-based, that allow for improved measurements of the mechanics of psuedo-1D and planar nanostructures. [1] Zhang M., Nakayama Y., Pan L., Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1242-L1244 (2000).

  13. Quality of protection evaluation of security mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  14. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  15. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  16. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-01-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years

  17. NDE and fracture mechanics evaluation of bottom-head weld indications in a BWR reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B [Swedish Plant Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the Non Destructive Examination (NDE) and the fracture mechanics evaluation of bottom head welds in a BWR. The NDE equipment is presented, together with the geometry of evaluated flaw regions. After the fracture mechanics evaluation, it appeared that the plant results fulfilled the usual conditions, and the plant was allowed to operate one more year. (TEC).

  18. Mechanical evaluation of space closure loops in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Eduardo Uggeri; Maruo, Hiroshi; Guariza Filho, Odilon; Tanaka, Orlando; Camargo, Elisa Souza

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the mechanical performance of teardrop-shaped loops and teardrop-shaped loops with helix used in orthodontic space closure. Sixty retraction loops made with 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel (SS) and beta-titanium (BT) wires were used. They were attached to a testing machine to measure the magnitudes of the sagittal force and the load-deflection ratio necessary for 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm activation. The results demonstrated that the BT alloy presented significantly smaller mea...

  19. Analysis and evaluation of the result of 1995`s the mechanization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. The production of 1995 amounted to 5,719 thousand tons which is less than the last year`s production by 1,719 thousand tons. The investment put for the coal mining mechanization totaled 7,478 million won consisting of 4,176 million won of government subsidy and 3,302 million won of company`s own capital. By increasing mechanization rate from 72 % of the previous year to 75 % and overall O.M.S. from 1.63 ton/man{center_dot}shift to 1.68 ton/man{center_dot} shift the mechanization program got 218.0 billion won of returns compared to the base year 1980 which can be broken down as follows : 1) 89.3 billion won from increase in productivity, 2) 22.0 billion won from increase in calorific value, 3) 5.4 billion won from increase in recovery rate, 4) 101.3 billion won from reduction in accident rate. (author). tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Goncalo; Moondra, Arul; Dubey, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    2016-01-01

    In modern networked control applications, confidentiality and integrity are important features to address in order to prevent against attacks. Moreover, network control systems are a fundamental part of the communication components of current cyber-physical systems (e.g., automotive communications). Many networked control systems employ Time-Triggered (TT) architectures that provide mechanisms enabling the exchange of precise and synchronous messages. TT systems have computation and communication constraints, and with the aim to enable secure communications in the network, it is important to evaluate the computational and communication overhead of implementing secure communication mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the effects of adding a Hash-based Message Authentication (HMAC) to TT networked control systems. The contributions of the paper include (1) the analysis and experimental validation of the communication overhead, as well as a scalability analysis that utilizes the experimental result for both wired and wireless platforms and (2) an experimental evaluation of the computational overhead of HMAC based on a kernel-level Linux implementation. An automotive application is used as an example, and the results show that it is feasible to implement a secure communication mechanism without interfering with the existing automotive controller execution times. The methods and results of the paper can be used for evaluating the performance impact of security mechanisms and, thus, for the design of secure wired and wireless TT networked control systems. PMID:27463718

  1. Kinematic Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Novel PRS Parallel Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K.; Khan, B. Shahul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a 3 DoF (Degree of Freedom) novel PRS (Prismatic-Revolute- Spherical) type parallel mechanisms has been designed and presented. The combination of striaght and arc type linkages for 3 DOF parallel mechanism is introduced for the first time. The performances of the mechanisms are evaluated based on the indices such as Minimum Singular Value (MSV), Condition Number (CN), Local Conditioning Index (LCI), Kinematic Configuration Index (KCI) and Global Conditioning Index (GCI). The overall reachable workspace of all mechanisms are presented. The kinematic measure, dexterity measure and workspace analysis for all the mechanism have been evaluated and compared.

  2. Systematic evaluation of skeletal mechanical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren; Bigelow, Erin M R; Jepsen, Karl J

    2013-06-01

    Many genetic and environmental perturbations lead to measurable changes in bone morphology, matrix composition, and matrix organization. The skeletal system is highly adaptive, such that genetic and environmental perturbations affecting one trait are often accompanied by compensatory changes in other traits. This adaptation should be considered when attempting to draw meaningful conclusions about the role of a gene, for example. The challenge is to figure out which alterations can be attributed to the perturbation and which result from adaptive changes associated with establishing mechanical function. The goal of this chapter is to describe straight-forward biomechanical methods that can be used to determine whether a genetic or environmental perturbation affected bone strength. We introduce a systematic method for evaluating how bone strength was altered in the context of morphology and tissue-level mechanical properties, which are determined in large part from matrix composition, matrix organization, and porosity. We present this work as a first step toward screening mice for a phenotypic effect and for establishing the associated biomechanical mechanism by which function was altered. The outcome of these analyses generally provides insight into the next set of experiments required to further connect the cellular perturbation with the functional changes. The protocols were written to enable researchers without a background in engineering to conduct the assays or to enable researchers to better understand the outcomes of similar assays conducted by colleagues knowledgeable in engineering.

  3. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions

  4. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  5. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2004. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report presents Posiva Oy's results of the rock mechanical monitoring programme from the year 2004. Monitoring programme was established for long time monitoring of modifications in the bedrock during the excavation of the ONKALO underground research facility stated in Olkiluoto island. This is the first annual report where rock mechanical research work has being reported also from the monitoring point of view. Rock mechanical research work consists of both GPS measurements and microseismic measurements carried out in Olkiluoto island. Both measurements have been performed during several years even before monitoring programme was established. GPS measurements have been carried out since 1995 and microseismic network has operated since 2002. There have been no significant changes in observations when studying rock mechanical results from the year 2004 and comparing them to results from the previous years. Therefore it can be said, that so far ONKALO has barely had any effect on rock mechanics in Olkiluoto. Report has been composed from the annual reports of GPS measurements.(orig.)

  6. Echocardiographic evaluation during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Medianeira Schifelbain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables can change during weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in cardiac function, using Doppler echocardiogram, in critical patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation, using two different weaning methods: pressure support ventilation and T-tube; and comparing patient subgroups: success vs. failure in weaning. METHODS: Randomized crossover clinical trial including patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h and considered ready for weaning. Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation, electrocardiogram and Doppler echocardiogram findings were analyzed at baseline and after 30 min in pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Pressure support ventilation vs. T-tube and weaning success vs. failure were compared using ANOVA and Student's t-test. The level of significance was p<0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-four adult patients were evaluated. Seven patients failed at the first weaning attempt. No echocardiographic or electrocardiographic differences were observed between pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Weaning failure patients presented increases in left atrium, intraventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and diameter of left ventricle and shorter isovolumetric relaxation time. Successfully weaned patients had higher levels of oxygenation. CONCLUSION: No differences were observed between Doppler echocardiographic variables and electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables during pressure support ventilation and T-tube. However cardiac structures were smaller, isovolumetric relaxation time was larger, and oxygenation level was greater in successfully weaned patients

  7. Evaluation of the information quality in a company of metal-mechanical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Spiegel Gualazzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an instrument for assessing the quality of information based on attributes such as accuracy, reliability, performance, among others. This instrument was applied in order to evaluate and identify ineffective information in a specific scenario of an engineering company in the metal-mechanic sector from the point of view of users of technical information. The case study aimed to demonstrate the applicability and functionality of the assessment instrument, the interest of people in evaluating their information and, finally, evaluate the scope of their results. The result of this evaluation allowed the company researched a plan of action to correct problems in its processes and identified inaccuracies in the information, indicating that the problem was solved by the method of problem solving.

  8. Presentation of economic evaluation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2014-05-01

    The first HTA guidelines for Thailand included a chapter outlining a set of guidelines on how best to report the findings of health economic evaluations, based on a review of best practice and existing guidelines on the presentation of economic evaluation results from around the world. In this second edition of HTA guidelines for Thailand, the recommendations build on the first edition by using a case study to illustrate how the guidelines can be applied in a real research context. The guidelines propose that all reporting include ten key elements: defining the scope of the study, selection of comparator(s), defining the type of economic evaluation, measurement of costs, measurement of clinical effects, handling time in economic evaluation studies, handling uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, presentation of the results, discussion of the results, and disclosure of funding and authors conflict of interest.

  9. Mechanical characteristic evaluation of the mid grid spring in PWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, K. B.; Lee, S. H.; Jeon, S. Y.; Kweon, Y. B.; Jeon, K. R.

    2001-01-01

    The spring load-deflection characteristic tests were performed for Westinghouse type 17x17 and 14x14 fuel assembly mid grids to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the springs. Six kinds of prototype mid grids manufactured by KNFC were tested and two kinds of test methods were used: block test and in-grid test. The test results showed that all tested mid grid springs satisfied the criteria required at the beginning of fuel assembly life. In addition, the variation of spring characteristics resulting from the difference in the mechanical properties of spring material and spring shapes was investigated. And the validity of the test methods was discussed

  10. The quality evaluation of frankfurter-type sausages from hand and mechanically deboned turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomyski, T; Niewiarowicz, A

    1987-03-01

    A quality evaluation was made of frankfurter-type sausages made from hand and mechanically deboned meat from various parts of turkey carcasses. The results led to the conclusions that despite some differences in objective measurements of the sausage quality, mechanically deboned turkey meat can be considered as an exclusive meat raw material for the production of frankfurter-type sausages. The quality of sausages from mechanically deboned turkey meat from wings and frames with skin was the least satisfactory.

  11. Fracture mechanics evaluation for the cast duplex stainless steel after thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Shigeru [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore, we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years. (author)

  12. Evaluating the urethral closure mechanism after pelvic organ prolapse surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine

    2017-01-01

    . By measuring urethral opening pressure at an abdominal pressure of 50 mmH2O (PO-Abd 50), it is the only method that has succeeded in distinguishing between women with and without SUI. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the urethral closure mechanism before and after anterior and posterior......, the woman has occult SUI. However, only half of all women with occult SUI actually develop de novo SUI postoperatively and therefore, the usefulness of the test has been questioned. Studies investigating how POP reduction and POP surgery affect the urethral closure mechanism have used conventional urethral...... pressure profilometry, a method that has shown wide overlaps in the results of women with and without SUI. Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR), a method that assesses the urethral closure mechanism by means of acoustic reflectometry, has proven highly reproducible in women with and without SUI...

  13. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that the Egyptian MRP has achieved better & higher results than the values detected in ICAO-Doc N0232: Durability of Machine Readable Passports - Version: 3.2. Hence, this research had proved the complete conformance between the Egyptian MRP mechanical durability profiles to the international requirements. The Egyptian booklet MRP doesn’t need any obligatory modification concerning its mechanical durability profiles.

  14. Evaluation of a computerized system for mechanical ventilation of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fleur T; Abbasi, Soraya

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate a computerized system for mechanical ventilation of infants. FLEX is a computerized system that includes the features of a patented mode known as adaptive-support ventilation (ASV). In addition, it has many other features including adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), fraction of inspired oxygen (F(IO2)), minute ventilation, and control of weaning. It is used as an open-loop decision support system or as a closed-loop technique. Blood gas and ventilation data were collected from 12 infants in the neonatal intensive care at baseline and at the next round of evaluation. This data were input to open-loop version of FLEX. The system recommendations were compared to clinical determinations. FLEX recommended values for ventilation were on the average within 25% and 16.5% of the measured values at baseline and at the next round of evaluation, respectively. For F(IO2) and PEEP, FLEX recommended values were in general agreement with the clinical settings. FLEX recommendations for weaning were the same as the clinical determinations 50% of the time at baseline and 55% of the time at the next round of evaluation. FLEX did not recommend weaning for infants with weak spontaneous breathing effort or those who showed signs of dyspnea. A computerized system for mechanical ventilation is evaluated for treatment of infants. The results of the study show that the system has good potential for use in neonatal ventilatory care. Further refinements can be made in the system for very low-birth-weight infants.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical properties and durability performance of HDPE-wood composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazi, M.; Erchiqui, F. [Engineering department, Université de Quebec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (Canada); Kaddami, H. [Université Caddi Ayad Marrakech, Laboratoire ’LCO2MC’, B.P. 549, Marrakech 40000, Maroc (Morocco); Bouazara, M. [Mechanical department, Université de Québec à Chicoutimi Canada (Canada); Poaty, B. [Technology Center of industrial residuals, QC Canada (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability performance of bio-composite materials made from sawdust and thermoplastic polymer (HDPE). For the preparation of the composites, sawdust in different proportions with Maleic Anhydride grafted Polyethylene (MAPE) as the coupling agent was used. The thermal and mechanical properties were successively characterized. The results indicate that adding wood fillers to a polymer matrix increases the degree of crystallinity and improves the tensile strength and ductility of composites. On the contrary, resistance to water absorption decreases as a function of the wood fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological structure alteration when exposed to intense weathering. The biodegradability of bio-composites up to 97 days was also investigated; the results indicate that, by increasing the filler content, the amount of weight loss increased as well. In other words, even though the addition of sawdust to thermoplastic polymer improves the mechanical performance of a composite material, it also accelerates the biodegradation rate of the composite. An optimum amount of filler content might compromise the effect of biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite materials.

  16. Evaluation of mechanical properties and durability performance of HDPE-wood composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazi, M.; Erchiqui, F.; Kaddami, H.; Bouazara, M.; Poaty, B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability performance of bio-composite materials made from sawdust and thermoplastic polymer (HDPE). For the preparation of the composites, sawdust in different proportions with Maleic Anhydride grafted Polyethylene (MAPE) as the coupling agent was used. The thermal and mechanical properties were successively characterized. The results indicate that adding wood fillers to a polymer matrix increases the degree of crystallinity and improves the tensile strength and ductility of composites. On the contrary, resistance to water absorption decreases as a function of the wood fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological structure alteration when exposed to intense weathering. The biodegradability of bio-composites up to 97 days was also investigated; the results indicate that, by increasing the filler content, the amount of weight loss increased as well. In other words, even though the addition of sawdust to thermoplastic polymer improves the mechanical performance of a composite material, it also accelerates the biodegradation rate of the composite. An optimum amount of filler content might compromise the effect of biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite materials

  17. Mechanical property evaluation of natural fiber coir composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, S.; Michael, D. Peter; Bensely, A.; Lal, D. Mohan; Rajadurai, A.

    2009-01-01

    The fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber-reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, coir composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Scanning electron micrographs obtained from fractured surfaces were used for a qualitative evaluation of the interfacial properties of coir/epoxy and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that coir can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites

  18. Fracture mechanics evaluation of heavy welded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, I.; Ericksson, C.W.; Zilberstein, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes some applications of nondestructive examination (NDE) and engineering fracture mechanics to evaluation of flaws in heavy welded structures. The paper discusses not only widely recognized linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis, but also methods of the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM), such as COD, J-integral, and Failure Assessment Diagram. Examples are given to highlight the importance of interaction between specialists providing input and the specialists performing the analysis. The paper points out that the critical parameters for as-welded structures when calculated by these methods are conservative since they are based on two pessimistic assumptions: that the magnitude of residual stress is always at the yield strength level, and that the residual stress always acts in the same direction as the applied (mechanical) stress. The suggestion is made that it would be prudent to use the COD or the FAD design curves for a conservative design. The appendix examines a J-design curve modified to include residual stresses

  19. Statistical mechanics of few-particle systems: exact results for two useful models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Enrique N.

    2017-11-01

    The statistical mechanics of small clusters (n ˜ 10-50 elements) of harmonic oscillators and two-level systems is studied exactly, following the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical formalisms. For clusters with several hundred particles, the results from the three formalisms coincide with those found in the thermodynamic limit. However, for clusters formed by a few tens of elements, the three ensembles yield different results. For a cluster with a few tens of harmonic oscillators, when the heat capacity per oscillator is evaluated within the canonical formalism, it reaches a limit value equal to k B , as in the thermodynamic case, while within the microcanonical formalism the limit value is k B (1-1/n). This difference could be measured experimentally. For a cluster with a few tens of two-level systems, the heat capacity evaluated within the canonical and microcanonical ensembles also presents differences that could be detected experimentally. Both the microcanonical and grand canonical formalism show that the entropy is non-additive for systems this small, while the canonical ensemble reaches the opposite conclusion. These results suggest that the microcanonical ensemble is the most appropriate for dealing with systems with tens of particles.

  20. The Practice of Evaluation Research and the Use of Evaluation Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, G.; Hoeben, W. Th. J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Lack of use of educational evaluation results in the Netherlands was investigated by analyzing 14 curriculum evaluation studies. Results indicated that rational decision making with a technical (empirical) evaluation approach makes utilization of results most likely. Incremental decision making and a conformative approach make utilization least…

  1. Mechanical thermal evaluation of polyamide 6 with bentonite organo clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Rene Anisio da; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas Jeferson Alves de; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Cavalcanti, Shirley Nobrega; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This work had for objective to obtain polymeric nanocomposites of polyamide 6 and a clay consisting of silicates layer from of Paraiba mines and to evaluate evaluation mechanical thermal in different processing conditions. The clay was organically modified using a quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide), so that there is a larger interaction of the clay with the polymer. The obtained nanocomposites showed the morphological structure composed exfoliated/partially exfoliated, as shown XRD. The results of HDT it because the clay increases the dimensional stability of PA6 in high temperatures, making possible the use of the nanocomposites for making of pieces with good resistance to the heat distortion. (author)

  2. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.

    1997-04-01

    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  3. Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Composite Hip Protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Diniz Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures often result in serious health implications, particularly in the geriatric population, and have been related to long-term morbidity and death. In most cases, these fractures are caused by impact loads in the area of the greater trochanter, which are produced in a fall. This work is aimed at developing hip protectors using composite materials and evaluating their effectiveness in preventing hip fractures under high impact energy (120 J. The hip protectors were developed with an inner layer of energy absorbing soft material and an outer rigid shell of fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite. According to the experimental results, all tested configurations proved to be effective at reducing the impact load to below the average fracture threshold of proximal femur. Furthermore, an addition of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA to the impacted area of the composite shell proved to be beneficial to increase impact strength of the hip protectors. Thus, composite hip protectors proved to be a viable alternative for a mechanically efficient and cost-effective solution to prevent hip fractures.

  4. Persistent visual impairment in multiple sclerosis: prevalence, mechanisms and resulting disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasse, Laurence; Vukusic, Sandra; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Vartin, Cristina; Piras, Carolina; Bernard, Martine; Pélisson, Denis; Confavreux, Christian; Vighetto, Alain; Tilikete, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients the prevalence of persistent complaints of visual disturbances and the mechanisms and resulting functional disability of persistent visual complaints (PVCs). Firstly, the prevalence of PVCs was calculated in 303 MS patients. MS-related data of patients with or without PVCs were compared. Secondly, 70 patients with PVCs performed an extensive neuro-ophthalmologic assessment and a vision-related quality of life questionnaire, the National Eye Institute Visual Functionary Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). PVCs were reported in 105 MS patients (34.6%). Patients with PVCs had more frequently primary progressive MS (30.5% vs 13.6%) and more neuro-ophthalmologic relapses (1.97 vs 1.36) than patients without PVCs. In the mechanisms/disability study, an afferent visual and an ocular-motor pathways dysfunction were respectively diagnosed in 41 and 59 patients, mostly related to bilateral optic neuropathy and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The NEI-VFQ 25 score was poor and significantly correlated with the number of impaired neuro-ophthalmologic tests. Our study emphasizes the high prevalence of PVC in MS patients. Regarding the nature of neuro-ophthalmologic deficit, our results suggest that persistent optic neuropathy, as part of the progressive evolution of the disease, is not rare. We also demonstrate that isolated ocular motor dysfunctions induce visual disability in daily life.

  5. Evaluation of carbohydrate molecular mechanical force fields by quantum mechanical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Madsen, D.E.; Esbensen, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    of the (gg, gt and tg) rotamers of methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside are (0.13, 0.00, 0.15) and (0.64, 0.00, 0.77) kcal/mol. respectively. The results of the quantum mechanical calculations are compared with the results of calculations using the 20 second...... for monosaccharide carbohydrate benchmark systems. Selected results are: (i) The interaction energy of the alpha-D-alucopyranose-H2O heterodimer is estimated to be 4.9 kcal/mol, using a composite method including terms at highly correlated (CCSD(T)) level. Most molecular mechanics force fields are in error...

  6. Mechanical Performance Evaluation of Self-Compacting Concrete with Fine and Coarse Recycled Aggregates from the Precast Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara A; da Silva, Pedro R; de Brito, Jorge

    2017-08-04

    This paper intends to evaluate the feasibility of reintroducing recycled concrete aggregates in the precast industry. The mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with incorporation of recycled aggregates (RA) (coarse recycled aggregates (CRA) and fine recycled aggregates (FRA)) from crushed precast elements were evaluated. The goal was to evaluate the ability of producing SCC with a minimum pre-established performance in terms of mechanical strength, incorporating variable ratios of RA (FRA/CRA%: 0/0%, 25/25%, 50/50%, 0/100% and 100/0%) produced from precast source concretes with similar target performances. This replication in SCC was made for two strength classes (45 MPa and 65 MPa), with the intention of obtaining as final result concrete with recycled aggregates whose characteristics are compatible with those of a SCC with natural aggregates in terms of workability and mechanical strength. The results enabled conclusions to be established regarding the SCC's produced with fine and coarse recycled aggregates from the precast industry, based on its mechanical properties. The properties studied are strongly affected by the type and content of recycled aggregates. The potential demonstrated, mainly in the hardened state, by the joint use of fine and coarse recycled aggregate is emphasized.

  7. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  8. Evaluation of the cryogenic mechanical properties of the insulation material for ITER Feeder superconducting joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, ChuanJun; Yang, Yanfang; Huang, Xiongyi; Li, Laifeng

    2017-12-01

    The Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) fabricated by the vacuum bag process was selected as the high voltage electrical insulation and mechanical support for the superconducting joints and the current leads for the ITER Feeder system. To evaluate the cryogenic mechanical properties of the GFRP, the mechanical properties such as the short beam strength (SBS), the tensile strength and the fatigue fracture strength after 30,000 cycles, were measured at 77K in this study. The results demonstrated that the GFRP met the design requirements of ITER.

  9. A procedure for a mechanical evaluation of an undefined osteo-protective material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco; Terroso, Miguel; Freitas, Ricardo; Marques, AntÓnio Torres; Gabriel, Joaquim; Simoes, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Falls represent a major care and cost problem to health and social services world-widely, since 50% of falls result in an injury. In this work, is proposed a methodology to evaluate protective pads materials and geometry performance, in order to reduce impact results in a fall event. Since the material properties and the pad geometry are the key factors to make the protection possible when a fall event occurs, our approach relies on the use of mechanical tests to evaluate the properties of the material and in the study of the pad response during a fall. For this, were used compression, tensile and instrumented falling weight tests, that allow a fully characterization of the materials that can be employed in the protective pads. Likewise, to gather precise information on falls events, in order to study the pad response during a fall, a set of laboratory fall trials were created using a camera-less inertial motion capture (mocap) system. This allow the acquisition of dynamic information of falls, namely acceleration and velocity that can be used to create a finite element analysis (FEA) model, where different segments from the human body can be evaluated when the protective pad is associated to it. Through the proposed methodology, different materials and pad geometries can be studied towards maximizing the performance of protection pads for falls. The mocap system allows the acquisition of fall data, and also the creation of a human body geometrical model, representative of the fall. From the mechanical trials, was showed that the spacer fabric embedded with silicone has the higher ability to reduce the peak force in case of impact when compared with all the other specimens. The compression and the tensile tests allow the mechanical definition of the material, and with this the material definition on the FEA model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Matrix Type Transdermal Therapeutic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaea Paula

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTSs represent an intensely studied alternative to oral delivery of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in the treatment of rheumatic diseases due to its ability of avoiding the side effects of the oral route. This study aims to present the evaluation of the mechanical properties of three NSAIDs (meloxicam, tenoxicam and indomethacin individually included in four type of polymeric matrixes, as part of new formulations development process. Methods: 12 products in form of TTS matrixes were prepared by solvent casting evaporation technique, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 15000, HPMC E5 and/or ethylcellulose as matrix-forming polymers. Each of the resulted products was evaluated by determining the water vapor absorption, desorption or transmission in controlled atmosphere humidity (evaluation of porosity; the elongation capacity, tensile strength and bioadhesiveness (evaluation of mechanical properties. Results: The analysis of three groups of the experimental data expressed as averages on each group was necessary, in order to identify the parameters which statistically are critically influenced by the ingredients associated in the TTSs matrix compositions. Analysis by normality tests, variance and correlation tests (Anova, Pearson enabled evaluation of the effect of NSAID type vs. the effect of polymer matrix type on the parameters of the NSAID TTS matrix. Conclusions: Meloxicam incorporated in the structure of HPMC 15000 polymeric matrix favors its viscoelastic structure. Ethylcellulose functions as plasticizer and supports the matrix bioadhesiveness. HPMC E5 does not meet the requirements for TTS preparation in the used experimental conditions.

  11. Evaluation of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Aortic Media Based on the Lamellar Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Taghizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the mechanical properties of arterial wall components is necessary for establishing a precise mechanical model applicable in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as remodeling. In this contribution, a new approach for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of aortic media accounting for the lamellar structure is proposed. We assumed aortic media to be composed of two sets of concentric layers, namely sheets of elastin (Layer I and interstitial layers composed of mostly collagen bundles, fine elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells (Layer II. Biaxial mechanical tests were carried out on human thoracic aortic samples, and histological staining was performed to distinguish wall lamellae for determining the dimensions of the layers. A neo-Hookean strain energy function (SEF for Layer I and a four-parameter exponential SEF for Layer II were allocated. Nonlinear regression was used to find the material parameters of the proposed microstructural model based on experimental data. The non-linear behavior of media layers confirmed the higher contribution of elastic tissue in lower strains and the gradual engagement of collagen fibers. The resulting model determines the nonlinear anisotropic behavior of aortic media through the lamellar microstructure and can be assistive in the study of wall remodeling due to alterations in lamellar structure during pathological conditions and aging.

  12. Turning goals into results: the power of catalytic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Most executives have a big, hairy, audacious goal. They write vision statements, formalize procedures, and develop complicated incentive programs--all in pursuit of that goal. In other words, with the best of intentions, they install layers of stultifying bureaucracy. But it doesn't have to be that way. In this article, Jim Collins introduces the catalytic mechanism, a simple yet powerful managerial tool that helps translate lofty aspirations into concrete reality. Catalytic mechanisms are the crucial link between objectives and performance; they are a galvanizing, nonbureaucratic means to turn one into the other. What's the difference between catalytic mechanisms and most traditional managerial controls? Catalytic mechanisms share five characteristics. First, they produce desired results in unpredictable ways. Second, they distribute power for the benefit of the overall system, often to the discomfort of those who traditionally hold power. Third, catalytic mechanisms have teeth. Fourth, they eject "viruses"--those people who don't share the company's core values. Finally, they produce an ongoing effect. Catalytic mechanisms are just as effective for reaching individual goals as they are for corporate ones. To illustrate how catalytic mechanisms work, the author draws on examples of individuals and organizations that have relied on such mechanisms to achieve their goals. The same catalytic mechanism that works in one organization, however, will not necessarily work in another. Catalytic mechanisms must be tailored to specific goals and situations. To help readers get started, the author offers some general principles that support the process of building catalytic mechanisms effectively.

  13. EGFR-targeted anti-cancer drugs in radiotherapy: Preclinical evaluation of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Dittmann, Klaus; Doerr, Wolfgang; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical results indicate that the EGFR can mediate radioresistance in different solid human tumours. Combination of radiotherapy and EGFR inhibitors can improve local tumour control compared to irradiation alone and has been introduced into clinical radiotherapy practice. So far several mechanisms have been identified in preclinical studies to contribute to improved local tumour control after radiation combined with EGFR inhibitors. These include direct kill of cancer stem cells by EGFR inhibitors, cellular radiosensitization through modified signal transduction, inhibition of repair of DNA damage, reduced repopulation and improved reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy. Effects and mechanisms may differ for different classes of EGFR inhibitors, for different tumours and for normal tissues. The mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are currently poorly understood, and predictive assays are not available yet. Importantly, mechanisms and predictors for the combined effects of radiation with EGFR inhibitors appear to be considerably different to those for application of EGFR inhibitors alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Therefore to further evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of EGFR-inhibition in combined treatments, radiotherapy-specific preclinical research strategies, which include in vivo experiments using local tumour control as an endpoint, as well as animal studies on normal tissue toxicity are needed

  14. Evaluation of the basic mechanical and thermal properties of deep crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Jeon, Seok Won

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the mechanical and thermal properties of granitic intact rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are the basic material properties of the core samples from the boreholes drilled up to 500 m depth at the Yusung and Kosung sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. In this study, the mechanical properties include density, porosity, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and shear strength of fractures, and the thermal properties are heat conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and so on. Those properties were measured through laboratory tests and these data are compared with the existing test results of several domestic rocks

  15. Evaluation of the basic mechanical and thermal properties of deep crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Jeon, Seok Won

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the mechanical and thermal properties of granitic intact rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are the basic material properties of the core samples from the boreholes drilled up to 500 m depth at the Yusung and Kosung sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. In this study, the mechanical properties include density, porosity, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and shear strength of fractures, and the thermal properties are heat conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and so on. Those properties were measured through laboratory tests and these data are compared with the existing test results of several domestic rocks.

  16. Light water reactors fuel assembly mechanical design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This standard establishes a procedure for performing an evaluation of the mechanical design of fuel assemblies for light water-cooled commercial power reactors. It does not address the various aspects of neutronic or thermalhydraulic performance except where these factors impose loads or constraints on the mechanical design of the fuel assemblies. This standard also includes a set of specific requirements for design, various potential performance problems and criteria aimed specifically at averting them. This standard replaces ANSI/ANS-57.5-1978

  17. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. Result report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Shiozaki, Isao; Neyama, Atsushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Sagawa, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, this study has been studied on the addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES) and preliminary coupling analysis by using development environmental tool (Diffpack) for numerical analysis. (1) In order to prepare the strategy on the addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES), we have studied on the requirement of THAMES-Transport and methodology of coupling analysis. After that we set out modification plan by the Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) method. (2) Based on the document of modification plan, we have done addition of the mass transport model to the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code (THAMES) and carried out verification analysis in order to confirm on the accuracy of THAMES-Transport. (3) In order to understand on the behavior of NaCl in the porewater under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the HLW engineered barrier system, we have calculated coupling phenomenon by using THAMES-Transport. Transportation and concentration phenomena of NaCl are calculated but precipitation of NaCl is not occurred under the analysis conditions in this report. (4) In order to confirm about feasibility of coupling analysis under the development environmental tool (Diffpack) for numerical analysis, we have carried out on the design work and writing program of the preliminary coupling system. In this study, we have adopted existing transport model (HYDROGEOCHEM) and geochemical model (phreeqe 60) for preliminary coupling system. (5) In order to confirm program correctness of preliminary coupling system, we have carried out benchmarking analysis by using existing reactive-transport analysis code (HYDROGEOCHEM). (6) We have been prepared short-range development plan based on through the modification study of THAMES and writing program of the preliminary coupling

  18. Impact of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Results From a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Bin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Jisun; Jun, Yong Hoon

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the in-hospital consequences of prolonged respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight infants. A cohort study was performed using prospectively collected data from 69 neonatal intensive care units participating in the Korean national registry. In total, 3508 very low birth weight infants born between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 were reviewed. The adjusted hazard ratio for death increased significantly for infants who received mechanical ventilation for more than 2 weeks compared with those were mechanically ventilated for 7 days or less. The individual mortality rate increased after 8 weeks, reaching 50% and 60% at 14 and 16 weeks of cumulative mechanical ventilation, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, the cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with a clinically significant increase in the odds of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Mechanical ventilation exposure for longer than 2 weeks, compared with 7 days or less, was associated with retinopathy of prematurity requiring laser coagulation and periventricular leukomalacia. The odds of abnormal auditory screening test results were significantly increased in infants who needed mechanical ventilation for more than 4 weeks. A longer cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with increased lengths of hospitalization and parenteral nutrition and a higher probability of discharge with poor achievement of physical growth. Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for premature infants, these results indicate that it is associated with negative consequences when applied for prolonged periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical and morphological evaluation of age-related changes in the Beagle spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.A.; Gerlach, R.; Cassidy, J.; Brown, S.

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes were evaluated in the spines of Beagle dogs by biomechanical testing, radiology and pathology. Thirty age-matched healthy Beagle dogs were divided into five groups having mean ages of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 years. Spinal radiographs of anesthetized dogs were taken prior to euthanasia and on defleshed pines following necropsy. Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments were tested in compression to calculate peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus. Adjacent spinal segments were examined histologically. Histological evidence of the disc degeneration and changes in the mechanical properties of the intervertebral disc joint preceded radiographical evidence of spondylosis. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc space were probably a result of the disc degeneration rather than the spondylytic lesions. 3 references, 4 figures

  20. Fracture mechanics evaluation of cast duplex stainless steel after thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tujikura, Y.; Urata, S.

    1999-01-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel, which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance and weldability, has conventionally been used. Cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix, and thermal aging after long-term service is known to decrease fracture toughness. Therefore, we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secure, even when such through-wall crack length is assumed to be as large as the fatigue crack length grown for a service period of up to 60 years. (orig.)

  1. Fracture mechanics evaluation of cast duplex stainless steel after thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tujikura, Y.; Urata, S. [Kansai Electr. Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan). General Office of Nucl. and Fossil Power Production

    1999-07-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel, which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance and weldability, has conventionally been used. Cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix, and thermal aging after long-term service is known to decrease fracture toughness. Therefore, we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secure, even when such through-wall crack length is assumed to be as large as the fatigue crack length grown for a service period of up to 60 years. (orig.)

  2. First results of the wind evaluation breadboard for ELT primary mirror design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes García-Talavera, Marcos; Viera, Teodora; Núñez, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    The Wind Evaluation Breadboard (WEB) is a primary mirror and telescope simulator formed by seven aluminium segments, including position sensors, electromechanical support systems and support structures. WEB has been developed to evaluate technologies for primary mirror wavefront control and to evaluate the performance of the control of wind buffeting disturbance on ELT segmented mirrors. For this purpose WEB electro-mechanical set-up simulates the real operational constrains applied to large segmented mirrors. This paper describes the WEB assembly, integration and verification, the instrument characterisation and close loop control design, including the dynamical characterization of the instrument and the control architecture. The performance of the new technologies developed for position sensing, acting and controlling is evaluated. The integration of the instrument in the observatory and the results of the first experiments are summarised, with different wind conditions, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence. Conclusions are extracted with respect the wind rejection performance and the control strategy for an ELT. WEB has been designed and developed by IAC, ESO, ALTRAN and JUPASA, with the integration of subsystems of FOGALE and TNO.

  3. Fracture mechanical evaluation of high temperature structure and creep-fatigue defect assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jae Han

    2004-02-01

    This study proposed the evaluation procedure of high temperature structures from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics on the cylindrical structure applicable to the KALIMER, which is developed by KAERI. For the evaluation of structural integrity, linear and non-linear fracture mechanics parameters were analyzed. Parameters used in creep defect growth applicable to high temperature structure of liquid metal reactor and the evaluation codes with these parameters were analyzed. The evaluation methods of defect initiation and defect growth which were established in R5/R6 code(UK), JNC method (Japan) and RCC-MR A16(France) code were analyzed respectively. The evaluation procedure of leak before break applicable to KALIMER was preliminarily developed and proposed. As an application example of defect growth, the creep-fatigue defect growth on circumferential throughwall defect in high temperature cylindrical structure was evaluated by RCC-MR A16 and this application technology was established.

  4. Low radiation dose non-contrast cardiac CT: is it of value in the evaluation of mechanical aortic valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazeed, Mohamed Fayez; Moselhy, Mohamed Saleh; Rezk, Ahmad Ibrahim; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab Ayedh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prosthetic bileaflet mechanical valve function has been traditionally evaluated using echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a novel technique for cardiac evaluation. Purpose: To evaluate bileaflet mechanical aortic valves using a low-milliampere (mA), non-contrast MDCT protocol with a limited scan range. Material and Methods: Forty patients with a bileaflet mechanical aortic valve were evaluated using a non-contrast, low-mA, ECG-gated 64 MDCT protocol with a limited scan range. MDCT findings of opening and closing valve angles were correlated to fluoroscopy and echocardiography. Also, the valve visibility was evaluated on MDCT and fluoroscopy according to a 3-point grading scale. Results: The visualization score with the MDCT was significantly superior to the fluoroscopy (3 vs. 2.7). A strong correlation was noted between the opening (r = 0.82) and closing (r = 0.96) valve angles with MDCT and fluoroscopy without a statistically significant difference (P = 0.31 and 0.16, respectively). The mean effective radiation dose of the suggested protocol was 4 ± 0.5 mSv. Five valves were evaluated using transesophageal echocardiography because the valves were difficult to evaluate with transthoracic echocardiography, and all of these valves were evaluated optimally with MDCT. A high-pressure gradient was noted in nine valves, and the MDCT showed that seven of these valves inadequately opened, and two valves opened well, which resulted in patient valve mismatch. Incomplete valve closure was noted in five valves, and the echocardiography showed significant transvalvular regurgitation in all five valves. Conclusion: MDCT can provide a precise measurement of valve function and can potentially evaluate high-pressure gradients and transvalvular regurgitation

  5. Low radiation dose non-contrast cardiac CT: is it of value in the evaluation of mechanical aortic valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeed, Mohamed Fayez (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura Univ. (Egypt)), email: m_bazeed@yahoo.com; Moselhy, Mohamed Saleh (Cardiology Dept. Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Rezk, Ahmad Ibrahim (Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Aim Shams Univ. (Egypt)); Al-Murayeh, Mushabab Ayedh (Dept. of Cardiac Services, Armed Forces Hospitals Southern Region (Saudi Arabia))

    2012-05-15

    Background: Prosthetic bileaflet mechanical valve function has been traditionally evaluated using echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a novel technique for cardiac evaluation. Purpose: To evaluate bileaflet mechanical aortic valves using a low-milliampere (mA), non-contrast MDCT protocol with a limited scan range. Material and Methods: Forty patients with a bileaflet mechanical aortic valve were evaluated using a non-contrast, low-mA, ECG-gated 64 MDCT protocol with a limited scan range. MDCT findings of opening and closing valve angles were correlated to fluoroscopy and echocardiography. Also, the valve visibility was evaluated on MDCT and fluoroscopy according to a 3-point grading scale. Results: The visualization score with the MDCT was significantly superior to the fluoroscopy (3 vs. 2.7). A strong correlation was noted between the opening (r = 0.82) and closing (r = 0.96) valve angles with MDCT and fluoroscopy without a statistically significant difference (P = 0.31 and 0.16, respectively). The mean effective radiation dose of the suggested protocol was 4 +- 0.5 mSv. Five valves were evaluated using transesophageal echocardiography because the valves were difficult to evaluate with transthoracic echocardiography, and all of these valves were evaluated optimally with MDCT. A high-pressure gradient was noted in nine valves, and the MDCT showed that seven of these valves inadequately opened, and two valves opened well, which resulted in patient valve mismatch. Incomplete valve closure was noted in five valves, and the echocardiography showed significant transvalvular regurgitation in all five valves. Conclusion: MDCT can provide a precise measurement of valve function and can potentially evaluate high-pressure gradients and transvalvular regurgitation

  6. Advances in classical and analytical mechanics: A reviews of author’s results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih-Stevanović Katica R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A review, in subjective choice, of author’s scientific results in area of: classical mechanics, analytical mechanics of discrete hereditary systems, analytical mechanics of discrete fractional order system vibrations, elastodynamics, nonlinear dynamics and hybrid system dynamics is presented. Main original author’s results were presented through the mathematical methods of mechanics with examples of applications for solving problems of mechanical real system dynamics abstracted to the theoretical models of mechanical discrete or continuum systems, as well as hybrid systems. Paper, also, presents serries of methods and scientific results authored by professors Mitropolyski, Andjelić and Rašković, as well as author’s of this paper original scientific research results obtained by methods of her professors. Vector method based on mass inertia moment vectors and corresponding deviational vector components for pole and oriented axis, defined in 1991 by K. Hedrih, is presented. Results in construction of analytical dynamics of hereditary discrete system obtained in collaboration with O. A. Gorosho are presented. Also, some selections of results author’s postgraduate students and doctorantes in area of nonlinear dynamics are presented. A list of scientific projects headed by author of this paper is presented with a list of doctoral dissertation and magister of sciences thesis which contain scientific research results obtained under the supervision by author of this paper or their fist doctoral candidates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON174001: Dynamics of hybrid systems with complex structures

  7. Evaluation of selected martensitic stainless steels for use in downhole tubular expansion - Results of a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Robert [Shell International E and P, b.v. Kessler Park 1, Postbus 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory program was performed to evaluate the potential of selected martensitic stainless steels for downhole cladding applications. The evaluation of the effects of tubular expansion on mechanical properties, defects, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking demonstrated that some steels were acceptable for the intended application. The results were used to qualify and select the stainless steel for the intended sweet cladding applications. (authors)

  8. Evaluating morphology and mechanical properties of glass-reinforced natural hydroxyapatite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Z; Bahrololoom, M E; Hashemi, B

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite has been used in a wide variety of biomedical applications and it can be produced from natural resources such as bovine bone. This material does not have acceptable mechanical properties by itself. In the present work, hydroxyapatite composites with different weight percentages of sodalime glass were made and sintered at different temperatures (800-1200°C). Eventually the properties such as density, micro hardness, compressive strength and wear of specimens were evaluated. Specific percentages of glass additive increased the density and hardness of specimens due to increasing the sintering temperature. The hardness and density of specimens were decreased with higher percentage of glass additive. Moreover, the results of compressive test showed that increasing the glass addition increases the compressive performance. Furthermore, the SEM micrographs on worn specimens showed that the mechanism of wear was abrasive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Evaluation Of Academic Stress And Coping Mechanism Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed and evaluated academic stress coping mechanisms adopted by married female students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. This was with the aim of exploring the influence of academic stress on married female students‟ academic performance and their coping strategies used to enhance their academic ...

  10. Characteristic Evaluation of a Shrouded Propeller Mechanism for a Magnetic Actuated Microrobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical microrobots have been widely used in clinical applications, particularly the spiral type locomotion mechanism, which was recently considered one of the main self-propelling mechanisms for the next medical microrobot to perform tasks such as capsule endoscopy and drug delivery. However, limits in clinical applications still exist. The spiral action of the microrobot while being used for diagnosis may lead to pain or even damage to the intestinal wall due to the exposed mechanisms. Therefore, a new locomotive mechanism, named the shrouded propeller mechanism, was proposed to achieve a high level of medical safety as well as effective propulsive performance in our study. The shrouded propeller mechanism consists of a bare spiral propeller and a non-rotating nozzle. To obtain a high effective propulsive performance, two types of screw grooves with different shapes including the cylindrical screw groove and the rectangular screw groove with different parameters were analyzed using the shrouded model. Two types of magnetic actuated microrobots with different driving modes, the electromagnetic (three-pole rotor actuated microrobot and the permanent magnet (O-ring type magnet actuated microrobot were designed to evaluate the performance of the electromagnetic actuation system. Based on experimental results, the propulsive force of the proposed magnetic actuated microrobot with a shrouded propeller was larger than the magnetic actuated microrobot with a bare spiral propeller under the same parameters. Additionally, the shrouded propeller mechanism as an actuator can be used for other medical microrobots for flexible locomotion.

  11. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F.

    2015-01-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  12. Evaluation of mechanical and morphologic features of PLLA membranes as supports for perfusion cells culture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesanto, S., E-mail: salvatore.montesanto1985@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Brucato, V. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy); La Carrubba, V. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Via Michele Miraglia, 20, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Porous biodegradable PLLA membranes, which can be used as supports for perfusion cell culture systems were designed, developed and characterized. PLLA membranes were prepared via diffusion induced phase separation (DIPS). A glass slab was coated with a binary PLLA–dioxane solution (8 wt.% PLLA) via dip coating, then pool immersed in two subsequent coagulation baths, and finally dried in a humidity-controlled environment. Surface and mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring pore size, porosity via scanning electron microscopy, storage modulus, loss modulus and loss angle by using a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Cell adhesion assays on different membrane surfaces were also performed by using a standard count method. Results provide new insights into the foaming methods for producing polymeric membranes and supply indications on how to optimise the fabrication parameters to design membranes for tissue cultures and regeneration. - Highlights: • Design, development and characterization of porous biodegradable PLLA membranes via DIPS technology. • Easy-to-tune processing parameters in terms of surface and volumetric properties and cell adhesion. • Evaluation of the impact of the interconnection degree on membrane's mechanical properties. • Evaluation of cell adhesion on different membrane surface textures.

  13. Evaluation of mechanical and morphologic features of PLLA membranes as supports for perfusion cells culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesanto, S.; Brucato, V.; La Carrubba, V.

    2016-01-01

    Porous biodegradable PLLA membranes, which can be used as supports for perfusion cell culture systems were designed, developed and characterized. PLLA membranes were prepared via diffusion induced phase separation (DIPS). A glass slab was coated with a binary PLLA–dioxane solution (8 wt.% PLLA) via dip coating, then pool immersed in two subsequent coagulation baths, and finally dried in a humidity-controlled environment. Surface and mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring pore size, porosity via scanning electron microscopy, storage modulus, loss modulus and loss angle by using a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Cell adhesion assays on different membrane surfaces were also performed by using a standard count method. Results provide new insights into the foaming methods for producing polymeric membranes and supply indications on how to optimise the fabrication parameters to design membranes for tissue cultures and regeneration. - Highlights: • Design, development and characterization of porous biodegradable PLLA membranes via DIPS technology. • Easy-to-tune processing parameters in terms of surface and volumetric properties and cell adhesion. • Evaluation of the impact of the interconnection degree on membrane's mechanical properties. • Evaluation of cell adhesion on different membrane surface textures.

  14. Evaluation of mechanical strength of the joints in JT-60 toroidal field coil conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Ohkubo, Monoru; Sasajima, Hiroshi

    1980-04-01

    Toroidal field (TF) coils of JT-60 produce a toroidal field of 45 kG at a plasma axis, they have an inner bore of 3.90 m and a weight of about 80 metric tons per coil. Eighteen TF coils are located around a torus axis at regular intervals. TF coil conductors are mostly jointed by high frequency induction brazing, the rest jointed by welding. In deciding the details of the jointing procedures, the conductor size and the requested mechanical strength are mainly taken into consideration. Described are non-destructive inspection methods for the brazed joints, strength evaluation, and the inspection criteria. Ultrasonic testing method is found to be the most effective in evaluation of mechanical properties of the brazed joints especially in terms of fatigue strength. In section 1, specifications of the TF coils are given. In section 2, the ultrasonic inspection method and the detectability of this apparatus are described in detail, the defects of known size are compared with the indication values and display figures. The apparatus developed for JT-60 is operated automatically also recording the inspectionresults. In section 3, mechanical strength of the brazed joints with initial defects is discussed on the basis of Fracture Mechanics theory and results of the fatigue crack growth test. The inspection criteria in accordance with the descriptions of section 2 and 3 are given in section 4. (author)

  15. Clinical evaluation of Carisolv in the chemico-mechanical removal of carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, A K; Hegde, A M; Shetty, P K

    2001-01-01

    The Chemo-mechanical caries removal technique involves the application of chemical agents, to cause a selective softening of the carious dentine and facilitate removal by gentle excavation. Carisolv is one such new chemical agent used in this minimal invasive technique of carious dentine removal. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Carisolv in the chemo-mechanical removal of carious dentine, the time taken for caries removal, the perception of the treatment by the patient, and to evaluate the restorations, radiographically. Accordingly, fifty primary and permanent molars with dentinal carious lesions were excavated using this technique of caries removal. The chemo-mechanical caries removal technique using Carisolv proved to be an effective atraumatic treatment modality with potential interest for use in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  16. Mechanical performance evaluation of bionanocomposites with polymeric matrix of poly(lactic acid)-PLA and organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Shirley N.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Oliveira, Akidauana D.A.; Lima, Jessica C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ethylene/methyl acrylate (EMA) and ethylene/glycidyl methacrylate (E-GMA) copolymers and organoclay on the mechanical properties of polymer PLA-poly (lactic acid), from the system PLA / organoclay. The clay was organophilized with the ionic surfactant praepagem and the mixtures were prepared in a modular twin screw extruder. The behavior of bionanocomposites was evaluated by tensile and impact tests. The results of FTIR and DR-X indicated that the process was efficient organophilization. The mechanical properties showed that the elastic modulus and tensile strength of bionanocomposites obtained decreased compared to PLA. On the other hand there was a gain for resistance to impact, for all systems except for system PLA/OMMT. (author)

  17. Quantitative evaluation of the mechanical strength of titanium/composite bonding using laser-generated shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducousso, M.; Bardy, S.; Rouchausse, Y.; Bergara, T.; Jenson, F.; Berthe, L.; Videau, L.; Cuvillier, N.

    2018-03-01

    Intense acoustic shock waves were applied to evaluate the mechanical strength of structural epoxy bonds between a TA6V4 titanium alloy and a 3D woven carbon/epoxy composite material. Two bond types with different mechanical strengths were obtained from two different adhesive reticulations, at 50% and 90% of conversion, resulting in longitudinal static strengths of 10 and 39 MPa and transverse strengths of 15 and 35 MPa, respectively. The GPa shock waves were generated using ns-scale intense laser pulses and reaction principles to a confined plasma expansion. Simulations taking into account the laser-matter interaction, plasma relaxation, and non-linear shock wave propagation were conducted to aid interpretation of the experiments. Good correlations were obtained between the experiments and the simulation and between different measurement methods of the mechanical strength (normalized tests vs laser-generated shock waves). Such results open the door toward certification of structural bonding.

  18. Added value of cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of mechanical aortic valve: Emphasis on evaluation of pannus with surgical findings as standard reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Lee, Sak; Im, Dong Jin; Chang, Suyon; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-07-01

    The added value of cardiac computed tomography (CT) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for evaluating mechanical aortic valve (AV) dysfunction has not yet been investigated. The purposes of this study were to investigate the added value of cardiac CT for evaluation of mechanical AVs and diagnoses of pannus compared to TEE, with surgical findings of redo-aortic valve replacement (AVR) used as a standard reference. 25 patients who underwent redo-AVR due to mechanical AV dysfunction and cardiac CT before redo-AVR were included. The presence of pannus, encroachment ratio by pannus, and limitation of motion (LOM) were evaluated on CT. The diagnostic performance of pannus detection was compared using TEE, CT, and CT+TEE, with surgical findings as a standard reference. The added value of CT for diagnosing the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction was assessed compared to TTE+TEE. In two patients, CT analysis was not feasible due to severe metallic artifacts. On CT, pannus and LOM were found in 100% (23/23) and 60.9% (14/23). TEE identified pannus in 48.0% of patients (12/25). CT, TEE, and CT+TEE correctly identified pannus with sensitivity of 92.0%, 48.0%, and 92.0%, respectively (P=0.002 for CT vs. TEE). In 11 of 13 cases (84.6%) with inconclusive or negative TEE results for pannus, CT detected the pannus. Among 13 inconclusive cases of TTE+TEE for the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction, CT suggested 6 prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) by pannus, 4 low-flow low-gradient PVO, and one LOM without significant PVO. Cardiac CT showed added diagnostic value with TEE in the detection of pannus as the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Barabash, V.R.; Matera, R.; Roedig, M.; Smith, J.J.; Janev, R.K.

    1991-03-01

    This Report contains the proceedings, results and conclusions of the work done and the analysis performed during the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on ''Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials'', convened on December 17-21, 1990, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Although the prime objective of the meeting was to critically assess the available thermo-mechanical properties data for certain types of carbon-based fusion relevant materials, the work of the meeting went well beyond this task. The meeting participants discussed in depth the scope and structure of the IAEA material properties database, the format of data presentation, the most appropriate computerized system for data storage, retrieval, exchange and management. The existing IAEA ALADDIN system was adopted as a convenient tool for this purpose and specific ALADDIN labelling schemes and dictionaries were established for the material properties data. An ALADDIN formatted test-file for the thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties of pyrolytic graphite is appended to this Report for illustrative purposes. (author)

  20. Non-destructive evaluation on mechanical properties of nuclear graphite with porous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Hanawa, Satoshi; Sumita, Junya; Tada, Tatsuya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    As a research subjects of 'Research and development for advanced high temperature gas cooled reactor fuels and graphite components,' we started the study of development of non-destructive evaluation methods for mechanical properties of graphite components. The micro-indentation and ultrasonic wave methods are focused to evaluate the degradation of graphite components in VHTR core. For the micro-indentation method, the test apparatus was designed for the indentation test on graphite specimens with some stress levels. It is expected the stress condition is evaluated by the indentation load-depth characteristics and hardness. For the ultrasonic wave method, ultrasonic wave testing machine and probes were prepared for experiments. It is expected that the stress and inner porous conditions are evaluated by the wave propagation characteristics with wave-pore interaction model. R and D plan to develop the non-destructive evaluation method for graphite is presented in this paper. (This study is the result of contract research in the fiscal year of 2004, Research and development for advanced high temperature gas cooled reactor fuels and graphite components,' which is entrusted to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.) (author)

  1. Evaluating strength at ultra-high temperatures-Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkl, Rainer; Fischer, Bernd; Beschliesser, Manuel; Glatzel, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Proprietary equipment for mechanical testing at ultra-high temperatures by ohmic heating is outlined. Strain is measured with a video extensometer with an accuracy of up to Δε-bar∼±0.00025%. Stability and accuracy of the test system are evaluated on Pt- and refractory alloys. These specially designed and built test facilities are compared to commercially available high-vacuum test chambers with tungsten heater

  2. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  3. Crowdsourcing Participatory Evaluation of Medical Pictograms Using Amazon Mechanical Turk

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bei; Willis, Matt; Sun, Peiyuan; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumer and patient participation proved to be an effective approach for medical pictogram design, but it can be costly and time-consuming. We proposed and evaluated an inexpensive approach that crowdsourced the pictogram evaluation task to Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers, who are usually referred to as the ?turkers?. Objective To answer two research questions: (1) Is the turkers? collective effort effective for identifying design problems in medical pictograms? and (2) Do ...

  4. Design, manufacture and evaluation of a new flexible constant velocity mechanism for transmission of power between parallel shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghoubi, Majid [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanaeifar, Alireza [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a new mechanism (coupling) for power transmission between parallel shafts in more ranges. The mechanism consists of one drive shaft and one driven shaft, 3 S-shape transmitter links and 8 connecting links. The advantage of this mechanism is that the velocity ratio between input and output shafts remains constant at all movements, and its capacity to offset misalignments is greater than that of other couplings. This research also includes a kinematic analysis and simulations using Visual NASTRAN, Autodesk inventor dynamic and COSMOS motion to prove that the mechanism exhibits a constant velocity. Finally, the mechanism was fabricated and evaluated; results showed that the mechanism can practically transmit a constant velocity ratio.

  5. Design, manufacture and evaluation of a new flexible constant velocity mechanism for transmission of power between parallel shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, Majid; Sanaeifar, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mechanism (coupling) for power transmission between parallel shafts in more ranges. The mechanism consists of one drive shaft and one driven shaft, 3 S-shape transmitter links and 8 connecting links. The advantage of this mechanism is that the velocity ratio between input and output shafts remains constant at all movements, and its capacity to offset misalignments is greater than that of other couplings. This research also includes a kinematic analysis and simulations using Visual NASTRAN, Autodesk inventor dynamic and COSMOS motion to prove that the mechanism exhibits a constant velocity. Finally, the mechanism was fabricated and evaluated; results showed that the mechanism can practically transmit a constant velocity ratio.

  6. Market Competitiveness Evaluation of Mechanical Equipment with a Pairwise Comparisons Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description of how market competitiveness evaluations concerning mechanical equipment can be made in the context of multi-criteria decision environments. It is assumed that, when we are evaluating the market competitiveness, there are limited number of candidates with some required qualifications, and the alternatives will be pairwise compared on a ratio scale. The qualifications are depicted as criteria in hierarchical structure. A hierarchical decision model called PCbHDM was used in this study based on an analysis of its desirable traits. Illustration and comparison shows that the PCbHDM provides a convenient and effective tool for evaluating the market competitiveness of mechanical equipment. The researchers and practitioners might use findings of this paper in application of PCbHDM.

  7. Comparison of evaluation results of piping thermal fatigue evaluation method based on equivalent stress amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Kasahara, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, reports have increased about failure cases caused by high cycle thermal fatigue both at light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. One of the reasons of the cases is a turbulent mixing at a Tee-junction, where hot and cold temperature fluids are mixed, in a coolant system. In order to prevent thermal fatigue failures at Tee-junctions. The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers published the guideline which is an evaluation method of high cycle thermal fatigue damage at nuclear pipes. In order to justify safety margin and make the procedure of the guideline concise, this paper proposes a new evaluation method of thermal fatigue damage with use of the 'equivalent stress amplitude.' Because this new method makes procedure of evaluation clear and concise, it will contribute to improving the guideline for thermal fatigue evaluation. (author)

  8. The SMART personalised self-management system for congestive heart failure: results of a realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Yvonne K; Haywood, Annette; Bentley, Claire L; Parker, Jack; Hawley, Mark S; Mountain, Gail A; Mawson, Susan

    2014-11-25

    Technology has the potential to provide support for self-management to people with congestive heart failure (CHF). This paper describes the results of a realist evaluation of the SMART Personalised Self-Management System (PSMS) for CHF. The PSMS was used, at home, by seven people with CHF. Data describing system usage and usability as well as questionnaire and interview data were evaluated in terms of the context, mechanism and outcome hypotheses (CMOs) integral to realist evaluation. The CHF PSMS improved heart failure related knowledge in those with low levels of knowledge at baseline, through providing information and quizzes. Furthermore, participants perceived the self-regulatory aspects of the CHF PSMS as being useful in encouraging daily walking. The CMOs were revised to describe the context of use, and how this influences both the mechanisms and the outcomes. Participants with CHF engaged with the PSMS despite some technological problems. Some positive effects on knowledge were observed as well as the potential to assist with changing physical activity behaviour. Knowledge of CHF and physical activity behaviour change are important self-management targets for CHF, and this study provides evidence to direct the further development of a technology to support these targets.

  9. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluation of DMAG Welding of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Mert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double channel torch, which allows concentric flow of two different shielding gases, was designed and manufactured in order to pursue double channel torch gas metal arc welding of unalloyed structural steel S235JR (EN 10025-2 with fourteen passes. Tensile and Charpy V-notch tests were realized and the results were compared with those of conventional gas metal arc welding. In order to evaluate mechanical testing results, microstructural analyses were conducted. It was found that the increase with double channel gas metal arc welding process in yield and tensile strengths as well as in toughness tests, especially in subzero temperatures, compared with conventional gas metal arc welding was due to longer columnar grains and finer tempered zone grain structure between passes and due to solidification and less dendritic structure formation in all-weld metal in double channel gas metal arc welding.

  10. Evaluation of elevated temperature influence on mechanical properties of a commercial unrefined bagasse fiber-polypropylene composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Dastoorian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 80oC, on mechanical characteristics of a commercial bagasse fiber/polypropylene composite. The test results were used to determine the temperature dependencies of the mechanical properties of the studied composite material at temperatures up to 80°C in order to develop temperature adjustment factors for the use in structural applications. The results have shown that as temperature increases, the material become more ductile due to increased plastic deformation gets lower stiffness and fails at higher strains. The resulted adjustment factors were different for each loading mode and the results also have indicated that the influence of elevated temperatures on values of modulus was higher than that on strengths.

  11. Tractive performance evaluation of seafloor tracked trencher based on laboratory mechanical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the tractive performance of tracked trencher on seafloor surface, a new shear stress-displacement empirical model was proposed for saturated soft-plastic soil (SSP model. To validate the SSP model, a test platform, where track segment shear test can be performed in seafloor soil simulacrum (bentonite water mixture, was built. Series shear tests were carried out. Test results indicate that the SSP model can describe the mechanical behavior of track segment with good approximation in seafloor soil simulacrum. Through analyzing the main external forces applied to seafloor tracked trencher during the uniform linear trenching process, a drawbar pull prediction model was deduced with the SSP model. A tracked walking mechanism of the seafloor tracked trencher prototype was built, and verification tests were carried out. Test results indicate that this prediction model was feasible and effective; moreover, from another side, this conclusion also proved that the SSP model was effective.

  12. Development of centrifuge modeling for evaluating the mechanisms of collapse above underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.C.; Kutter, B.L.; Chang, J.D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Improved prediction of surface collapse above an underground cavity is important in many LLNL programs, including Nuclear Test. To improve the predictive capability, LLNL must better understand the mechanisms involved in the process of collapse. The research aims to develop the centrifuge technique for modeling mechanisms of underground collapse in soil. The authors will also evaluate the adequacy of existing constitutive or flow models of soils for modeling underground collapse. During FY 86, using the centrifuge at University of California, Davis, the authors developed the basic centrifugal modeling technique, conducted experiments, and modeled the process on a computer. In FY 87, they continued to develop the experimental method and analyze results. Results to date have shown that the model dimensions are not necessarily the critical dimensions (i.e., those determining the adequacy of the model). Rather, the critical dimension is the diameter of the chimney above the opening that develops during collapse

  13. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  14. Evaluating transient performance of servo mechanisms by analysing stator current of PMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Tan, Luyao; Xu, Guanghua

    2018-02-01

    Smooth running and rapid response are the desired performance goals for the transient motions of servo mechanisms. Because of the uncertain and unobservable transient behaviour of servo mechanisms, it is difficult to evaluate their transient performance. Under the effects of electromechanical coupling, the stator current signals of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) potentially contain the performance information regarding servo mechanisms in use. In this paper, a novel method based on analysing the stator current of the PMSM is proposed for quantifying the transient performance. First, a vector control model is constructed to simulate the stator current behaviour in the transient processes of consecutive speed changes, consecutive load changes, and intermittent start-stops. It is discovered that the amplitude and frequency of the stator current are modulated by the transient load torque and motor speed, respectively. The stator currents under different performance conditions are also simulated and compared. Then, the stator current is processed using a local means decomposition (LMD) algorithm to extract the instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency. The sample entropy of the instantaneous amplitude, which reflects the complexity of the load torque variation, is calculated as a performance indicator of smooth running. The peak-to-peak value of the instantaneous frequency, which defines the range of the motor speed variation, is set as a performance indicator of rapid response. The proposed method is applied to both simulated data in an intermittent start-stops process and experimental data measured for a batch of servo turrets for turning lathes. The results show that the performance evaluations agree with the actual performance.

  15. Non-Formal Educator Use of Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Sarah; Boyd, Heather H.; Franz, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability in educational programming have resulted in increasing calls for program evaluation in educational organizations. Many organizations include conducting program evaluations as part of the job responsibilities of program staff. Cooperative Extension is a complex organization offering non-formal educational…

  16. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. 2. Result report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ito Takaya; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Shiozaki, Isao; Neyama, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yumiko

    2003-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, the coupling analysis code on the thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena by THAMES, Dtransu and phreeqe60, which are existing analysis code, is developed in this study. And we carried out the case analysis on the thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena by this code. (1) We have developed coupling analysis system to manage coupling analysis and to control coupling process automatically for THAMES (thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis code), Dtransu (mass transport analysis code) and phreeqe60 (geochemical analysis code). (2) Some supporting module, which includes transfer of dissolution concentration and total concentration (dissolution + precipitation concentration), was prepared as a functional expansion. And in order to treat multi-chemical elements, we have codified mass transport analysis code. (3) We have prepared hydraulic conductivity module of buffer material depending on change of dry density due to chemical equilibrium (dissolution and precipitation of minerals), and change of concentration of NaCl solutions. After THAMES, Dtransu, phreeqe60 and hydraulic conductivity module were installed in the COUPLYS, sensitivity analysis was carried out to check basic operation. (4) In order to confirm the applicability of the developed THMC analysis code, we have carried out case analysis on 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional model which including vitrified waste, over-pack, buffer material and rock in the HLW near-field. (author)

  17. Radionuclide arthrogram with SPECT/CT for the evaluation of mechanical loosening of hip and knee prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, C.G.; Lewis, P.; Middleton, F.; Wijngaard, R. van den; Deshaies, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to evaluate the value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT in radionuclide arthrogram (RNA) for the assessment of mechanical loosening of hip and knee prostheses. A retrospective audit of 117 RNA SPECT/CTs evaluated by a single reader- 40 hips, (1 hemiarthroplasty) and 77 knees (12 unicompartmental). The detection of any radiotracer within the bone/prosthetic interface was deemed positive for loosening. The operative assessment of 29 hip and 44 knee prosthetic joints was known and used as the gold standard. A subsequent blinded reassessment of the planar images was performed and compared with the SPECT/CT results for 26 of the 29 hip and 42 of the 44 knee prostheses. The respective SPECT/CT versus planar results were as follows: hips- acetabular cup: sensitivity: 73 versus 0%; specificity: 71 versus 100%; positive predictive value: 62% versus indeterminate; negative predictive value: 80% versus 72% (p=0.0044). Hips- femoral component: sensitivity: 78 versus 63%; specificity: 90 versus 94%; positive predictive value: 78 versus 83%; negative predictive value: 90 versus 85% (p=0.2482). Knees- femoral component: sensitivity: 75 versus 17%; specificity 63 versus 97%; positive predictive value: 43 versus 67%; negative predictive value: 87 versus 74% (p=0.0001). Knees- tibial component: sensitivity: 86 versus 63%; specificity: 86 versus 76%; positive predictive value: 55 versus 38%; negative predictive value: 97 versus 90% (p=0.6831). For evaluation of mechanical loosening of the hip prosthesis SPECT/CT was significantly better than planar scanning for the acetabular cup, but not for the femoral stem. For evaluation of the knee prosthesis, a significant improvement was noted using SPECT/CT for the femoral component, and although superior results were also noted for the tibial component, statistical significance was not reached. Taking into account the limitations of this retrospective audit, the value of using RNA SPECT

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  19. Mechanical property test of natural rubber bearing for the evaluation of uncertainty value of seismic isolation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    Seismic safety of NPP is one of the most important issues in a nuclear field after great east Japan earthquake in 2011. For the improvement of seismic safety of nuclear power plant, seismic isolation is the easiest solution for increasing the seismic safety. Otherwise, the application of seismic isolation devices for nuclear power plants doesn't make the seismic risk of NPP increases always. The rubber bearing have many uncertainties of material properties and large displacement should absorb according to the application of isolation devices. In this study, for the evaluation of uncertainty of the material properties of rubber bearing, material tests for rubber and mechanical properties test for natural rubber bearing were performed. For the evaluation of effect of hardness of rubber, 4 kinds of rubber hardness for material property tests and 2 kinds of rubber hardness for mechanical property test were considered. As a result, the variation of material properties is higher than that of mechanical properties of natural rubber bearings

  20. Some recent results on evaluating Feynman integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, V.A. [Nuclear Physics Institute of Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-15

    Some recent results on evaluating Feynman integrals are reviewed. The status of the method based on Mellin-Barnes representation as a powerful tool to evaluate individual Feynman integrals is characterized. A new method based on Groebner bases to solve integration by parts relations in an automatic way is described.

  1. Some recent results on evaluating Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Some recent results on evaluating Feynman integrals are reviewed. The status of the method based on Mellin-Barnes representation as a powerful tool to evaluate individual Feynman integrals is characterized. A new method based on Groebner bases to solve integration by parts relations in an automatic way is described

  2. Physiological evaluation of a newly designed lever mechanism for wheelchairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); de Boer, Y; Rozendal, R H

    1993-01-01

    Lever-propelled wheelchairs have been described as more efficient and less physically demanding than hand-rim-propelled wheelchairs. To evaluate a newly designed lever mechanism (MARC) in both one- and two-arm use, a series of wheelchair exercise tests were performed on a motor-driven treadmill.

  3. Maintainability design and evaluation of mechanical systems based on tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, M.F.; Gandhi, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined to develop system maintainability expression (SPF-t) based on the tribology. It is also useful in comparing the various design alternatives from tribo-maintainability point of view. Maintainability is evaluated from the tribo-maintainability index, obtained from SPF-t (i.e. permanent of the matrix) by substituting the numerical values of the features and their interdependence. A higher value of the index implies better maintainability of the systems. The proposed methodology also guides designers in enhancing the maintainability of a system by appropriately incorporating tribo-features. An example to illustrate the methodology is also presented

  4. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization.

  5. J evaluation by simplified method for cracked pipes under mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacire, M.H.; Michel, B.; Gilles, P.

    2001-01-01

    The integrity of structures behaviour is an important subject for the nuclear reactor safety. Most of assessment methods of cracked components are based on the evaluation of the parameter J. However to avoid complex elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J, a simplified method has been jointly developed by CEA, EDF and Framatome. This method, called Js, is based on the reference stress approach and a new KI handbook. To validate this method, a complete set of 2D and 3D elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J have been performed on pipes (more than 300 calculations are available) for different types of part through wall crack (circumferential or longitudinal); mechanical loading (pressure, bending moment, axial load, torsion moment, and combination of these loading); different kind of materials (austenitic or ferritic steel). This paper presents a comparison between the simplified assessment of J and finite element results on these configurations for mechanical loading. Then, validity of the method is discussed and an applicability domain is proposed. (author)

  6. Properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx cast steel modified with niobium; evaluation methodology and experimental preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzczynski, E.F.; Chatterjee, S.; Mueller, Arno

    1982-01-01

    The experimental methodology to evaluate the mechanical properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx steels modified with NB in the as cast and heat treated conditions and the first preliminary results obtained in a laboratory scale, are presented. (Author) [pt

  7. Evaluation of glass transition temperature and dynamic mechanical properties of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kazuma; Watanabe, Ikuya; Kurogi, Tadafumi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed methods for evaluation of glass transition temperature (Tg) of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins using dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry in addition to the dynamic mechanical properties. The Tg values of 3 different reline resins were determined using a dynamic viscoelastometer and differential scanning calorimeter, and rheological parameters were also determined. Although all materials exhibited higher storage modulus and loss modulus values, and a lower loss tangent at 37˚C with a higher frequency, the frequency dependence was not large. Tg values obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis were higher than those by differential scanning calorimetry and higher frequency led to higher Tg, while more stable Tg values were also obtained by that method. These results suggest that dynamic mechanical analysis is more advantageous for characterization of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins than differential scanning calorimetry.

  8. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  9. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of a posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of a micro-hybrid resin composite used in adult posterior restorations A micro-hybrid, light curing resin composite Unolux BCS Composite Restorative, (UnoDent, England) was used to restore 74 carious classes I and II cavities on posterior teeth of 62 adult patients.

  10. Exsanguination of turbot and the effect on fillet quality measured mechanically by sensory evaluation, and with computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Stien, L.H.; Foss, A.; Nortvedt, R.; Imsland, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of blood residues on the end quality of exsanguinated and unbled farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), meat quality was evaluated using mechanical, sensory, and computer imaging techniques. The results show that exsanguination is important for improving the visual

  11. The COD concept and its application to fracture mechanical evaluation of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive literature study, this report critically evaluates the current state of experiences with the COD concept in fracture mechanics. First the concept is explained and the procedure of materials testing with a view to fracture mechanics is discussed in detail with emphasis on: The definition of crack shape modification; the procedure to detect crack modification, with subsequent comparison; the determination of material characteristics; the impact on the characteristics of the crack tip opening and the dispersion of results. The correlation between crack tip opening characteristics and notch impact strength is explained, and the methods applied for analysis of the streses affecting the structural components are shown. The design-based and failure threshold curves and the treatment of real crack geometries are also discussed. Problems still to be solved are shown. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Evaluation Use: Results from a Survey of U.S. American Evaluation Association Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Dreolin N.; Christie, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional survey on evaluation use completed by 1,140 U.S. American Evaluation Association members. This study had three foci: evaluators' current attitudes, perceptions, and experiences related to evaluation use theory and practice, how these data are similar to those reported in a previous study…

  13. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for leak-before-break evaluation of light water reactor's piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki; Akiba, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Terutaka.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) analyses for quantitative evaluation of the likelihood of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) of Light Water Reactor's (LWR's) piping. The PFM analyses in general assume probabilistic distributions of initial crack size, applied stress cycles, crack growth laws, fracture criteria, leakage detection capability, defect inspection capability and so on. Referring to the deterministic procedure for LBB evaluation, most appropriate PFM models and data for LBB evaluation are discussed. Here the LBB index is newly proposed in order to quantitatively evaluate the likelihood of LBB. Through intensive sensitivity analyses, it is clarified that the LBB is more likely to occur for larger diameter pipe; the performance of leakage detection significantly affects the LBB likelihood; the LBB likelihood increases with plant's aging even conservatively assuming leak detection capability; the R6 method (Category 1, Option 1) for fracture criterion gives very conservative results; and In-Service Inspection (ISI) reduces the increase rate of failure probability than the failure probability itself. (author)

  14. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seop; Park, Sun Joon; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing energy consumption has become a critical issue in manufacturing. The semiconductor industry in particular is confronted with environmental regulations on pollution associated with electric energy, chemical, and ultrapure water (UPW) consumptions. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a key process for planarization of dielectrics and metal films in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. The steps in the CMP process are idling, conditioning, wetting, wafer loading/unloading, head dropping, polishing, and rinsing. The electric energy, CMP slurry, and UPW consumptions associated with the process and their impacts on global warming are evaluated from an environmental standpoint. The estimates of electric energy, slurry, and UPW consumptions as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper will provide a technical aid for reducing the environmental burden associated with electricity consumption during the CMP process.

  15. Oxidation and Metal-Insertion in Molybdenite Surfaces: Evaluation of Charge-Transfer Mechanisms and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Becker, U.; Shutthanandan, V.; Julien, C. M.

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), an important representative member of the layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and industrial science and technology. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. On the other hand understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is quite important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, such a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and intercalation process will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions on to geomedia. Therefore, the present work was performed to understand the oxidation and intercalation processes of molybdenite surfaces. The results obtained, using a wide variety of analytical techniques, are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of PVD-Coated Cemented Carbide as Evaluated by a New Multipass Scratch-Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallqvist

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new test method based on multipass scratch testing has been developed for evaluating the mechanical and tribological properties of thin, hard coatings. The proposed test method uses a pin-on-disc tribometer and during testing a Rockwell C diamond stylus is used as the “pin” and loaded against the rotating coated sample. The influence of normal load on the number of cycles to coating damage is investigated and the resulting coating damage mechanisms are evaluated by posttest scanning electron microscopy. The present study presents the test method by evaluating the performance of Ti0.86Si0.14N, Ti0.34Al0.66N, and (Al0.7Cr0.32O3 coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation on cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the test method is quick, simple, and reproducible and can preferably be used to obtain relevant data concerning the fatigue, wear, chipping, and spalling characteristics of different coating-substrate composites. The test method can be used as a virtually nondestructive test and, for example, be used to evaluate the fatigue and wear resistance as well as the cohesive and adhesive interfacial strength of coated cemented carbide inserts prior to cutting tests.

  17. PROSID - a program to evaluate SIMMER-II results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flad, M.; Kuefner, K.; Maschek, W.

    1990-02-01

    The PROSID program supports the evaluation of SIMMER-II results. PROSID enables the user to get a printout of variables, to get a linear combination of variables or quadrats of variables, to sum up variables or quadrats of variables, to compare variables or whole datasets, to interpolate to a new meshgrid and to get weighted mean values. As special options are available the calculation of the volume of connected gas regions, the evaluation of the fuel enrichment, an estimation of reactivity changes and the retransformation of interpolated velocity values. The results can be stored for further evaluations. (orig.) [de

  18. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, several sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected two constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model, and the element tests and mock-up tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters were carried out, and mechanical behavior is evaluated over a long period of time. Analysis estimated the amount of settlement of the over pack, the stress state of buffer material, the reaction force to a base rock, etc., and the result that EBS is mechanically stable over a long period of time was obtained. Next, in order to prove analyses results a side, literature survey was conducted about geological age, the dynamics history of a Smectite layer. The outline plan was drawn up about the natural analogue verification method and preliminary examination was performed about the applicability of Freezing Sampling'. (author)

  19. Experimental results on mechanisms of action of electrical neuromodulation in chronic urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Jiang, C; Lindström, S; Thüroff, J W

    1998-01-01

    Sacral foramen neuromodulation--initially applied for the treatment of urinary incontinence--has proved to be effective in patients with chronic urinary retention. Thus far, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated. In an experimental study on the neurophysiological basis of sacral neurostimulation, one objective was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for initiation of micturition in chronic urinary retention. In ten female cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the clinical situation of sacral foramen stimulation was experimentally reproduced by isolated S2 nerve stimulation after L6-S3 laminectomy. Stimulation responses were recorded from the bladder, peripheral nerves, and striated muscles of the foot and pelvic floor. The effect of sudden cessation of prolonged S2 stimulation, during which the bladder was completely inhibited, was evaluated in 70 stimulation sequences in 5 cats. Sacral nerve stimulation induced excitatory and inhibitory effects on the bladder, depending on the frequency and intensity of stimulation. With unilateral S2 stimulation, bladder excitation was best at frequencies of 2-5 Hz and at intensities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 times the threshold for the M-response of the foot muscle. Inhibition was the dominating effect at frequencies of 7-10 Hz and at intensities exceeding 1.4 times the threshold. Prolonged S2 stimulation above the threshold produced complete bladder inhibition during stimulation but induced strong bladder contractions after sudden interruption of stimulation, with amplitudes being significantly higher than that of spontaneous contractions preceding the stimulation. These results confirm the hypothesis of a "rebound" phenomenon as the mechanism of action for induction of spontaneous voiding in patients with chronic urinary retention.

  20. Age-related mechanical strength evolution of trabecular bone under fatigue damage for both genders: Fracture risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Merzouki, Tarek

    2018-05-04

    Bone tissue is a living composite material, providing mechanical and homeostatic functions, and able to constantly adapt its microstructure to changes in long term loading. This adaptation is conducted by a physiological process, known as "bone remodeling". This latter is manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cell differentiation and proliferation. In the current work, age and gender effects on damage rate evolution, throughout life, have been investigated using a mechanobiological finite element modeling. To achieve the aim, a mathematical model has been developed, coupling both cell activities and mechanical behavior of trabecular bone, under cyclic loadings. A series of computational simulations (ABAQUS/UMAT) has been performed on a 3D human proximal femur, allowing to investigate the effects of mechanical and biological parameters on mechanical strength of trabecular bone, in order to evaluate the fracture risk resulting from fatigue damage. The obtained results revealed that mechanical stimulus amplitude affects bone resorption and formation rates, and indicated that age and gender are major factors in bone response to the applied loadings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the Shrink Fit and Mechanical Tolerance on Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Integrity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghak [Korea KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Reactor coolant pump (RCP) flywheel should satisfy the RCP flywheel integrity criteria of the US NRC standard review plan (SRP) 5.4.1.1 and regulatory guide (RG) 1.14. Shrink-fit and rotational stresses should be calculated to evaluate the integrity. In this paper the effects of the shrink fit and mechanical tolerance on the RCP flywheel integrity evaluation are studied. The shrink fit should be determined by the joint release speed and the stresses in the flywheel will be increased by the shrink fit. The stress at the interface between the hub and the outer wheel shows the highest value. The effect of the mechanical tolerance should be considered for the stress evaluation. And the effect of the mechanical tolerance should be not considered to determine the joint release speed.

  2. Effect of the Shrink Fit and Mechanical Tolerance on Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Integrity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghak

    2015-01-01

    Reactor coolant pump (RCP) flywheel should satisfy the RCP flywheel integrity criteria of the US NRC standard review plan (SRP) 5.4.1.1 and regulatory guide (RG) 1.14. Shrink-fit and rotational stresses should be calculated to evaluate the integrity. In this paper the effects of the shrink fit and mechanical tolerance on the RCP flywheel integrity evaluation are studied. The shrink fit should be determined by the joint release speed and the stresses in the flywheel will be increased by the shrink fit. The stress at the interface between the hub and the outer wheel shows the highest value. The effect of the mechanical tolerance should be considered for the stress evaluation. And the effect of the mechanical tolerance should be not considered to determine the joint release speed

  3. A Study on Coexistence Capability Evaluations of the Enhanced Channel Hopping Mechanism in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongcheng Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important coexistence technology, channel hopping can reduce the interference among Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. However, it simultaneously brings some issues, such as energy waste, long latency and communication interruptions, etc. In this paper, we propose an enhanced channel hopping mechanism that allows multiple WBANs coexisted in the same channel. In order to evaluate the coexistence performance, some critical metrics are designed to reflect the possibility of channel conflict. Furthermore, by taking the queuing and non-queuing behaviors into consideration, we present a set of analysis approaches to evaluate the coexistence capability. On the one hand, we present both service-dependent and service-independent analysis models to estimate the number of coexisting WBANs. On the other hand, based on the uniform distribution assumption and the additive property of Possion-stream, we put forward two approximate methods to compute the number of occupied channels. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that our estimation approaches can provide an effective solution for coexistence capability estimation. Moreover, the enhanced channel hopping mechanism can significantly improve the coexistence capability and support a larger arrival rate of WBANs.

  4. Evaluation of potential reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of coniferyl alcohol α-linkages in lignin: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heath D; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; Kubicki, James D

    2011-12-21

    Five potential reaction mechanisms, each leading to the formation of an α-O-4-linked coniferyl alcohol dimer, and one scheme leading to the formation of a recently proposed free-radical coniferyl alcohol trimer were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These potential reaction mechanisms were evaluated using both the calculated Gibbs free energies, to predict the spontaneity of the constituent reactions, and the electron-density mapped Fukui function, to determine the most reactive sites of each intermediate species. The results indicate that each reaction in one of the six mechanisms is thermodynamically favorable to those in the other mechanisms; what is more, the Fukui function for each free radical intermediate corroborates with the thermochemical results for this mechanism. This mechanism proceeds via the formation of two distinct free-radical intermediates, which then react to produce the four α-O-4 stereoisomers.

  5. The Evaluation of Higher Education Expenditure Performance and Investment Mechanism Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De; Fu, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Along with the reform of Chinese Government public finance, higher education belongs to the public product, gradually changes from "fund investment management" to the "expenditure performance management". The evaluation of expenditure performance system becomes the key point of higher education investment mechanism reform. This…

  6. Investigating Resulting Residual Stresses during Mechanical Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Most manufacturing processes such as machining, welding, heat treatment, laser forming, laser cladding and, laser metal deposition, etc. are subjected to a form of heat or energy to change the geometrical shape thus changing the inherent engineering and structural properties of the material. These changes often cause the development of locked up stresses referred to as residual stresses as a result of these activities. This study reports on the residual stresses developed due to the mechanical forming process to maintain a suitable structural integrity for the formed components. The result of the analysis through the X-ray diffraction confirmed that residual stresses were induced in the manufactured parts and further revealed that residual stresses were compressive in nature as found in the parent material but with values less than the parent material.

  7. Post design evaluation (ageing mechanisms, effects, management, monitoring, PSR, ISI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Toshio

    2001-01-01

    Although the nuclear plant was designed for the purpose of the 30-year life the early stages of construction, it also already has the plant abolished by passing in 30 years. There is a plant under operation and a plant that is employed variously, extends the original life and continues operation now, and the plant that is going to be abolished politically is before a life. By using a nuclear plant for a long period of time, damage. by the influence of irradiation, wear of slipping, corrosion, etc. appears. When this degradation is left, the serious accident is caused. In this lecture, refer to Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety, Oct. 1999 of IAEA. A point of view from guide is introduced about management of the mechanism in the secular degradation mode expected by operating for a long period of time, the influence of secular degradation, and influence, monitoring technology, periodical safe evaluation, and a periodic inspection. And raises and explains the correspondence situation of secular degradation, and the example of evaluation of PSR and ISI equipment. The aging mechanism for reactor vessel internal components considered are related to embrittlement, fatigue, corrosion, radiation induced creep, relaxation and swelling, and mechanical wear. This lecture includes; monitoring methods, a description of periodic safety reviews and a sample of seismic design periodic safety report for the reactor internals

  8. Application of radiobiological techniques in studying antioxidant mechanisms: evaluation of their radioprotective, antioxidative and antiviral activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmamouchi, M.

    2000-01-01

    In the medical field, the oxidation phenomenon is the source of several pathologies (diabetes, cystic fibrosis, cancers,...). The natural oxidants are used as food preserving and skin ageing moderators. Several plant extracts with antioxidant activity were studied, this important antioxidant activity is probably due to their richness of compounds: polyphenols, phenolic acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids,... Many techniques for evaluation and reactional mechanism study of the antioxidative activity are used. After selection, extraction, fractionation, activity screening, chemical analyses of molecules contained in the best active extracts, biological properties research of isolated redox pharmacophore, we have : - determined the structure of active products by spectroscopy and chromatography; - studied the antioxidative properties by EPR and spin trapping of the obtained extracts and molecules. The results of this first part of our work consists in evaluating the antioxidative degree of a great number of natural active principles, extracted from moroccan plants and pur obtained products. The second part consists in studying the action mechanisms using the LDL labelling (F. M.)

  9. Evaluation of phenyl-propanedione on yellowing and chemical-mechanical properties of experimental dental resin-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the influence of phenyl-propanedione on yellowing and chemical-mechanical properties of experimental resin-based materials photoactivated using different light curing units (LCUs. Material and Methods Experimental resin-based materials with the same organic matrix (60:40 wt% BisGMA:TEGDMA were mechanically blended using a centrifugal mixing device. To this blend, different photoinitiator systems were added in equimolar concentrations with aliphatic amine doubled by wt%: 0.4 wt% CQ; 0.38 wt% PPD; or 0.2 wt% CQ and 0.19 wt% PPD. The degree of conversion (DC, flexural strength (FS, Young’s modulus (YM, Knoop hardness (KNH, crosslinking density (CLD, and yellowing (Y were evaluated (n=10. All samples were light cured with the following LCUs: a halogen lamp (XL 2500, a monowave LED (Radii, or a polywave LED (Valo with 16 J/cm2. The results were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05. Results No statistical differences were found between the different photoinitiator systems to KNH, CLS, FS, and YM properties (p≥0.05. PPD/CQ association showed the higher DC values compared with CQ and PPD isolated systems when photoactivated by a polywave LED (p≤0.05. Y values were highest for the CQ compared with the PPD systems (p≤0.05. Conclusion PPD isolated system promoted similar chemical and mechanical properties and less yellowing compared with the CQ isolated system, regardless of the LCU used.

  10. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M [ed.; Siren, T

    2011-12-15

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010.

  11. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Siren, T.

    2011-12-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010

  12. Summary report of research on evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior in the engineered barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Ryo

    2002-02-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanisms, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock in to the engineered barrier system, stress imposed by the overburden pressure and generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration. In order to recognize and evaluate these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomena, it is necessary to make a confidence of the mathematical models and computer codes. Evaluating these coupled THM phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the EBS within the near field. DECOVALEX project is an international co-operative project for the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments in nuclear waste isolation and it is significance to participate this project and to apply the code for the validation. Therefore, we tried to apply the developed numerical code against the subjects of DECOVALEX. In the above numerical code, swelling phenomenon is modeled as the function of water potential. However it dose no evaluate the experiment results enough. Then, we try to apply the new model. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the Knowledge Management Mechanisms of Brazilian Northeast Universities Hospital Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Roberto Hekis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospital portals that manage health related data are becoming increasingly popular since they play an important role to provide, acquire and exchange information to its users. This study aims to verify how the hospital portals are contributing to the expansion of users knowledge by the analysis of interactive features associated with three mechanisms of knowledge management: Knowledge Access (KA; Knowledge Creation (KC; and Knowledge Transfer (KT. The study is exploratory, descriptive and qualitative, classified as a survey, and involves the standardization of data collection instruments (questionnaires and interviews applied directly to people of a particular population to evaluate the knowledge management the portals present on the university hospitals from northeastern of Brazil. The results indicated that the proceeds of access to knowledge (AK prevailed over other confirming the results found on the Asians and Americans hospital portals. 

  14. Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

    2014-08-01

    The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical design fire brick at test section on the HeaTiNG-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Haryanto; Riswan Djambiar; Sagino; Edy Sumarno

    2013-01-01

    The activity was carried out due to the modification of the heating in the HeaTiNG-02 test section. Modification of the heater needs to be done to overcome the obstacles that arise as part of the test section is used. Constraint that often arises is the fall of the heating source with super khantal material when it reaches a certain temperature. To mitigate the super khantal position is initially converted into a vertical position horizontal. The change from vertical to horizontal position on super khantal cause any deformities in refractory fire brick which serves as a support super khantal. Manufacture of refractory design fire brick formation and mechanical strength evaluation performed using CATIA V5 R20 software. Evaluation of fireproof rock mechanics to be based on the mechanical properties of alumina as a refractory material of fire brick. The results of the analysis have a fire brick design stress greater than the bend strength alumina materials, so that the necessary checks before and after the experiment as well as the replacement of refractory fire brick if something is broken. Translational greatest displacement 0.453 mm at a temperature of 1575 K did not give any meaningful form. Thus the refractory fire brick design can be used as heating source support in the HeaTiNG-02 test section with checks before and after the operation. (author)

  16. WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P. (2010, 19 May). WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3). Presentation at idSpace Final Review, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. idSpace-project.

  17. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung

    1998-06-01

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials

  18. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials.

  19. Autogenous shrinkage in high-performance cement paste: An evaluation of basic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; van Breugel, Klaas

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, various mechanisms Suggested to cause autogenous shrinkage are presented. The mechanisms are evaluated from the point of view of their soundness and applicability to quantitative modeling of autogenous shrinkage. The capillary tension approach is advantageous, because it has a sound...... mechanical and thermodynamical basis. Furthermore, this mechanism is easily applicable in a numerical model when dealing with a continuously changing microstructure. In order to test the numerical model, autogenous deformation and internal relative humidity (RH) of a Portland cement paste were measured...... on the capillary tension approach. Because a part of the RH drop in the cement paste is due to dissolved salts in the pore solution, a method is suggested to separate this effect from self-desiccation and to calculate the actual stress in the pore fluid associated with menisci formation....

  20. Evaluation of binding energies by using quantum mechanical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Postolache, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of binding energies (BE) in molecular structure is needed for modelling chemical and radiochemical processes by quantum-chemical methods. An important field of application is evaluation of radiolysis and autoradiolysis stability of organic and inorganic compounds as well as macromolecular structures. The current methods of calculation do not allow direct determination of BE but only of total binding energies (TBE) and enthalpies. BEs were evaluated indirectly by determining the homolytic dissociation energies. The molecular structures were built and geometrically optimized by the molecular mechanics methods MM+ and AMBER. The energy minimizations were refined by semi-empirical methods. Depending on the chosen molecular structure, the CNDO, INDO, PM3 and AM1 methods were used. To reach a high confidence level the minimizations were done for gradients lower than 10 -3 RMS. The energy values obtained by the difference of the fragment TBLs, of the transition states and initial molecular structures, respectively, were associated to the hemolytic fragmentation energy and BE, respectively. In order to evaluate the method's accuracy and to establish the application fields of the evaluation methods, the obtained values of BEs were compared with the experimental data taken from literature. To this goal there were built, geometrically optimized by semi-empirical methods and evaluated the BEs for 74 organic and inorganic compounds (alkanes, alkene, alkynes, halogenated derivatives, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitrogen and sulfur compounds, water, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, hydrazine, etc. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of Mechanical Parameters of Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Kubík

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper dealt with the evaluation of mechanical properties of the cylinder wheat straw, rapeseed straw and 50/50 % mixed wheat and rapeseed straw pellet samples. The pellets were made by the granulating machine MGL 200 (Kovonovak. The compressive loading curves of dependencies of stress on strain were realised by the test stand Andilog Stentor 1000 (Andilog Technologies, Vitrolles, France. Certain mechanical parameters were determined, namely the initial force (force at 10 % of compress strain, force in maximum of loading curve, strain in maximum of loading curve, initial stress (stress at 10 % of compression strain, stress in maximum of loading curve and modulus of elasticity. Mean value of the initial force was maximal for mixed straw pellet samples 52.49 N. Mean values of the initial force of the wheat straw samples and the rapeseed straw samples were smaller and almost identical 43.58 N and 43.12 N. Mean values of the initial stress of loading curve, of the wheat straw samples reached 1.46 MPa, the rapeseed straw samples reached value 1.40 MPa and the mixed straw samples reached value 1.63 MPa. Mean value of the force in maximum of loading curve was also maximal for mixed straw pellet samples 213.26 N. Mean values of the force in maximum of loading curve of the wheat straw samples reached 178.11 N. The rapeseed straw samples reached value 95.95 N and the mixed straw samples reached value 213.26 N. Mean values of the stress in maximum of loading curve, of the wheat straw samples reached 5.93 MPa, the rapeseed straw samples reached value 3.11 MPa and the mixed straw samples reached value 7.10 MPa Mean values of the modulus of elasticity, of the wheat straw samples reached 18.27 MPa, the rapeseed straw samples reached value 13.08 MPa and the mixed straw samples reached value 14.97 MPa. Significant correlations of the mechanical parameters pellet samples were observed among initial force and initial stress and modulus of elasticity

  2. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  3. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days

  4. Mechanical and cytotoxicity evaluation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilbagi, Marjan; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kharaziha, Mahshid, E-mail: ma.kharaziha@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiani, Ali [Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Despite the attractive characteristics of three-dimensional pure hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, due to their weak mechanical properties, researches have focused on the development of composite scaffolds via introducing suitable secondary components. The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time, three-dimensional HA-bredigite (Ca{sub 7}MgSi{sub 4}O{sub 16}) scaffolds containing various amounts of bredigite nanopowder (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt.%) using space holder technique. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were applied in order to study the morphology, fracture surface and phase compositions of nanopowders and scaffolds. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results showed that the composite scaffolds with average pore size in the range of 220–310 μm, appearance porosity of 63.1–75.9% and appearance density of 1.1 ± 0.04 g/cm{sup 3} were successfully developed, depending on bredigite content. Indeed, the micropore size of the scaffolds reduced with increasing bredigite content confirming that the sinterability of the scaffolds was improved. Furthermore, the compression strength and modulus of the scaffolds significantly enhanced via incorporation of bredigite content from 0 to 15 wt.%. The composite scaffolds revealed superior bioactivity and biodegradability with increasing bredigite content. Moreover, MTT assay confirmed that HA-15 wt.% bredigite scaffold significantly promoted cell proliferation compared to tissue culture plate (control) and HA scaffold. Based on these results, three-dimensional HA-bredigite scaffolds could be promising replacements for HA scaffolds in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite composite scaffolds were developed using space holder technique. • Presence of bredigite

  5. The results of investigation and the analysis of the mechanical properties of L485MB steel used for gas-pipelines construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiak, J.; Szteke, W.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Wagner, T.; Przyborska, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper results of mechanical properties investigation carried out on two sectors of the tube made of L485MB steel cutting out from the gas pipeline after stress test are described. The calculation of the critical dimensions of cracks in examined material is given. The diagnostic programme SACC serving to the evaluation of the exploitation safety of elements with cracks was applied. (author)

  6. Fracture mechanics evaluation of feedwater line failure at Surry-2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform a fracture mechanics evaluation of a failure that occurred in an elbow of the 18-inch suction line to the ''A'' main feed pump at Surry Power Station, Unit 2. The failure occurred during a pressure transient subsequent to a reactor trip, which was initiated by a low-low steam generator level protection signal. Analyses were performed to characterize the crack formation and growth sequence at the estimated failure pressure (550 psi) and normal operating pressure (367 psi); this work included predicting the longitudinal throughwall crack lengths for initial wall breakthrough and failure. A sensitivity study also was performed to assess the effect on the results of variations in several conditions that generally influence failure

  7. Fracture mechanics evaluation of feedwater line failure at Surry-2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform a fracture mechanics evaluation of a failure that occurred in an elbow of the 18-inch suction line to the ''A'' main feed pump at Surry Power Station, Unit 2. The failure occurred during a pressure transient subsequent to a reactor trip, which was initiated by a low-low steam generator level protection signal. Analyses were performed to characterize the crack formation and growth sequence at the estimated failure pressure (550 psi) and normal operating pressure (367 psi); this work included predicting the longitudinal throughwall crack lengths for initial wall breakthrough and failure. A sensitivity study also was performed to assess the effect on the results of variations in several conditions that generally influence failure.

  8. The recognition and evaluation of patterns of compensatory injury in patients with mechanical hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Sommer; Bedi, Asheesh; Voos, James E; Mauro, Craig S; Kelly, Bryan T

    2014-03-01

    In active individuals with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), the resultant reduction in functional range of motion leads to high impaction loads at terminal ranges. These increased forces result in compensatory effects on bony and soft tissue structures within the hip joint and hemipelvis. An algorithm is useful in evaluating athletes with pre-arthritic, mechanical hip pain and associated compensatory disorders. A literature search was performed by a review of PubMed articles published from 1976 to 2013. Level 4. Increased stresses across the bony hemipelvis result when athletes with FAI attempt to achieve supraphysiologic, terminal ranges of motion (ROM) through the hip joint required for athletic competition. This can manifest as pain within the pubic joint (osteitis pubis), sacroiliac joint, and lumbosacral spine. Subclinical posterior hip instability may result when attempts to increase hip flexion and internal rotation are not compensated for by increased motion through the hemipelvis. Prominence of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) at the level of the acetabular rim can result in impingement of the anterior hip joint capsule or iliocapsularis muscle origin against the femoral head-neck junction, resulting in a distinct form of mechanical hip impingement (AIIS subspine impingement). Iliopsoas impingement (IPI) has also been described as an etiology for anterior hip pain. IPI results in a typical 3-o'clock labral tear as well as an inflamed capsule in close proximity to the overlying iliopsoas tendon. Injury in athletic pubalgia occurs during high-energy twisting activities in which abnormal hip ROM and resultant pelvic motion lead to shearing across the pubic symphysis. Failure to recognize and address concomitant compensatory injury patterns associated with intra-articular hip pathology can result in significant disability and persistent symptoms in athletes with pre-arthritic, mechanical hip pain. B.

  9. Evaluation of reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms used for modeling mild combustion for natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and parametric study was performed to evaluate the potential of reduced chemistry mechanisms to model natural gas chemistry including NOx chemistry under mild combustion mode. Two reduced mechanisms, 5-step and 9-step, were tested against the GRI-Mech3.0 by comparing key species, such as NOx, CO2 and CO, and gas temperature predictions in idealized reactors codes under mild combustion conditions. It is thus concluded that the 9-step mechanism appears to be a promising reduced mechanism that can be used in multi-dimensional codes for modeling mild combustion of natural gas.

  10. Improvement and evaluation of thermal, electrical, sealing and mechanical contacts, and their interface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangcheng

    Material contacts, including thermal, electrical, seating (fluid sealing and electromagnetic sealing) and mechanical (pressure) contacts, together with their interface materials, were, evaluated, and in some cases, improved beyond the state of the art. The evaluation involved the use of thermal, electrical and mechanical methods. For thermal contacts, this work evaluated and improved the heat transfer efficiency between two contacting components by developing various thermal interface pastes. Sodium silicate based thermal pastes (with boron nitride particles as the thermally conductive filler) as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) based thermal pastes were developed and evaluated. The optimum volume fractions of BN in sodium silicate based pastes and PEG based pastes were 16% and 18% respectively. The contribution of Li+ ions to the thermal contact conductance in the PEG-based paste was confirmed. For electrical contacts, the relationship between the mechanical reliability and electrical reliability of solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints was addressed. Mechanical pull-out testing was conducted on solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints, while the contact electrical resistivity was measured. Cleansing of the copper surface was more effective for the reliability of silver-epoxy/copper joint than that of solder/copper joint. For sealing contacts, this work evaluated flexible graphite as an electromagnetic shielding gasket material. Flexible graphite was found to be at least comparable to conductive filled silicone (the state of the art) in terms of the shielding effectiveness. The conformability of flexible graphite with its mating metal surface under repeated compression was characterized by monitoring the contact electrical resistance, as the conformability is important to both electromagnetic scaling and fluid waling using flexible graphite. For mechanical contacts, this work focused on the correlation of the interface structure (such as elastic

  11. Review of evaluations of crushing results for the seedbed preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Anisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the work results of tillage operations today only inaccurate parameters are available which cannot be readily measured. Thus, evaluating and comparing the work results of machines and developing suitable sensors are difficult. At the Technical University of Dresden, till 1990, research projects for determining aggregate size composition of soil have been done. Based on this work, this study will show suggestions for measuring, displaying and evaluation of soil crushing results depending on tillage work conditions.

  12. Results of the application of the Risk Evaluation System in Radiotherapy (RESRA) in radiotherapy facilities in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz G, A.; Godinez S, V.

    2013-10-01

    The present work describes the main results of the risk evaluation for some radiotherapy treatments with lineal accelerators, cobalt 60, brachytherapy of high dose rate and brachytherapy of low dose rate that are realize in Mexico. These evaluations were carried out applying the risk matrices method with the tool computer risk evaluation system in radiotherapy, accessible for the national users through internet, and developed by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias in Mexico, in cooperation with the Forum of Ibero-American regulators. The used methodology is based on the risk matrices method that is a mathematical tool for the risk evaluation, and it was centered in the evaluation from the risk to which are exposed the patients, the occupational exposed personnel and people in general, by the mechanical faults of the treatment equipment s, bad calibrations, human errors, or any other event initiator of accidents. The events initiators of accidents are defined as those undesirable events that can produce and administration of an excessive dose or a sub-dose of the prescribed dose by the doctor, to the planned objective volume, or undesirable dose to the patient's regions or dose to occupational exposed personnel or people in general. The barriers are the actions and systems as mechanical switches, interlocks or alarms, dedicated to avoid that these accidents take place. The evaluation analysis of the risk developed by the members of the Forum for radiotherapy facilities together with the software RESRA has demonstrated to be useful in the prevention of many possible accidents that have happened in the past in other facilities and can avoid many others in the future. (Author)

  13. Research on evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Imai, Hisashi; Fukutome, Kazuhito; Kayukawa, Koji; Sasaki, Hajime; Moro, Yoshiji

    2004-02-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanisms, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock in the engineered barrier system, stress imposed by the overburden pressure and generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration. In order to recognize and evaluate these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomena, it is necessary to make a confidence of the mathematical models and computer codes. Evaluating these coupled THM phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the EBS within the near field. DECOVALEX project is an international co-operative project for the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments in nuclear waste isolation and it is significance to participate this project and to apply the code for the validation. Therefore, we tried to apply the developed numerical code against the subjects of DECOVALEX. We carried out the simulation against the Task 1 (simulation of FEBEX in-situ full-scale experiment), Task 3 BMT1 (Bench Mark Test against the near field coupling phenomena) and Task 3 BMT2 (Bench Mark Test against the up-scaling of fractured rock mass). This report shows the simulation results against these tasks. Furthermore, technical investigations about the in-situ full-scale experiment (called Prototype Repository Project) in Aespoe HRL facility by SKB of Sweden were performed. In order to evaluate the coupled phenomena in the engineered barrier, we use the new swelling model based on the theoretical approach. In this paper, we introduce the modeling approach and applicability about the new model. (author)

  14. The use of fracture mechanics for the evaluation of NDE flaw acceptance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicino, A; Capurro, E; Ansaldo, Sp; Corvi, A [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the use of fracture mechanics criteria to evaluate the Non Destructive Examination (NDE) flaw acceptance standards. The communication discusses the general schemes and the guidelines of the activity carried out. (TEC).

  15. Evaluating mechanical properties and degradation of YTZP dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, Pablo; Sandino, Clara; Arciniegas, Milena; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi; Peraire, Maria; Gil, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Lately new biomedical grade yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) dental implants have appeared in the implantology market. This material has better aesthetical properties than conventional titanium used for implants but long term behaviour of these new implants is not yet well known. The aim of this paper is to quantify the mechanical response of YTZP dental implants previously degraded under different time conditions and compare the toughness and fatigue strength with titanium implants. Mechanical response has been studied by means of mechanical testing following the ISO 14801 for Standards for dental implants and by finite element analysis. Accelerated hydrothermal degradation has been achieved by means of water vapour and studied by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation tests. The results show that the degradation suffered by YTZP dental implants will not have a significant effect on the mechanical behaviour. Otherwise the fracture toughness of YTZP ceramics is still insufficient in certain implantation conditions.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α, the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  17. Creating Evaluation Profiles for Games Designed to be Fun: An Interpretive Framework for Serious Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background. Games can be great pedagogical tools for educators and students. COTS games (commercialoff-the-shelf) are designed for the pure purpose of leisure but can also contain educational value. Aim. In this paper, we address the potential of COTS games as serious games. We develop...... an interpretive evaluation framework that can identify the educational value in COTS games. Application. The presented framework can create evaluative profiles of the learning, social, game, and immersive mechanics of COTS games as educational tools. Moreover, the framework can position COTS games between four...... enables critical reflection on the game mechanics; thereby capturing the complexity of the game mechanics that makes COTS game both educational and fun to play....

  18. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-7 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.E.; Amos, J.C.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report evaluates the test A-7 data and assesses the capability of the analytical methodology (as a result of Series I program) to predict the thermal/hydraulic phenomena associated with a large SWR event occurring after the sodium system pressure has increased to near the rupture disc burst pressure due to a smaller size leak event. Evaluation of intertest examination data to determine the extent of test article damage resulting from test A-7 is also included

  19. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/3. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Geology and mechanical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanfors, R.; Olsson, Paer; Stille, H.

    1997-05-01

    Prior to excavation of the laboratory in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase. The predictions concern five key issues: Geology, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry, transport of solutes, and mechanical stability. Comparisons between predictions and observations were made during excavation in order to verify the reliability of the pre-investigations. This report presents a comparison between the geological and mechanical stability predictions and observations and an evaluation of data and investigation methods used for the 700-2874 m section of the tunnel. The report is specially highlighting the following conclusions: It is possible to localize major fracture zones during the pre-investigation at shallow (<200 m) depths; A number of minor fracture zones striking NNW-NNE were predicted to be hydraulically important and penetrate the southern area. A number of narrow fracture zone indications - 0.1-1 m wide - striking WNW-NE were mapped in the tunnel and pre-grouted sections confirm hydraulic conductors; It has not been possible to confirm the gently dipping zone EW-5, which was predicted as 'possible', with data from the tunnel; Predictions of the amount of different rock types were generally reliable as regards the major rocks, but the prediction of the distribution in space were poor as regards the minor rock types; The prediction of rock stress orientation corresponds well to the outcome; The prediction of rock quality for the tunnel, while applying the RMR-system, shows good correspondence to the observations made in the tunnel

  20. Workspace optimization and kinematic performance evaluation of 2-DOF parallel mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yun Joo; Park, Myeong Kwan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the kinematics and workspace optimization of the two different 2-DOF (Degrees-of-Freedom) planar parallel mechanisms: one (called 2-RPR mechanism) with translational actuators and the other (called 2-RRR mechanism) with rotational ones. First of all, the inverse kinematics and Jacobian matrix for each mechanism are derived analytically. Then, the workspace including the output-space and the joint-space is systematically analyzed in order to determine the geometric parameters and the operating range of the actuators. Finally, the kinematic optimization of the mechanisms is performed in consideration of their dexterity and rigidity. It is expected that the optimization results can be effectively used as a basic material for the applications of the presented mechanisms to more industrial fields

  1. Concepts for benchmark problem development for fracture mechanics application in safety evaluation of nuclear piping in subcreep service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Esztergar, E.P.; Erdogan, F.; Gray, T.G.F.; Spence, J.

    1979-01-01

    This report provides basic concepts and a review of the problem areas associated with the development of analytical and experimental programs for a systematic evaluation and comparison of the currently available fracture mechanics theories. The basis for such an evaluation is conceived as a series of benchmark problems which are accurately specified examples of geometry, loading, and environmental conditions, characteristic of large diameter thin wall piping systems in nuclear service. Starting from the simplest test coupons for cracked plate specimens, the program is to be designed in such a way that the range of validity and relative merit of the competing assessment methods can be evaluated and the results applied to increasingly more complex test configurations and ultimately to real piping systems. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a tool for experimental behavioral research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J C Crump

    Full Text Available Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT is an online crowdsourcing service where anonymous online workers complete web-based tasks for small sums of money. The service has attracted attention from experimental psychologists interested in gathering human subject data more efficiently. However, relative to traditional laboratory studies, many aspects of the testing environment are not under the experimenter's control. In this paper, we attempt to empirically evaluate the fidelity of the AMT system for use in cognitive behavioral experiments. These types of experiment differ from simple surveys in that they require multiple trials, sustained attention from participants, comprehension of complex instructions, and millisecond accuracy for response recording and stimulus presentation. We replicate a diverse body of tasks from experimental psychology including the Stroop, Switching, Flanker, Simon, Posner Cuing, attentional blink, subliminal priming, and category learning tasks using participants recruited using AMT. While most of replications were qualitatively successful and validated the approach of collecting data anonymously online using a web-browser, others revealed disparity between laboratory results and online results. A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers.

  3. Evaluation of the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hardening High-Calcium Fly Ash Blended Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Park, Ki-Bong

    2015-09-07

    High-calcium fly ash (FH) is the combustion residue from electric power plants burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. As a mineral admixture, FH can be used to produce high-strength concrete and high-performance concrete. The development of chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial factor for appropriately using FH in the concrete industry. To achieve sustainable development in the concrete industry, this paper presents a theoretical model to systematically evaluate the property developments of FH blended concrete. The proposed model analyzes the cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of phases in FH other than free CaO. The mutual interactions among cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of other phases in FH are also considered through the calcium hydroxide contents and the capillary water contents. Using the hydration degree of cement, the reaction degree of free CaO in FH, and the reaction degree of other phases in FH, the proposed model evaluates the calcium hydroxide contents, the reaction degree of FH, chemically bound water, porosity, and the compressive strength of hardening concrete with different water to binder ratios and FH replacement ratios. The evaluated results are compared to experimental results, and good consistencies are found.

  4. Crowdsourcing participatory evaluation of medical pictograms using Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei; Willis, Matt; Sun, Peiyuan; Wang, Jun

    2013-06-03

    Consumer and patient participation proved to be an effective approach for medical pictogram design, but it can be costly and time-consuming. We proposed and evaluated an inexpensive approach that crowdsourced the pictogram evaluation task to Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers, who are usually referred to as the "turkers". To answer two research questions: (1) Is the turkers' collective effort effective for identifying design problems in medical pictograms? and (2) Do the turkers' demographic characteristics affect their performance in medical pictogram comprehension? We designed a Web-based survey (open-ended tests) to ask 100 US turkers to type in their guesses of the meaning of 20 US pharmacopeial pictograms. Two judges independently coded the turkers' guesses into four categories: correct, partially correct, wrong, and completely wrong. The comprehensibility of a pictogram was measured by the percentage of correct guesses, with each partially correct guess counted as 0.5 correct. We then conducted a content analysis on the turkers' interpretations to identify misunderstandings and assess whether the misunderstandings were common. We also conducted a statistical analysis to examine the relationship between turkers' demographic characteristics and their pictogram comprehension performance. The survey was completed within 3 days of our posting the task to the MTurk, and the collected data are publicly available in the multimedia appendix for download. The comprehensibility for the 20 tested pictograms ranged from 45% to 98%, with an average of 72.5%. The comprehensibility scores of 10 pictograms were strongly correlated to the scores of the same pictograms reported in another study that used oral response-based open-ended testing with local people. The turkers' misinterpretations shared common errors that exposed design problems in the pictograms. Participant performance was positively correlated with their educational level. The results confirmed that

  5. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  6. Evaluation of the mechanism of skin enhancing surfactants on the biomembrane of shed snake skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of different surfactants at various concentrations as a skin penetration enhancer through the biomembrane of the shed skin of Naja kaouthia. Additionally, the enhancer mechanism(s) of each class of surfactants were evaluated using physical characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). Our results showed that skin permeability increased with increasing concentrations of surfactants and the degree of increase was higher for the model hydrophilic permeant, deuterium dioxide (D(2)O), than the lipophilic permeant, ketoprofen (KP). Ionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated higher enhancement ability than the polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) non-ionic surfactant, which was consistent with the results from physical characterization studies. Increasing amounts of permeated drug resulted in an increase in membrane interactions. From our observations, it can be assumed that SLS and CTAB can be localized inside the biomembrane and thereby enhance drug permeation mainly through interactions with intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) and the creation of a perturbed microenvironment among lipid alkyl chains and polar head groups.

  7. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T 800 degrees C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B 4 C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B 4 C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs

  8. Autogenous shrinkage in high-performance cement paste: An evaluation of basic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Breugel, Klaas van

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, various mechanisms suggested to cause autogenous shrinkage are presented. The mechanisms are evaluated from the point of view of their soundness and applicability to quantitative modeling of autogenous shrinkage. The capillary tension approach is advantageous, because it has a sound mechanical and thermodynamical basis. Furthermore, this mechanism is easily applicable in a numerical model when dealing with a continuously changing microstructure. In order to test the numerical model, autogenous deformation and internal relative humidity (RH) of a Portland cement paste were measured during the first week of hardening. The isothermal heat evolution was also recorded to monitor the progress of hydration and the elastic modulus in compression was measured. RH change, degree of hydration and elastic modulus were used as input data for the calculation of autogenous deformation based on the capillary tension approach. Because a part of the RH drop in the cement paste is due to dissolved salts in the pore solution, a method is suggested to separate this effect from self-desiccation and to calculate the actual stress in the pore fluid associated with menisci formation

  9. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  10. Experience with the WWER-440 MW reactor pressure vessel in-service inspections and evaluation of their results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Kralovec, J.; Prepechal, J.; Sulc, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Power Machinery Plant of Skoda Works in Plzen carries out in-service inspections of WWER-440 MW reactor pressure vessels by means of remote controlled inspection equipment - the TRC reactor test system, and some other inspections devices. The results of the in-service inspections were evaluated by methods based on the fracture mechanics approach, the knowledge of stress and strain distribution, and the operating history of the pressure vessels. Examples of types of defects found and their analysis are shown. (author). 1 tab

  11. Superheater fireside corrosion mechanisms in MSWI plants: Lab-scale study and on-site results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, J.M.; Chaucherie, X.; Nicol, F. [Veolia Environnement R and D, Zone Portuaire de Limay, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Ducas, Limay 78520 (France); Diop, I. [Veolia Environnement R and D, Zone Portuaire de Limay, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Ducas, Limay 78520 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, departement Chimie et physique des solides et des surfaces, UMR 7198 CNRS - Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Rapin, C.; Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, departement Chimie et physique des solides et des surfaces, UMR 7198 CNRS - Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2011-06-15

    Combustion of municipal waste generates highly corrosive gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, and heavy metals chlorides) and ashes containing alkaline chlorides and sulfates. Currently, corrosion phenomena are particularly observed on superheater's tubes. Corrosion rates depend mainly on installation design, operating conditions i.e., gas and steam temperature and velocity of the flue gas containing ashes. This paper presents the results obtained using an innovative laboratory-scale corrosion unit, which simulates MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) boilers conditions characterized by a temperature gradient at the metal tube in the presence of corrosive gases and ashes. The presented corrosion tests were realized on carbon steel at fixed metal temperature (400 C). The influence of the flue gas temperature, synthetic ashes composition, and flue gas flow pattern were investigated. After corrosion test, cross sections of tube samples were characterized to evaluate thickness loss and estimate corrosion rate while the elements present in corrosion layers were analyzed. Corrosion tests were carried out twice in order to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of results. First results highlight the key role of molten phase related to the ash composition and flue gas temperature as well as the deposit morphology, related to the flue gas flow pattern, on the mechanisms and corrosion rates. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Mechanism and in vivo evaluation :photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of lysine-porphyrin conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengping eXu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported lysine-porphyrin conjugate 4i, which had potent photosensitive antibacterial effect on clinical isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa bacterial strains. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the mechanism of photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of 4i (4i-PACT in vitro and the treatment effect in vivo. Atomic force microscopy (AFM revealed 4i-PACT could effectively destroy bacterial membrane and wall, making the bacterial content leakage, which was confirmed by dual fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB and absorbance at 260 nm, agarose gel electrophoresis indicated 4i-PACT could damage genomic DNA. The results combined AFM and DNA electrophoresis revealed why the bacterial strains had no resistance to 4i-PACT. Wound healing in rat model with mixed bacteria infected wounds showed the efficiency of 4i-PACT was light-dose dependent. These results showed 4i-PACT had promising bactericidal effect both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Haiting; Gai, Xiuying; Wang, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the microstructure and mechanical properties of dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) dental alloy fabricated by SLM and to determine the correlation between its microstructure and mechanical properties and its porcelain bond strength. Five metal specimens and 10 metal ceramic specimens were fabricated to evaluate the mechanical properties of SLM Co-Cr dental alloy (SLM alloy) with a tensile test and its porcelain bond strength with a 3-point bending test. The relevant properties of the SLM alloy were compared with those of the currently used Co-Cr dental alloy fabricated with conventional cast technology (cast alloy). The Student t test was used to compare the results of the SLM alloy and the cast alloy (α=.05). The microstructure of the SLM alloy was analyzed with a metallographic microscope; the metal ceramic interface of the SLM porcelain bonded alloy was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and an electron probe microanalyzer. Both the mean (standard deviation) yield strength (884.37 ± 8.96 MPa) and tensile strength (1307.50 ±10.65 MPa) of the SLM alloy were notably higher than yield strength (568.10 ± 30.94 MPa) and tensile strength (758.73 ± 25.85 MPa) of the currently used cast alloy, and the differences were significant (P.05). Microstructure analysis suggested that the SLM alloy had a dense and obviously orientated microstructure, which led to excellent mechanical properties. Analysis from scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the electron probe microanalyzer indicated that the SLM alloy had an intermediate layer with elemental interpenetration between the alloy and the porcelain, which resulted in an improved bonding interface. Compared with the currently used cast alloy, SLM alloy possessed improved mechanical

  14. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/3. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Geology and mechanical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [Skanska AB Stockholm (Sweden); Stille, H. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Prior to excavation of the laboratory in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase. The predictions concern five key issues: Geology, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry, transport of solutes, and mechanical stability. Comparisons between predictions and observations were made during excavation in order to verify the reliability of the pre-investigations. This report presents a comparison between the geological and mechanical stability predictions and observations and an evaluation of data and investigation methods used for the 700-2874 m section of the tunnel. The report is specially highlighting the following conclusions: It is possible to localize major fracture zones during the pre-investigation at shallow (<200 m) depths; A number of minor fracture zones striking NNW-NNE were predicted to be hydraulically important and penetrate the southern area. A number of narrow fracture zone indications - 0.1-1 m wide - striking WNW-NE were mapped in the tunnel and pre-grouted sections confirm hydraulic conductors; It has not been possible to confirm the gently dipping zone EW-5, which was predicted as `possible`, with data from the tunnel; Predictions of the amount of different rock types were generally reliable as regards the major rocks, but the prediction of the distribution in space were poor as regards the minor rock types; The prediction of rock stress orientation corresponds well to the outcome; The prediction of rock quality for the tunnel, while applying the RMR-system, shows good correspondence to the observations made in the tunnel. 59 refs, 51 figs, 21 tabs.

  15. Mechanical evaluation of space closure loops in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo Uggeri; Maruo, Hiroshi; Guariza Filho, Odilon; Tanaka, Orlando; Camargo, Elisa Souza

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the mechanical performance of teardrop-shaped loops and teardrop-shaped loops with helix used in orthodontic space closure. Sixty retraction loops made with 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel (SS) and beta-titanium (BT) wires were used. They were attached to a testing machine to measure the magnitudes of the sagittal force and the load-deflection ratio necessary for 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm activation. The results demonstrated that the BT alloy presented significantly smaller mean values (p < 0.01) of sagittal force and load-deflection than the SS alloy. The loop with the highest mean value of sagittal force and load-deflection was the teardrop-shaped loop (p < 0.01). Differences were observed in the mean values of sagittal force and load-deflection among activations, and the highest mean value was found in the activation of 3 mm, while the smallest mean value was evident in the activation of 1 mm (p < 0.01). It could be concluded that the metallic alloy used and the presence of a helix in configuration of the loops may have a strong influence on the sagittal force produced and on the load-deflection ratio; the teardrop-shaped loops and teardrop-shaped loops with helix in BT presented the release of lighter forces; the teardrop-shaped loop in SS generated a high load-deflection ratio, providing high magnitudes of horizontal force during its deactivation.

  16. Mechanical evaluation of space closure loops in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Uggeri Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the mechanical performance of teardrop-shaped loops and teardrop-shaped loops with helix used in orthodontic space closure. Sixty retraction loops made with 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel (SS and beta-titanium (BT wires were used. They were attached to a testing machine to measure the magnitudes of the sagittal force and the load-deflection ratio necessary for 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm activation. The results demonstrated that the BT alloy presented significantly smaller mean values (p < 0.01 of sagittal force and load-deflection than the SS alloy. The loop with the highest mean value of sagittal force and load-deflection was the teardrop-shaped loop (p < 0.01. Differences were observed in the mean values of sagittal force and load-deflection among activations, and the highest mean value was found in the activation of 3 mm, while the smallest mean value was evident in the activation of 1 mm (p < 0.01. It could be concluded that the metallic alloy used and the presence of a helix in configuration of the loops may have a strong influence on the sagittal force produced and on the load-deflection ratio; the teardrop-shaped loops and teardrop-shaped loops with helix in BT presented the release of lighter forces; the teardrop-shaped loop in SS generated a high load-deflection ratio, providing high magnitudes of horizontal force during its deactivation.

  17. Evaluation of autophagy as a mechanism involved in air pollutant-induced pulmonary injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of autophagy as a mechanism involved in air pollutant-induced pulmonary injuryHenriquez, A.1, Snow, S.2, Miller, D1.,Schladweiler, M.2 and Kodavanti, U2.1 Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC. 2 EPHD/NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, Durham, NC. ...

  18. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of Niobium modified cast AISI H 13 hot work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorian, A.; Kheirandish, Sh.; Saghafian, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the effects of partially replacing of vanadium and molybdenum with niobium on the mechanical properties of AISIH 13 hot-work tool steel have been studied. Cast samples made of the modified new steel were homogenized and austenitized at different conditions, followed by tempering at the specified temperature ranges. Hardness, red hardness, three point bending test and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties together with characterizing the microstructure of the modified steel using scanning electron microscope. The results show that niobium addition modifies the cast structure of Nb-alloyed steel, and increases its maximum hardness. It was found that bending strength; bending strain, impact strength, and red hardness of the modified cast steel are also higher than those of the cast H13 steel, and lower than those of the wrought H13 steel.

  19. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  20. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant

  1. Evaluation of the user interface simplicity in the modern generation of mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Suzukawa, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    We designed this study to evaluate the simplicity of the user interface in modern-generation mechanical ventilators. We hypothesized that different designs in the user interface could result in different rates of operational failures. A laboratory in a tertiary teaching hospital. Crossover design. Twenty-one medical resident physicians who did not possess operating experience with any of the selected ventilators. Four modern mechanical ventilators were selected: Dräger Evita XL, Maquet Servo-i, Newport e500, and Puritan Bennett 840. Each subject was requested to perform 8 tasks on each ventilator. Two objective variables (the number of successfully completed tasks without operational failures and the operational time) and the overall subjective rating of the ease of use, measured with a 100-mm visual analog scale were recorded. The total percentage of operational failures made for all subjects, for all tasks, was 23%. There were significant differences in the rates of operational failures and operational time among the 4 ventilators. Subjects made more operational failures in setting up the ventilators and in making ventilator-setting changes than in reacting to alarms. The subjective feeling of the ease of use was also significantly different among the ventilators. The design of the user interface is relevant to the occurrence of operational failures. Our data indicate that ventilator designers could optimize the user-interface design to reduce the operational failures; therefore, basic user interface should be standardized among the clinically used mechanical ventilators.

  2. Exploring the transparency mechanism and evaluating the effect of public reporting on prescription: a protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Wang, Dan; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Shiru; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-03-21

    The public reporting of health outcomes has become one of the most popular topics and is accepted as a quality improvement method in the healthcare field. However, little research has been conducted on the transparency mechanism, and results are mixed with regard to the evaluation of the effect of public reporting on quality improvement. The objectives of this trial are to investigate the transparency mechanism and to evaluate the effect of public reporting on prescription at the level of individual participants. This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 20 primary-care facilities (clusters). Eligible clusters are those facilities with excellent hospital information systems and that have agreed to participate in the trial. The 20 clusters are matched into 10 pairs according to Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution score. As the unit of randomization, each pair of facilities is assigned at random to a control or an intervention group through coin flipping. Prescribed ranking information is publicly reported in the intervention group. The public materials include the posters of individuals and of facilities, the ranking lists of general practitioners, and brochures of patients, which are updated monthly. The intervention began on 13th November 2013 and lasted for one year. Specifically, participants are surveyed at five points in time (baseline, quarterly following the intervention) through questionnaires, interviews, and observations. These participants include an average of 600 patients, 300 general practitioners, 15 directors, and 6 health bureau administrators. The primary outcomes are the transparency mechanism model and the changes in medicine-prescribe. Subsequently, the modifications in the transparency mechanism constructs are evaluated. The outcomes are measured at the individual participant level, and the professional who analyzes the data is blind to the randomization status. This study protocol

  3. UTILIZATION OF EVALUATION RESULTS IN LEGAL POLICY-MAKING AND ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmut Wollmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of evaluation method and its impact on legal policy development in governance, including in the area of law enforcement.The author outlines the importance of question whether, when and how the evaluation results of public policies, programs and measures has been utilized (or not utilized in policy making and policy implementation.In the pursuit of this guiding question the article will come in five steps.First, major variants of evaluation will be briefly presented particularly with an eye on their respective “utilization potential”.Second, different concepts will be sketched that have been forwarded to capture the utilization of social science generated knowledge by political, administrative and social actors. The author outlines a detailed description of types of evaluations: a retrospective, prelimi-nary, ongoing, interactive, – as well as existing concepts of application of its results.Third, looking at Germany, Switzerland and the European Union as “cases in point” perti-ent research findings will be discussed. The article also subjected to a detailed analysis of the experience of Germany, Switzerland and the European Union in the field of utilization of evaluation results.Fourth, a summary and conclusion will be given.Fifth, some remarks on pertinent research needs will be made.The author comes to the conclusion that that the rate of the utilization of evaluation-generated knowledge has so far turned out be, by and large, scarce. The author says that re-garding the politically crucial decisions the political rationality and its underlying political will of the decision-makers prevail while concerning less important decisions evaluation-generated evidence does show some effect and, hence, a dose of scientific rationality comes to the fore.There is also a need for further research on the subject of how should (and should not use assessment results when making legal and political decisions.

  4. Evaluation and Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing chemical kinetic mechanism reduction techniques. From here, an appropriate reduction scheme was developed to create compact yet comprehensive surrogate models for both diesel and biodiesel fuels for diesel engine applications. The reduction...... techniques applied here were Directed Relation Graph (DRG), DRG with Error Propagation, DRG-aided Sensitivity Analysis, and DRG with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. Nonetheless, the reduced mechanisms generated via these techniques were not sufficiently small for application in multi......-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study. A new reduction scheme was therefore formulated. A 68-species mechanism for biodiesel surrogate and a 49-species mechanism for diesel surrogate were successfully derived from the respective detailed mechanisms. An overall 97% reduction in species number...

  5. Evaluation of fuel release rate and mechanism tests under RBCB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    This task includes theoretical evaluation of fuel/fission product release behavior from failed LMFBR fuel elements as well as an on-going experimental investigation of the mechanism of oxide fuel dispersal into flowing liquid sodium. The primary objectives of this work are to develop a fuel source term that can be used in predictive models for primary heat transfer system contamination and to understand the separate influences of important system variables (such as flow rate, oxygen impurity level) on this source term. The present report is written in two parts: the first, in condensed form, is an updated evaluation of fuel (U,Pu) and fission product release data, and the second describes the current status of supporting experimental work at General Electric's Vallecitos Laboratory

  6. Double-strand breaks in genome-sized DNA caused by mechanical stress under mixing: Quantitative evaluation through single-molecule observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hayato; Nose, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2018-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that changes in the higher-order structure of genome-sized DNA molecules of more than several tens kbp play important roles in the self-control of genome activity in living cells. Unfortunately, it has been rather difficult to prepare genome-sized DNA molecules without damage or fragmentation. Here, we evaluated the degree of double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused by mechanical mixing by single-molecule observation with fluorescence microscopy. The results show that DNA breaks are most significant for the first second after the initiation of mechanical agitation. Based on such observation, we propose a novel mixing procedure to significantly decrease DSBs.

  7. Evaluation of Safety Culture Implementation and Socialization Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of safety culture implementation and socialization results has been perform. Evaluation is carried out with specifying safety culture indicators, namely: Meeting between management and employee, system for incidents analysis, training activities related to improving safety, meeting with regulator, contractors, surveys on behavioural attitudes, and resources allocated to promote safety culture. Evaluation is based on observation and visiting the facilities to show the compliance indicator in term of good practices in the frame of safety culture implementation. For three facilities of research reactors, Kartini Yogyakarta, TRIGA Mark II Bandung and MPR-GAS Serpong, implementation of safety culture is considered good enough and progressive. Furthermore some indicator should be considered more intensive, for example the allocated resources, self assesment based on own questionnaire in the frame of improving the safety culture implementation. (author)

  8. Rock mechanics models evaluation report: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the thermal and thermomechanical models and codes for repository subsurface design and for design constraint analysis. The evaluation was based on a survey of the thermal and thermomechanical codes and models that are applicable to subsurface design, followed by a Kepner-Tregoe (KT) structured decision analysis of the codes and models. The end result of the KT analysis is a balanced, documented recommendation of the codes and models which are best suited to conceptual subsurface design for the salt repository. The various laws for modeling the creep of rock salt are also reviewed in this report. 37 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  9. Implementation of Statistical Process Control: Evaluating the Mechanical Performance of a Candidate Silicone Elastomer Docking Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been developing a novel docking system to meet the requirements of future exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and beyond. A dynamic gas pressure seal is located at the main interface between the active and passive mating components of the new docking system. This seal is designed to operate in the harsh space environment, but is also to perform within strict loading requirements while maintaining an acceptable level of leak rate. In this study, a candidate silicone elastomer seal was designed, and multiple subscale test articles were manufactured for evaluation purposes. The force required to fully compress each test article at room temperature was quantified and found to be below the maximum allowable load for the docking system. However, a significant amount of scatter was observed in the test results. Due to the stochastic nature of the mechanical performance of this candidate docking seal, a statistical process control technique was implemented to isolate unusual compression behavior from typical mechanical performance. The results of this statistical analysis indicated a lack of process control, suggesting a variation in the manufacturing phase of the process. Further investigation revealed that changes in the manufacturing molding process had occurred which may have influenced the mechanical performance of the seal. This knowledge improves the chance of this and future space seals to satisfy or exceed design specifications.

  10. Mechanical Elongation of the Small Intestine: Evaluation of Techniques for Optimal Screw Placement in a Rodent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Hausbrandt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate techniques and establish an optimal method for mechanical elongation of small intestine (MESI using screws in a rodent model in order to develop a potential therapy for short bowel syndrome (SBS. Material and Methods. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 with body weight from 250 to 300 g (Σ=283 were evaluated using 5 different groups in which the basic denominator for the technique involved the fixation of a blind loop of the intestine on the abdominal wall with the placement of a screw in the lumen secured to the abdominal wall. Results. In all groups with accessible screws, the rodents removed the implants despite the use of washers or suits to prevent removal. Subcutaneous placement of the screw combined with antibiotic treatment and dietary modifications was finally successful. In two animals autologous transplantation of the lengthened intestinal segment was successful. Discussion. While the rodent model may provide useful basic information on mechanical intestinal lengthening, further investigations should be performed in larger animals to make use of the translational nature of MESI in human SBS treatment.

  11. The Use of School Self-Evaluation Results in the Netherlands and Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Vanhoof, Jan; van Petegem, Peter; Visscher, Adrie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of two studies on the use of school self-evaluation in the Netherlands and Flanders. It focuses on which forms of instrumental use of school self-evaluation results can be found in schools, and how differences in self-evaluation use between schools can be explained. Results show that the instrumental use of…

  12. Containment nuclear plant structures evaluation by non destructive testing: strategy and results

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, Vincent; HENAULT, Jean-Marie; HAFID, Hamid; VERDIER, Jérôme; CHAIX, Jean François; ABRAHAM, Odile; SBARTAÏ, Zoubir Medhi; BALAYSSAC, Jean Pierre; PIWAKOWSKI, Bogdan; VILLAIN, Géraldine; DEROBERT, Xavier; PAYAN, Cédric; RAKOTONARIVO, Sandrine; LAROSE, Eric; SOGBOSSI, Hognon

    2016-01-01

    Containment nuclear plants structures are an ultimate barrier in the event of an accident. Mechanical resistance and tightness are the two functions that they are expected to provide. To evaluate their capacity to perform them, destructive testing cannot be used to characterize the material. Non-Destructive Tests then represent a relevant solution to test concrete and the struc- ture. The article positions NDT within the context of containment structures supervision and maintenance, and prese...

  13. Mechanics of fiber reinforced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huiyu

    This dissertation is dedicated to mechanics of fiber reinforced materials and the woven reinforcement and composed of four parts of research: analytical characterization of the interfaces in laminated composites; micromechanics of braided composites; shear deformation, and Poisson's ratios of woven fabric reinforcements. A new approach to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of interfaces between composite laminae based on a modified laminate theory is proposed. By including an interface as a special lamina termed the "bonding-layer" in the analysis, the mechanical properties of the interfaces are obtained. A numerical illustration is given. For micro-mechanical properties of three-dimensionally braided composite materials, a new method via homogenization theory and incompatible multivariable FEM is developed. Results from the hybrid stress element approach compare more favorably with the experimental data than other existing numerical methods widely used. To evaluate the shearing properties for woven fabrics, a new mechanical model is proposed during the initial slip region. Analytical results show that this model provides better agreement with the experiments for both the initial shear modulus and the slipping angle than the existing models. Finally, another mechanical model for a woven fabric made of extensible yarns is employed to calculate the fabric Poisson's ratios. Theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. A thorough examination on the influences of various mechanical properties of yarns and structural parameters of fabrics on the Poisson's ratios of a woven fabric is given at the end.

  14. Current and Developing Conceptions of Use: Evaluation Use TIG Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskill, Hallie; Caracelli, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    A survey was sent to members of the Evaluation Use Topical Interest Group (TIG) to determine their perceptions about and experiences with evaluation use. Responses from 282 members show agreement on the major purposes of evaluation and an increased use of performance-results oriented and formative evaluations. (SLD)

  15. 10 CFR 709.15 - Processing counterintelligence evaluation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial, credit, travel, and other relevant information to resolve any identified issues. Participation by... information is developed by the Office of Health, Safety and Security indicating counterintelligence issues... and Protection of National Security § 709.15 Processing counterintelligence evaluation results. (a) If...

  16. Evaluation of analytical results on DOE Quality Assessment Program Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.; Kinnison, R.R.; Mathur, S.P.; Sastry, R.

    1985-01-01

    Criteria were developed for evaluating the participants analytical results in the DOE Quality Assessment Program (QAP). Historical data from previous QAP studies were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods to determine the interlaboratory precision that had been attained. Performance criteria used in other similar programs were also reviewed. Using these data, precision values and control limits were recommended for each type of analysis performed in the QA program. Results of the analysis performed by the QAP participants on the November 1983 samples were statistically analyzed and evaluated. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) values were used as the known values and 3-sigma precision values were used as control limits. Results were submitted by 26 participating laboratories for 49 different radionuclide media combinations. The participants reported 419 results and of these, 350 or 84% were within control limits. Special attention was given to the data from gamma spectral analysis of air filters and water samples. both normal probability and box plots were prepared for each nuclide to help evaluate the distribution of the data. Results that were outside the expected range were identified and suggestions made that laboratories check calculations, and procedures on these results

  17. Scope of work for evaluating the mechanical performance of EPR first wall coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    An outline is presented for a proposed scope of work to evaluate the mechanical performance of candidate first wall coatings for a Tokamak-type fusion reactor. The goal of the overall program is to provide an adequate coating material and recoating process which can be manufactured by currently available vendors

  18. Design, construction and performance evaluation of aBox type solar cooker with a glazing wiper mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Ademe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with three reflectors and with a vapor wiper mechanism fabricated using locally available materials. The box cooker has external box dimensions of 600 mm × 600 mm × 250 mm and pyramidal internal box dimensions of 460 mm × 460 mm top face and 300 mm × 300 mm bottom face with depth of 150 mm. The thermal performance was tested as per the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of a box-type solar cooker. The obtained test results after employing required calculations were figures of merit F1 = 0.123 Km2/W, F2 = 0.540, the standard cooking power P50 = 36 W and the cumulative efficiency to be 22%, whereas with the application of the wiper mechanism, it was found that F1 = 0.123, F2 = 0.827, the standard cooking power (P50 = 51 W, and the cumulative efficiency to be 31.4%. The standard boiling time of 1.43 kg of water was calculated to be 53.54 and 88.84 minutes for the cooker with and without the application of wiper mechanism respectively. The thermal distribution of the cooker was modeled using interior box geometry as a boundary condition with ANSYS 15.0. The temperature distribution inside the box was simulated and the maximum wall temperature was found to be 139 ℃. This was lower than the experimental results by 22 ℃. The method of modeling and simulation of the cooker with and without a wiper mechanism is similar except for the variation of the transmittance of the glass due to shading of vapor which can be deducted from the cumulative efficiency for the latter case. The results show that using the vapor wiper mechanism increases the cumulative efficiency by 9.4% and reduces the boiling time by 35.3 minutes. Finally, the techno-economic analysis shows that the cooker with a vapor wiper mechanism has a good reliability for outdoor cooking of food and is economically feasible.

  19. Low tidal volume and high positive end-expiratory pressure mechanical ventilation results in increased inflammation and ventilator-associated lung injury in normal lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Caron M; Xu, Da-Zhong; Lu, Qi; Cheng, Yunhui; Pisarenko, Vadim; Doucet, Danielle; Brown, Margaret; Aisner, Seena; Zhang, Chunxiang; Deitch, Edwin A; Delphin, Ellise

    2010-06-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (Vt) and low plateau pressure reduces mortality and decreases the length of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanical ventilation that will protect normal lungs during major surgical procedures of long duration may improve postoperative outcomes. We performed an animal study comparing 3 ventilation strategies used in the operating room in normal lungs. We compared the effects on pulmonary mechanics, inflammatory mediators, and lung tissue injury. Female pigs were randomized into 3 groups. Group H-Vt/3 (n = 6) was ventilated with a Vt of 15 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 3 cm H(2)O, group L-Vt/3 (n = 6) with a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW/PEEP of 3 cm H(2)O, and group L-Vt/10 (n = 6) with a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW/PEEP of 10 cm H(2)O, for 8 hours. Hemodynamics, airway mechanics, arterial blood gases, and inflammatory markers were monitored. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for inflammatory markers and protein concentration. The right lower lobe was assayed for mRNA of specific cytokines. The right lower lobe and right upper lobe were evaluated histologically. In contrast to groups H-Vt/3 and L-Vt/3, group L-Vt/10 exhibited a 6-fold increase in inflammatory mediators in BAL (P ventilation with high PEEP resulted in increased production of inflammatory markers. Low PEEP resulted in lower levels of inflammatory markers. High Vt/low PEEP resulted in less histologic lung injury.

  20. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  1. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. (ed.) [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M{sub L} = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms

  2. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.

    2014-10-01

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M L = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms of

  3. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end,...

  4. The results of the investigations on rock mechanics in HDB-9-11 boreholes and update of the rock mechanical model around the Horonobe URL construction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya

    2008-09-01

    Horonobe URL (Underground Research Laboratory) Project is conducted at Horonobe-cho, Teshio-gun, Hokkaido. This research report shows the result of the rock mechanical investigations which have been carried out from 2004 to 2005 as a part of the project. The objectives of the rock mechanical investigation are as follows: To obtain the data which were necessary for construction design of URL. To confirm the distribution of rock mechanical properties in and around URL construction area. The results of the investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Variation and values of depth direction of physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area corresponded approximately to the results obtained from the rock mechanical investigations of HDB-1-8. 2) The major redesign had been not had about physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area being able to divide into three zones and length of its own zone in updating rock mechanical model. 3) From the results of initial stress measured by hydraulic fracturing, the results that the direction of the maximum principle stress is E-W was no different from results obtained from the investigations of HDB-1-8, but the magnitude correlation among maximum, minimum principle stress and overburden pressure measured around G.L.-927 m showed different trends compared with the results of HDB-1-8. 4) Diatomaceous mudstone was yielded under isotropic compression. Cam-clay model as constitutive law of diatomaceous mudstone should be used for tunnel excavation analysis. 5) Uniaxial compression strength of rock saturated under saline water is larger than that of saturated under freshwater. Poisson's ratio of rock saturated under saline water is smaller than that of saturated under saline water. 6) The effective confining pressure increases with the equivalent opening width and permeability decreases. 7) The value of principle stress obtained from DSCA method is larger than that obtained from hydraulic

  5. The upgrade of integrity analysis module and the mechanical behavior evaluation for the assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The high neutron fluxes and operating temperatures associated with KALIMER are inducing the important radiation damage phenomena, which can cause significant dimensional changes in the core components of the reactor.The thermo-mechanical analysis of the assembly ducts for KALIMER are mainly performed to evaluate the following items.1) change of reactivity. 2) force at pads on core assemblies. 3) withdrawal force at refueling. 4) loading and refueling deviation of assembly ducts. 5) bowing modes for control assembly. In this report, the model for the evaluation of reactivity change as well as the refueling model and the withdrawl force model are upgraded. And the reactivity change is considered as the most important parameter among the above items. Therefore, the sensitivity analyses mainly associated with reactivity change are carried out. As the results, the pad gap between the assembly ducts preliminary driven for keeping the (-) reactivity change. 9 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  6. Functionalization of titanium with chitosan via silanation: evaluation of biological and mechanical performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Renoud

    Full Text Available Complications in dentistry and orthopaedic surgery are mainly induced by peri-implant bacterial infections and current implant devices do not prevent such infections. The coating of antibacterial molecules such as chitosan on its surface would give the implant bioactive properties. The major challenge of this type of coating is the attachment of chitosan to a metal substrate. In this study, we propose to investigate the functionalization of titanium with chitosan via a silanation. Firstly, the surface chemistry and mechanical properties of such coating were evaluated. We also verified if the coated chitosan retained its biocompatibility with the peri-implant cells, as well as its antibacterial properties. FTIR and Tof-SIMS analyses confirmed the presence of chitosan on the titanium surface. This coating showed great scratch resistance and was strongly adhesive to the substrate. These mechanical properties were consistent with an implantology application. The Chitosan-coated surfaces showed strong inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii growth; they nonetheless showed a non significant inhibition against Porphyromonas gingivalis after 32 hours in liquid media. The chitosan-coating also demonstrated good biocompatibility to NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Thus this method of covalent coating provides a biocompatible material with improved bioactive properties. These results proved that covalent coating of chitosan has significant potential in biomedical device implantation.

  7. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PI-3 correlations and statistical evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernica, R.; Cizek, J.

    1992-01-01

    Empirical Critical Heat Flux (CHF) correlations PI-3 having the widest range of validity for flow conditions in both hexagonal and square rod bundle geometries and compared with published CHF correlations are presented. They are valid for vertical water upflow through rod bundles with relatively wide and very tight rod lattices, and include axial and radial non-uniform heating. The correlations were developed with the use of more than 6000 data obtained from 119 electrically heated rod bundles. Comprehensive results of statistical evaluations of the new correlations are presented for various data bases. Also presented is a comparison of statistical evaluations of several well-known CHF correlations in the experimental data base used. A procedure which makes it possible to directly determine the probability that CHF does not occur is described for the purpose of nuclear safety assessment. (author) 8 tabs., 32 figs., 11 refs

  9. Evaluation of mechanical strength and hydrate products evolution of calcium aluminate cement, for endodontic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.P.; Borba, N.Z.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most used retrograde filling cement in the endodontic area. Nevertheless, although its composition is similar to the conventional Portland cement, its high cost, long setting time and low mechanical strength have led to a continuous search for new alternative materials. Considering these aspects, the mechanical strength and crystalline phase evolution of a calcium aluminate cement (CAC), during its hydration process, have been evaluated in this work aiming to apply such material for endodontic treatments. Secar 71 cement samples were prepared and kept in contact with water or SBF (simulated body fluid) during 15 days at 37 deg C. Compressive strength, apparent porosity, X ray diffraction and thermogravimetric tests were carried out for the samples evaluation after 1, 3, 7 and 15 days. The main identified phases were CAH_1_0, C_2AH_8, C_3AH_6 and AH_3. Moreover, when in the presence of SBF, some changes in the amount of the hydrates in the CAC samples were observed, which affected the mechanical behavior of the cement. (author)

  10. Evaluation of mechanical harvesting in viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zemánek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting by mashine was in CZ tested at bygones century (70th. Tests rekord were bad (high share of leaf, detritus of concrete column, losses of berries.Lasting fall of worker in agriculture and vehement growth floricultural surfaces – vineyard (somewhere 19.000 hectare, requires complex rationalization and mechanization of all works stages which needs needlework. Harvisting in viniculture needs perhaps 30% of all working time (200–250 o‘clock on 1 hectare. Incidence thereof begun most of bigger producers in our country with mechanical harvisting. Technical performance of this machines turn up. There are not available data about costs and their work quality.The benefit deal with classification of mechanical harvesting (juice adhering, berries lost, damage of vineyard transaction by the help of semi-trailer and self-propelled harvesters.

  11. Using Vector Projection Method to evaluate maintainability of mechanical system in design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lu; Cai Jianguo

    2003-01-01

    Maintainability of a mechanical system is one of the system design parameters that has a great impact in terms of ease of maintenance. In this article, based on the definition of the terms of maintenance and maintainability, an important tool of Design for Maintenance is developed as a way to improve maintainability through design. A set of standard and organized guidelines is provided and maintainability factors in terms of physical design, logistics support and ergonomics are identified. As a specific application of design review, a methodology so called Vector Projection Method is developed to evaluate the maintainability of the mechanical system. Lastly, an example is discussed

  12. Thermal assault and polyurethane foam-evaluating protective mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C.L.; Iams, Z.L.

    2004-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foam utilizes a variety of mechanisms to mitigate the thermal assault of a ''regulatory burn''. Polymer specific heat and foam k-factor are of limited usefulness in predicting payload protection. Properly formulated rigid polyurethane foam provides additional safeguards by employing ablative mechanisms which are effective even when the foam has been crushed or fractured as a result of trauma. The dissociative transitions from polymer to gas and char, and the gas transport of heat from inside the package out into the environment are also thermal mitigators. Additionally, the in-situ production of an intumescent, insulative, carbonaceous char, confers thermal protection even when a package's outer steel skin has been breached. In this test program, 19 liter, ''Five gallon'' steel pails are exposed on one end to the flame of an ''Oil Burner'' as described in the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ''Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook''. When burning 2 diesel at a nominal rate of 8.39 kg (18.5 pounds)/hr, the burner generates a high emissivity flame that impinges on the pail face with the thermal intensity of a full scale pool-fire environment. Results of these tests, TGA and MDSC analysis on the subject foams are reported, and their relevance to full size packages and pool fires are discussed

  13. Assessment procedures results of training in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Galkina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the procedures for evaluating the results of training in biology. The mechanisms for monitoring the learning outcomes of a biology teacher are presented. Examples of algorithms for procedures for evaluating learning outcomes in biology are demonstrated.

  14. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de; Voet, J. van der; Verhagen, F.C.M.

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs

  15. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on the PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs.; 9 figs.; 30 tabs.

  17. Mechanisms of repetitive retrograde contractions in response to sustained esophageal distension: a study evaluating patients with postfundoplication dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Ritter, Katherine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E

    2018-03-01

    Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with postfundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs. Adult patients with dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication ( n = 32) or type III achalasia ( n = 25) were evaluated with high-resolution manometry (HRM) and upper endoscopy with FLIP. HRM studies were assessed for outflow obstruction and spastic features: premature contractility, hypercontractility, and impaired deglutitive inhibition during multiple-rapid swallows. FLIP studies were analyzed to determine the esophagogastric junction (EGJ)-distensibility index and contractility pattern, including RRCs. Barium esophagram was evaluated when available. RRCs were present in 8/32 (25%) fundoplication and 19/25 (76%) achalasia patients ( P esophageal outflow obstruction, as a predictor for RRCs. RRCs in response to sustained esophageal distension appear to be a manifestation of spastic esophageal motility. Although future study to further clarify the significance of RRCs is needed, RRCs on FLIP panometry should prompt evaluation for a major motor disorder. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) are a common response to sustained esophageal distension among spastic achalasia patients when evaluated with the functional luminal imaging probe. We evaluated patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, i.e., patients with suspected mechanical obstruction, and found that RRCs occasionally occurred among postfundoplication patients, but often in association with manometric features of esophageal neuromuscular imbalance. Thus, RRCs appear to be a manifestation of

  18. Nuclear plant components: mechanical analysis and lifetime evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chator, T.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the methodology adopted by the Research and Development Division to handle mechanical problems found in structures and machines. Usually, these often very complex studies (3-D structures, complex loadings, non linear behavior laws) call for advanced tools and calculation means. In order to do these complex studies, R and D Division is developing a software. It handles very complex thermo-mechanical analysis using the Finite Element Method. It enables us to analyse static, dynamic, elasto-plastic problems as well as contact problems or evaluating damage and lifetime of structures. This paper will be illustrated by actual industrial case examples. The major ones will be dealing with: 1. Analysis of a new impeller/shaft assembly of a primary coolant pump. The 3D meshing is submitted simultaneously to thermal load, pressure, hydraulic, centrifugal and axial forces and clamping of studs; contacts between shaft/impeller, nuts bearing side/shaft bearing side. For this study, we have developed a new method to handle the clamping of studs. The stud elongation value is given into the software which automatically computes the distorsions between both the structures in contact and then the final position of bearing areas (using an iterative non-linear algorithm of modified Newton-Raphson type). 2. Analysis of the stress intensity factor of crack. The 3D meshing (representing the crack) is submitted simultaneously to axial and radial forces. In this case, we use the Theta method to calculate the energy restitution rate in order to determine the stress intensity factors. (authors). 7 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  19. Toward a Trust Evaluation Mechanism in the Social Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Nguyen Binh; Lee, Hyunwoo; Askwith, Bob; Lee, Gyu Myoung

    2017-06-09

    In the blooming era of the Internet of Things (IoT), trust has been accepted as a vital factor for provisioning secure, reliable, seamless communications and services. However, a large number of challenges still remain unsolved due to the ambiguity of the concept of trust as well as the variety of divergent trust models in different contexts. In this research, we augment the trust concept, the trust definition and provide a general conceptual model in the context of the Social IoT (SIoT) environment by breaking down all attributes influencing trust. Then, we propose a trust evaluation model called REK, comprised of the triad of trust indicators (TIs) Reputation, Experience and Knowledge. The REK model covers multi-dimensional aspects of trust by incorporating heterogeneous information from direct observation (as Knowledge TI), personal experiences (as Experience TI) to global opinions (as Reputation TI). The associated evaluation models for the three TIs are also proposed and provisioned. We then come up with an aggregation mechanism for deriving trust values as the final outcome of the REK evaluation model. We believe this article offers better understandings on trust as well as provides several prospective approaches for the trust evaluation in the SIoT environment.

  20. Toward a Trust Evaluation Mechanism in the Social Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Binh Truong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the blooming era of the Internet of Things (IoT, trust has been accepted as a vital factor for provisioning secure, reliable, seamless communications and services. However, a large number of challenges still remain unsolved due to the ambiguity of the concept of trust as well as the variety of divergent trust models in different contexts. In this research, we augment the trust concept, the trust definition and provide a general conceptual model in the context of the Social IoT (SIoT environment by breaking down all attributes influencing trust. Then, we propose a trust evaluation model called REK, comprised of the triad of trust indicators (TIs Reputation, Experience and Knowledge. The REK model covers multi-dimensional aspects of trust by incorporating heterogeneous information from direct observation (as Knowledge TI, personal experiences (as Experience TI to global opinions (as Reputation TI. The associated evaluation models for the three TIs are also proposed and provisioned. We then come up with an aggregation mechanism for deriving trust values as the final outcome of the REK evaluation model. We believe this article offers better understandings on trust as well as provides several prospective approaches for the trust evaluation in the SIoT environment.

  1. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2012. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2012 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations carried out in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 22 triaxial sensors. Six stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2012. The number of located events was much smaller in 2012 than during the previous years due to the interruption of the excavation. Altogether 337 events were located in the Olkiluoto area of which about half (181) were explosions. Two excavation induced earthquakes were observed at -420 m level and were associated with a known tunnel crosscutting fracture. According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2012. The local GPS network consists of 19 stations. The whole network was measured twice in 2012. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 80 % of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/a. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. One baseline was also measured using electronic distance measurements (EDM) and the results fitted well to the times series. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2012 only measuring loops VLJ, ONKALO and Olkiluoto Strait were measured. The results indicated that vertical deformations were small compared to 2011 results. The largest deformations around 0.6 mm upwards existed above the VLJ-repository. The displacement measurements in 2012 consisted of the extensometer measurements in the technical rooms of the ONKALO. Readings were taken continuously once a hour by a

  2. Preliminary evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties on low activation ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.Y.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal has become a primary concern for the selection of materials for the structural components for fusion reactors. One way to minimize this potential environmental problem is to use structural materials in which the induced radioactivity decays quickly to levels that allow for near-surface disposal under 10CFR61 rules. The primary objective of this work is to develop low activation ferritic steels that exhibit mechanical and physical properties approximately equivalent to the HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo steels, but which only contain elements that would permit near-surface disposal under 10CFR61 after exposure to fusion neutrons. A preliminary evaluation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C (GA3X) low activation ferritic steel has been performed. An optimum heat treatment condition has been defined for GA3X steel. The properties and microstructure of the quenched and tempered specimens were characterized via hardness measurement and optical metallographic observation. The hot-microhardness and ductility parameter measurements were used to estimate the tensile properties at elevated temperatures. The estimated tensile strengths of GA3X steel at elevated temperatures are comparable to both 9Cr-1Mo and the modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. These preliminary results are encouraging in that they suggest that suitable low activation alloys can be successfully produced in this ferritic alloy class

  3. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of carbon fiber after electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Diva Brocardo Machado, Luci; Augusto, Marcos; Segura Pino, Eddy; Radino, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibers are used as reinforcement material in epoxy matrix in advanced composites. An important aspect of the mechanical properties of composites is associated to the adhesion between the surface of the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. This paper aimed to the evaluation of the effects of EB irradiation on the tensile properties of two different carbon fibers prepared as resin-impregnated specimens. The fibers were EB irradiated before the preparation of the resin-impregnated specimens for mechanical tests. Observations of the specimens after breakage have shown that EB irradiation promoted significant changes in the failure mode. Furthermore, the tensile strength data obtained for resin-impregnated specimens prepared with carbons fibers previously irradiated presented a slight tendency to be higher than those obtained from non-irradiated carbon fibers

  4. Human Reliability Data Bank: evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Donovan, M.D.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and General Physics Corporation are conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of a Human Reliability Data Bank for nuclear power industry probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As part of this program, a survey was conducted of existing human reliability data banks from other industries, and a detailed concept of a Data Bank for the nuclear industry was developed. Subsequently, a detailed specification for implementing the Data Bank was developed. An evaluation of this specification was conducted and is described in this report. The evaluation tested data treatment, storage, and retrieval using the Data Bank structure, as modified from NUREG/CR-2744, and detailed procedures for data processing and retrieval, developed prior to this evaluation and documented in the test specification. The evaluation consisted of an Operability Demonstration and Evaluation of the data processing procedures, a Data Retrieval Demonstration and Evaluation, a Retrospective Analysis that included a survey of organizations currently operating data banks for the nuclear power industry, and an Internal Analysis of the current Data Bank System

  5. Report of the evaluation by the project evaluation committee on research and development of FBR structural materials. Result intermediate evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The project evaluation committee of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) and fuel cycle evaluated the problem under the evaluation method defined by the committee on the basis of material and supplementary data produced by JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) and discussion. This report consists of summary, construction of the committee, investigation process, evaluation method, opinion of object, plan, research system, results, relation to practical use, public offering of results, development and others and total evaluation. Each opinion of the committee member are reported. Development of structural material is important problem of R and D of FBR. The estimation techniques of materials, high temperature structural and earthquake-resistant design techniques are evaluated to obtain the fruitful results. The remarkable results are development of materials of 316FR, using plate to reactor, estimation method of thermal striping, improvement of earthquake-resistant analysis technology, contribution to evaluation analysis of Monju second liner and basic information to develop quantity technique of material damage. (S.Y.)

  6. Draft forces prediction model for standard single tines by using principles of soil mechanics and soil profile evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Khalid Ahmed Al-Neama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a model to predict the draft force acting on varying standard single tines by using principles of soil mechanics and soil profile evaluation. Draft force (Fd measurements were made with four standard single tines comprising Heavy Duty, Double Heart, Double Heart with Wings and Duck Foot. Tine widths were 6.5, 13.5, 45 and 40 cm, respectively. The test was conducted in a soil bin with sandy loam soil. The effects of forward speeds and working depths on draft forces were investigated under controlled lab conditions. Results were evaluated based on a prediction model. A good correlation between measured and predicted Fd values for all tines with an average absolute variation less than 15 % was found.

  7. Evaluation of the magnetic and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel steels by incremental permeability change curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebine, N.; Suzuki, M.

    2001-01-01

    Incremental permeability measurement was performed for two types of structural steels along with the magnetization of their hysteresis minor-loop. The obtained incremental permeability change curve has two sharp peaks, and the width between the two peaks is correlated with the coercivity. Hence the existence of good correlation was verified. On the basis of this result, nondestructive measurement experiments were carried out with planar coils to evaluate changes in the material properties of ferromagnetic structural steel plates. Changes in output voltages from planar coils with different test plates were correlated with their mechanical and magnetic properties. The correlation is so good that the measurement method adopted in this work could be used for nondestructive evaluation of material degradation in ferromagnetic structural steels. (author)

  8. A comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of nanofibrous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubun, German P.; Bessudnova, Nadezda O.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration or replacement of lost or damaged hard tooth tissues remain a reconstructive clinical dentistry challenge. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of novel concepts and methodologies of tissue engineering for the synthesis of three-dimensional graft constructs that are equivalent to original organs and tissues. This structural and functional compatibility can be reached by producing ultra-thin polymer filament scaffolds. This research aims through a series of studies to examine different methods of polymer filament material special preparation and test mechanical properties of the produced materials subjected to a tensile strain. Nanofibrous material preparation using chemically pure acetone and mixtures of ethanol/water has shown no significant changes in sample surface morphology. The high temperature impact on material morphology has resulted in the modification of fiber structure. In the course of mechanical tests it has been revealed the dependence of the material strength on the spinning solution compositions. The results achieved point to the possibility to develop nanofibrous materials with required parameters changing the methodology of spinning solution production.

  9. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  10. Influence Of The Gripping Fixture On The Modified Compact Tension Test Results: Evaluation Of The Experiments On Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holušová Táňa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modified compact tension test (MCT might become in the future a stable test configuration for the evaluation of fracture-mechanics parameters or also for description of fatigue behavior of composites materials such as concrete. Core drilling is used for sampling of existing structures. These samples have cylindrical shape with the selected thickness to avoid the stress concentration. This contribution focuses on the evaluation of the fracture behavior during static and quasi static tests. Static tests are performed on standard specimen with diameter 150 mm and length 300 mm. The quasi-static tests are performed using two different gripping fixtures. The results for quasi-static tests are represented as L-COD diagrams (i.e. load vs. crack opening displacement measured on the loading axis. The comparison of results and discussion of advantages and disadvantages are introduced.

  11. Evaluation of Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Full-scale Energy Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kyle D.

    This study focuses on the thermo-mechanical and thermal behavior of full-scale energy foundations installed as part of two buildings recently constructed in Colorado. The soil stratigraphy at each of the sites differed, but both foundations were expected to function as primarily end-bearing elements with a tip socketed into rock. The heat exchanger configurations were also different amongst the foundations at both sites, permitting evaluation of the role of heat exchange. A common thread for both energy foundation case histories was the monitoring of the temperature and axial strain within the foundations during heat exchange operations. The first case study involves an evaluation of the long-term thermo-mechanical response of two full-scale energy foundations installed at the new Denver Housing Authority (DHA) Senior Living Facility at 1099 Osage St. in Denver, Colorado. Due to the construction schedule for this project, the thermal properties of the foundations and surrounding subsurface could not be assessed using thermal response tests. However, instrumentation was incorporated into the foundations to assess their long-term heat exchange response as well as the thermo-mechanical strains, stresses, and displacements that occurred during construction and operation of the ground-source heat pump system. The temperature changes within the foundations during heating and cooling operations over a period of approximately 600 days ranged from 9 to 32 °C, respectively. The thermal axial stresses in the foundations were calculated from the measured strains, and ranged from 3.1 MPa during heating to --1.0 MPa during cooling. These values are within reasonable limits for reinforced concrete structures. The maximum thermal axial stress was observed near the toe of both foundations, which is consistent with trends expected for end-bearing toe boundary conditions. The greatest thermal axial strains were observed near the top of the foundations (upward expansion during

  12. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression: An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Müller, Viola N L S; Arntz, Arnoud; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect. Probably the biggest challenge in the field is demonstrating the causal relation between change in the mediator and change in depressive symptoms. The field would benefit from a further refinement of research methods to identify processes of therapeutic change. Recommendations for future research are discussed. However, even in the most optimal research designs, explaining psychotherapeutic change remains a challenge. Psychotherapy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that might work through interplay of multiple mechanisms at several levels. As a result, it might be too complex to be explained in relatively simple causal models of psychological change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of fracture mechanics analyses used in RPV integrity assessment regarding brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinereau, D.; Faidy, C.; Valeta, M.P.; Bhandari, S.; Guichard, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electricite de France has conducted during these last years some experimental and numerical research programmes in order to evaluate fracture mechanics analyses used in nuclear reactor pressure vessels structural integrity assessment, regarding the risk of brittle fracture. These programmes included cleavage fracture tests on large scale cladded specimens containing subclad flaws with their interpretations by 2D and 3D numerical computations, and validation of finite element codes for pressurized thermal shocks analyses. Four cladded specimens made of ferritic steel A508 C13 with stainless steel cladding, and containing shallow subclad flaws, have been tested in four point bending at very low temperature in order to obtain cleavage failure. The specimen failure was obtained in each case in base metal by cleavage fracture. These tests have been interpreted by two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element computations using different fracture mechanics approaches (elastic analysis with specific plasticity corrections, elastic-plastic analysis, local approach to cleavage fracture). The failure of specimens are conservatively predicted by different analyses. The comparison between the elastic analyses and elastic-plastic analyses shows the conservatism of specific plasticity corrections used in French RPV elastic analyses. Numerous finite element calculations have also been performed between EDF, CEA and Framatome in order to compare and validate several fracture mechanics post processors implemented in finite element programmes used in pressurized thermal shock analyses. This work includes two-dimensional numerical computations on specimens with different geometries and loadings. The comparisons show a rather good agreement on main results, allowing to validate the finite element codes and their post-processors. (author). 11 refs, 24 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Evaluation of fracture mechanics analyses used in RPV integrity assessment regarding brittle fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moinereau, D [Electricite de France, Dept. MTC, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Faidy, C [Electricite de France, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Valeta, M P [Commisariat a l` Energie Atomique, Dept. DMT, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bhandari, S; Guichard, D [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1997-09-01

    Electricite de France has conducted during these last years some experimental and numerical research programmes in order to evaluate fracture mechanics analyses used in nuclear reactor pressure vessels structural integrity assessment, regarding the risk of brittle fracture. These programmes included cleavage fracture tests on large scale cladded specimens containing subclad flaws with their interpretations by 2D and 3D numerical computations, and validation of finite element codes for pressurized thermal shocks analyses. Four cladded specimens made of ferritic steel A508 C13 with stainless steel cladding, and containing shallow subclad flaws, have been tested in four point bending at very low temperature in order to obtain cleavage failure. The specimen failure was obtained in each case in base metal by cleavage fracture. These tests have been interpreted by two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element computations using different fracture mechanics approaches (elastic analysis with specific plasticity corrections, elastic-plastic analysis, local approach to cleavage fracture). The failure of specimens are conservatively predicted by different analyses. The comparison between the elastic analyses and elastic-plastic analyses shows the conservatism of specific plasticity corrections used in French RPV elastic analyses. Numerous finite element calculations have also been performed between EDF, CEA and Framatome in order to compare and validate several fracture mechanics post processors implemented in finite element programmes used in pressurized thermal shock analyses. This work includes two-dimensional numerical computations on specimens with different geometries and loadings. The comparisons show a rather good agreement on main results, allowing to validate the finite element codes and their post-processors. (author). 11 refs, 24 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Microcomputed tomography and microfinite element modeling for evaluating polymer scaffolds architecture and their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Moratal, David; Ivirico, Jorge L Escobar; Rodríguez Hernández, José C; Vallés-Lluch, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Estellés, Jorge Más; Mano, Joao F; Pradas, Manuel Monleón; Ribelles, José L Gómez; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Detailed knowledge of the porous architecture of synthetic scaffolds for tissue engineering, their mechanical properties, and their interrelationship was obtained in a nondestructive manner. Image analysis of microcomputed tomography (microCT) sections of different scaffolds was done. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the scaffold allows one to quantify scaffold porosity, including pore size, pore distribution, and struts' thickness. The porous morphology and porosity as calculated from microCT by image analysis agrees with that obtained experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and physically measured porosity, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the scaffold were evaluated by making use of finite element modeling (FEM) in which the compression stress-strain test is simulated on the 3D structure reconstructed from the microCT sections. Elastic modulus as calculated from FEM is in agreement with those obtained from the stress-strain experimental test. The method was applied on qualitatively different porous structures (interconnected channels and spheres) with different chemical compositions (that lead to different elastic modulus of the base material) suitable for tissue regeneration. The elastic properties of the constructs are explained on the basis of the FEM model that supports the main mechanical conclusion of the experimental results: the elastic modulus does not depend on the geometric characteristics of the pore (pore size, interconnection throat size) but only on the total porosity of the scaffold. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Benetti, Carolina; Pereira, Thiago M.; Mattor, Monica B.; Politano, Rodolfo; Zezell, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    In many medical practices the bone tissue exposure to ionizing radiation is necessary. However, this radiation can interact with bone tissue in a molecular level, causing chemical and mechanical changes related with the dose used. The aim of this study was verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using spectroscopy technique of Attenuate Total Reflectance - Fourier Transforms Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis. Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using irradiator of Cobalt-60 with five different doses between 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy,1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on bone chemical structure the sub-bands of amide I and the crystallinity index were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify if the chemical changes and the bone mechanic characteristics were related, it was made one study about the correlation between the crystallinity index and the elastic modulus, between the sub-bands ratio and the damping value and between the sub-bands ratio and the elastic modulus. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different dose of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy analysis, it was possible observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the mechanical properties. A good correlation between the techniques was found, however, it was not possible to establish a linear or exponential dependence between dose and effect. (author)

  17. SCIENTOMETRY AND EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF ECONOMIC SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Lucia RISTEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the necessity of a continuous and demanding evaluation, capable of linking the results obtained with the human, material and financial resources, allocated and periodically setting the position of the national research relative to the world level, the evaluation of the relevance of the publications must be carried out from the positions and requirements of new disciplines: Scientometry. Scientometry is intended to help substantiate the evaluation of research activity and decision-making on its development, the science policy as a whole.

  18. Probabilistic application of fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.

    1981-04-01

    The different methods used to evaluate the rupture probability of a pressure vessel are reviewed. Data collection and processing of all parameters necessary for fracture mechanics evaluation are presented with particular attention to the size distribution of defects in actual vessels. Physical process is followed during crack growth and unstable propagation, using LEFM (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanism) and plastic instability. Results show that the final failure probability for a PWR pressure vessel is 3.5 10 -8 , and is due essentially to LOCAs for any break size. The weakest point is the internal side of the belt line

  19. Montmorillonite clay/polypropylene (HMSPP) nanocomposites: evaluation of thermal and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, L.G.H.; Oliani, W.L.; Lugao, A.B.; Parra, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) properties in nanocomposites was done in composites of 0.1; 1; 3; 5; 10 wt% of Cloisite 20A clay. The PP-g-MA (polypropylene graft maleic anhydride) was the compatibilizer agent in the process of extrusion in twin-screw. Mechanical tests performed in the nanocomposites with higher clay content showed higher values of rupture in 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisite. The thermal properties were evaluate utilizing Calorimetry Differential Exploratory (DSC) and in the sample of 10 wt% of Cloisite were observed increase of the melting temperature and increase of crystallinity. The morphology was investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), in which the sample with lower clay amount, 1 wt% of Cloisite showed better dispersion of the clay. X-Ray Diffraction reported the clay intercalation in the sample with 5 wt% of clay. (author)

  20. A comparative study to evaluate the effects of ligation methods on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot brackets in dry state: An In-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, K; Venkatesh, M J; Nayak, Rabindra S; Pasha, Azam; Rajesh, M; Kumar, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    Friction between archwires and brackets is assuming greater importance for finishing with increased use of sliding mechanics in orthodontics as friction impedes the desired tooth movement. The following study is conducted to compare and evaluate the effect of ligation on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot bracket in dry condition. In the study 48 combinations of brackets, archwires and different ligation techniques were tested in order to provide best combination that offers less friction during sliding mechanics. Instron- 4467 machine was used to evaluate static and kinetic friction force values and the results were subjected to Statistical Analysis and Anova test. The results of the study showed that 0.022" metal brackets, Stainless steel wires and Slick modules provided the optimum frictional resistance to sliding mechanics. It is observed that frictional forces of 0.019" x 0.025" were higher when compared with 0.016" x 0.022" Stainless steel archwire due to the increase in dimension. Self-ligating brackets offered least friction followed by mini twin, variable force, regular stainless steel, ceramic with metal insert bracket and ceramic brackets. The stainless steel ligature offered less resistance than slick and grey modules, and TMA wires recorded maximum friction. The stainless steel archwire of 0.019" x 0.025" dimension are preferred during sliding mechanics, these archwires with variable force brackets ligated with Slick Modules offer decreased friction and is cost effective combination which can be utilized during sliding mechanics. How to cite the article: Vinay K, Venkatesh MJ, Nayak RS, Pasha A, Rajesh M, Kumar P. A comparative study to evaluate the effects of ligation methods on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot brackets in dry state: An In-vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):76-83.

  1. Comparison of burnup calculation results using several evaluated nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nomura, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    Burn-up calculation and comparison of the results were carried out to clarify the differences among the following latest evaluated nuclear data libraries: JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2. The analyses showed that the differences seen among the current evaluated nuclear data libraries are small for evaluation of the amounts of many uranium and plutonium isotopes. However, several nuclides important for evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle as 238 Pu, 244 Cm, 149 Sm and 134 Cs showed large differences among used libraries. The chain analyses for the isotopes were conducted and the reasons for the differences were discussed. Based on the discussion, information of important cross section to obtain better agreement with the experimental results for 238 Pu, 244 Cm, 149 Sm and 134 Cs was shown. (author)

  2. Mechanical efficiency of two commercial lever-propulsion mechanisms for manual wheelchair locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Jordon; MacGillivray, Megan K; Sheel, A William; Jeyasurya, Jeswin; Sadeghi, Mahsa; Sawatzky, Bonita Jean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the mechanical efficiency (ME) of two commercially available lever-propulsion mechanisms for wheelchairs and (2) compare the ME of lever propulsion with hand rim propulsion within the same wheelchair. Of the two mechanisms, one contained a torsion spring while the other used a roller clutch design. We hypothesized that the torsion spring mechanism would increase the ME of propulsion due to a passive recovery stroke enabled by the mechanism. Ten nondisabled male participants with no prior manual wheeling experience performed submaximal exercise tests using both lever-propulsion mechanisms and hand rim propulsion on two different wheelchairs. Cardiopulmonary parameters including oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (En) were determined. Total external power (Pext) was measured using a drag test protocol. ME was determined by the ratio of Pext to En. Results indicated no significant effect of lever-propulsion mechanism for all physiological measures tested. This suggests that the torsion spring did not result in a physiological benefit compared with the roller clutch mechanism. However, both lever-propulsion mechanisms showed decreased VO2 and HR and increased ME (as a function of slope) compared with hand rim propulsion (p propulsion mechanisms tested are more mechanically efficient than conventional hand rim propulsion, especially when slopes are encountered.

  3. Twenty years of fracture mechanics and flaw evaluation applications in the ASME Nuclear Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardella, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a retrospective on the development and applications of fracture mechanics-based toughness requirements and flaw evaluation methodology in Sections III and XI of the ASME Code. Section III developments range from the rules and requirements for thick section Class 1 pressure vessels to thinner section components in other Classes. Section XI applications include flaw acceptance standards and evaluation methodology for various components ranging from pressure vessels to thins section piping of carbon and austenitic steels. The experience gained in operating plant applications of these rules and procedures are also discussed

  4. Technical diagnostics functioning machines and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. I.; Pronyakin, V. I.; Tulekbaeva, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Article discusses the machines and mechanisms technical state monitoring problem. Approaches for estimating mechanical systems current technical state, defects detection and evaluation of mechanical elements degradation levels are considered. The paper analyzes the traditional methods offered in international and national standards, especially vibrodiagnostics. An advanced phase method is presented which is based on registration the kinematic parameters of the mechanism running cycle. The result of coupling the phase method and mathematical modeling is shown, and simulation comparison with the experimental data is presented.

  5. RESULTS, RESPONSIBILITY, FAULT AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Stoyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the responsibility arising from the registered financial results. The analysis of this responsibility presupposes its evaluation and determination of the role of fault in the formation of negative results. The search for efficiency in this whole process is justified by the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the behavior of economic actors.

  6. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  7. Sampling Molecular Conformers in Solution with Quantum Mechanical Accuracy at a Nearly Molecular-Mechanics Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Marta; Micciarelli, Marco; Laio, Alessandro; Baroni, Stefano

    2016-09-13

    We introduce a method to evaluate the relative populations of different conformers of molecular species in solution, aiming at quantum mechanical accuracy, while keeping the computational cost at a nearly molecular-mechanics level. This goal is achieved by combining long classical molecular-dynamics simulations to sample the free-energy landscape of the system, advanced clustering techniques to identify the most relevant conformers, and thermodynamic perturbation theory to correct the resulting populations, using quantum-mechanical energies from density functional theory. A quantitative criterion for assessing the accuracy thus achieved is proposed. The resulting methodology is demonstrated in the specific case of cyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) in water solution.

  8. Evaluation of Mechanical Property of Carbon Fiber/Polypropylene Composite According to Carbon Fiber Surface Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Song Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Seong Su

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of a carbon fiber/polypropylene composite were evaluated according to the carbon fiber surface treatment. Carbon fiber surface treatments such as silane coupling agents and plasma treatment were performed to enhance the interfacial strength between carbon fibers and polypropylene. The treated carbon fiber surface was characterized by XP S, Sem, and single-filament tensile test. The interlaminar shear strength (Ilks) of the composite with respect to the surface treatment was determined by a short beam shear test. The test results showed that the Ilks of the plasma-treated specimen increased with the treatment time. The Ilks of the specimen treated with a silane coupling agent after plasma treatment increased by 48.7% compared to that of the untreated specimen

  9. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Marginal Fit of Crowns Fabricated Using Commercially Pure Titanium and FUS-Invest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanical properties and single crown accuracy of the tailor-made Fourth University Stomatology investment (FUS-invest for casting titanium. Background. Current investment for casting titanium is not optimal for obtaining high-quality castings, and the commercially available titanium investment is costly. Methods. Titanium specimens were cast using the tailor-made FUS-invest. The mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Fractured castings were characterized by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. 19 titanium crowns were produced using FUS-invest and another 19 by Symbion. The accuracy of crowns was evaluated. Results. The mechanical properties of the titanium cast by FUS-invest were elastic modulus 125.6 ± 8.8 GPa, yield strength 567.5 ± 11.1 MPa, tensile strength 671.2 ± 15.6 MPa, and elongation 4.6 ± 0.2%. For marginal fit, no significant difference (P>0.05 was found at four marker points of each group. For internal fit, no significant difference (P>0.05 was found between two groups, whereas significant difference (P<0.01 was found at different mark point of each group. Conclusions. The mechanical properties of titanium casted using FUS-invest fulfilled the ISO 9693 criteria. The marginal and internal fit of the titanium crowns using either the FUS-invest or Symbion were similar.

  10. Theoretical evaluation of a mechanism of precipitate-enhanced cavity swelling during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1981-03-01

    It is often observed experimentally in complex alloys such as the austenitic stainless steels that the largest cavities produced during irradiation are attached to second phase precipitate particles. One hypothesis that such observations suggest is that the precipitate-matrix interface may assist in the collection of irradiation-produced point defects which are channelled to the attached cavities. A theoretical analysis is developed to evaluate this mechanism. It is found that the growth of cavities attached to precipitates is increased compared to the growth of cavities in the matrix. The relative growth rates of the two types of cavities are also affected by differences in bias and differences in sink strength. The relationships required to evaluate these effects are developed and the consequences of enhanced point defect collection are explored in some detail

  11. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on advance science research. Result evaluation, interim evaluation, in-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2002, the accomplishments of the research started in Fiscal Year 2001, and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2004 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of nine specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2003. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 24, 2003, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 4, 2003. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  12. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advance Science Research. Result evaluation, interim evaluation, in-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the accomplishments of the research completed in Fiscal Year 2001, the accomplishments of the research started in Fiscal Year 2000, and the adequacy of the programs of the research to be started in Fiscal Year 2003 at Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2002. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 4, 2002, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on August 5, 2002. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Science Research. (author)

  13. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: slopes@ufv.br; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: juarez@ufv.br, jadir@ufv.br, samuel.martin@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  14. Genomic interrogation of mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rupesh P.; Hamadeh, Hisham K.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Bennett, Lee; Afshari, Cynthia A.; Paules, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic exposure on human health and disease progression is complex. Knowledge of mode(s) of action, including mechanism(s) contributing to toxicity and disease progression, is valuable for evaluating compounds. Toxicogenomics, the subdiscipline which merges genomics with toxicology, holds the promise to contributing significantly toward the goal of elucidating mechanism(s) by studying genome-wide effects of xenobiotics. Global gene expression profiling, revolutionized by microarray technology and a crucial aspect of a toxicogenomic study, allows measuring transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes following exposure to a xenobiotic. We use our results from previous studies on compounds representing two different classes of xenobiotics (barbiturate and peroxisome proliferator) to discuss the application of computational approaches for analyzing microarray data to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants. In particular, our laboratory demonstrated that chemical-specific patterns of gene expression can be revealed using cDNA microarrays. Transcript profiling provides discrimination between classes of toxicants, as well as, genome-wide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and disease progression. Ultimately, the expectation is that novel approaches for predicting xenobiotic toxicity in humans will emerge from such information

  15. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  17. Two Mechanisms to Avoid Control Conflicts Resulting from Uncoordinated Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Wagner, David A.; Bennett, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a real-time access control protocol that is intended to make all connected users aware of the presence of other connected users, and which of them is currently in control of the system. Here, "in control" means that a single user is authorized and enabled to issue instructions to the system. The software The software also implements a goal scheduling mechanism that can detect situations where plans for the operation of a target system proposed by different users overlap and interact in conflicting ways. In such situations, the system can either simply report the conflict (rejecting one goal or the entire plan), or reschedule the goals in a way that does not conflict. The access control mechanism (and associated control protocol) is unique. Other access control mechanisms are generally intended to authenticate users, or exclude unauthorized access. This software does neither, and would likely depend on having some other mechanism to support those requirements.

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties in stainless alloy ferritic with 5 % molybdenum; Avaliacao das propriedades mecanicas em ligas inoxidaveis ferriticas com 5% de molibdenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, V.X.; Gomes, F.H.F.; Guimaraes, R.F.; Saboia, F.H.C.; Abreu, H.F.G. de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara (IFCE). Campus Maracanau, CE (Brazil)], e-mail: venceslau@ifce.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The deterioration of equipment in the oil industry is caused by high aggressiveness in processing the same. One solution to this problem would increase the content of molybdenum (Mo) alloys, since this improves the corrosion resistance. As the increase of Mo content causes changes in mechanical properties, we sought to evaluate the mechanical properties of alloys with 5% Mo and different levels of chromium (Cr). Were performed metallography and hardness measurement of the alloys in the annealed condition. Subsequent tests were performed tensile and Charpy-V, both at room temperature. The results showed that 2% difference in the content of Cr did not significantly alter the mechanical properties of alloys. The alloys studied had higher values in measured properties when compared to commercial ferritic alloys with similar percentages of Cr. The high content of Mo resulted in a brittle at room temperature but ductile at temperatures above 70 degree C. (author)

  19. Flow confirmation study for central venous port in oncologic outpatient undergoing chemotherapy: Evaluation of suspected system-related mechanical complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: ksofue@ncc.go.jp [Divisions of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Yoshito [Divisions of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of a flow confirmation study (FCS) in oncologic outpatients undergoing chemotherapy suspected of a central venous port (CVP) system-related mechanical complication. Materials and methods: A total of 66 patients (27 men, 39 women; mean age, 60 years) received FCS for the following reasons: prolonged infusion time during chemotherapy (n = 32), inability to inject saline fluid (n = 15), lateral neck and/or back pain (n = 6), subcutaneous extravasation of anticancer drug (n = 5), arm swelling (n = 4), and inability to puncture the port (n = 4). FCS consisted of examining the position of CVP, potential secondary shifts or fractures, and integrity of the system using contrast material through the port. Results: Of the 66 patients, 43 had an abnormal finding uncovered by FCS. The most frequent abnormal findings was catheter kinking (n = 22). Explantation and reimplantation of the CVP system was required in 21 of the 66 patients. Remaining 45 patients were able continue using the CVP system after the FCS without any system malfunction. Conclusion: FCS was effective for evaluating CVP system-related mechanical complications and was useful for deciding whether CVP system explantation and reimplantation was required.

  20. Flow confirmation study for central venous port in oncologic outpatient undergoing chemotherapy: Evaluation of suspected system-related mechanical complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Arai, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of a flow confirmation study (FCS) in oncologic outpatients undergoing chemotherapy suspected of a central venous port (CVP) system-related mechanical complication. Materials and methods: A total of 66 patients (27 men, 39 women; mean age, 60 years) received FCS for the following reasons: prolonged infusion time during chemotherapy (n = 32), inability to inject saline fluid (n = 15), lateral neck and/or back pain (n = 6), subcutaneous extravasation of anticancer drug (n = 5), arm swelling (n = 4), and inability to puncture the port (n = 4). FCS consisted of examining the position of CVP, potential secondary shifts or fractures, and integrity of the system using contrast material through the port. Results: Of the 66 patients, 43 had an abnormal finding uncovered by FCS. The most frequent abnormal findings was catheter kinking (n = 22). Explantation and reimplantation of the CVP system was required in 21 of the 66 patients. Remaining 45 patients were able continue using the CVP system after the FCS without any system malfunction. Conclusion: FCS was effective for evaluating CVP system-related mechanical complications and was useful for deciding whether CVP system explantation and reimplantation was required

  1. Evaluation of mechanical properties of four different carbon/epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Four families of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC used in aeronautical industry were evaluated by flexural and interlaminar shear tests. It is also characterized three families of non-conditioned and conditioned CFRC by compression test. The composites were obtained by hand lay-up process in autoclave by using prepregs based on epoxy matrices (F155 and F584 and carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (PW-"Plain Weave" and 8HS-"Eight Harness Satin". The F155-epoxy matrix was cured at 121 °C and the F584-epoxy type at 177 °C. After molding, the laminates were cut in specimens attending the ASTM D790 for the flexural test, the ASTM D2344 for the interlaminar shear test (ILSS and the ASTM D3410 for the compressive test. The compressive tests were performed for testing the specimens before and after hygrothermal conditioning. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present higher mechanical properties when compared to the F155-epoxy ones. The shear-tested samples observed by scanning electron microscopy and that ones tested in flexural, analyzed by stereoscopy, revealed that the fractured surfaces present typical aspects. The compressive results show that the hygrothermal conditioning caused the decrease of the compressive strength in, approximately, 8-20% depending on the laminate type. The failure modes of the tested specimens were evaluated showing good agreement with the literature.

  2. Experimental results of single screw mechanical tests: a follow-up to SAND2005-6036.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sandwook; Lee, Kenneth L.; Korellis, John S.; McFadden, Sam X.

    2006-08-01

    The work reported here was conducted to address issues raised regarding mechanical testing of attachment screws described in SAND2005-6036, as well as to increase the understanding of screw behavior through additional testing. Efforts were made to evaluate fixture modifications and address issues of interest, including: fabrication of 45{sup o} test fixtures, measurement of the frictional load from the angled fixture guide, employment of electromechanical displacement transducers, development of a single-shear test, and study the affect of thread start orientation on single-shear behavior. A286 and 302HQ, No.10-32 socket-head cap screws were tested having orientations with respect to the primary loading axis of 0{sup 0}, 45{sup o}, 60{sup o}, 75{sup o} and 90{sup o} at stroke speeds 0,001 and 10 in/sec. The frictional load resulting from the angled screw fixture guide was insignificant. Load-displacement curves of A286 screws did not show a minimum value in displacement to failure (DTF) for 60{sup o} shear tests. Tests of 302HQ screws did not produce a consistent trend in DTF with load angle. The effect of displacement rate on DTF became larger as shear angle increased for both A286 and 302HQ screws.

  3. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of class-F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Coal-burning power plants in the United States (US) generate more than 70 million tons of fly ash as a by-product annually. Recycling large volumes of fly ash in geotechnical applications may offer an attractive alternative to the disposal problem as most of it is currently dumped in ponds or landfills. Class-F fly ash, resulting from burning of bituminous or anthracite coals, is the most common type of fly ash in the US. In the present study, the mechanical characteristics (compaction response, compressibility, and shear strength) of class-F fly ash were investigated by performing various laboratory tests (compaction test, one-dimensional compression test, direct shear test and consolidated-drained triaxial compression test) on fly ash samples collected from three power plants in the state of Indiana (US). Test results have shown that despite some morphological differences, class-F fly ash exhibits mechanical properties that are, in general, comparable to those observed in natural sandy soils.

  4. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  5. Evaluation of long-term mechanical stability of near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Okutsu, Kazuo; Miura, Kazuhiko; Tabei, Kazuto; Noda, Masaru; Takahashi, Shinichi; Sugie, Shigehiko

    1999-11-01

    In the near field, as tunnels and pits are excavated, a redistribution of stresses in the surrounding rock will occur. For a long period of time after the emplacement of waste packages various events will take place, such as the swelling of the buffer, sinking of the overpack under its own weight, deformation arising from expansion of overpack corrosion products and the creep deformation of the rock mass. The evaluation of what effects these changes in the stress-state will have on the buffer and rock mass is a major issue from the viewpoint of safety assessment. Therefore, rock creep analysis, overpack corrosion expansion analysis and overpack sinking analysis have been made in order to examine the long-term mechanical stability of the near field and the interaction of various events that may affect the stability of the near field over a long period of time. As the results, rock creep behavior, the variations of the stress-state and the range of the influence zone differ from the rock strength, strength of buffer in the tunnel and side pressure coefficient etc. about the hard rock system and soft rock system established as basic cases. And the magnitude of the stress variations for buffer by the overpack sinking and rock creep deformation is negligible compared with it by the overpack corrosion expansion. Furthermore, though very limited zone of buffer around the overpack is close to the critical state by the overpack corrosion expansion, the engineered barrier system attains a comparatively stable state for a long period of time. (author)

  6. Utility of cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of pannus in mechanical aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sak; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chang, Byung-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The clinical significance of pannus detected on computed tomography (CT) has not yet been investigated. The purposes of this study were to investigate the clinical significance of pannus detected on cardiac CT in patients who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical valves, and to determine predictors for pannus severity. A total of 92 patients who underwent cardiac CT and TTE and who had undergone mechanical AVR were included. The geometric orifice area (GOA), the presence of limitation of motion (LOM) and pannus were evaluated on CT. The GOA, presence of LOM, and presence and severity of pannus were compared with echocardiographic parameters. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors for pannus severity. The GOA on CT positively correlated with effective orifice area on TTE (r = 0.733, P Pannus was found in 77.2% and LOM in 14.0%. With increasing pannus severity, mean transvalvular pressure gradient (PG) was significantly higher (P pannus, more severe pannus and LOM than patients with normal PG (P pannus (P pannus formation in patients with mechanical aortic valves. Moderate to severe pannus formation frequently occurred in patients with small mechanical valve size, Carbomedics valves, rheumatic heart disease and young age at AVR.

  7. Multicenter Evaluation of a Novel Surveillance Paradigm for Complications of Mechanical Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompas, Michael; Khan, Yosef; Kleinman, Kenneth; Evans, R. Scott; Lloyd, James F.; Stevenson, Kurt; Samore, Matthew; Platt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) surveillance is time consuming, subjective, inaccurate, and inconsistently predicts outcomes. Shifting surveillance from pneumonia in particular to complications in general might circumvent the VAP definition's subjectivity and inaccuracy, facilitate electronic assessment, make interfacility comparisons more meaningful, and encourage broader prevention strategies. We therefore evaluated a novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated complications (VAC) defined by sustained increases in patients' ventilator settings after a period of stable or decreasing support. Methods We assessed 600 mechanically ventilated medical and surgical patients from three hospitals. Each hospital contributed 100 randomly selected patients ventilated 2–7 days and 100 patients ventilated >7 days. All patients were independently assessed for VAP and for VAC. We compared incidence-density, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care and hospital lengths of stay, hospital mortality, and time required for surveillance for VAP and for VAC. A subset of patients with VAP and VAC were independently reviewed by a physician to determine possible etiology. Results Of 597 evaluable patients, 9.3% had VAP (8.8 per 1,000 ventilator days) and 23% had VAC (21.2 per 1,000 ventilator days). Compared to matched controls, both VAP and VAC prolonged days to extubation (5.8, 95% CI 4.2–8.0 and 6.0, 95% CI 5.1–7.1 respectively), days to intensive care discharge (5.7, 95% CI 4.2–7.7 and 5.0, 95% CI 4.1–5.9), and days to hospital discharge (4.7, 95% CI 2.6–7.5 and 3.0, 95% CI 2.1–4.0). VAC was associated with increased mortality (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.2) but VAP was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5–2.4). VAC assessment was faster (mean 1.8 versus 39 minutes per patient). Both VAP and VAC events were predominantly attributable to pneumonia, pulmonary edema, ARDS, and atelectasis. Conclusions Screening ventilator settings for VAC captures a

  8. Evaluating Mechanical Properties of Few Layers MoS2 Nanosheets-Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement effects of liquid exfoliated molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 nanosheets, dispersed in polystyrene (PS matrix, are evaluated here. The range of composites (0~0.002 volume fraction (Vf MoS2-PS is prepared via solution casting. Size selected MoS2 nanosheets (3~4 layers, with a lateral dimension L 0.5~1 µm, have improved Young’s modulus up to 0.8 GPa for 0.0002 Vf MoS2-PS as compared to 0.2 GPa observed for PS only. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS is improved considerably (~×3 with a minute addition of MoS2 nanosheets (0.00002 Vf. The MoS2 nanosheets lateral dimension and number of layers are approximated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The composites formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Theoretical predicted results (Halpin-Tsai model are well below the experimental findings, especially at lower concentrations. Only at maximum concentrations, the experimental and theoretical results coincide. The high aspect ratio of MoS2 nanosheets, homogeneous dispersion inside polymer, and their probable planar orientation are the possible reasons for the effective stress transfer, resulting in enhanced mechanical characteristics. Moreover, the micro-Vickers hardness (HV of the MoS2-PS is also improved from 19 (PS to 23 (0.002 Vf MoS2-PS as MoS2 nanosheets inclusion may hinder the deformation more effectively.

  9. Integrity evaluation of power plant components by fracture mechanics and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Vanderglas, M.L.; Davies, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Power plant components can be subject to unexpected failures with serious consequences, unless careful attention is paid to minute crack defects and their possible growth. The Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics approach to structural integrity evaluation, as it appears in the ASME Code, is discussed. Projects related to material data generation and the development of structural analysis methods to make the above method usable are described. Several integrity-related questions outside the scope of the Code guidelines are documented, concluding with comments on possible future developments

  10. Fracture-mechanical results of non-destructive testing - function, goals, methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Kockelmann, H.; Schuler, X.; Waidele, H.

    2004-01-01

    Non-destructive testing provides data for fracture-mechanical analyses, e.g. defect size and orientation. On the other hand, fracture-mechanical analyses may help to define criteria for non-destructive testing, e.g. sensitivity, inspection intervals and inspection sites. The criteria applied differ as a function of the safety relevance of a component. (orig.) [de

  11. A Bone-Implant Interaction Mouse Model for Evaluating Molecular Mechanism of Biomaterials/Bone Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Dan, Xiuli; Wang, Ting; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2016-11-01

    The development of an optimal animal model that could provide fast assessments of the interaction between bone and orthopedic implants is essential for both preclinical and theoretical researches in the design of novel biomaterials. Compared with other animal models, mice have superiority in accessing the well-developed transgenic modification techniques (e.g., cell tracing, knockoff, knockin, and so on), which serve as powerful tools in studying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we introduced the establishment of a mouse model, which was specifically tailored for the assessment of bone-implant interaction in a load-bearing bone marrow microenvironment and could potentially allow the molecular mechanism study of biomaterials by using transgenic technologies. The detailed microsurgery procedures for developing a bone defect (Φ = 0.8 mm) at the metaphysis region of the mouse femur were recorded. According to our results, the osteoconductive and osseointegrative properties of a well-studied 45S5 bioactive glass were confirmed by utilizing our mouse model, verifying the reliability of this model. The feasibility and reliability of the present model were further checked by using other materials as objects of study. Furthermore, our results indicated that this animal model provided a more homogeneous tissue-implant interacting surface than the rat at the early stage of implantation and this is quite meaningful for conducting quantitative analysis. The availability of transgenic techniques to mechanism study of biomaterials was further testified by establishing our model on Nestin-GFP transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the distribution of Nestin + cells was demonstrated to be recruited to the surface of 45S5 glass as early as 3 days postsurgery, indicating that Nestin + lineage stem cells may participate in the subsequent regeneration process. In summary, the bone-implant interaction mouse model could serve as a potential candidate to evaluate the early stage tissue

  12. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs verbal priming by previously activated perceptual vs semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  14. Design and Evaluation of an Electronic Override Mechanism for Medication Alerts to Facilitate Communication Between Prescribers and Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Chen, Siying; Melton, Brittany L; Saleem, Jason J; Weiner, Michael; Spina, Jeffrey R; Daggy, Joanne K; Zillich, Alan J

    2015-07-01

    Computerized medication alerts can often be bypassed by entering an override rationale, but prescribers' override reasons are frequently ambiguous to pharmacists who review orders. To develop and evaluate a new override mechanism for adverse reaction and drug-drug interaction alerts. We hypothesized that the new mechanism would improve usability for prescribers and increase the clinical appropriateness of override reasons. A counterbalanced, crossover study was conducted with 20 prescribers in a simulated prescribing environment. We modified the override mechanism timing, navigation, and text entry. Instead of free-text entry, the new mechanism presented prescribers with a predefined set of override reasons. We assessed usability (learnability, perceived efficiency, and usability errors) and used a priori criteria to evaluate the clinical appropriateness of override reasons entered. Prescribers rated the new mechanism as more efficient (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.032). When first using the new design, 5 prescribers had difficulty finding the new mechanism, and 3 interpreted the navigation to mean that the alert could not be overridden. The number of appropriate override reasons significantly increased with the new mechanism compared with the original mechanism (median change of 3.0; interquartile range = 3.0; P < 0.0001). When prescribers were given a menu-based choice for override reasons, clinical appropriateness of these reasons significantly improved. Further enhancements are necessary, but this study is an important first step toward a more standardized menu of override choices. Findings may be used to improve communication through e-prescribing systems between prescribers and pharmacists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Evaluation of Tissue Interactions with Mechanical Elements of a Transscleral Drug Delivery Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Borenstein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate tissue-device interactions due to implantation of a mechanically operated drug delivery system onto the posterior sclera. Two test devices were designed and fabricated to model elements of the drug delivery device—one containing a free-spinning ball bearing and the other encasing two articulating gears. Openings in the base of test devices modeled ports for drug passage from device to sclera. Porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membranes were attached to half of the gear devices to minimize tissue ingrowth through these ports. Test devices were sutured onto rabbit eyes for 10 weeks. Tissue-device interactions were evaluated histologically and mechanically after removal to determine effects on device function and changes in surrounding tissue. Test devices were generally well-tolerated during residence in the animal. All devices encouraged fibrous tissue formation between the sclera and the device, fibrous tissue encapsulation and invasion around the device, and inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gear devices encouraged significantly greater inflammation in all cases and a larger rate of tissue ingrowth. PTFE membranes prevented tissue invasion through the covered drug ports, though tissue migrated in through other smaller openings. The torque required to turn the mechanical elements increased over 1000 times for gear devices, but only on the order of 100 times for membrane-covered gear devices and less than 100 times for ball bearing devices. Maintaining a lower device profile, minimizing microscale motion on the eye surface and covering drug ports with a porous membrane may minimize inflammation, decreasing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues and minimizing disruption of device operation.

  16. Immuno-pharmacodynamics for evaluating mechanism of action and developing immunotherapy combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchment, Ralph E; Voth, Andrea Regier; Doroshow, James H; Berzofsky, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapy has become a major modality of cancer treatment, with multiple new classes of immunotherapeutics recently entering the clinic and obtaining market approval from regulatory agencies. While the promise of these therapies is great, so is the number of possible combinations not only with each other but also with small molecule therapeutics. Furthermore, the observation of unusual dose-response relationships suggests a critical dependency of drug effectiveness on the dosage regimen (dose and schedule). Clinical pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers will be useful endpoints for confirming drug mechanism of action, evaluating combination therapies for synergy or antagonism, and identifying optimal dosage regimens. In contrast to conventional PD in which drug action occurs entirely within a single target cell (ie, is self-contained within the malignant cell), immunotherapy involves a complex mechanism of action with sequential steps that propagate through multiple cell types, both normal and malignant. Its intercellular pharmacology begins with molecular target engagement either on an immune effector cell or a malignant cell, followed by stimulatory biochemical and biological signals in immune effector cells, and then finally ends with activation of cell death mechanisms in malignant cells lying within a certain distance from the activated effector cells (immune cell-tumor cell proximity). Evaluating such "trans-cellular pharmacology," in which different steps of drug action are distributed across multiple cell types, requires novel microscopy and image analysis tools capable of quantifying PD-biomarker responses, mapping the responses onto the cellular geography of the tumor using phenotypic biomarkers to identify specific cell types, and finally analyzing the spatial relationships between biomarkers in the context of each cell's biological role. We have termed this form of nearest neighbor image analysis of drug action "proximity PD microscopy," to indicate the

  17. Rock mechanics models evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the thermal and thermomechanical models and codes for repository subsurface design and for design constraint analysis. The evaluation was based on a survey of the thermal and thermomechanical codes and models that are applicable to subsurface design, followed by a Kepner-Tregoe (KT) structured decision analysis of the codes and models. The primary recommendations of the analysis are that the DOT code be used for two-dimensional thermal analysis and that the STEALTH and HEATING 5/6 codes be used for three-dimensional and complicated two-dimensional thermal analysis. STEALTH and SPECTROM 32 are recommended for thermomechanical analyses. The other evaluated codes should be considered for use in certain applications. A separate review of salt creep models indicate that the commonly used exponential time law model is appropriate for use in repository design studies. 38 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  18. Evaluation the Mechanical Properties of Shot Peened TIG Welded Aluminum Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ameed Zain Al-Abideen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A tungsten inert gas (TIG welding is one of the most popular kinds of welding used to join metals mainly for aluminum alloys. However, many challenges may be met with this kind of joining process; these challenges arise from decay of mechanical properties of welded materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to enhancing the mechanical properties of TIG weld joint of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy by hardening the surfaces using shoot peening technique. To optimize the shoot peening process three times of exposure (5, 10, and 15 min. was used. All peened and unpeened, and welded and unwelded samples were characterized by metallographic test to indicate the phase transformation and modification in microstructure occurring during welding process. Tensile test and Vickers micro-hardness measurements were performed for all samples to investigate the effect of shoot peening on mechanical properties of welded aluminum. The results indicated a significant improvement in properties for peened welded and unwelded samples compared with those unpeened one. Also, the results showed that the tensile and microhardness properties were increased with increasing the time of exposure to 15 min. due to generation of compressive residual stresses at surface.

  19. Experimental evaluation of mechanical heart support system based on viscous friction disc pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Experimental evaluation of the viscous friction disk pump efficiency, studying the relationship between inter-disk clearance and sizes of input and output ports and pump performance parameters.Materials and methods. To assess the characteristics and to optimize the disk friction pump design the pump model and experimental stand were created. Pump dimensions were set on the basis of medical and biological requirements for mechanical heart support systems and with due consideration of the experimental studies of our colleagues from Pennsylvania. Flow volume of the working fluid was measured by float rotameter Krohne VA-40 with measurement error of not more than 1%. The pressure values in the hydrodynamic circuit were measured using a monitor manufactured by Biosoft-M. Expansion device allowed changing the flow resistance of the system simulating the total peripheral resistance of the circulatory system.Results. Linear direct correlation between the pump performance and the pressure drop of liquid being created at the inlet and outlet of the pump was obtained. The required flow rate (5–7 l/min and pressure (90–100 mmHg were reached when the rotor speed was in the range of 2500–3000 rev/min. It has been shown that the increase of the inlet diameter to 15 mm has not resulted in a significant increase in the pump performance, and that the highest efficiency values can be obtained for the magnitude of inter-disk gap of 0.4–0.5 mm.Conclusion. Designed and manufactured experimental disc pump model for pumping fluid has showed the fundamental possibility to use this model as a system for mechanical support of the heart.

  20. Evaluation Influence: The Evaluation Event and Capital Flow in International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David A

    2017-12-01

    Assessing program effectiveness in human development is central to informing foreign aid policy-making and organizational learning. Foreign aid effectiveness discussions have increasingly given attention to the devaluing effects of aid flow volatility. This study reveals that the external evaluation event influences actor behavior, serving as a volatility-constraining tool. A case study of a multidonor aid development mechanism served examining the influence of an evaluation event when considering anticipatory effects. The qualitative component used text and focus group data combined with individual interview data (organizations n = 10, including 26 individuals). Quantitative data included financial information on all 75 capital investments. The integrated theory of influence and model of alternative mechanisms used these components to identify the linkage between the evaluation event and capital flow volatility. Aid approved in the year of the midterm evaluation was disbursed by the mechanism with low capital volatility. Anticipating the evaluation event influenced behavior resulting in an empirical record that program outcomes were enhanced and the mechanism was an improved organization. Formative evaluations in a development program can trigger activity as an interim process. That activity provides for a more robust assessment of ultimate consequence of interest. Anticipating an evaluation can stimulate donor reality testing. The findings inform and strengthen future research on the influence of anticipating an evaluation. Closely examining activities before, during, and shortly after the evaluation event can aid development of other systematic methods to improve understanding this phenomenon, as well as improve donor effectiveness strategies.

  1. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Autophagy Mechanism of 12N-Substituted Sophoridinamines as Novel Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chongwen; Zhang, Na; Yang, Peng; Ye, Cheng; Wang, Yanxiang; Fan, Tianyun; Shao, Rongguang; Deng, Hongbin; Song, Danqing

    2017-02-09

    A series of 12 N -substituted sophoridinamine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. Structure-activity relationship revealed that introduction of a suitable arylidene or arylethyl at the N '-end could greatly enhance antiproliferation potency. Among them, compound 6b possessing a N '-trimethoxyphenyl methylene exhibited potent antiproliferation effect against three human tumor cell lines including HepG2, leukemia (K562), and breast cancer (HMLE), with IC 50 between 0.55 and 1.7 μM. The underlying mechanism of 6b against tumor cells is to block autophagic flux, mainly through neutralizing lysosomal acidity. Our results indicated that compound 6b is a potent lysosomal deacidification agent and is accordingly able to block autophagic flux and inhibit tumor cell growth.

  2. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400 0 C to a target fluence of 5 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel

  3. [Interactions of DNA bases with individual water molecules. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics computation results vs. experimental data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E; Lino, J; Deriabina, A; Herrera, J N F; Poltev, V I

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate details of the DNA-water interactions we performed the calculations and systemaitic search for minima of interaction energy of the systems consisting of one of DNA bases and one or two water molecules. The results of calculations using two force fields of molecular mechanics (MM) and correlated ab initio method MP2/6-31G(d, p) of quantum mechanics (QM) have been compared with one another and with experimental data. The calculations demonstrated a qualitative agreement between geometry characteristics of the most of local energy minima obtained via different methods. The deepest minima revealed by MM and QM methods correspond to water molecule position between two neighbor hydrophilic centers of the base and to the formation by water molecule of hydrogen bonds with them. Nevertheless, the relative depth of some minima and peculiarities of mutual water-base positions in' these minima depend on the method used. The analysis revealed insignificance of some differences in the results of calculations performed via different methods and the importance of other ones for the description of DNA hydration. The calculations via MM methods enable us to reproduce quantitatively all the experimental data on the enthalpies of complex formation of single water molecule with the set of mono-, di-, and trimethylated bases, as well as on water molecule locations near base hydrophilic atoms in the crystals of DNA duplex fragments, while some of these data cannot be rationalized by QM calculations.

  4. Evaluating the RELM Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Sachs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider implications of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM test results with regard to earthquake forecasting. Prospective forecasts were solicited for M≥4.95 earthquakes in California during the period 2006–2010. During this period 31 earthquakes occurred in the test region with M≥4.95. We consider five forecasts that were submitted for the test. We compare the forecasts utilizing forecast verification methodology developed in the atmospheric sciences, specifically for tornadoes. We utilize a “skill score” based on the forecast scores λfi of occurrence of the test earthquakes. A perfect forecast would have λfi=1, and a random (no skill forecast would have λfi=2.86×10-3. The best forecasts (largest value of λfi for the 31 earthquakes had values of λfi=1.24×10-1 to λfi=5.49×10-3. The best mean forecast for all earthquakes was λ̅f=2.84×10-2. The best forecasts are about an order of magnitude better than random forecasts. We discuss the earthquakes, the forecasts, and alternative methods of evaluation of the performance of RELM forecasts. We also discuss the relative merits of alarm-based versus probability-based forecasts.

  5. Evaluation of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of consolidated Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum obtained by selective laser melting and precision casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergulhão, Marcello Vertamatti

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of specimens of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy obtained by additive manufacturing -selective laser melting (SLM) and precision casting aiming at the manufacture of dental prostheses. The following steps were carried out on Co-Cr-Mo gas-atomized powders: 1) investigation of the physical, chemical and thermal properties of atomized powders in different grain sizes (denominated: D1 <15 μm, D2 20-50 μm and D3 > 75 μm); 2) the consolidation of standard specimens via consolidation techniques; 3) characterization of consolidated by analysis of: cytotoxicity, porosity, X ray diffraction and dilatometry; 4) mechanical characterization of tensile, 3 point bending, hardness (macro and micro Vickers) tests and microstructural characterization (optical and scanning electron microscopy). In general, the results observed were: the grain size D2 (20-50 μm) is the one that best fits in the analysis of packaging, for the consolidation by SLM; the biocompatibility of the samples obtained a positive result for both processing techniques; the mechanical evaluation of the specimens shows that the SLM technique provides superior mechanical properties (yield stress, rupture stress, maximum stress, elongation and hardness), compared to those obtained by the precision casting technique; the microstructure obtained by the SLM process results in an ultrafine grains with high chemical homogeneity, differentiated by the gross dendritic microstructure in the casting process. In this way, the development of the present study evidenced superior quality in manufacturing customized dental components (copings) by SLM technique compared to precision casting. (author)

  6. The Evaluation of Industry Practical of Mechanical Engineering in Vocational Education: A CIPP Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, M.; Munawar, W.; Mahdan, D.; Simanjuntak, M. V.; Wendi, H. F.

    2018-02-01

    The learning system is not only studied on campus but also practicing in the world of work. Industry Practical aims to enable students to develop their skills in accordance with the real world of work. To know the success of the implementation of industry practical program then held evaluation. The evaluation of the program in this study used the CIPP evaluation approach (Context, Input, Process, Product). The purpose of this research is to know the extent of achievement and success of industry practical program at vocational school in Bandung with descriptive research method using mix method approach. The sample in this research is students majoring in mechanical engineering in the city of Bandung who have done industry practical.

  7. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  8. An ex vivo porcine skin model to evaluate pressure-reducing devices of different mechanical properties used for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Yan C; Holmes, David F; Thomason, Helen A; Stephenson, Christian; Derby, Brian; Hardman, Matthew J

    2016-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are complex wounds caused by pressure- and shear-induced trauma to skin and underlying tissues. Pressure-reducing devices, such as dressings, have been shown to successfully reduce pressure ulcer incidence, when used in adjunct to pressure ulcer preventative care. While pressure-reducing devices are available in a range of materials, with differing mechanical properties, understanding of how a material's mechanical properties will influence clinical efficacy remains limited. The aim of this study was to establish a standardized ex vivo model to allow comparison of the cell protection potential of two gel-like pressure-reducing devices with differing mechanical properties (elastic moduli of 77 vs. 35 kPa). The devices also displayed differing energy dissipation under compressive loading, and resisted strain differently under constant load in compressive creep tests. To evaluate biological efficacy we employed a new ex vivo porcine skin model, with a confirmed elastic moduli closely matching that of human skin (113 vs. 119 kPa, respectively). Static loads up to 20 kPa were applied to porcine skin ex vivo with subsequent evaluation of pressure-induced cell death and cytokine release. Pressure application alone increased the percentage of epidermal apoptotic cells from less than 2% to over 40%, and increased cellular secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Co-application of a pressure-reducing device significantly reduced both cellular apoptosis and cytokine production, protecting against cellular damage. These data reveal new insight into the relationship between mechanical properties of pressure-reducing devices and their biological effects. After appropriate validation of these results in clinical pressure ulcer prevention with all tissue layers present between the bony prominence and external surface, this ex vivo porcine skin model could be widely employed to optimize design and evaluation of devices aimed at reducing pressure

  9. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment at Kamaishi mine. Technical note 15-99-02. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka; Fujita, Tomoo [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    It is an important part of the near field performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal to evaluate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena, e.g., thermal effects on groundwater flow through rock matrix and water seepage into the buffer material, the generation of swelling pressure of the buffer material, and thermal stresses potentially affecting porosity and fracture apertures of the rock. An in-situ T-H-M experiment named Engineered Barrier Experiment' has been conducted at the Kamaishi Mine, of which host rock is granodiorite, in order to establish conceptual models of the coupled T-H-M processes and to build confidence in mathematical and computer codes. In 1995, fourteen boreholes were excavated in order to install the various sensors. After the hydraulic tests, mechanical tests were carried out to obtain the rock properties. After that, a test pit, 1.7 m in diameter and 5.0 m in depth, was excavated. During the excavation, the change of pore pressure, displacement and temperature of rock mass were measured. In 1996, the buffer material and heater were set up in the test pit, and then coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical test was started. The duration of heating phase was 250 days and that of cooling phase was 180 days. The heater surface was controlled to be 100degC during heating phase. Measurement was carried out by a number of sensors installed in both buffer and rock mass during the test. The field experiment leads to a better understanding of the behavior of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the predictors for duration of mechanical ventilation in respiratory intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving modality. Till no method is evolved to predict the duration of this treatment. This study is undertaken to evaluate the clinical and laboratory parameters at initiation and 48 hour of the patient being treated by mechanical ventilation; and correlate these parameters with the duration of MV required. Methods: It was prospective observational study conducted in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU of a tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Thirty consecutive patients suffering from various medical diseases requiring MV were the participants. Clinical, laboratory, ventilatory parameters and six severity scores viz.; GCS, APACHE-II, SAPS, OSF, ALI/ARDS and Sepsis/Septic shock criteria of each patient, both at initiation and at 48 hour of MV were recorded. Correlation between various severity scores at initiation and at 48 hour of initiation with duration of mechanical ventilation was computed. Results: Based on the duration of mechanical ventilation required, the patients were divided in two groups. Those requiring mechanical ventilation < 7 days and> 7 days were designated Group I and Group II respectively. Three out of 6 severity scores (GCS, APACHE-II, SAPS recorded at 48 hour of MV showed statistically significant difference between the both groups with p value of 0.010, 0.009 and 0.006 respectively. Further stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that SAPS score at 48 hour of initiation was the best predictor of duration of MV. It was found that a cut off value of 15 for SAPS score at 48 hour might predict the duration of MV i.e. < 7days or> 7 days. Based on linear regression analysis a simple equation was formulated by putting the SAPS value at 48 hour, the value of Y was computed. If MV required was less than 7 days, the value of Y was more than - 0.172 and if need of mechanical ventilation was more than 7 days, Y was less than -0.1720. Conclusions: For patients requiring

  11. Hydraulic/mechanical modeling of smectitic materials for HMC analytical evaluation of the long term performance of TRU geological repository - 59090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ichizo; Owada, Hitoshi; Ishii, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at evaluation of the long term performance of transuranic (TRU) geological repositories, the hydraulic/ mechanical/chemical (HMC) analysis method has been studied. In this phase of research (four years) the hydraulic/mechanical modeling of smectitic materials for HMC analyses has been studied. In this paper, new experimental methods for investigation of the hydraulic/mechanical behavior of smectitic materials were developed. For hydraulic modeling, the measurement method of the specific surface area of compacted smectitic materials was developed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the method were applied to the Kozeny-Carman law. Since the specific surface area represents the microstructure of smectitic materials such as the degree of swelling, it was found that the Kozeny-Carman law using measured specific surface area of compacted smectitic materials was useful in evaluating the hydraulic performance of smectitic materials. Moreover, since the Kozeny-Carman law can take the alteration of content of pore water into consideration by not only a coefficient of viscosity but also by changes in specific surface area, the Kozeny-Carman law will be more suitable to chemical and mechanical couple analyses than the ordinary Darcy's law. For the mechanical modeling, the procedure of one dimensional exhausting compression test was developed. The tests gave the dry density and compression stress relation in the state of full-saturation of smectitic materials with varying water content. The relations between the dry density and compression stress in the state of fully saturation were termed fully saturation lines. The group of iso-grams of degree of saturation and water content were also given with this test. It was found that the fully-saturation line is consistent with swelling deformation-pressure relation in the equilibrium state. The results indicated that the swelling deformation-pressure relation does not depend on the saturation manner, such as the

  12. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Hakala, M.

    2010-09-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and additionally extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually being in 2009 altogether 14. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semi-regional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale. The smaller target area is s called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. All the expected excavation induced events assumingly occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes 10 seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The seismic network has operated continuously in 2009 and during the year altogether 1256 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. Most of them (1161) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1135 events)

  13. Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of 50Cr5NiMoV steel for forged backup roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Fu, L.C.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, K.; Zhu, L., E-mail: zl508@126.com

    2016-11-20

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of forged 50Cr5NiMoV steel backup roll were evaluated in this study. The microstructure characteristics from surface to center along radial direction of the backup roll were carefully observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the chemical composition, hardness, tensile property, impact and fracture toughness in different position of the backup roll were also examined. The results indicate that the finely precipitated carbides at different matrix during heat treatment process strongly influence mechanical properties of the backup roll. Especially, the spheroidized pearlite at the inner regions which consists of large globular or rod-like M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and a little of small globular M{sub 23}C{sub 6} possesses much better toughness and fracture resistance properties than those of the lamellar pearlite with lamellar M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and a little of globular M{sub 7}C{sub 3}.

  14. Evaluation of Cosmetic Results of Surgical Wound Closure in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Williams

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the correlation between wound cosmesis and pet owner satisfaction, to determine the agreement among vet surgeons, and pet owners evaluating a surgical wound with a visual assessment score (VAS, and to determine the agreement between the VAS, a semi-quantitative score of wound inflammation, and wound width.Background: Perception of post-surgical cosmesis by human patients has been found to influence their satisfaction and perceived adequacy of vet surgeons. Due to the trend of owners anthropomorphising pets, this logic can be extended to veterinary patients. Also, there is a lack of consistent, reliable methods to evaluate cosmesis have been developed, creating the need for a scoring system that is accurate and reproducible.Evidentiary value: This was a prospective cohort study with one hundred and seven patients. This study may not change day-to-day practices, but it will bring to light for practitioners the discordance between pet owners and vet surgeons concerning attractiveness of an incision as well as overall satisfaction with a procedure.Methods: Photographs of surgical wounds were taken immediately, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks after surgery in dogs. Owners were asked to evaluate satisfaction with the procedure and attractiveness of the incision using the VAS. Photos were evaluated for cosmetic outcome by pet owner and vet surgeon evaluators with different scoring systems. The reliability of the scoring systems was evaluated using intraclass correlations and kappa statistics as appropriate.Results:  Owners’ evaluation of cosmetic outcome correlated with their overall satisfaction. (r2=0.37, where r2 is the coefficient of determination, and can be used to determine what proportion of variance in one variable is predictable from the other variableThere was generally poor reliability of the subjective scoring between both vet surgeons and pet owners, and the less subjective scoring systems.Conclusion: The cosmetic outcome

  15. Economic Evaluation of a Patient-Directed Music Intervention for ICU Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilatory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlan, Linda L; Heiderscheit, Annette; Skaar, Debra J; Neidecker, Marjorie V

    2018-05-04

    Music intervention has been shown to reduce anxiety and sedative exposure among mechanically ventilated patients. Whether music intervention reduces ICU costs is not known. The aim of this study was to examine ICU costs for patients receiving a patient-directed music intervention compared with patients who received usual ICU care. A cost-effectiveness analysis from the hospital perspective was conducted to determine if patient-directed music intervention was cost-effective in improving patient-reported anxiety. Cost savings were also evaluated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses determined the influence of input variation on the cost-effectiveness. Midwestern ICUs. Adult ICU patients from a parent clinical trial receiving mechanical ventilatory support. Patients receiving the experimental patient-directed music intervention received a MP3 player, noise-canceling headphones, and music tailored to individual preferences by a music therapist. The base case cost-effectiveness analysis estimated patient-directed music intervention reduced anxiety by 19 points on the Visual Analogue Scale-Anxiety with a reduction in cost of $2,322/patient compared with usual ICU care, resulting in patient-directed music dominance. The probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis found that average patient-directed music intervention costs were $2,155 less than usual ICU care and projected that cost saving is achieved in 70% of 1,000 iterations. Based on break-even analyses, cost saving is achieved if the per-patient cost of patient-directed music intervention remains below $2,651, a value eight times the base case of $329. Patient-directed music intervention is cost-effective for reducing anxiety in mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

  16. Field evaluation of cutter and feeder mechanism of chickpea harvester for lentil harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kamgar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main producers of lentil are Canada, India, Nepal and China, respectively and Iran is the ninth producer in the world. The hand pulling is the usual method of lentil harvesting. Use of conventional combine because of short leg varieties, wide combine head in dry land and grain losses by cutter bar vibrations is impossible. So a mechanism should be designed to harvest the lentil plants with minimum damage. This mechanism should be evaluated under different tests of crop and machines such as forward speed (FS, grain moisture content (GMC, different varieties and other parameters. Some researchers studied the effects of GMC (Andrews and et al., 1993; Huitink, 2005; Adisa, 2009; Abdi and Jalali, 2013 and FS on grain losses (Geng et al., 1984; Swapan et al., 2001; Mostafavand and Kamgar, 2014; Hunt, 1995. Field tests were conducted at three levels of FS 1.5, 3 and 4.5 km.h-1; three levels of cutting height (CH 4, 8 and 13 cm and two levels of GMC, 8 and 14% on two varieties of lentils including Flip and Shiraz with three replications. Materials and Methods The feeder and cutter mechanism for chickpea harvesting that was the base design of device which is notched wheel and counter shear, was used. The other components of device were dividers, slat and chain feeders, belt and pulleys, chassis, elevator conveyor and storage. Two split plot design based on a randomized complete design was used to determine the effects of above treatments on lentil losses. Results and Discussion The ANOVA results indicated that the all studied factors; FS of feeder and cutter mechanism, CH and GMC had significant effect on losses of Shiraz variety (P0.05. The ranges of losses of Flip variety at 8% GMC were 8.6 to 10% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 9.1 to 10.4% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 10.4 to 11.4% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. These ranges at 14% GMC were 7.9 to 8.9% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 8.4 to 9.2% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 8.5 to 10% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. The ranges of

  17. Evaluation of lung and chest wall mechanics during anaesthesia using the PEEP-step method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P; Stenqvist, O; Lundin, S

    2018-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are common. Between patients there are differences in lung and chest wall mechanics. Individualised mechanical ventilation based on measurement of transpulmonary pressures would be a step forward. A previously described method evaluates lung and chest wall mechanics from a change of ΔPEEP and calculation of change in end-expiratory lung volume (ΔEELV). The aim of the present study was to validate this PEEP-step method (PSM) during general anaesthesia by comparing it with the conventional method using oesophageal pressure (PES) measurements. In 24 lung healthy subjects (BMI 18.5-32), three different sizes of PEEP steps were performed during general anaesthesia and ΔEELVs were calculated. Transpulmonary driving pressure (ΔPL) for a tidal volume equal to each ΔEELV was measured using PES measurements and compared to ΔPEEP with limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). ΔPL calculated with both methods was compared with a Bland-Altman plot. Mean differences between ΔPEEP and ΔPL were mechanical properties among the lung healthy patients stresses the need for individualised ventilator settings based on measurements of lung and chest wall mechanics. The agreement between ΔPLs measured by the two methods during general anaesthesia suggests the use of the non-invasive PSM in this patient population. NCT 02830516. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Noncovalent Interactions: A Large-Scale Evaluation of PMx, DFT, and SAPT Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amanda; Muddana, Hari S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-04-08

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations of noncovalent interactions are uniquely useful as tools to test and improve molecular mechanics force fields and to model the forces involved in biomolecular binding and folding. Because the more computationally tractable QM methods necessarily include approximations, which risk degrading accuracy, it is essential to evaluate such methods by comparison with high-level reference calculations. Here, we use the extensive Benchmark Energy and Geometry Database (BEGDB) of CCSD(T)/CBS reference results to evaluate the accuracy and speed of widely used QM methods for over 1200 chemically varied gas-phase dimers. In particular, we study the semiempirical PM6 and PM7 methods; density functional theory (DFT) approaches B3LYP, B97-D, M062X, and ωB97X-D; and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) approach. For the PM6 and DFT methods, we also examine the effects of post hoc corrections for hydrogen bonding (PM6-DH+, PM6-DH2), halogen atoms (PM6-DH2X), and dispersion (DFT-D3 with zero and Becke-Johnson damping). Several orders of the SAPT expansion are also compared, ranging from SAPT0 up to SAPT2+3, where computationally feasible. We find that all DFT methods with dispersion corrections, as well as SAPT at orders above SAPT2, consistently provide dimer interaction energies within 1.0 kcal/mol RMSE across all systems. We also show that a linear scaling of the perturbative energy terms provided by the fast SAPT0 method yields similar high accuracy, at particularly low computational cost. The energies of all the dimer systems from the various QM approaches are included in the Supporting Information, as are the full SAPT2+(3) energy decomposition for a subset of over 1000 systems. The latter can be used to guide the parametrization of molecular mechanics force fields on a term-by-term basis.

  19. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnavi, S [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Saravanan, U [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Arthi, N [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Bhuvaneshwar, G S [Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Kumary, T V [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Rajan, S [Madras Medical Mission, Institute of Cardio-Vascular Diseases, Mogappair, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600037 (India); Verma, R S, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44{sup +}, αSMA{sup +}, Vimentin{sup +} and CD105{sup −} human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children. - Highlights: • We report detailed biological and mechanical investigations of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold. • Optimized polymer thickness yielded desired biological and mechanical properties. • Bio-Hybrid scaffold revealed hVIC proliferation with dense ECM deposition. • Biaxial testing indicated that Bio-Hybrid scaffolds are mechanically stronger than native valves. • Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for autologous valve tissue engineering.

  20. Mechanical strength evaluation of the welded bellows for the ports of the JT-60 vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatso, H.; Shimizu, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical strength of the welded bellows for the ports of the JT-60 vacuum vessel was evaluated, laying the emphasis on the fatigue strength under the torsional electromagnetic force. The welded bellows were designed to be loaded with the forced deflection due to the relative displacement between the vacuum vessel and the external fixed point, the atmospheric pressure and the forced torsional angle due to the electromagnetic force. Stresses caused by the former two were estimated following the formulae proposed by the Kellogg Company. On the other hand, two formulae were established to estimate the stress caused by the last, after examining experimentally the behavior of the welded bellows under the torsional load; one is the shearing stress evaluation formula and the other is the axial bending stress evaluation formula. It was found that the welded bellows can easily buckle under the torsional load and the former formula corresponds to the case of non-buckling and the latter to the case of buckling. The present mechanical strength evaluation method was applied to the three kinds of the welded bellows to be used in the ports of the JT-60 vacuum vessel (neutral beam injection ports, vacuum pumping ports and the adjustable limiter ports) and it was confirmed that they have sufficient strength in the range of the design load conditions

  1. Mechanical property, biocorrosion and in vitro biocompatibility evaluations of Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys for future cardiovascular stent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W R; Zheng, Y F; Leeflang, M A; Zhou, J

    2013-11-01

    Mg-Li-based alloys were investigated for future cardiovascular stent application as they possess excellent ductility. However, Mg-Li binary alloys exhibited reduced mechanical strengths due to the presence of lithium. To improve the mechanical strengths of Mg-Li binary alloys, aluminum and rare earth (RE) elements were added to form Mg-Li-Al ternary and Mg-Li-Al-RE quarternary alloys. In the present study, six Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys were fabricated. Their microstructures, mechanical properties and biocorrosion behavior were evaluated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, tensile tests, immersion tests and electrochemical measurements. Microstructure characterization indicated that grain sizes were moderately refined by the addition of rare earth elements. Tensile testing showed that enhanced mechanical strengths were obtained, while electrochemical and immersion tests showed reduced corrosion resistance caused by intermetallic compounds distributed throughout the magnesium matrix in the rare-earth-containing Mg-Li alloys. Cytotoxicity assays, hemolysis tests as well as platelet adhesion tests were performed to evaluate in vitro biocompatibilities of the Mg-Li-based alloys. The results of cytotoxicity assays clearly showed that the Mg-3.5Li-2Al-2RE, Mg-3.5Li-4Al-2RE and Mg-8.5Li-2Al-2RE alloys suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation after 5day incubation, while the Mg-3.5Li, Mg-8.5Li and Mg-8.5Li-1Al alloys were proven to be tolerated. In the case of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the Mg-Li-based alloys showed no significantly reduced cell viabilities except for the Mg-8.5Li-2Al-2RE alloy, with no obvious differences in cell viability between different culture periods. With the exception of Mg-8.5Li-2Al-2RE, all of the other Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys exhibited acceptable hemolysis ratios, and no sign of thrombogenicity was found. These in vitro experimental results indicate the potential of Mg

  2. Evaluation of mechanical properties of weldments for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are the first candidate material for fusion reactor, and will be used as the structural materials of ITER test blanket modules (TBM). TBM will be assembled by welding various parts, it is important to be clearly mechanical properties of weldments to qualify TBM structure. In this paper, unirradiated mechanical properties of weldments, which is consisted of weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal region, obtained from TIG and EB welded F82H IEA-heat were evaluated by tensile, Charpy impact and creep test. Charpy impact test revealed that impact properties of weld metal does not deteriorate compared with that of base metal. The creep tests were carried out at temperatures of 773-873 K and at stress levels of 130-280 MPa, with the specimens which include weld metal and HAZ region in the gage section. In these conditions, rupture time of weldments yield to about 100-1000 hours. In the high-stress range, creep lives of welded joint decreased about 40% of base metal. However, in the low-stress range, creep lives of welded joint decrease about 60 to 70% of base metal. The failure at fine grain HAZ region (Type IV failure) does not occur in these conditions. The mechanism of these properties deterioration will be discussed based on the detailed analyses on microstructure changes. (authors)

  3. Psychophysical evaluation of a sanshool derivative (alkylamide and the elucidation of mechanisms subserving tingle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C Albin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigated the neural and molecular underpinnings of the tingle sensation evoked by sanshool and other natural or synthetic alkylamides. Currently, we sought to characterize the psychophysical properties associated with administration of these compounds. Like other chemesthetic stimuli, the synthetic tingle analog isobutylalkylamide (IBA evoked a sensation that was temporally dynamic. Repeated IBA application at short (30 sec interstimulus intervals (ISI resulted in a tingle sensation that increased across trials. Application at longer ISIs (approximately 30 min resulted in a sensation of decreased intensity consistent with self-desensitization. Prior treatment with the TRPV1 or TRPA1 agonists, capsaicin and mustard oil did not cross-desensitize the tingle sensation evoked by IBA suggesting that neither TRPV1 nor TRPA1 participate in the transduction mechanism sub-serving tingle. When evaluated over 30-min time period, lingual IBA evoked a sensation that was described initially as tingling and pungent but after approximately 15 min, as a cooling sensation. Further, we found that the sensation evoked by lingual IBA was potentiated by simultaneous application of cold (0 degrees C and cool (21 degrees C thermal stimuli but was unaffected by warm (33 degrees C and hot (41 degrees C temperatures. Finally, to test the hypothesis that the tingling sensation is subserved by the activation of mechanosensitve fibers, we evaluated lingual tactile thresholds in the presence and absence of lingual IBA. The presence of IBA significantly raised lingual tactile thresholds, whereas capsaicin did not, identifying a role for mechanosensitive fibers in conveying the tingle sensation evoked by sanshool-like compounds. Collectively, these results show that lingual alkylamide evokes a complex sensation that is temporally dynamic and consistent with in vitro and in vivo experiments suggesting these compounds activate mechanosensitve neurons via

  4. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Ueda (Japan); Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan); Natsuki, Jun [Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

  5. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Natsuki, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

  6. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  7. A finite element evaluation of mechanical function for 3 distal extension partial dental prosthesis designs with a 3-dimensional nonlinear method for modeling soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshinori; Kanbara, Ryo; Ochiai, Kent T; Tanaka, Yoshinobu

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical evaluation of the function of partial removable dental prostheses with 3-dimensional finite element modeling requires the accurate assessment and incorporation of soft tissue behavior. The differential behaviors of the residual ridge mucosa and periodontal ligament tissues have been shown to exhibit nonlinear displacement. The mathematic incorporation of known values simulating nonlinear soft tissue behavior has not been investigated previously via 3-dimensional finite element modeling evaluation to demonstrate the effect of prosthesis design on the supporting tissues. The purpose of this comparative study was to evaluate the functional differences of 3 different partial removable dental prosthesis designs with 3-dimensional finite element analysis modeling and a simulated patient model incorporating known viscoelastic, nonlinear soft tissue properties. Three different designs of distal extension removable partial dental prostheses were analyzed. The stress distributions to the supporting abutments and soft tissue displacements of the designs tested were calculated and mechanically compared. Among the 3 dental designs evaluated, the RPI prosthesis demonstrated the lowest stress concentrations on the tissue supporting the tooth abutment and also provided wide mucosa-borne areas of support, thereby demonstrating a mechanical advantage and efficacy over the other designs evaluated. The data and results obtained from this study confirmed that the functional behavior of partial dental prostheses with supporting abutments and soft tissues are consistent with the conventional theories of design and clinical experience. The validity and usefulness of this testing method for future applications and testing protocols are shown. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Creating Evaluation Profiles for Games Designed to be Fun: An Interpretive Framework for Serious Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    an interpretive evaluation framework that can identify the educational value in COTS games. Application. The presented framework can create evaluative profiles of the learning, social, game, and immersive mechanics of COTS games as educational tools. Moreover, the framework can position COTS games between four...... intertwined dimensions, namely pedagogical, design, knowledge, and sociotechnical considerations. Demonstration. To validate the practical application of the interpretive framework, we apply it to a real-world example. Our demonstration reveals the usefulness of the framework. Conclusions. The framework...

  9. The Mechanical Axis of the First Ray: A Radiographic Assessment in Hallux Abducto Valgus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorta, Guido A; Nasser, Ellianne M; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Malay, D Scot

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a new method of hallux abducto valgus deformity correction planning using the mechanical axis of the medial column (mechanical axis planning). This method of radiographic evaluation identifies an ideal position for the first metatarsal after correction and is useful regardless of the surgical procedure chosen. We retrospectively reviewed 200 radiographs to identify a "normal" value for the mechanical axis angle. We reviewed 100 radiographs of patients with hallux abducto valgus deformity (deformity group) and 100 radiographs of patients without hallux abducto valgus deformity (control group). The deformity group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 13.5° ± 2.83° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.58° ± 1°. The control group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 7.5° ± 1.76° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.19° ± 0.9°. The differences in the M1-M2 anatomic axis angle and M1-M2 mechanical axis angle were statistically significant between the control and deformity groups. We sought to provide a reliable method for planning hallux abducto valgus deformity correction by aligning the mechanical axis of the medial column and the mechanical axis of the first ray to the "normal" value of 11° to reduce the deformity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the radiological risk resulting from road transportation of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, C.A.; Segado, R.; Reyes, R.

    1983-01-01

    A probability model for the evaluation of the individual radiological risk resulting from road transportation of tritiated water in 200-liter drums is presented. In order to evaluate such risk, an evaluation must be made of the probability for an individual to be involved in the consequences of a radiological transport accident, to incur a given dose and to suffer deleterious effects resulting from the dose incurred. With the purpose of quantifying the importance of accidents, a severity level classification was adopted as a function of the fraction of liquid volume spilled as a result of the accident. Considering the above-mentioned severity classification and the transported volume, the volume and the spill area are implied, while the soil characteristics are taken into account. By evaluating the spill characteristics, the average meteorological conditions in the area under analysis and the activity concentration of the transported liquid, the activity concentration values for tritium in air may be estimated, thus allowing calculation of the effective dose equivalent to be incurred by the individual who is most exposed to the consequences of an associated event. As a result of the summarized analysis above, a value of the individual risk per unit of activity concentration is obtained for tritium and for a given volume of transported liquid. 8 references

  11. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...... and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial and antibiofilm mechanisms by usnic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, Arianna; Riviello, Antonella; Crocetta, Valentina; Di Giuseppe, Fabrizio; Pomponio, Stefano; Sulpizio, Marilisa; Di Ilio, Carmine; Angelucci, Stefania; Barone, Luana; Di Giulio, Andrea; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm mechanisms of usnic acid (USN) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from cystic fibrosis patients. The effects exerted by USN at subinhibitory concentrations on S. aureus Sa3 strain was evaluated by proteomic, real-time PCR and electron microscopy analyses. Proteomic analysis showed that USN caused damage in peptidoglycan synthesis, as confirmed by microscopy. Real-time PCR analysis showed that antibiofilm activity of USN is mainly due to impaired adhesion to the host matrix binding proteins, and decreasing lipase and thermonuclease expression. Our data show that USN exerts anti-staphylococcal effects through multitarget inhibitory effects, thus confirming the rationale for considering it 'lead compound' for the treatment of cystic fibrosis infections.

  13. Luminescent microporous metal–organic framework with functional Lewis basic sites on the pore surface: Quantifiable evaluation of luminescent sensing mechanisms towards Fe{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Technology Promotion Center of Nano Composite Material of Biomimetic Sensor and Detecting Technology, Preparation and Application, Anhui Provincial Laboratory West Anhui University, Anhui 237012 (China); Guo, Rui-Li; Zhang, Wen-Yan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Jiang, Chen [Technology Promotion Center of Nano Composite Material of Biomimetic Sensor and Detecting Technology, Preparation and Application, Anhui Provincial Laboratory West Anhui University, Anhui 237012 (China); Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2016-11-15

    A systematic study has been conducted on a novel luminescent metal-organic framework, ([Zn(bpyp)(L-OH)]·DMF·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), to explore its sensing mechanisms to Fe{sup 3+}. Structure analyses show that compound 1 exist pyridine N atoms and -OH groups on the pore surface for specific sensing of metal ions via Lewis acid-base interactions. On this consideration, the quenching mechanisms are studied and the processes are controlled by multiple mechanisms in which dynamic and static mechanisms are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process. This work not only achieves the quantitative evaluation of the luminescence quenching but also provides certain insights into the quenching process, and the possible mechanisms explored in this work may inspire future research and design of target luminescent metal-organic frameworks (LMOFs) with specific functions. - Graphical abstract: A systematic study has been conducted on a novel luminescent metal-organic framework to explore its sensing mechanisms to Fe{sup 3+}. The quenching mechanisms are studied and the processes are controlled by multiple mechanisms in which dynamic and static mechanisms are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process. - Highlights: • A novel porous luminescent MOF containing uncoordinated groups in interlayer channels was successfully synthesized. • The compound 1 can exhibit significant luminescent sensitivity to Fe{sup 3+}, which make its good candidate as luminescent sensor. • The corresponding dynamic and static quenching constants are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process.

  14. Evaluation of Microstructural and Mechanical Property of Medium-sized HT9 Cladding Forged Material for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Chan Bock

    2012-01-01

    Microstructural and mechanical property were evaluated at the medium-sized HT9 (12Cr-1MoWV) forged steel which was considered as primary candidate for the fuel cladding in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Material was forged at 1170 degrees C after the induction melting to make round bar as 160 mm diameter, 7000 mm length then the radial distribution of microstructure as well as microhardness was evaluated. The results showed that overall microstructure exhibited as ferrite-martensite structure, where small amount (2-3%) of delta ferrite was formed throughout the specimen and maximum 15% of transformed ferrite was formed at the center, where it gradually decreased toward the radial direction. Sensitivity analysis of the cooling curve and Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram revealed that formation of transformed ferrite could be avoided when the diameter was decreased down to 120 mm.

  15. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  16. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnavi, S; Saravanan, U; Arthi, N; Bhuvaneshwar, G S; Kumary, T V; Rajan, S; Verma, R S

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44 + , αSMA + , Vimentin + and CD105 - human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of mechanical precision and alignment uncertainties for an integrated CT/LINAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence; Rosen, Isaac; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2003-01-01

    A new integrated CT/LINAC combination, in which the CT scanner is inside the radiation therapy treatment room and the same patient couch is used for CT scanning and treatment (after a 180-degree couch rotation), should allow for accurate correction of interfractional setup errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sources of uncertainties, and to measure the overall precision of this system. The following sources of uncertainty were identified: (1) the patient couch position on the LINAC side after a rotation, (2) the patient couch position on the CT side after a rotation, (3) the patient couch position as indicated by its digital readout, (4) the difference in couch sag between the CT and LINAC positions, (5) the precision of the CT coordinates, (6) the identification of fiducial markers from CT images, (7) the alignment of contours with structures in the CT images, and (8) the alignment with setup lasers. The largest single uncertainties (one standard deviation or 1 SD) were found in couch position on the CT side after a rotation (0.5 mm in the RL direction) and the alignment of contours with the CT images (0.4 mm in the SI direction). All other sources of uncertainty are less than 0.3 mm (1 SD). The overall precision of two setup protocols was investigated in a controlled phantom study. A protocol that relies heavily on the mechanical integrity of the system, and assumes a fixed relationship between the LINAC isocenter and the CT images, gave a predicted precision (1 SD) of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.6 mm in the SI, RL and AP directions, respectively. The second protocol reduces reliance on the mechanical precision of the total system, particularly the patient couch, by using radio-opaque fiducial markers to transfer the isocenter information from the LINAC side to the CT images. This protocol gave a slightly improved predicted precision of 0.5, 0.4, and 0.4 mm in the SI, RL and AP directions, respectively. The distribution of phantom position after CT

  18. The physio-mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. Atuanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a systematic approach to evaluate the physio-mechanical properties of bean pod ash particles (BPAp reinforced recycled polyethylene (RLDPE polymer based composites. The bean pod ash particles of 75 μm with a weight percentage of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 (wt% and recycled polyethylene (RLDPE were prepared. The surface morphology, physical and the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The results showed that the fair distribution of the bean pod ash particles in the microstructure of the polymer composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The bean pod ash particles added to the RLDPE polymer increased the percentage of water absorption and improved its rigidity, modulus and hardness values of the composites. The tensile and flexural strengths increased to a maximum of 20.1 and 39.0 N/mm2 at 20 wt% BPAp respectively. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that the composites can be used in the production of indoor and outdoor applications.

  19. Investigation research on the evaluation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical phenomena. 3. Result Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ito, Takaya; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Shiozaki, Isao

    2004-02-01

    In order to realize a coupling analysis in the near field of the geological disposal system, the coupling analysis code 'COUPLYS (Coupling analysis system)' on the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) phenomena by THAMES, Dtransu and phreeqc, which are existing analysis code, is developed in this study. And some case analyses on THMC phenomena are carried out by this code. (1) Some supporting modules, which include the transfer of dissolution concentration and total concentration (dissolution + precipitation concentration), were prepared as a functional expansion. And in order to add on the function of treat de-gases and gases diffusion, accumulation and dilution phenomena, the mass transport analysis code was modified. (2) We have modified reactive transport module to treat ionic exchange, surface reaction and kinetic reaction in the each barrier. (3) We have prepared hydraulic conductivity module of buffer material depending on change of dry density due to chemical equilibrium (dissolution and precipitation of minerals), degradation of buffer material such as Ca-type bentonite and change of concentration of NaCl solutions. After THAMES, Dtransu, phreeqc and the hydraulic conductivity module were installed in COUPLYS (Coupling Analysis), verification study was carried out to check basic function. And we have modified COUPLYS to control coupling process. (4) In order to confirm the applicability of the developed THMC analysis code (existing analysis code and COUPLYS), we have carried out case analyses on 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional model which are including vitrified waste, over-pack, buffer material and rock in the HLW near-field. (author)

  20. Reference values and evaluation of the results of intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, H.; Deron, S.; Kuhn, E.

    1981-01-01

    The need of a reference value for the composition of materials distributed in intercomparisons is generally recognized. A single reference laboratory or a group of reference laboratories may be used to establish this reference value. The respective advantages and limitations of the two approaches are discussed. The reference measurements must be evaluated to provide the confidence limits of the reference value but also an estimate of the possible heterogeneity of the materials and its samples. The results of the intercomparison measurements should themselves be evaluated to test and discuss the significance of the biases of individual and selected groups of laboratories or techniques. The approach taken by the Analytical Quality Control Services of the International Atomic Energy Agency is illustrated by the SR-1 intercomparison on uranium assay in UO 2 powder

  1. Statistical mechanics of solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.

    1980-01-01

    The status of statistical mechanics theory (classical and quantum, statics and dynamics) is reviewed for 1-D soliton or solitary-wave-bearing systems. Primary attention is given to (i) perspective for existing results with evaluation and representative literature guide; (ii) motivation and status report for remaining problems; (iii) discussion of connections with other 1-D topics

  2. The therapeutic evaluation and mechanism on treating bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the level of bronchial responsiveness, which proved a better curative effect of Chinese medicine. The mechanism is probably due to relieving the airway inflammation by keeping the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells. Keywords: Ziyinqingre prescription; cough; bronchial hyper-responsiveness; therapeutic mechanism ...

  3. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Health Physics. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Health Physics in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment and at related departments in other Establishments of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of six specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from October 2000 to January 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on October 10, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Health Physics. (author)

  4. MCPIP1 deficiency in mice results in severe anemia related to autoimmune mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    Full Text Available Autoimmune gastritis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the stomach associated with pernicious anemia. The previous work from us and other groups identified MCPIP1 as an essential factor controlling inflammation and immune homeostasis. MCPIP1(-/- developed severe anemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain unclear. In the present study, we found that MCPIP1 deficiency in mice resulted in severe anemia related to autoimmune mechanisms. Although MCPIP1 deficiency did not affect erythropoiesis per se, the erythropoiesis in MCPIP1(-/- bone marrow erythroblasts was significantly attenuated due to iron and vitamin B12 (VB12 deficiency, which was mainly resulted from autoimmunity-associated gastritis and parietal cell loss. Consistently, exogenous supplement of iron and VB12 greatly improved the anemia phenotype of MCPIP1(-/- mice. Finally, we have evidence suggesting that autoimmune hemolysis may also contribute to anemia phenotype of MCPIP1(-/- mice. Taken together, our study suggests that MCPIP1 deficiency in mice leads to the development of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia. Thus, MCPIP1(-/- mice may be a good mouse model for investigating the pathogenesis of pernicious anemia and testing the efficacy of some potential drugs for treatment of this disease.

  5. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in radiotherapy: radiobiological mechanisms, preclinical and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a fastly developing field in preclinical and clinical cancer research. This review presents the current status of knowledge and discusses radiobiological mechanisms which may underly the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors combined with irradiation. Materials and methods: Preclinical and clinical results on combined targeting of the EGFR and irradiation from the literature and from this laboratory are reviewed. Focus is given to the radiobiological rationale of this approach and to endpoints of experimental radiotherapy. Results: Overexpression of the EGFR is associated with decreased local tumour control after radiotherapy, especially when the overall treatment time is long. Inhibition of the EGFR either alone or in combination with irradiation decreases the growth rate of tumours expressing this receptor. Preclinical data provide proof-of-principle that local tumour control may be improved by combining irradiation with C225 mAb. In a randomised phase III clinical trial, simultaneous irradiation and treatment with the EGFR antibody Cetuximab (Erbitux[reg]; C225) in head and neck cancer patients resulted in significantly improved locoregional tumour control and survival compared to curative irradiation alone. Acute skin reactions increased in the experimental arm. The underlying mechanisms of enhanced radiation effects of combined EGFR inhibition with irradiation and of the partly conflicting results in different studies are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence, that important intertumoral heterogeneity in the response to EGFR inhibition alone and combined with irradiation exists, which appears to be at least partly dependent on specific mutations of the receptor as well as of molecules that are involved in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Conclusions and outlook: Further investigations at all levels of the translational research chain exploring the mechanisms of

  6. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  7. A Novel Method of Mechanical Oxidation of CNT for Polymer Nanocomposite Application: Evaluation of Mechanical, Dynamic Mechanical, and Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach of oxidation of carbon nanotubes has been used to oxidize the CNTs. A comparative aspect of the mechanical oxidation and acid oxidation process has been established. FTIR analysis and titration method have shown the higher feasibility of the mechanical oxidation method to oxidize the CNTs. Comparatively less damage to the CNTs has been observed in case of mechanically oxidized as compared to acid oxidized CNTs. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites reinforced with the acid oxidized CNT (ACNT and mechanically oxidized CNTs (McCNT were analyzed and relatively higher properties in the nanocomposites reinforced with McCNT were noticed. The less degree of entanglement in the McCNTs was noticed as compared to ACNTs. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the nanocomposites revealed much improved load transfer capability in the McCNT reinforced composites. Further, the rheological properties of the nanocomposites revealed the higher performance of McCNT reinforced composites.

  8. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  9. Comparison of WIMS results using libraries based on new evaluated data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ganesan, S.; Zidi, T.

    1996-01-01

    A number of selected benchmark experiments have been modelled with the WIMS-D/4 lattice code. Calculations were performed using multigroup libraries generated from a number of newly released evaluated data files. Data processing was done with the NJOY91.38 code. Since the data processing methods were the same in all cases, the results may serve to determine the impact on integral parameters due to differences in the basic data. The calculated integral parameters were also compared to the measured values. Observed differences were small, which means that there are no essential differences between the evaluated data libraries. The results of the analysis cannot serve to discriminate in terms of quality of the data between the evaluated data libraries considered. For the test cases considered the results with the new, unadjusted libraries are at least as good as those obtained with the old, adjusted WIMS library which is supplied with the code. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs

  10. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF A DRIVING MECHANISM CALLED SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ILINCIOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It evaluates the maximum static and dynamic stresses produced in the elements of a quadrilateral mechanism transporting a vehicle in the storage in an urban park. Determine multiplier shock hazard if the mechanism freezes and increases mechanical stress.

  12. Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of a Static Balancing Technique for a New Horizontally Mounted 3-UPU Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banitalebi Dehkordi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and experimental evaluation of the gravity compensation of a horizontal 3-UPU parallel mechanism. The conventional Newton-Euler method for static analysis and balancing of mechanisms works for serial robots; however, it can become computationally expensive when applied to the analysis of parallel manipulators. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper we propose an approach, based on a Lagrangian method, that is more efficient in terms of computation time. The derivation of the gravity compensation model is based on the analytical computation of the total potential energy of the system at each position of the end-effector. In order to satisfy the gravity compensation condition, the total potential energy of the system should remain constant for all of the manipulator's configurations. Analytical and mechanical gravity compensation is taken into account, and the set of conditions and the system of springs are defined. Finally, employing a virtual reality environment, some experiments are carried out and the reliability and feasibility of the proposed model are evaluated in the presence and absence of the elastic components.

  13. Comparative Evaluations and Microstructure: Mechanical Property Relations of Sintered Silicon Carbide Consolidated by Various Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, Prasenjit; Chatterjee, Arya; Majumdar, Bhaskar; Saha, Bhaskar Prasad; Mitra, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    A comparative evaluation between pressureless or self-sintered silicon carbide (SSiC), hot-pressed silicon carbide (HP-SiC), and spark plasma-sintered silicon carbide (SPS-SiC) has been carried out with emphasis on examination of their microstructures and mechanical properties. The effect of sample dimensions on density and properties of SPS-SiC has been also examined. Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness measured by indentation or testing of single-edge notched beam specimens have been found to follow the following trend, HP-SiC > SSiC > SPS-SiC. The SPS-SiC samples have shown size-dependent densification and mechanical properties, with the smaller sample exhibiting superior properties. The mechanical properties of sintered SiC samples appear to be influenced by relative density, grain size, and morphology, as well as the existence of intergranular glassy phase. Studies of fracture surface morphologies have revealed the mechanism of failure to be transgranular in SSiC or HP-SiC, and intergranular in case of SPS-SiC, indicating the dominating influence of grain size and α-SiC formation with high aspect ratio.

  14. Evaluation of concrete mechanical strength through porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing on voids or pores in any material - if the rest of characteristics remains equal -always causes a decrease in their mechanical strength since the ratio volume/resistant mass is lower Following all these fact a well known conclusion rises: there is a relationship between compacity/porosity and mechanical strengths. The purpose of this research is to establish a new possible correlation between both concrete properties with independence of the proportions, type of cement, size of grain, age, use. etc. So it can be concluded that the results of this research allow the engineer or architect in charge of a restoration or reparation to determine the compression strength of a concrete element. A first step is to determine the porosity through a rather short number of tests. Subsequently, compression strength will be obtained applying just a mathematical formula.

    El aumento de huecos o poros de cualquier material, lo mismo que en otras circunstancias, redunda siempre en una merma de sus resistencias mecánicas, al haber menor volumen-masa resistente. En consecuencia, puede deducirse, que hay una relación entre la compacidad/porosidad y las resistencias mecánicas. En el presente trabajo se estudia una posible correlación entre ambas propiedades del hormigón con independencia de su dosificación, tipo de cemento, granulometría, edad, uso, etc. Las conclusiones obtenidas en la presente investigación permiten al técnico, encargado de una restauración o rehabilitación, determinar la resistencia a compresión de un elemento de hormigón, una vez hallada, de una forma sencilla, la porosidad de una muestra no muy voluminosa, mediante la aplicación de una simple fórmula matemática.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of Pine cone fibers reinforced compatibilized polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrakhiz, F.Z.; El Achaby, M.; Benmoussa, K.; Bouhfid, R.; Essassi, E.M.; Qaiss, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pine cone fibers are used as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix. ► Pine cone fiber was alkali treated to remove waxes and non cellulosic component. ► Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a SEBS-g-MA as a compatibilizer. -- Abstract: Pine cone fibers are a cellulosic material readily available and can be used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic-based composite. A solid knowledge of their fibrillar morphology and structure is required to evaluate their usefulness as a substitute to other abundant natural fibers. Pine cone fibers were alkali treated prior usage to remove waxes and non cellulosic surface component. Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by both a styrene–(ethylene–butene)–styrene triblock copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) and a linear block copolymer based on styrene and butadiene compatibilizer. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile and torsional tests were employed for Pine cone polypropylene composite and compatibilized composite at different fiber content. Results show a clear improvement in mechanical properties from the use of both alkali treated Pine cone and Pine cone compatibilized with maleic anhydride, a gain of 43% and 49% respectively in the Young’s modulus, as a results of improved adhesion between fibers and matrix at the interface.

  16. [Results evaluation in cervical vertigo kinesitherapy--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielińska, Marzena; Olszewski, Jurek

    2009-09-01

    The work aimed at analyzing results of kinesitherapeutic procedures in patients with cervical vertigo as well as evaluating a mobility range of the cervical spine. The study was conducted on 23 people, including 17 women and 6 men suffering from cervical vertigo, at the age of 23-73 (the average age of 49.5). All the patients had an individually selected cycle of kinesitherapeutic exercises through the period of 2 months. The objective efficiency evaluation of the applied therapy was made on the grounds of the videonystagmographic examination (VNG). Additionally, the range of active mobility of the cervical spine was analyzed and the evaluation of vertigo according to Silvoniemi's criteria was performed. After a 2-month therapy 4 patients (17.4%) out of the examined material showed a total lack of vertigo, 15 patients (65.2%) demonstrated a meaningful decrease in the vertigo intensity, also in the frequency of their occurrence in 14 cases (60.8%). Only 3 patients did not show any decrease in vertigo whereas in 1 patient a slight increase in the intensity was indicated. On the basis of a subjective evaluation of the vertigo increase according to the 5-stage Silvoniemi's scale it was proved that a mean point assessment claimed by the patients at the beginning of the therapy amounts to 3.0 points whereas after the therapy it was as follows: 1.43 pt after 2 weeks, 1.17 pt after 1 month and 1.13 pt after 2 months of kinesitherapy. It is extremely difficult to fully eliminate the symptoms of cervical vertigo (in the studied material in 4 cases--17.3%) because the causes of their occurrence, which are connected with excessive tension and degeneration in the cervical spine, cannot usually be eradicated. Additionally, as a diagnostic means, the videonystagmographic examination (VNG) accompanied by the positioning tests and the cervical rotation test facilitates precise and objective monitoring of the progress in treatment and rehabilitation of vertigo.

  17. Conclusions regarding fracture mechanics testing and evaluation of small specimens - As evidenced by the finnish contribution to the IAEA CRP3 programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K; Valo, M; Rintamaa, R; Torronen, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ahlstrand, R [Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), Helsinki (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    An extensive mechanical property evaluation has been carried out on various specimens (a Japanese steel plate (JRQ), a French forging material (FFA) and a Japanese forging material (JFL)) in the as-received and irradiated conditions. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy-V notch and instrumented pre-cracked Charpy data and static and dynamic elastic-plastic fracture toughness based on the J-integral, with various specimen size and geometry. Test analysis lead to conclusions regarding the use of small specimen fracture mechanical tests for investigating irradiation effects: CVN{sub pc} and RCT type specimens are suitable for determining the materials fracture toughness even in the ductile/brittle transition region provided the elastic-plastic parameter K{sub JC} is applied together with a statistical size correction. These two specimen types yield equivalent results for the fracture toughness transition shift. Charpy-V appears not to be suitable for estimating the static fracture toughness transition shift. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Study on Mechanism Experiments and Evaluation Methods for Water Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of water eutrophication involves the interaction of external factors, nutrients, microorganisms, and other factors. It is complex and has not yet been effectively studied. To examine the formation process of water eutrophication, a set of orthogonal experiments with three factors and four levels is designed to analyze the key factors. At the same time, with the help of a large amount of monitoring data, the principal component analysis method is used to extract the main components of water eutrophication and determine the effective evaluation indicators of eutrophication. Finally, the Bayesian theory of uncertainty is applied to the evaluation of the eutrophication process to evaluate the sample data. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the research method.

  19. Measurements of entanglement over a kilometric distance to test superluminal models of Quantum Mechanics: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.; Faetti, S.; Fronzoni, L.

    2017-08-01

    As shown in the EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky e Rosen, 1935), Quantum Mechanics is a non-local Theory. The Bell theorem and the successive experiments ruled out the possibility of explaining quantum correlations using only local hidden variables models. Some authors suggested that quantum correlations could be due to superluminal communications that propagate isotropically with velocity vt > c in a preferred reference frame. For finite values of vt and in some special cases, Quantum Mechanics and superluminal models lead to different predictions. So far, no deviations from the predictions of Quantum Mechanics have been detected and only lower bounds for the superluminal velocities vt have been established. Here we describe a new experiment that increases the maximum detectable superluminal velocities and we give some preliminary results.

  20. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Aluminum-Copper cold sprayed and alloy 625 wire arc sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashirzadeh, Milad

    This study examines microstructural-based mechanical properties of Al-Cu composite deposited by cold spraying and wire arc sprayed nickel-based alloy 625 coating using numerical modeling and experimental techniques. The microhardness and elastic modulus of samples were determined using the Knoop hardness technique. Hardness in both transverse and longitudinal directions on the sample cross-sections has been measured. An image-based finite element simulation algorithm was employed to determine the mechanical properties through an inverse analysis. In addition mechanical tests including, tensile, bending, and nano-indentation tests were performed on alloy 625 wire arc sprayed samples. Overall, results from the experimental tests are in relatively good agreement for deposited Al-Cu composites and alloy 625 coating. However, results obtained from numerical simulation are significantly higher in value than experimentally obtained results. Examination and comparison of the results are strong indications of the influence of microstructure characteristics on the mechanical properties of thermally spray deposited coatings.

  1. Evaluation methodology based on physical security assessment results: a utility theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1978-03-01

    This report describes an evaluation methodology which aggregates physical security assessment results for nuclear facilities into an overall measure of adequacy. This methodology utilizes utility theory and conforms to a hierarchical structure developed by the NRC. Implementation of the methodology is illustrated by several examples. Recommendations for improvements in the evaluation process are given

  2. Community dialogues for child health: results from a qualitative process evaluation in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandrine; Leitão, Jordana; Muhangi, Denis; Nuwa, Anthony; Magul, Dieterio; Counihan, Helen

    2017-06-05

    Across the developing world, countries are increasingly adopting the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM) strategy in efforts to reduce child mortality. This intervention's effectiveness is dependent on community adoption and changes in care-seeking practices. We assessed the implementation process of a theory-driven community dialogue (CD) intervention specifically designed to strengthen the support and uptake of the newly introduced iCCM services and related behaviours in three African countries. A qualitative process evaluation methodology was chosen and used secondary project data and primary data collected in two districts of each of the three countries, in purposefully sampled communities. The final data set included 67 focus group discussions and 57 key informant interviews, totalling 642 respondents, including caregivers, CD facilitators community leaders, and trainers. Thematic analysis of the data followed the 'Framework Approach' utilising both a deduction and induction process. Results show that CDs contribute to triggering community uptake of and support for iCCM services through filling health information gaps and building cooperation within communities. We found it to be an effective approach for addressing social norms around child care practices. This approach was embraced by communities for its flexibility and value in planning individual and collective change. Regular CDs can contribute to the formation of new habits, particularly in relation to seeking timely care in case of child sickness. This study also confirms the value of process evaluation to unwrap the mechanisms of community mobilisation approaches in context and provides key insights for improving the CD approach.

  3. Mechanical Devices Readiness FY04.0402.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Thomas R.

    2008-10-10

    This Advanced Design and Production Technologies (ADAPT) project funded production process and tooling improvements to meet and sustain rate production for the program mechanism assemblies. Techniques were developed to allow evaluation and rework of sealed mechanisms that will result in prevention of the scrapping of future mechanisms. Future system mechanisms will likely be smaller with tighter tolerance parts that will require improved inspection equipment and techniques. During the latter phase of this project, the ISL (Intent Stronglink) PRT (Product Realization Team) developed designs and manufacturing processes at Sandia and at multiple KCP (Kansas City Plant) vendors, to produce glass ceramic headers to replace the brazed ceramic headers in the ISL. This achievement will result in significant production costs savings (unit cost and product scrap due to leaking headers).

  4. Using an Engaged Scholarship Symposium to Change Perceptions: Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Sapna; Smirnova, Olga; Gallien, Tara Lee

    2018-01-01

    Engaged scholarship (ES) entails a symbiotic relationship between the community and the university. This article reports results from an evaluation of an ES symposium Eastern Carolina University held to increase awareness of ES as a means for integrating research, teaching, and service and to potentially change unfavorable perceptions about ES…

  5. Classical to quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism crossover in thermal transitions between magnetic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Sergei; Bessarab, Pavel F; Uzdin, Valery M; Jónsson, Hannes

    2016-12-22

    Transitions between states of a magnetic system can occur by jumps over an energy barrier or by quantum mechanical tunneling through the energy barrier. The rate of such transitions is an important consideration when the stability of magnetic states is assessed for example for nanoscale candidates for data storage devices. The shift in transition mechanism from jumps to tunneling as the temperature is lowered is analyzed and a general expression derived for the crossover temperature. The jump rate is evaluated using a harmonic approximation to transition state theory. First, the minimum energy path for the transition is found with the geodesic nudged elastic band method. The activation energy for the jumps is obtained from the maximum along the path, a saddle point on the energy surface, and the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix at that point as well as at the initial state minimum used to estimate the entropic pre-exponential factor. The crossover temperature for quantum mechanical tunneling is evaluated from the second derivatives of the energy with respect to orientation of the spin vector at the saddle point. The resulting expression is applied to test problems where analytical results have previously been derived, namely uniaxial and biaxial spin systems with two-fold anisotropy. The effect of adding four-fold anisotropy on the crossover temperature is demonstrated. Calculations of the jump rate and crossover temperature for tunneling are also made for a molecular magnet containing an Mn 4 group. The results are in excellent agreement with previously reported experimental measurements on this system.

  6. Mechanical and Physicochemical Evaluation of Alkaleri Fireclay for Refractory Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Ajala Amkpa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical, chemical and physical property of Alkaleri fireclay was investigated for its appropriateness for refractory application. The chemical composition was performed and analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometer Bench top XRF analyzer technique. Chemical property result indicated that the clay contained 67.4 % silica (SiO2, 30.06 % aluminum (Al2O3, and other impurities. The clay was subjected to mechanical activation through sintering process at varied sintering temperatures of 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. At the best sintering temperature of 1200 °C, the cold crushing strength (CCS was 17.82 MPa, in the physical properties; apparent porosity was 22.8 %, bulk density was 1.8 g/cm3, and firing shrinkage was 8.9 %. The Alkaleri clay belongs to alumino-silicate fireclay group and therefore, suitable materials for refractory application of ladle, kiln dryer, boilers, cook stoves, furnace lining and bricks.

  7. Fabrication and mechanical evaluation of hydroxyapatite/oxide nano-composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled R; Beherei, Hanan H; El Bassyouni, Gehan T; El Mahallawy, Nahed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study, the semiconducting metal oxides such as nano-ZnO and SiO2 powders were prepared via sol-gel technique and conducted on nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) which was synthesized by chemical precipitation. The properties of fabricated nano-structured composites containing different ratios of HA, ZnO and SiO2 were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. The effect of the variation of ratios between the three components on mechanical, microstructure and in-vitro properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing these properties. The results proved that the mechanical properties exhibited an increment with increasing the ZnO content at the extent of HA. In-vitro study proved the formation and nucleation of apatite onto the surface of the fabricated composites after one week of immersion. It is concluded that HA composites containing SiO2 or SiO2/ZnO content had a suitable mechanical properties and ability to form apatite particles onto the composite surface. Based on bioactivity behavior, Si-HA is more bioactive than pure hydroxyapatite and nano-arrangements will provide an interface for better bone formation. Therefore, these nano-composites will be promising as bone substitutes especially in load bearing sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  9. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/ v1,v3 , PO 4 3- and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  10. Results of a Research Evaluating Quality of Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhorec, Ján; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an international research on a comparative assessment of the current status of computer science education at the secondary level (ISCED 3A) in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Belgium. Evaluation was carried out based on 14 specific factors gauging the students' point of view. The authors present qualitative…

  11. Fabrication and mechanical evaluation of hydroxyapatite/oxide nano-composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: Kh_rezk1966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre, El-Behoos St., Cairo (Egypt); Beherei, Hanan H. [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre, El-Behoos St., Cairo (Egypt); Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, El-Taif University (Saudi Arabia); El Bassyouni, Gehan T. [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre, El-Behoos St., Cairo (Egypt); Medical Physics Dept., Faculty of Medicine, El-Taif University (Saudi Arabia); El Mahallawy, Nahed [Design and Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University on secondment to the German University in Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-10-15

    In the current study, the semiconducting metal oxides such as nano-ZnO and SiO{sub 2} powders were prepared via sol–gel technique and conducted on nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) which was synthesized by chemical precipitation. The properties of fabricated nano-structured composites containing different ratios of HA, ZnO and SiO{sub 2} were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. The effect of the variation of ratios between the three components on mechanical, microstructure and in-vitro properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing these properties. The results proved that the mechanical properties exhibited an increment with increasing the ZnO content at the extent of HA. In-vitro study proved the formation and nucleation of apatite onto the surface of the fabricated composites after one week of immersion. It is concluded that HA composites containing SiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2}/ZnO content had a suitable mechanical properties and ability to form apatite particles onto the composite surface. Based on bioactivity behavior, Si-HA is more bioactive than pure hydroxyapatite and nano-arrangements will provide an interface for better bone formation. Therefore, these nano-composites will be promising as bone substitutes especially in load bearing sites. - Graphical abstract: Nano-structures of (a) HA, (b) ZnO and (c) SiO{sub 2} powders. Highlights: • The nano-structured composites containing different ratios of HA, ZnO and SiO{sub 2} were prepared. • ZnO helps improve the mechanical properties of HA composites. • SiO{sub 2} helps improve the bioactivity of HA composites.

  12. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of Reactor Safety Research, Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Department of Environmental Safety Research and Department of Safety Research Technical Support in Tokai Research Establishment at JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of 11 specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to February 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 11, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. (author)

  13. 75 FR 32484 - Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...] Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and Interpretation... public meeting: Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and... cytogenetic tests. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on June 30, 2010, from 1:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Location...

  14. Microstructure evaluation and mechanical behavior of high-niobium containing titanium aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Glenn Estep, Jr.

    Ti-Al-Nb-based alloys with gamma(TiAl)+sigma(Nb2Al) microstructure have shown promise for potential high temperature applications due to their high specific strength. Recent research has been aimed towards increasing strength and operating temperatures through microstructural refinement and control. Alloys with 10 - 30% sigma-phase have been investigated, exploring relationships between chemistry, microstructure development, and flow behavior. Alloys with composition Ti-45Al-xNb-5Cr-1Mo (where x = 15, 20, 25 at%) have been produced, characterized, and tested at high temperature under compression. Processing, microstructure and mechanical property relationships are thoroughly investigated to reveal a significant connection between phase stability, morphology and their resultant effects on mechanical properties. Phase transformation temperatures and stability ranges were predicted using the ThermoCalc software program and a titanium aluminide database, investigated through thermal analysis, and alloys were heat treated to develop an ultrafine gamma+sigma microstructure. It has been demonstrated that microstructural development in these alloys is sensitive to composition and processing parameters, and heating and cooling rates are vital to the modification of gamma+sigma microstructure in these alloys. Towards the goal of designing a high-Nb titanium aluminide with ultrafine, disconnected gamma+sigma morphology, it has been established that microstructural control can be accomplished in alloys containing 15-25at% Nb through targeted chemistry and processing controls. The strength and flow softening characteristics show strain rate sensitivity that is also affected by temperature. From the standpoint of microstructure development and mechanical behavior at elevated temperature, the most favorable results are obtained with the 20 at% Nb alloy, which produces a combination of high strength and fine disconnected gamma+sigma microstructure. Microstructural analysis reveals

  15. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Circulation Disorder in Scleroderma Patients Using an Optical Sensor with a Pressurization Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Yamakoshi

    Full Text Available Blood circulation function of peripheral blood vessels in skin dermis was evaluated employing an optical sensor with a pressurization mechanism using the blood outflow and reflow characteristics. The device contains a light source and an optical sensor. When applied to the skin surface, it first exerts the primary pressure (higher than the systolic blood pressure, causing an outflow of blood from the dermal peripheral blood vessels. After two heartbeats, the pressure is lowered (secondary pressure and blood reflows into the peripheral blood vessels. Hemoglobin concentration, which changes during blood outflow and reflow, is derived from the received light intensity using the Beer-Lambert law. This method was evaluated in 26 healthy female volunteers and 26 female scleroderma patients. In order to evaluate the blood circulation function of the peripheral blood vessels of scleroderma patients, pressurization sequence which consists of primary pressure followed by secondary pressure was adopted. Blood reflow during the first heartbeat period after applying the secondary pressure of 40mmHg was (mean±SD 0.059±0.05%mm for scleroderma patients and 0.173±0.104%mm for healthy volunteers. Blood reflow was significantly lower in scleroderma patients than in healthy volunteers (p<0.05. This result indicates that the information necessary for assessing blood circulation disorder of peripheral blood vessels in scleroderma patients is objectively obtained by the proposed method.

  16. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of a Ni2MnGa Alloy Through Micro Indentation Under Magneto-Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanţă, Viorel; Ciocanel, Constantin

    2017-12-01

    propagated cracks, and appropriate equations (introduced in the paper), and the fracture toughness was evaluated as a function of the magneto-mechanical loading experienced by the material. The influence of the magneto-mechanical loading on the growth of already nucleated cracks has also been evaluated.

  17. Evaluation of fracture toughness and mechanical properties of ternary thiol-ene-methacrylate systems as resin matrix for dental restorative composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Saeed; Yeganeh, Hamid; Atai, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Study and evaluation of fracture toughness, flexural and dynamic mechanical properties, and crosslink density of ternary thiol-ene-methacrylate systems and comparison with corresponding conventional methacrylate system were considered in the present study. Urethane tetra allyl ether monomer (UTAE) was synthesized as ene monomer. Different formulations were prepared based on combination of UTAE, BisGMA/TEGDMA and a tetrathiol monomer (PETMP). The photocuring reaction was conducted under visible light using BD/CQ combination as photoinitiator system. Mechanical properties were evaluated via measuring flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to study the morphology of the fractured specimen's cross section. Viscoelastic properties of the samples were also determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The same study was performed on a conventional methacrylate system. The data were analyzed and compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (significance level=0.05). The results showed improvement in fracture toughness of the specimens containing thiol-ene moieties. DMTA revealed a lower glass transition temperature and more homogenous structure for thiol-ene containing specimens in comparison to the system containing merely methacrylate monomer. The flexural modulus and flexural strength of the specimens with higher thiol-ene content were lower than the neat methacrylate system. The SEM micrographs of the fractured surface of specimens with higher methacrylate content were smooth and mirror-like (shiny) which represent brittle fracture. The thiol-ene-methacrylate system can be used as resin matrix of dental composites with enhanced fracture toughness in comparison to the methacrylate analogous. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A fracture mechanics method of evaluating structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects following LOCA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of knowledge of structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects, is related to safety and operational requirements in assessing the adequacy and flawless functioing of the nuclear power systems. Followig a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition the integrity of the reactor vessel due to a sudden thermal shock induced by actuation of emergency core cooling system (ECCS), must be maintained to ensure safe and orderly shutdown of the reactor and its components. The paper encompasses criteria underlaying a fracture mechanics method of analysis to evaluate structural integrity of a typical 950 MWe PWR vessel as a result of very drastic changes in thermal and mechanical stress levels in the reactor vessel wall. The main object of this investigation therefore consists in assessing the capability of a PWR vessel to withstand the most critical thermal shock without inpairing its ability to conserve vital coolant owing to probable crack propagation. (Auth.)

  19. Establishment of Experimental Apparatus and Mechanical Test for SFR Metallic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, Chong Tak; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Woo, Yoon Myung; Lee, Chan Bock

    2010-12-01

    U-Zr binary alloys and U-Zr-Ce ternary alloys as SFR surrogate metallic fuels were fabricated by a casting process. Tensile tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the fuels. As a results, the mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were measured. In this report, these experimental results are presented

  20. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective

  1. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of Reactor Safety Research, Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Department of Environmental Safety Research and Department of Safety Research Technical Support in Tokai Research Establishment at JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of 11 specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to February 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 11, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. (author)

  2. Reduced left ventricular filling following blood volume extraction does not result in compensatory augmentation of cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rachel; MacLeod, David; George, Keith; Oxborough, David; Shave, Rob; Stembridge, Mike

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? A reduction in left ventricular (LV) filling, and concomitant increase in heart rate, augments LV mechanics to maintain stroke volume (SV); however, the impact of reduced LV filling in isolation on SV and LV mechanics is currently unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? An isolated decrease in LV filling did not provoke a compensatory increase in mechanics to maintain SV; in contrast, LV mechanics and SV were reduced. These data indicate that when LV filling is reduced without changes in heart rate, LV mechanics do not compensate to maintain SV. An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate, whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without changes in heart rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (four female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end extraction after the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml). Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously by a pressure transducer attached to an indwelling radial artery catheter. Heart rate and total peripheral resistance were unchanged from baseline to end extraction, but systolic blood pressure was reduced (from 148 to 127 mmHg). From baseline to end extraction there were significant reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from 89 to 71 ml) and stroke volume (from 56 to 37 ml); however, there was no change in LV twist, basal or apical rotation. In contrast, LV longitudinal strain (from -20 to -17%) and basal circumferential strain (from -22 to -19%) were significantly reduced from

  3. Preparation and evaluation of reference materials for accountancy analysis. (2) Evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Mika; Abe, Katsuo; Kageyama, Tomio; Nakazawa, Hiroaki; Takamatsu, Mai; Kacchi, Tomokazu; Murakami, Toshiki; Ai, Hironobu

    2009-01-01

    Destructive analysis for accountancy at nuclear fuel facilities should attain international target values for measurement uncertainties in safeguarding nuclear materials (ITVs). Since measurement uncertainties of isotope dilution mass spectrometry depend on uncertainties of spikes (standard materials) used, utilizing highly reliable standard material is essential. The LSD spikes prepared under collaboration work with JAEA and JNFL has different Pu/U ratio and smaller nuclear material in a spike compared with the LSD spikes used a safeguard laboratories, and the value of Pu which separated and purified from MOX and used as raw material for one of the LSD spike prepared at JAEA were measured at JAEA. Uncertainties of the prepared LSD spikes and the measurement results of actual samples with these LSD spikes were evaluated based on ISO-GUM and compared with ITVs. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Accelerometer Mechanical Filters on Submerged Cylinders Near an Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yiannakopoulos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerometer, mounted to a structure near an explosion to measure elasto-plastic deformation, can be excited at its resonant frequency by impulsive stresses transmitted within the structure. This results in spurious high peak acceleration levels that can be much higher than acceleration levels from the explosion itself. The spurious signals also have higher frequencies than the underlying signal from the explosion and can be removed by a low pass filter. This report assesses the performance of four accelerometer and filter assemblies. The assessment involves measurements of the response of a mild steel cylinder to an underwater explosion, in which each assembly is mounted onto the interior surface of the cylinder. Three assemblies utilise a piezoresistive accelerometer in which isolation is provided mechanically. In the fourth assembly, a piezoelectric accelerometer, with a built-in filter, incorporates both mechanical and electronic filtering. This assembly is found to be more suitable because of its secure mounting arrangement, ease of use, robustness and noise free results.

  5. 2nd IAEA research coordination meeting on collection and evaluation of reference data for thermo-mechanical properties of fusion reactor plasma facing materials. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The proceedings and results of the 2nd IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Collection and Evaluation of Reference Data for Thermo-mechanical Properties of Fusion Reactor Plasma Facing Materials'' held on March 25, 26 and 27, 1996 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna are briefly described. This report includes a summary of presentations made by the meeting participants, the results of discussions amongst the participants regarding the status of data, publication of a multi-author review paper and recommendations regarding future work. (author). 1 tab

  6. Search Results | Page 40 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 391 - 400 of 8531 ... Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in Chile ... Developing and piloting business models to achieve impact at scale with mechanized forage processing in Tunisia. The North Africa ... Nutrition and food security in rural China: An assessment of school feeding system.

  7. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of insulation materials for HTS power devices at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Diaz, Mark Angelo [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting power devices including power cables in which high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes are utilized, a reliable electrical insulation should be achieved for its maximum performance. For an efficient design of HTS superconducting devices, a comparative evaluation of the mechanical and thermal propperties for various insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures is required. Especially, in the process of the property evaluation of the sheet-shaped insulation materials, anisotropy according to the machining direction should be considered because the mechanical and thermal properties are significantly influenced by the sample orientation. In this study, the cryogenic thermal and mechanical properties of various insulation material sheets such as PPLP, Cryoflex, Teflon, and Kapton were determined considering sample orientation. All samples tested at cryogenic temperature showed significantly higher tensile strength as compared with that of room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength at both temperature conditions significantly depended upon the sample orientation. The thermal properties of the insulation materials exhibited a slight difference among samples depending on the orientation: for the PPLP and Cryoflex, the CD orientation showed larger thermal contraction up to 77 K as compared to the MD one. MD samples in PPLP and Cryoflex showed a lower CTE and thermal contraction which made it more promising as an insulation material due to its comparable CTE with HTS CC tapes.

  8. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Computational Science and Engineering. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Computational Science and Engineering in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of seven specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 27, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Computational Science and Engineering. (author)

  10. Novel biochar-concrete composites: Manufacturing, characterization and evaluation of the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Ali; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2018-03-01

    In this study, biochar, a carbonaceous solid material produced from three different waste sources (poultry litter, rice husk and pulp and paper mill sludge) was utilized to replace cement content up to 1% of total volume and the effect of individual biochar mixed with cement on the mechanical properties of concrete was investigated through different characterization techniques. A total of 168 samples were prepared for mechanical testing of biochar added concrete composites. The results showed that pulp and paper mill sludge biochar at 0.1% replacement of total volume resulted in compressive strength close to the control specimen than the rest of the biochar added composites. However, rice husk biochar at 0.1% slightly improved the splitting tensile strength with pulp and papermill sludge biochar produced comparable values. Biochar significantly improved the flexural strength of concrete in which poultry litter and rice husk biochar at 0.1% produced optimum results with 20% increment than control specimens. Based on the findings, we conclude that biochar has the potential to improve the concrete properties while replacing the cement in minor fractions in conventional concrete applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of the mechanical characteristics of irradiated metals from the results of microhardness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, A.

    1999-01-01

    To predict the possibilities of using structural materials in nuclear and thermonuclear reactors, it is important to have data on changes of the mechanical characteristics and irradiation obtained from full-scale or simulation tests. Materials are irradiated in nuclear reactors with fast neutrons, the sources of high-energy neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV and the accelerators of charged particles. The restricted volumes for irradiation of these specimens in the systems and also the need to test large numbers of specimens under the same conditions make it necessary to reduce the size of irradiated specimens. To solve this problem, work is being carried out to develop various methods of testing miniature specimens, including tension extrusion of disc-shaped micro-specimens, microhardness, and the Charpy Method. In examination of the irradiation hardening of the materials, the main advantage of the microhardness method is that it makes it possible to examine small specimens. In single microhardness tests, only a small area of the irradiated specimens is examined. This makes it possible to increase the radiation dose and carry out subsequent tests of microhardness on the same specimens. The aim of this work was to determine the possibilities of using the microhardness measurement method for evaluating the mechanical characteristics of metallic materials. The comparison of the data, obtained in microhardness tests and in tensile loading specimens of 0Kh18N10Tsteel, irradiated with neutrons, shows the efficiency of the microhardness method as a tool for investigating the irradiation hardening of reactor materials

  12. Fiscal 1999 report on results. Development item, 'development of evaluation technique for biocompatibility and the like of porous materials'; 1999 nendo takozairyo no seitai tekigosei nado hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of establishing fundamental technologies for ceramic porous materials that are excellent for artificial bone for a living body, evaluation technologies were developed for mechanical properties and biocompatibility, with fiscal 1999 results compiled. Performed for the examination of the mechanical properties were flexural test, compression test, tensile test, shearing test, torsion test, fatigue test, etc., with an evaluation testing method studied assuming that ceramic porous materials were applicable to implanting members. In the evaluation of biocompatibility, five kinds of osteoblast-like cell lines were cultured on a plastic disk and a dense hydroxyapatite disk, with adhesion and proliferation of the cells compared. Since these osteoblast-like cell lines adhere and proliferate on the surface and in the pore of hydroxyapatite, evaluation of the biocompatibility such as cell affinity was found possible with this in vitro method. With the view of obtaining principles for designing new bioactive ceramics, a method was developed for evaluating apatite-forming abilities of metal oxide gels having different compositions and structures in simulated body fluid. (NEDO)

  13. Performance assessment of semiempirical molecular orbital methods in describing halogen bonding: quantum mechanical and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical-molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud A A

    2011-10-24

    The performance of semiempirical molecular-orbital methods--MNDO, MNDO-d, AM1, RM1, PM3 and PM6--in describing halogen bonding was evaluated, and the results were compared with molecular mechanical (MM) and quantum mechanical (QM) data. Three types of performance were assessed: (1) geometrical optimizations and binding energy calculations for 27 halogen-containing molecules complexed with various Lewis bases (Two of the tested methods, AM1 and RM1, gave results that agree with the QM data.); (2) charge distribution calculations for halobenzene molecules, determined by calculating the solvation free energies of the molecules relative to benzene in explicit and implicit generalized Born (GB) solvents (None of the methods gave results that agree with the experimental data.); and (3) appropriateness of the semiempirical methods in the hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) scheme, investigated by studying the molecular inhibition of CK2 protein by eight halobenzimidazole and -benzotriazole derivatives using hybrid QM/MM molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations with the inhibitor described at the QM level by the AM1 method and the rest of the system described at the MM level. The pure MM approach with inclusion of an extra point of positive charge on the halogen atom approach gave better results than the hybrid QM/MM approach involving the AM1 method. Also, in comparison with the pure MM-GBSA (generalized Born surface area) binding energies and experimental data, the calculated QM/MM-GBSA binding energies of the inhibitors were improved by replacing the G(GB,QM/MM) solvation term with the corresponding G(GB,MM) term.

  14. Development of a Small Punch Test Technique for an Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Choo, Yong-Sun; Hong, Kwon-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized specimens have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical properties of steels and plastics. Especially for a study on the irradiation effects in nuclear materials, the small specimen test techniques have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, it is essential that the test techniques be developed and verified to extract the mechanical properties information from small specimens. Among the test techniques using small specimens, the small punch (SP) test technique using small disc-sized specimen has been successfully used to estimate the tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength), DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature), fracture toughness and creep properties of metals irradiated in a reactor or a proton accelerator. In this paper, the existing SP test techniques are reviewed and summarized. In addition, the information on the development of the SP test procedure is obtained to evaluate the radiation effects on the mechanical properties of nuclear materials in a hot cell

  15. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the influence of manual and mechanical glide path on the surface of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in moderately curved root canals: An in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dishant; Bashetty, Kusum; Srirekha, A.; Archana, S.; Savitha, B.; Vijay, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual versus mechanical glide path (GP) on the surface changes of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments used during root canal therapy in a moderately curved root canal. Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy controls were selected for the study. Controls were divided randomly into four groups: Group 1: Manual GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 2: Manual GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments, Group 3: Mechanical GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 4: Mechanical GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments. After access opening, GP was prepared and rotary instruments were used according to manufacturer's instructions. All instruments were evaluated for defects under standard error mean before their use and after a single use. The scorings for the files were given at apical and middle third. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used. Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between any of the groups. Irrespective of the GP and rotary files used, more defects were present in the apical third when compared to middle third of the rotary instrument. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was no effect of manual or mechanical GP on surface defects of subsequent rotary file system used. PMID:27994317

  16. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  17. Prehospital randomised assessment of a mechanical compression device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Simon; Lall, Ranjit; Quinn, Tom; Deakin, Charles D; Cooke, Matthew W; Horton, Jessica; Lamb, Sarah E; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Woollard, Malcolm; Carson, Andy; Smyth, Mike; Wilson, Kate; Parcell, Garry; Rosser, Andrew; Whitfield, Richard; Williams, Amanda; Jones, Rebecca; Pocock, Helen; Brock, Nicola; Black, John Jm; Wright, John; Han, Kyee; Shaw, Gary; Blair, Laura; Marti, Joachim; Hulme, Claire; McCabe, Christopher; Nikolova, Silviya; Ferreira, Zenia; Perkins, Gavin D

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical chest compression devices may help to maintain high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little evidence exists for their effectiveness. We evaluated whether or not the introduction of Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assistance System-2 (LUCAS-2; Jolife AB, Lund, Sweden) mechanical CPR into front-line emergency response vehicles would improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Evaluation of the LUCAS-2 device as a routine ambulance service treatment for OHCA. Pragmatic, cluster randomised trial including adults with non-traumatic OHCA. Ambulance dispatch staff and those collecting the primary outcome were blind to treatment allocation. Blinding of the ambulance staff who delivered the interventions and reported initial response to treatment was not possible. We also conducted a health economic evaluation and a systematic review of all trials of out-of-hospital mechanical chest compression. Four UK ambulance services (West Midlands, North East England, Wales and South Central), comprising 91 urban and semiurban ambulance stations. Clusters were ambulance service vehicles, which were randomly assigned (approximately 1 : 2) to the LUCAS-2 device or manual CPR. Patients were included if they were in cardiac arrest in the out-of-hospital environment. Exclusions were patients with cardiac arrest as a result of trauma, with known or clinically apparent pregnancy, or aged CPR groups [193/2819, 6.8%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 1.15]. Survival with a CPC score of 1 or 2 may have been worse in the LUCAS-2 group (adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.99). No serious adverse events were noted. The systematic review found no evidence of a survival advantage if mechanical chest compression was used. The health economic analysis showed that LUCAS-2 was dominated by manual chest compression. There was substantial non-compliance in the LUCAS-2 arm. For 272 out of 1652 patients (16.5%), mechanical

  18. Computational structural mechanics for engine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The computational structural mechanics (CSM) program at Lewis encompasses: (1) fundamental aspects for formulating and solving structural mechanics problems, and (2) development of integrated software systems to computationally simulate the performance/durability/life of engine structures. It is structured to mainly supplement, complement, and whenever possible replace, costly experimental efforts which are unavoidable during engineering research and development programs. Specific objectives include: investigate unique advantages of parallel and multiprocesses for: reformulating/solving structural mechanics and formulating/solving multidisciplinary mechanics and develop integrated structural system computational simulators for: predicting structural performances, evaluating newly developed methods, and for identifying and prioritizing improved/missing methods needed. Herein the CSM program is summarized with emphasis on the Engine Structures Computational Simulator (ESCS). Typical results obtained using ESCS are described to illustrate its versatility.

  19. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2005. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2006-08-01

    Programme of Monitoring (Posiva 2003 b) was introduced to study Olkiluoto investigation are both during and following the excavation of underground test facility, ONKALO. Programme consists of four main headings: rock mechanics, hydrology and hydrogeology, geochemistry and other types of disturbance. Monitoring programme in year 2005 consist of three fields of research: microseismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling. This report presents Posiva's rock mechanical monitoring programme results from the year 2005. Report has been composed from annual reports of microseismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling by Sanna Riikonen. In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the year 2005. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The total duration of network failures has been about 8 hours. Altogether 2159 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -2.1to ML = 1.6 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of them are explosions. Three of the observed events are be classified as microearthquakes. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. The GPS based deformation studies has been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Twenty GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. The local velocity components are small but

  20. SEE - Sight Effectiveness Enhancement. Results of the automotive evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Hansen, K.D.; Cathala, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the SEE project two parallel evaluations have been conducted, an experimental trial of the automotive and another of the aeronautical application. The evaluations have measured the efficiency and HMI (human-machine interaction) characteristics of theSEE prototype. This report covers the automo......In the SEE project two parallel evaluations have been conducted, an experimental trial of the automotive and another of the aeronautical application. The evaluations have measured the efficiency and HMI (human-machine interaction) characteristics of theSEE prototype. This report covers...... the automotive part of the evaluation. The evaluation of the automotive application was carried out in computer simulated environments and followed the general objectives of the evaluation described in ‘Definition of theEvaluation Plan’ . The field experiment discussed, however, was given up due to lack...

  1. Sodium leak and combustion experiment-II report. Evaluation result of damage of mild steel liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoto, K.; Hirakawa, Y.; Kuroda, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-09-01

    Several material analyses on damage of the floor liner made of a mild steel which was in the test cell of the second sodium leak and combustion experiment (Test-2) performed in OEC/PNC on June 7 in 1996 were carried out to clarify the following issues. (1) Difference of the corrosion mechanism of Test-2 liner to that of the first sodium leak and combustion experiment (Test-1) liner. (2) The vital factor which can desides corrosion mechanism and damage location. The following analyses were accomplished. (1) Microstructure observation, (2) EPMA for cross-section of vicinity of corroded area, (3) X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the interface between corrosion product-liner (mild steel). The differences between the corrosion mechanism of Test-1 liner which is seemed to be the same that of `MONJU` liner and that of Test-2 liner is discussed based on the results of these material analyses. As the result, the Na-Fe double oxidization with mechanical/chemical removal of reaction product can be occurred on the Test-1 and `MONJU` liner. On the other hand, a hot-corrosion, that is the molten salt type corrosion is subject to be thinning of the Test-2 liner. All failures of Test-2 liner surround at the halfway up a convex. Considering the above corrosion mechanism, that fact leads that significant damage is occurred at the molten salt level. (author)

  2. [Total reverse shoulder replacement. Evaluation of the clinical results and complications in a series of 52 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Sánchez, L; Mesa-Mateo, A; Barrionuevo-Sánchez, F J; García-Benítez, B; Expósito-Triano, S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical results and analyse the complications of total reverse shoulder replacement performed in our centre over an 8 year period. A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients (52 shoulders), with a mean age of 70.15 years (range 51 to 84 years) between December 2004 and December 2012, who received a total reverse shoulder replacement, all performed by the same surgeon. The results have been evaluated according to clinical data, radiography study, a satisfaction scale, and the Constant scale, with a minimum follow-up of 16 months. Five of the cases (9.62%) had been intervened due to fractures of the proximal end of the humerus, 6 cases (11.53%) as surgical consequence of a prosthesis revision, 10 cases (19.23%) due to fracture sequelae, and 30 cases (59.62%) were patients with arthropathy due to a massive fracture of the rotator cuff. After a mean follow up of 35.78 months (range, 16-82), satisfactory clinical results were obtained in 80% of cases, with a mean preoperative Constant of 27.7 points, and reaching 67.1 points 12 months after the operation. On the visual analogue scale, 8.25 points were obtained before the surgery, which decreased to 2.25 points 12 months later. The complications rate was 15.38%, which were due to an intra-operative fracture (1.92%), deep infection (3.84%), instability (3.84%), and early mechanical loosening (3.84%). Scapular notching was observed in the radiographic study in 9 (17.3%) cases. After the results obtained, it could be said that total reverse shoulder replacement achieved encouraging results in the short term for the treatment of glenohumeral arthrosis and massive tears of the rotary cuff. On analysing our series, it can be seen that the complications rate is much higher when it is used to treat fracture sequelae in which there is a loss of proximal humerus bone stock. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical reliability evaluation of alternate motors for use in a radioiodine air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, S.K.; Huchton, R.L.; Motes, B.G.

    1984-03-01

    Detailed mechanical reliability studies of two alternate motors identified for use in the BNL Air Sampler wer conducted. The two motor types were obtained from Minnesota Electric Technology, Incorporated (MET) and TCS Industries (TCSI). Planned testing included evaluation of motor lifetimes and motor operability under different conditions of temperature, relative humidity, simulated rainfall, and dusty air. The TCSI motors were not lifetime tested due to their poor performance during the temperature/relative humidity tests. While operation on alternating current was satisfactory, on direct current only one of five TCSI motors completed all environmental testing. The MET motors had average lifetimes of 47 hours, 97 hours, and 188 hours, respectively, and exhibited satisfactory operation under all environmental test conditions. Therefore, the MET motor appears to be the better candidate motor for use in the BNL Air Sampler. However, because of the relatively high cost of purchasing and incorporating the MET motor into the BNL Air Sampler System, it is recommended that commercial air sampler systems be evaluated for use instead of the BNL system

  4. A Framework For Evaluating Comprehensive Fault Resilience Mechanisms In Numerical Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peng, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-09

    As HPC systems approach Exascale, their circuit feature will shrink, while their overall size will grow, all at a fixed power limit. These trends imply that soft faults in electronic circuits will become an increasingly significant problem for applications that run on these systems, causing them to occasionally crash or worse, silently return incorrect results. This is motivating extensive work on application resilience to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithm-specific error detection and resilience techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of (1) which vulnerable parts of the application are most worth protecting (2) the performance and resilience impact of fault resilience mechanisms on the application. This paper presents FaultTelescope, a tool that combines these two and generates actionable insights by presenting in an intuitive way application vulnerabilities and impact of fault resilience mechanisms on applications.

  5. Developing and Evaluating Animations for Teaching Quantum Mechanics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Douglass, Margaret; Edwards, Tom J.; Gillies, Alastair D.; Hooley, Christopher A.; Sinclair, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe animations and animated visualizations for introductory and intermediate-level quantum mechanics instruction developed at the University of St Andrews. The animations aim to help students build mental representations of quantum mechanics concepts. They focus on known areas of student difficulty and misconceptions by…

  6. Evaluation of five CAD/CAM materials by microstructural characterization and mechanical tests: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Nesrin; Gultekin, Pinar; Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2018-01-08

    Polymer infiltrated ceramics and nano-ceramic resins are the new restorative materials which have been developed in order to enhance the adverse properties of glass-matrix ceramics and resin composites. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the characteristics of various CAD/CAM materials through mechanical, microstructural, and SEM analysis. Five test groups (n = 22) were formed by using the indicated CAD/CAM blocks: VITA Enamic (VITA Zahnfabrik), Lava Ultimate (3 M ESPE), IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent), and VITA Mark II (VITA Zahnfabrik). Two specimens from each test group were used for XRD and EDS analysis. Remaining samples were divided into two subgroups (n = 10). One subgroup specimens were thermocycled (5 °C to 55 °C, 30s, 10,000 cycles) whereas the other were not. All of the specimens were evaluated in terms of flexural strength, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness. Results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD, and Student's t tests (α = .05). Fractured specimens were evaluated using SEM. The highest Vickers microhardness value was found for VITA Mark II (p CAD was found to have the highest flexural strength (p CAD was also higher than other tested block materials (p CAD groups. It should be realised that simulated aging process seem to affect ceramic-polymer composite materials more significantly than glass ceramics.

  7. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AGARWAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

  8. The sedative effects and mechanism of action of cedrol inhalation with behavioral pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Daiji; Jokura, Hiroko; Ochiai, Ryuji; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2003-07-01

    It has been reported that cedarwood oil has sedative effects when inhaled. In this study, we evaluated sedative effects of inhaled cedrol, which is a major component of cedarwood oil. Accumulative spontaneous motor activity was significantly decreased in the cedrol-exposed Wistar rats. Similar results were confirmed in caffeine-treated Wistar rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and ddY mice. In addition, exposure to cedrol prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in Wistar rats. To investigate whether cedrol, which has a very faint aroma, affects the olfactory system, the nasal cavities of Wistar rats were treated with zinc sulfate to reduce olfactory function. Two days later, the pentobarbital-induced sleep time was measured as described above. Compared to intact rats, the sleep prolongation effect was decreased in a lavender-roman chamomile mixed oil exposure positive control group, indicating that olfactory function was impaired. In contrast, prolongation of the sleeping time did not change in the cedrol exposure group. The above findings indicate that cedrol inhalation had marked sedative effects regardless of the animal species or the functional state of the autonomic nerves, suggesting that the mechanism of action is via a pathway other than the olfactory system.

  9. Evaluation of mechanical properties for spherical magnetic regenerator materials fabricated by rapid solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Sori, N.; Saito, A.

    1997-01-01

    Various magnetic regenerator materials, such as Er 3 Ni, Er 3 Co and ErNi, are fabricated in the form of a spherical particle by a rapid solidification process. 4 K level refrigeration has been obtained by a GM refrigerator using these materials. However, the magnetic regenerator materials are considered brittle, as they are intermetallic compounds. It is important to evaluate the mechanical properties of these materials to confirm reliability as a regenerator material. In this paper, experimental results of compression and vibration tests for magnetic regenerator materials are described. The technical point of this study is to use spherical particles as test samples. The compressive stress of 20 MPa was applied to these spherical particles and no fractured spheres were observed. Similarly, no fractured spheres were found after the vibration test, in which the maximum acceleration was 30 X 9.8 m/s 2 and the number of vibration times was 1 X 10 6 , insofar as there was no room to stir spherical particles in a regenerator. In practice, the reliability of magnetic regenerator materials has been confirmed by a long-run test of 7,000 h in a usual GM refrigerator

  10. Sensitivity-Based Modeling of Evaluating Surface Runoff and Sediment Load using Digital and Analog Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of runoff- sediment measurement and evaluation using automated and convectional runoff-meters was carried out at Meteorological and Hydrological Station of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi using two runoff plots (ABCDa and EFGHm of area 2m 2 each, depth 0.26 m and driven into the soil to the depth of 0.13m. Runoff depths and intensities were measured from each of the positioned runoff plot. Automated runoff-meter has a measuring accuracy of ±0.001l/±0.025 mm and rainfall depth-intensity was measured using tipping-bucket rainguage during the period of 14-month of experimentation. Minimum and maximum rainfall depths of 1.2 and 190.3 mm correspond to measured runoff depths (MRo of 0.0 mm for both measurement approaches and 60.4 mm and 48.9 mm respectively. Automated runoffmeter provides precise, accurate and instantaneous result over the convectional measurement of surface runoff. Runoff measuring accuracy for automated runoff-meter from the plot (ABCDa produces R 2 = 0.99; while R 2 = 0.96 for manual evaluation in plot (EFGHm. WEPP and SWAT models were used to simulate the obtained hydrological variables from the applied measurement mechanisms. The outputs of sensitivity simulation analysis indicate that data from automated measuring systems gives a better modelling index and such could be used for running robust runoff-sediment predictive modelling technique under different reservoir sedimentation and water management scenarios.

  11. Mechanical properties of fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1993-05-01

    Available data on mechanical characteristics of fracture zones are compiled and discussed. The aim is to improve the basis for adequate representation of fracture zones in geomechanical models. The sources of data researched are primarily borehole investigations and case studies in rock engineering, involving observations of fracture zones subjected to artificial load change. Boreholes only yield local information about the components of fracture zones, i.e. intact rock, fractures and various low-strength materials. Difficulties are therefore encountered in evaluating morphological and mechanical properties of fracture zones from borehole data. Although often thought of as macroscopically planar features, available field data consistently show that fracture zones are characterized by geometrical irregularities such as thickness variations, surface undulation and jogs. These irregularities prevail on all scales. As a result, fracture zones are on all scales characterized by large, in-plane variation of strength- and deformational properties. This has important mechanical consequences in terms of non-uniform stress transfer and complex mechanisms of shear deformation. Field evidence for these findings, in particular results from the underground research laboratory in Canada and from studies of induced fault slip in deep mines, is summarized and discussed. 79 refs

  12. Computational Bench Testing to Evaluate the Short-Term Mechanical Performance of a Polymeric Stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobel, A C; Petisco, S; Sarasua, J R; Wang, W; McHugh, P E

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant volume of research focussed on the utilization of biodegradable polymers such as poly-L-lactide-acid (PLLA) for applications associated with cardiovascular disease. More specifically, there has been an emphasis on upgrading current clinical shortfalls experienced with conventional bare metal stents and drug eluting stents. One such approach, the adaption of fully formed polymeric stents has led to a small number of products being commercialized. Unfortunately, these products are still in their market infancy, meaning there is a clear non-occurrence of long term data which can support their mechanical performance in vivo. Moreover, the load carry capacity and other mechanical properties essential to a fully optimized polymeric stent are difficult, timely and costly to establish. With the aim of compiling rapid and representative performance data for specific stent geometries, materials and designs, in addition to reducing experimental timeframes, Computational bench testing via finite element analysis (FEA) offers itself as a very powerful tool. On this basis, the research presented in this paper is concentrated on the finite element simulation of the mechanical performance of PLLA, which is a fully biodegradable polymer, in the stent application, using a non-linear viscous material model. Three physical stent geometries, typically used for fully polymeric stents, are selected, and a comparative study is performed in relation to their short-term mechanical performance, with the aid of experimental data. From the simulated output results, an informed understanding can be established in relation to radial strength, flexibility and longitudinal resistance, that can be compared with conventional permanent metal stent functionality, and the results show that it is indeed possible to generate a PLLA stent with comparable and sufficient mechanical performance. The paper also demonstrates the attractiveness of FEA as a tool

  13. Mechanisms underlying effects of approach-avoidance training on stimulus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Eder, Andreas B; Hughes, Sean

    2018-04-12

    Over the past decade an increasing number of studies across a range of domains have shown that the repeated performance of approach and avoidance (AA) actions in response to a stimulus leads to changes in the evaluation of that stimulus. The dominant (motivational-systems) account in this area claims that these effects are caused by a rewiring of mental associations between stimulus representations and AA systems that evolved to regulate distances to positive and negative stimuli. In contrast, two recently forwarded alternative accounts postulate that AA effects are caused by inferences about the valence of actions and stimuli (inferential account) or a transfer of valenced action codes to stimulus representations (common-coding account). Across four experiments we set out to test these three competing accounts against each other. Experiments 1-3 illustrate that changes in stimulus evaluations can occur when people perform valenced actions that bear no relation to a distance regulation, such as moving a manikin upward or downward. The observed evaluative effects were dependent on the evaluative implication of the instructed movement goal rather than whether the action implied a movement toward or away from the stimuli. These results could not be explained with a rewiring of associations to motivational systems. Experiment 4 showed that changes in stimulus evaluations occurred after participants passively observed approach-avoidance movements, supporting an explanation in terms of cognitive inferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Seismic fatigue life evaluation of mechanical structures using energy balance equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Seiji; Okamura, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic resistant performance for severe earthquakes is required, because of occurrence of earthquakes which exceed the design criteria. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of cumulative damage by earthquake is also required. In this study, the energy balance equation is applied to the evaluation. The energy balance equation expresses integral information of response, so that the energy balance equation is adequate for the evaluation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. At first, vibration experiment that leads experimental model to fatigue failure by continuous vibration disturbance is conducted. As a result of the experiment, relation between fatigue failure and energy balance equation is confirmed. Then the relation is proved from the viewpoint of hysteresis energy, and consistency between energy balance equation and hysteresis energy is confirmed. Finally, we adopted cumulative damage rule to energy balance equation in order to expect the fatigue life under random waves that have various input acceleration. (author)

  15. Exact solution for stresses/displacements in a multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, W.H.; Purbolaksono, J.; Aliabadi, M.H.; Ramesh, S.; Liew, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new analytical solution by the recursive method for evaluating stresses/displacements in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading was developed. The results for temperature distribution, displacements and stresses obtained by using the proposed solution were shown to be in good agreement with the FEM results. The proposed analytical solution was also found to produce more accurate results than those by the analytical solution reported in literature. - Highlights: • A new analytical solution for evaluating stresses in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading. • A simple computational procedure using a recursive method. • A promising technique for evaluating the operating axial and hoop stresses in pressurized composite vessels.

  16. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  17. Evaluating rehabilitation methods - some practical results from Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1987-01-01

    Research and analysis of the following aspects of rehabilitation have been conducted at the Rum Jungle mine site over the past three years: drainage structure stability; rock batter stability; soil fauna; tree growth in compacted soils; rehabilitation costs. The results show that, for future rehabilitation projects adopting refined methods, attention to final construction detail and biospheric influences is most important. The mine site offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the success of a variety of rehabilitation methods to the benefit of the industry in Australia overseas. It is intended that practical, economic, research will continue for some considerable time

  18. Influence of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fracture surfaces of the impact test samples were examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Micros structural evolution of the samples was also examined with an optical microscope. The results showed that all the evaluated mechanical properties were improved by intercritical annealing, with the ...

  19. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements - experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2006-01-01

    The HHF testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. The finally 890 divertor target elements are made of an actively water-cooled CuCrZr heat sink covered with flat tiles of CFC NB31 as plasma facing material. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. Due to the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion for CFC and CuCrZr - resulting in high residual stresses as well as high operation-induced stresses - the bonding zone between CFC and CuCrZr was detected to be the most critical issue for the operational behaviour of the target elements. To achieve a sufficiently high manufacturing quality together with a high lifetime during operation thermal testing of full scale mockups was performed in combination with extensive FEM analyses. In both cases heat loads were applied similar to the expected heat loads in W7-X. All pre-series elements were tested in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. The elements were tested with 100 cycles of 10 MW/m 2 and several elements with even higher cycle numbers and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . The instrumentation of the targets (thermocouples, strain gages) and the infrared camera observation of the heat loaded surface allow an experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the tested elements. The main result is a good agreement between experimental data and numerically computed predictions. Hot spots were, however, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems. Therefore, a programme of fully 3D nonlinear thermal-mechanical FEM calculations was started to evaluate the thermo-mechanical behavior of the target elements with special focus on the optimization of the stress situation in the bonding zone between the CFC and the CuCrZr heat sink. This

  20. Study of Finite Element Number Influence over the Obtained Results in Finite Element Analyses of a Mechanical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of a study that was made to establish the influence of finite element number used to determined the real load of a structure. Actually, the study represent a linear static analyze for a link gear control mechanism of a Kaplan turbine. The all analyze was made for the normal condition of functioning having like final scope to determine de life time duration of mentioned mechanism.

  1. Alloy design through mechanical equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Yu.; Ellis, F.V.; Huang, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of plastic equation of state and the experimental results which are used to support this approach are introduced. It is shown that considerable savings in mechanical testing are possible in using this approach to establish the constitutive relationships for plastic deformation for a material. Advantages in data correlation and data extrapolation are also described. Examples are given to suggest that the constitutive relationships for plastic deformation obtained may be used as a useful basis for correlating the effects of composition and microstructure changes on mechanical properties and therefore serve as a guide for alloy selection. The savings in mechanical testing suggest also that the approach of plastic equation of state may be adopted for evaluating and assessing the mechanical properties of candidate alloys

  2. Interdisciplinary seminar on nondestructive testing and fracture mechanics. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings volume contains 17 lectures presented at a DGZfP seminar held in Berlin/Germany, 2-3 November 1998. Fracture mechanics data are of interest with respect to determining maximum permissible limits for non-destructive materials evaluation, and as quantitative NDE test results indicating existing materials flaws in a system component, delivering information for assessement of remaining service life and safety risks. The topics of lectures are: Quality concepts for welded joints; NDE for service life assessment of engine components, shown for evaluation of engine pales and disks; NDE and crack detection at pressurized gas cylinders; fracture mechanics requirements for NDE in nuclear installations, discussion of practical examples (T. Seidenkranz); failure of off-shore constructions seen in the light of a novel fracture mechanics technical code. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Thermo-mechanical behavior of retro-reflector and resulting parallelism error of laser beams for Wendelstein 7-X interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, X.B.; Hirsch, M.; Köppen, M.; Fellinger, J.; Bykov, V.; Schauer, F.; Vliegenthart, W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The criterion for thermo-mechanical design of W7-X interferometer retro-reflector. • Thermo-mechanical analysis of retro-reflector with two different methods. • The most flexible part in the retro-reflector is spring washer. • Calculation of parallelism error between the incoming and reflected laser beams. • The parallelism error is much lower than the design limit 28 arcs. - Abstract: A 10 channels interferometer will be used in the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) for plasma density control and density profile tracking with laser beams passing through the plasma. Due to complex shape of non-planar modular coils and divertor structure, there are no large poloidally opposite ports on the plasma vessel (PV). Therefore 10 in-vessel Corner Cube Retro-reflectors (CCRs) will be used. The CCRs are integrated in the water cooled heat shield and exposed directly to thermal loads from plasma radiation. Thermo-mechanical issues are very important for the design of the CCR because deformation and flatness as well as mutual angles of the three reflecting surfaces would affect the parallelism of the laser beams and the functionality of the interferometer. Intensive work has been done to explore a suitable design for the CCR concerning thermo-mechanical behavior. Previous studies Ye et al. (2008, 2009) and Köppen et al. (2011) focused on structural optimization to decrease thermal stress in the reflecting plates under the thermal loads, and on computation and check of curvature radii of the deformed reflecting surfaces with the design criterion that the curvature radius must be bigger than 200 m. The paper presents detailed thermo-mechanical analysis of the current improved CCR under thermal loads and bolt preloads. The results of the thermo-mechanical analysis were used for the study of the resulting parallelism error of the laser beams with newly developed and more reasonable design criterion

  4. Thermo-mechanical behavior of retro-reflector and resulting parallelism error of laser beams for Wendelstein 7-X interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, X.B., E-mail: pengxb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei Anhui (China); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Hirsch, M.; Köppen, M.; Fellinger, J.; Bykov, V.; Schauer, F. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Vliegenthart, W. [TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, P.O. Box 2600, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The criterion for thermo-mechanical design of W7-X interferometer retro-reflector. • Thermo-mechanical analysis of retro-reflector with two different methods. • The most flexible part in the retro-reflector is spring washer. • Calculation of parallelism error between the incoming and reflected laser beams. • The parallelism error is much lower than the design limit 28 arcs. - Abstract: A 10 channels interferometer will be used in the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) for plasma density control and density profile tracking with laser beams passing through the plasma. Due to complex shape of non-planar modular coils and divertor structure, there are no large poloidally opposite ports on the plasma vessel (PV). Therefore 10 in-vessel Corner Cube Retro-reflectors (CCRs) will be used. The CCRs are integrated in the water cooled heat shield and exposed directly to thermal loads from plasma radiation. Thermo-mechanical issues are very important for the design of the CCR because deformation and flatness as well as mutual angles of the three reflecting surfaces would affect the parallelism of the laser beams and the functionality of the interferometer. Intensive work has been done to explore a suitable design for the CCR concerning thermo-mechanical behavior. Previous studies Ye et al. (2008, 2009) and Köppen et al. (2011) focused on structural optimization to decrease thermal stress in the reflecting plates under the thermal loads, and on computation and check of curvature radii of the deformed reflecting surfaces with the design criterion that the curvature radius must be bigger than 200 m. The paper presents detailed thermo-mechanical analysis of the current improved CCR under thermal loads and bolt preloads. The results of the thermo-mechanical analysis were used for the study of the resulting parallelism error of the laser beams with newly developed and more reasonable design criterion.

  5. Mechanism based evaluation of materials behavior and reference curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Saario, T.; Wallin, K.; Forsten, J.

    1984-01-01

    The safety assessment of nuclear pressure vessels and piping requires a quantitative estimation of defect growth by stable and unstable manner during service. This estimation is essential for determining whether the defect detected during inspection should be repaired or whether the size of the defect even after its expected growth is small enough to leave the integrity of the vessel unaffected. The most important stable defect growth mechanism is that of environmentally assisted cyclic crack growth. Recent results indicate that it is markedly affected by sulfur content and/or manganese sulfide morphology and distribution. This implies that an essential improvement in component safety has been gained by currently applied steelmaking practices, which result in extra low sulfur content, generally below 0.01 wt%, and in round shape and small size of inclusions, through, e.g., calcium treatment, hence considerably reducing the effect of environment on crack growth rate. This further implies that the ASME Section XI reference curves for environmentally accelerated cyclic crack growth are conservative for steels produced by current steelmaking practices. (orig./WL)

  6. An evaluation of short-term exposures of brake mechanics to asbestos during automotive and truck brake cleaning and machining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Richard O; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Williams, Pamela R D; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Historically, the greatest contributions to airborne asbestos concentrations during brake repair work were likely due to specific, short-duration, dust-generating activities. In this paper, the available short-term asbestos air sampling data for mechanics collected during the cleaning and machining of vehicle brakes are evaluated to determine their impact on both short-term and daily exposures. The high degree of variability and lack of transparency for most of the short-term samples limit their use in reconstructing past asbestos exposures for brake mechanics. However, the data are useful in evaluating how reducing short-term, dust-generating activities reduced long-term exposures, especially for auto brake mechanics. Using the short-term dose data for grinding brake linings from these same studies, in combination with existing time-weighted average (TWA) data collected in decades after grinding was commonplace in rebuilding brake shoes, an average 8-h TWA of approximately 0.10 f/cc was estimated for auto brake mechanics that performed arc grinding of linings during automobile brake repair (in the 1960s or earlier). In the 1970s and early 1980s, a decline in machining activities led to a decrease in the 8-h TWA to approximately 0.063 f/cc. Improved cleaning methods in the late 1980s further reduced the 8-h TWA for most brake mechanics to about 0.0021 f/cc. It is noteworthy that when compared with the original OSHA excursion level, only 15 of the more than 300 short-term concentrations for brake mechanics measured during the 1970s and 1980s possibly exceeded the standard. Considering exposure duration, none of the short-term exposures were above the current OSHA excursion level.

  7. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ESP Courses in Enhancing Technical Translation Proficiency: A Case Study of ESP Course for Mechanical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…

  8. Evaluation of in-vehicle HMI using occlusion techniques: experimental results and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Martin; Keinath, Andreas; Krems, Josef F; Bengler, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Despite the usefulness of new on-board information systems one has to be concerned about the potential distraction effects that they impose on the driver. Therefore, methods and procedures are necessary to assess the visual demand that is connected to the usage of an on-board system. The occlusion-method is considered a strong candidate as a procedure for evaluating display designs with regard to their visual demand. This paper reports results from two experimental studies conducted to further evaluate this method. In the first study, performance in using an in-car navigation system was measured under three conditions: static (parking lot), occlusion (shutter glasses), and driving. The results show that the occlusion-procedure can be used to simulate visual requirements of real traffic conditions. In a second study the occlusion method was compared to a global evaluation criterion based on the total task time. It can be demonstrated that the occlusion method can identify tasks which meet this criterion, but are yet irresolvable under driving conditions. It is concluded that the occlusion technique seems to be a reliable and valid method for evaluating visual and dialogue aspects of in-car information systems.

  9. Electro-mechanical characterization of structural supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T.; LaMaster, D.; Ciocanel, C.; Browder, C.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents electrical and mechanical properties of structural supercapacitors and discusses limitations associated with the approach taken for the electrical properties evaluation. The structural supercapacitors characterized in this work had the electrodes made of carbon fiber weave, separator made of several cellulose based products, and the solid electrolyte made as PEGDGE based polymer blend. The reported electrical properties include capacitance and leakage resistance; the former was measured using cyclic voltammetry. Mechanical properties have been evaluated thorough tensile and three point bending tests performed on structural supercapacitor coupons. The results indicate that the separator material plays an important role on the electrical as well as mechanical properties of the structural capacitor, and that Celgard 3501 used as separator leads to most benefits for both mechanical and electrical properties. Specific capacitance and leakage resistance as high as 1.4kF/m3 and 380kΩ, respectively, were achieved. Two types of solid polymer electrolytes were used in fabrication, with one leading to higher and more consistent leakage resistance values at the expense of a slight decrease in specific capacitance when compared to the other SPE formulation. The ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the developed power storage composite were evaluated at 466MPa and 18.9MPa, respectively. These values are 58% and 69% of the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity values measured for a single layer composite material made with the same type of carbon fiber and with a West System 105 epoxy instead of solid polymer electrolyte.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Nanofilled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elisabeta PELIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study concerning mechanical performance of thermoplastic nanocomposites based on isotactic polypropylene matrix, nanofilled with montmorillonite modified with quaternary ammonium salt and carboxyl functionalized carbon nanotubes, respectively, added in the same concentration relative to the matrix. The nanofilled and single polymer materials were obtained by simple melt compounding through extrusion process followed by injection molding into specific shape specimens for mechanical testing of the samples. Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and 3 point bending tests. In terms of modulus of elasticity, the results showed overall positive effects concerning the effect of nanofiller addition to the thermoplastic polymer. The fracture cross section of the tested specimens was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM microscopy.

  11. Evaluation of ESWL results by conventional and digital tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacks, E.M.; Hillman, B.J.; Fajardo, L.L.; Donovan, J.; Drach, G.; Mockbee, B.; Bjelland, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors are investigating patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to determine if more rigorous assessment of residual calculi by conventional (CR) and digital (DR) renal tomography provides a truer evaluation of the treatment's effectiveness. One hundred sequential patients are being imaged before and after ESWL by KUB, CR, and DR. Examinations are independently reviewed by three radiologists. Differences are elicited by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results in 35 patients show improved detection of calculi by tomography versus KUB, with greater differences noted in posttreatment studies when calculi are generally smaller. DR appears to be somewhat more effective than CR

  12. EVALUATION OF A “DRY” SYSTEM FOR THE SLAUGHTER OF POULTRY: MICROBIAL PROFILE OF CARCASSES - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soncini; S. Milesi; L. Valnegri; L. Vercellotti; M. Franzoni

    2008-01-01

    The “dry” system for the slaughter of poultry provides mechanical defeathering followed by waxing, without scalding. The microbical contamination of n. 60 poultry carcasses was evaluated in different phases of a “dry” slaughter process. Samples from the neck region after stun and from breast after defeathering and waxing were carried out by non-destructive methods, by swabbing (n. 30 carcasses) and by sponging (n. 30 carcasses). The collected samples were examined for ...

  13. Mechanical disturbances in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto

    1990-03-01

    The stress distribution in a small epoxy-impregnated Nb 3 Sn coil was calculated by the finite element method. Mechanical disturbances due to the electromagnetic force in the magnet are discussed. The coil stability in relation with the stress distribution is also discussed by using the experimental results. To evaluate such stresses, a calculation model was investigated. It was found that the model, which removed the internal bore element in the model magnet, gave a reasonable condition to estimate to stress. A quench mechanism due to mechanical disturbances in superconducting magnets is discussed. According to this mechanism, an internal slit was assumed as the reason for the mechanical disturbance. The internal slit is generated at the boundary between the superconductor and the bore element by the thermally induced stress. When charging a magnet, the induced electromagnetic force results in a stress concentration at the slit, and hence to an enlargement of it. During the enlargement of the internal slit, heat is generated at the top of it. Such heat generation from a mechanical disturbance can induce a quench. Through these investigations, the following coil manufacturing method can be proposed to reduce such stresses: the magnet should be manufactured to separate the bore element from the superconductor and this separation technique can reduce the boundary stress during cool-down. Actually, a thin teflon film at the boundary between the superconductor and the bore element can be used as a separator. Another separation technique is a teflon coating on the internal bore element. The separation technique should result in a stable epoxy-impregnated superconducting magnet. (J.P.N.)

  14. Towards a quantitative definition of mechanical units: New techniques and results from an outcropping deep water succession.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertotti, G.V.; Hardebol, N.; Taal-Van Koppen, J.; Luthi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The physical properties of reservoirs are strongly influenced by distributed fracture fields. Outcrop studies are commonly used to determine them but have provided unsatisfactory results because the definition of mechanical units, i.e., (groups of) layers displaying homogeneous fracture patterns, is

  15. Evaluation of structural and mechanical properties of electrospun nano-micro hybrid of poly hydroxybutyrate-chitosan/silk scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi, Saeed; Fekrat, Farnoosh; Semnani, Daryoush; Razavi, Shahnaz; Zargar, Elham Naghash

    2016-01-01

    One of the new methods of scaffold fabrication is a nano-micro hybrid structure in which the properties of the scaffold are improved by introducing nanometer and micrometer structures. This method could be suitable for scaffold designing if some features improve. In this study, electrospun nanofibers of 9% weight solution of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) and a 15% weight of chitosan by trifluoroacetic acid were coated on both the surface of a silk knitted substrate in the optimum condition to improve the mechanical properties of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering application. These hybrid nano-micro fibrous scaffolds were characterized by structural and mechanical evaluation methods. Scanning electron microscopy values and porosity analysis showed that average diameter of nanofibers was 584.94 nm in electrospinning part and general porosity was more than 80%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated the presence of all elements without pollution. The tensile test also stated that by electrospinning, as well as adding chitosan, both maximum strength and maximum elongation increased to 187 N and 10 mm. It means that the microfibrous part of scaffold could affect mechanical properties of nano part of the hybrid scaffold, significantly. It could be concluded that P3HB-chitosan/silk hybrid scaffolds can be a good candidate for cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. Fiscal 1999 report on results. Development item, 'development of evaluation technique for biocompatibility and the like of porous materials'; 1999 nendo takozairyo no seitai tekigosei nado hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of establishing fundamental technologies for ceramic porous materials that are excellent for artificial bone for a living body, evaluation technologies were developed for mechanical properties and biocompatibility, with fiscal 1999 results compiled. Performed for the examination of the mechanical properties were flexural test, compression test, tensile test, shearing test, torsion test, fatigue test, etc., with an evaluation testing method studied assuming that ceramic porous materials were applicable to implanting members. In the evaluation of biocompatibility, five kinds of osteoblast-like cell lines were cultured on a plastic disk and a dense hydroxyapatite disk, with adhesion and proliferation of the cells compared. Since these osteoblast-like cell lines adhere and proliferate on the surface and in the pore of hydroxyapatite, evaluation of the biocompatibility such as cell affinity was found possible with this in vitro method. With the view of obtaining principles for designing new bioactive ceramics, a method was developed for evaluating apatite-forming abilities of metal oxide gels having different compositions and structures in simulated body fluid. (NEDO)

  17. GRS Method for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation of Code Results and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years, an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis is to replace the conservative evaluation model calculations by best estimate calculations supplemented by uncertainty analysis of the code results. The evaluation of the margin to acceptance criteria, for example, the maximum fuel rod clad temperature, should be based on the upper limit of the calculated uncertainty range. Uncertainty analysis is needed if useful conclusions are to be obtained from best estimate thermal-hydraulic code calculations, otherwise single values of unknown accuracy would be presented for comparison with regulatory acceptance limits. Methods have been developed and presented to quantify the uncertainty of computer code results. The basic techniques proposed by GRS are presented together with applications to a large break loss of coolant accident on a reference reactor as well as on an experiment simulating containment behaviour

  18. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on High-Temperature Engineering and Research. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on High-Temperature Engineering and Research in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of HTTR Project and Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology in Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of nine specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to February 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advanced and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 8, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on High-Temperature Engineering and Research. (author)

  19. Compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm: preparation, evaluation, and mechanism of penetration enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuo; Liu, Shu-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Shi; Du, Mao-Bo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Song, Li-Hua; Ye, Zu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem-ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic.

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  1. Intraocular robotic interventional surgical system (IRISS): Mechanical design, evaluation, and master-slave manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason T; Gerber, Matthew J; Prince, Stephen W; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Schwartz, Steven D; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2018-02-01

    Since the advent of robotic-assisted surgery, the value of using robotic systems to assist in surgical procedures has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, existing technologies are unable to perform complete, multi-step procedures from start to finish. Many intraocular surgical steps continue to be manually performed. An intraocular robotic interventional surgical system (IRISS) capable of performing various intraocular surgical procedures was designed, fabricated, and evaluated. Methods were developed to evaluate the performance of the remote centers of motion (RCMs) using a stereo-camera setup and to assess the accuracy and precision of positioning the tool tip using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The IRISS can simultaneously manipulate multiple surgical instruments, change between mounted tools using an onboard tool-change mechanism, and visualize the otherwise invisible RCMs to facilitate alignment of the RCM to the surgical incision. The accuracy of positioning the tool tip was measured to be 0.205±0.003 mm. The IRISS was evaluated by trained surgeons in a remote surgical theatre using post-mortem pig eyes and shown to be effective in completing many key steps in a variety of intraocular surgical procedures as well as being capable of performing an entire cataract extraction from start to finish. The IRISS represents a necessary step towards fully automated intraocular surgery and demonstrated accurate and precise master-slave manipulation for cataract removal and-through visual feedback-retinal vein cannulation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hydrogel fibers for ACL prosthesis: design and mechanical evaluation of PVA and PVA/UHMWPE fiber constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jason S; Detrez, Fabrice; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Cantournet, Sabine; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2013-05-31

    Prosthetic devices for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been unsuccessful due to mechanical failure or chronic inflammation. Polymer hydrogels combine biocompatibility and unique low friction properties; however, their prior use for ligament reconstruction has been restricted to coatings due to insufficient tensile mechanics. Here, we investigate new constructs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel fibers. In water, these fibers swell to an equilibrium water content of 50% by weight, retaining a tensile modulus greater than 40 MPa along the fiber axis at low strain. Rope constructs were assembled for ACL replacement and mechanical properties were compared with data from the literature. Pure PVA hydrogel constructs closely reproduce the non-linear tensile stiffness of the native ACL with an ultimate strength of about 2000 N. An additional safety factor in tensile strength was achieved with composite braids by adding ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers around a core of PVA cords. Composition and braiding angle are adjusted to produce a non-linear tensile behavior within the range of the native ligament that can be predicted by a simple rope model. This design was found to sustain over one million cycles between 50 and 450 N with limited damage and less than 20% creep. The promising mechanical performances of these systems provide justification for more extensive in vivo evaluation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Audio segmentation of broadcast news in the Albayzin-2010 evaluation: overview, results, and discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butko Taras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, audio segmentation has attracted research interest because of its usefulness in several applications like audio indexing and retrieval, subtitling, monitoring of acoustic scenes, etc. Moreover, a previous audio segmentation stage may be useful to improve the robustness of speech technologies like automatic speech recognition and speaker diarization. In this article, we present the evaluation of broadcast news audio segmentation systems carried out in the context of the Albayzín-2010 evaluation campaign. That evaluation consisted of segmenting audio from the 3/24 Catalan TV channel into five acoustic classes: music, speech, speech over music, speech over noise, and the other. The evaluation results displayed the difficulty of this segmentation task. In this article, after presenting the database and metric, as well as the feature extraction methods and segmentation techniques used by the submitted systems, the experimental results are analyzed and compared, with the aim of gaining an insight into the proposed solutions, and looking for directions which are promising.

  4. Perception and psychological evaluation for visual and auditory environment based on the correlation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    In this dissertation, the correlation mechanism in modeling the process in the visual perception is introduced. It has been well described that the correlation mechanism is effective for describing subjective attributes in auditory perception. The main result is that it is possible to apply the correlation mechanism to the process in temporal vision and spatial vision, as well as in audition. (1) The psychophysical experiment was performed on subjective flicker rates for complex waveforms. A remarkable result is that the phenomenon of missing fundamental is found in temporal vision as analogous to the auditory pitch perception. This implies the existence of correlation mechanism in visual system. (2) For spatial vision, the autocorrelation analysis provides useful measures for describing three primary perceptual properties of visual texture: contrast, coarseness, and regularity. Another experiment showed that the degree of regularity is a salient cue for texture preference judgment. (3) In addition, the autocorrelation function (ACF) and inter-aural cross-correlation function (IACF) were applied for analysis of the temporal and spatial properties of environmental noise. It was confirmed that the acoustical properties of aircraft noise and traffic noise are well described. These analyses provided useful parameters extracted from the ACF and IACF in assessing the subjective annoyance for noise. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Junko Atagi, 6813 Mosonou, Saijo-cho, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0024, Japan. E-mail address: atagi\\@urban.ne.jp.

  5. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Medical Applications of Polycaprolactone Small Diameter Artificial Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnazsadat Mirbagheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the cardiovascular diseases and decreasing the possibility of autograft surgery are important factors that cause the choice of artificial vascular graft as an alternative treatment method. In this regard, producing artificial grafts similar to natural vessels is an important purpose that has long been followed as a gold standard by many researchers worldwide. In addition, mechanical properties including strength, long patency, bio-compatibility and hydrophobicity are necessary properties to achieve ideal vascular grafts. Hence there are various factors such as polymer type and preparation methods, which contribute to suitable mechanical properties. The electrospinning as an optimized method on one side and biocompatible, degradable and semicrystalline polycaprolactone (PCL on the other side are used for their acceptable mechanical properties to manufacture synthetic vessels. In this study, PCL vascular grafts have been reviewed and a wide range of parameters affecting the improvement of mechanical properties and their performance have been described along with clinical applications. Therefore, by investigating and comparing single and composite PCL vascular grafts, we achieved acceptable results in the field of cell growth and adhesion as well as implanting grafts in animals such as rat and rabbit. By reviewing other studies, it was revealed that synthetic composite vessels made of PCL and natural polymers such as collagen and chitosan and synthetic polymers such as polyurethane (PU for long patency and acceptable cell adhesion have shown good clinical results.

  6. Rhenium Mechanical Properties and Joining Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Biaglow, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) provides thermal margin for high performance and long life radiation cooled rockets. Two issues that have arisen in the development of flight Ir/Re engines are the sparsity of rhenium (Re) mechanical property data (particularly at high temperatures) required for engineering design, and the inability to directly electron beam weld Re chambers to C103 nozzle skirts. To address these issues, a Re mechanical property database is being established and techniques for creating Re/C103 transition joints are being investigated. This paper discusses the tensile testing results of powder metallurgy Re samples at temperatures from 1370 to 2090 C. Also discussed is the evaluation of Re/C103 transition pieces joined by both, explosive and diffusion bonding. Finally, the evaluation of full size Re transition pieces, joined by inertia welding, as well as explosive and diffusion bonding, is detailed.

  7. The Cost Effectiveness of the U.S. Export Enhancement Program Bonus Allocation Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Humei Wang; Richard J. Sexton

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Export Enhancement Program is evaluated from the perspective of the cost effectiveness of its bonus allocation mechanism. The current mechanism resembles a discriminatory-price, common-value auction. However, auction theory suggests that a discriminatory auction may not be optimal in this setting for several reasons. This article evaluates the current format relative to an alternative, uniform-price auction. Estimation results reveal evidence of strategic bidder behavior under the cu...

  8. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, Gustavo V; Atienza, José M; Rojo, Francisco J; Yiqun, Li; Claes, Els; Elices, Manuel; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Goicolea, José M; García-Montero, Carlos; Burgos, Raúl L; Goicolea, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  9. Development of System for Evaluating Concrete Strength Deterioration Due to Radiation and Resultant Heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I.; Kontani, O.; Ishizawa, A.; Takizawa, M.; Sato, O.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the soundness of concrete exposed to irradiation has been studied within the framework of a project of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) 'Japan Ageing Management Program for System Safety'. This contribution presents the background to the existing evaluation processes, a review of the irradiation exposure effect on concrete and needs for irradiation testing. Based on results of this study, working assumptions for the development of an evaluation system are derived, and an overall picture of a numerical model as well as a framework for evaluating concrete soundness under irradiated conditions are proposed. (author)

  10. Mechanical strength evaluation of the glass base material in the JRR-3 neutron guide tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    The lifetime of the thermal neutron guide tube installed JRR-3 was investigated after 6 years from their first installation. And it was confirmed that a crack had been piercing into the glass base material of the side plate of the neutron guide tube. The cause of the crack was estimated as a static fatigue of the guide tube where an inside of the tube had been evacuated and stressed as well as an embrittlement of the glass base material by gamma ray irradiation. In this report, we evaluate the mechanical strength of the glass base material and estimate the time when the base material gets fatigue fracture. Furthermore, we evaluate a lifetime of the neutron guide tube and confirm the validity of update timing in 2000 and 2001 when the thermal neutron guide tubes T1 and T2 were exchanged into those using the super mirror. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the results from partial arthroplasty for treating shoulder osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim at statistically evaluating the results of the surgical treatment of the osteoarthrosis of the shoulder (OAS with partial shoulder arthroplasty (PSA and at correlating them with the several variables involved. METHODS: In this study we evaluated 36 shoulders of 31 patients with OAS who underwent treatment with PSA in the Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo (Group of Shoulders and Elbows of the Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo - Pavillion Fernandinho Simonsen between January, 1989 and November, 2010. Patients who underwent PSA and who had a post-operative follow-up of at least 12 months were included in the study. RESULTS: After the surgery the range of elevation, external rotation, internal rotation and the UCLA scale improved (with average differences of 35º, 27º, 4ºand 17 points, respectively, with a significant level of 5% (p < 0.05. For the same level of significance, the relation between a satisfactory UCLA and two variables was found: patients with maximum age of 60 years old at the moment of the surgery and patients that underwent tenotomy of the long head of biceps. CONCLUSION: Patients under 60 who underwent surgery and patients who underwent tenotomy of the long head of biceps achieved better results.

  12. The effects of a driving mechanism on Oslo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Gui-Jun; Pan, Yong-Cai

    2010-01-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic Oslo models (IOM and AOM) under a bulk driving mechanism have been investigated. We apply the moment analysis to evaluate critical exponents and the finite size scaling method to consistently test the obtained results. We find that both types of Oslo model have different critical behaviour. However, the critical exponents are the same for deterministic and random IOMs, and are independent of the strength of the anisotropy for the AOM. In contrast to a boundary driving mechanism, we find that the critical exponents depend crucially on the driving mechanism for the IOM, and are independent of the driving mechanism for the AOM.

  13. UN Women’s experience with strengthening evaluation systems in Africa: Enhancing quantity, quality and use of evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Merkle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the adoption of the Women Evaluation Policy in 2012, a series of systems and mechanisms were introduced in the organisation to strengthen the evaluation function at both central and decentralised levels. They were based on a systemic approach and a Theory of Change for building an enabling environment for evaluation in UN Women. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to analyse progress made and challenges with respect to establishing evaluation systems and institutionalising an evaluation culture in the UN Women Africa region. Method: The article draws on UN Women evaluation performance data collected over the past five years, discussions and practical experience by the author of working on evaluation with UN Women since 2009. It also analyses UN Women documents and the broader literature on the topic. Results: The findings illustrate that the different mechanisms to strengthen the evaluation function in UN Women show progress in the Africa region on four out of the five selected evaluation performance indicators. The Theory of Change to strengthen the UN Women evaluation function is largely validated by the wider literature on evaluation use. External assessments confirm that the UN Women evaluation function is sound overall. Conclusion: The article concludes that evaluation performance indicators only provide a partial snapshot of the many different factors that help or undermine evaluative thinking and a learning culture within an organisation. Institutional systems and mechanisms are necessary but not sufficient for nurturing an evaluation culture and ensuring utilisation of evaluation for better development effectiveness.

  14. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; van Zadelhoff, E.; van Loo, G.; Widdershoven, G.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. Research questions: How did

  15. "Gear mechanism" of bariatric interventions revealed by untargeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samczuk, Paulina; Luba, Magdalena; Godzien, Joanna; Mastrangelo, Annalaura; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Barbas, Coral; Gorska, Maria; Kretowski, Adam; Ciborowski, Michal

    2018-03-20

    Mechanisms responsible for metabolic gains after bariatric surgery are not entirely clear. The purpose of this study was evaluation of metabolic changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in semi-annual follow up. The study participants were selected from obese patients with T2DM who underwent one of the mentioned bariatric procedures. Serum metabolic fingerprinting by use of liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was performed on samples obtained from studied patients before, one, and six months post-surgery. Performed analyses resulted in 49 significant and identified metabolites. Comparison of the two described procedures has allowed to detect metabolites linked with numerous pathways, processes and diseases. Based on the metabolites detected and pathways affected, we propose a "gear mechanism" showing molecular changes evoked by both bariatric procedures. Critical evaluation of clinical data and obtained metabolomics results enables us to conclude that both procedures are very similar in terms of general clinical outcome, but they strongly differ from each other in molecular mechanisms leading to the final effect. For the first time general metabolic effect of bariatric procedures is described. New hypotheses concerning molecular mechanisms induced by bariatric surgeries and new gut microbiota modulations are presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards General Evaluation of Intelligent Systems: Lessons Learned from Reproducing AIQ Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadinský, Ondřej

    2018-03-01

    This paper attempts to replicate the results of evaluating several artificial agents using the Algorithmic Intelligence Quotient test originally reported by Legg and Veness. Three experiments were conducted: One using default settings, one in which the action space was varied and one in which the observation space was varied. While the performance of freq, Q0, Qλ, and HLQλ corresponded well with the original results, the resulting values differed, when using MC-AIXI. Varying the observation space seems to have no qualitative impact on the results as reported, while (contrary to the original results) varying the action space seems to have some impact. An analysis of the impact of modifying parameters of MC-AIXI on its performance in the default settings was carried out with the help of data mining techniques used to identifying highly performing configurations. Overall, the Algorithmic Intelligence Quotient test seems to be reliable, however as a general artificial intelligence evaluation method it has several limits. The test is dependent on the chosen reference machine and also sensitive to changes to its settings. It brings out some differences among agents, however, since they are limited in size, the test setting may not yet be sufficiently complex. A demanding parameter sweep is needed to thoroughly evaluate configurable agents that, together with the test format, further highlights computational requirements of an agent. These and other issues are discussed in the paper along with proposals suggesting how to alleviate them. An implementation of some of the proposals is also demonstrated.

  17. Exact results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: Formalism and applications in chemical kinetics and single-molecule free energy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    In the last two decades or so, a collection of results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics that departs from the traditional near-equilibrium framework introduced by Lars Onsager in 1931 has been derived, yielding new fundamental insights into far-from-equilibrium processes in general. Apart from offering a more quantitative statement of the second law of thermodynamics, some of these results---typified by the so-called "Jarzynski equality"---have also offered novel means of estimating equilibrium quantities from nonequilibrium processes, such as free energy differences from single-molecule "pulling" experiments. This thesis contributes to such efforts by offering three novel results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: (a) The entropic analog of the Jarzynski equality; (b) A methodology for estimating free energies from "clamp-and-release" nonequilibrium processes; and (c) A directly measurable symmetry relation in chemical kinetics similar to (but more general than) chemical detailed balance. These results share in common the feature of remaining valid outside Onsager's near-equilibrium regime, and bear direct applicability in protein folding kinetics as well as in single-molecule free energy estimation.

  18. Evaluation of the thermal-mechanical performance of fuel rods of a BWR during a power ramp using the FUELSIM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja C, R.

    2010-01-01

    , and the other one from 10 x 10 fuel assembly design, and a comparison of the thermal-mechanical performance between the two different rod designs is performed. Results about diverse parameters related to BWR thermal limits are presented, as maximum temperatures in the center of the fuel and results of cladding axial deformation. The performance simulations were performed by the code FUELSIM. The benefit that can be obtained from the thermal-mechanical analysis in relation to safety and economy, among others, is to design and optimize fuel rods, as well as to perform independent evaluations of the information provided by different fuel vendors. (Author)

  19. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Design and evaluation The project will provide helpful guidance to IDRC management and ... scaling and programming for scalable research Offer the monograph in multiple forms, ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Nebulized N-Acetylcysteine on Respiratory Secretions in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoom Masoompour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of our study was to evaluate an inexpensive and available method to reduce mucous impactions in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 40 mechanically ventilated patients aged 15-90 years. The patients were randomly allocated into two arms; 20 cases and 20 controls. The cases received N-acetylcysteine via their nebulizers, and the control group received normal saline three times a day for one day. We measured the density of respiratory secretion, plateau and peak airway pressures, and O2 saturation at baseline, 12 and 24 hours later. Results: Although the mean secretion density was significantly lower in the NAC group (F (1, 38=8.61, P=0.006, but a repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction determined that the effect of NAC on mean secretion density did not differ significantly between time points (F (1, 38=3.08, P=0.087. NAC increased O2 saturation significantly between time points (F (1.92, 73.1=4.6, P=0.014. The plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.95, 37.1=0.67, P=0.513. The peak airway pressure did not change significantly during the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.52, 56.4=0.91, P=0.384. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, nebulized NAC in mechanically ventilated patients was not effective more than normal saline nebulization in reducing the density of mucous plugs. The peak and plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in both groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201104276312N1.

  1. Evaluation of major polluting accidents in China-Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yu; Zhang Tianzhu

    2009-01-01

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state-of-the-art requirements in pollution accident prevention. To improve this input in the People's Republic of China in a systematic way, a database for collecting and evaluating major pollution accidents is being established. This is being done in co-operation with Chinese Society for Environment Sciences and other national Institutions. At the time of writing over 80 major events from 2002-2006 have been collected. In this paper, a summary evaluation on the major polluting events in China from 2002 to 2006 is presented and some basic lessons drawn shown. There is no a systematic pollution accident notification system currently in China. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of emergency measures, maintenance, human factor issues and the role of safety organization. Chronic pollution, especially water pollution and air pollution should be paid the same attention as the sudden pollution. It is important to keep in mind that collecting information from major accidents represents a small percentage of the actual number of events taking place.

  2. Comparison between optical coherence tomography technique and mechanical compression assay to evaluate ionizing radiation effects in frozen and lyophilized bone Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: spsantin@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara, E-mail: augustosantos@terra.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HCFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia

    2013-07-01

    Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10{sup -6}, as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations

  3. Comparison between optical coherence tomography technique and mechanical compression assay to evaluate ionizing radiation effects in frozen and lyophilized bone Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B.; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara

    2013-01-01

    Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10 -6 , as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations in

  4. Mechanical evaluation of linear friction welds in titanium alloys through indentation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzo, M.; Casals, O.; Alcala, J.; Mateo, A.; Anglada, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article shows the results of a project that focuses on the characterization of the weld interface region of dissimilar joints between titanium alloys for aeronautical applications, specifically Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo. The uniaxial flow stress and hardening response of the material containing the weld were analyzed following the finite elements simulations and mathematical formulations to correlate hardness and the amount of pile-up and sinking-in phenomena around sharp indenters with uniaxial mechanical properties. This allows to accurately stablishing the influence that welding process has on the mechanical response of the parts. Tests performed on these friction-welded specimens showed that the fine grained microstructures in the welds exhibited better properties than the base materials. (Author) 12 refs

  5. Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

    2005-08-01

    Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

  6. Evaluating the mechanical performance of Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO as a sustainable rehabilitation strategy in urban pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sol-Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO has been introduced as an alternative to traditional thick overlays, seal coats, and micro-surfacings. Nonetheless, there are some challenges that still remain regarding the application of VTAOs (such as mixture type, cohesiveness, wear resistance, cracking and durability, particularly in heavy traffic urban areas. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive comparative evaluation of the mechanical performance, durability and safety issues (cohesiveness, adhesiveness, ageing, cracking, plastic deformation, permeability, macrotexture, skid and wear resistance, and fuel resistance of a VTAO (20 mm thick and a high performance BBTM 11B (35 mm thick, commonly used as an open-graded mixture for pavement overlays. The results demonstrated that VTAO is an appropriate material for urban pavements as it provides good durability and resistance to the propagation of defects. Nonetheless, further studies are required to improve its behavior under distresses related to plastic deformations and safety properties.

  7. Evaluating the mechanical performance of Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO) as a sustainable rehabilitation strategy in urban pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol-Sánchez, M.; García-Travé, G.; Ayar, P.; Moreno-Navarro, F.; Rubio-Gámez, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO) has been introduced as an alternative to traditional thick overlays, seal coats, and micro-surfacings. Nonetheless, there are some challenges that still remain regarding the application of VTAOs (such as mixture type, cohesiveness, wear resistance, cracking and durability), particularly in heavy traffic urban areas. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive comparative evaluation of the mechanical performance, durability and safety issues (cohesiveness, adhesiveness, ageing, cracking, plastic deformation, permeability, macrotexture, skid and wear resistance, and fuel resistance) of a VTAO (20 mm thick) and a high performance BBTM 11B (35 mm thick), commonly used as an open-graded mixture for pavement overlays. The results demonstrated that VTAO is an appropriate material for urban pavements as it provides good durability and resistance to the propagation of defects. Nonetheless, further studies are required to improve its behavior under distresses related to plastic deformations and safety properties. [es

  8. The imperative for controlled mechanical stresses in unraveling cellular mechanisms of mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorkin Adam M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro mechanotransduction studies are designed to elucidate cell behavior in response to a well-defined mechanical signal that is imparted to cultured cells, e.g. through fluid flow. Typically, flow rates are calculated based on a parallel plate flow assumption, to achieve a targeted cellular shear stress. This study evaluates the performance of specific flow/perfusion chambers in imparting the targeted stress at the cellular level. Methods To evaluate how well actual flow chambers meet their target stresses (set for 1 and 10 dyn/cm2 for this study at a cellular level, computational models were developed to calculate flow velocity components and imparted shear stresses for a given pressure gradient. Computational predictions were validated with micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV experiments. Results Based on these computational and experimental studies, as few as 66% of cells seeded along the midplane of commonly implemented flow/perfusion chambers are subjected to stresses within ±10% of the target stress. In addition, flow velocities and shear stresses imparted through fluid drag vary as a function of location within each chamber. Hence, not only a limited number of cells are exposed to target stress levels within each chamber, but also neighboring cells may experience different flow regimes. Finally, flow regimes are highly dependent on flow chamber geometry, resulting in significant variation in magnitudes and spatial distributions of stress between chambers. Conclusion The results of this study challenge the basic premise of in vitro mechanotransduction studies, i.e. that a controlled flow regime is applied to impart a defined mechanical stimulus to cells. These results also underscore the fact that data from studies in which different chambers are utilized can not be compared, even if the target stress regimes are comparable.

  9. Evaluation of the PISC-2 trials results PISC 2 report No.5. Final issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used for detecting, locating and sizing flaws in primary circuit elements at various stages of plant life. The successive PISC projects have constituted the most notable, sustained, international effort to assess the effectiveness of these inspection techniques. The Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC-II, 1981-1986) constitutes a detailed evaluation of the best performance obtainable by modern ultrasonic techniques under optimal conditions. The present report gives a complete evaluation of the results of PISC-II obtained on various plates presenting different types of defects. Three levels of evaluation are considered: a comparison between teams, a comparison between procedures, and a comparison of the individual techniques and components of the procedures. Results are discussed as a function of the tolerance on sizing, as a function of subgroups of defects (defect position, size, characteristics)

  10. Organizational Capacity to Do and Use Evaluation: Results of a Pan-Canadian Survey of Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, J. Bradley; Elliott, Catherine; Amo, Courtney; Bourgeois, Isabelle; Chouinard, Jill; Goh, Swee C.; Lahey, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the integration of evaluative inquiry into organizational functions and culture, the availability of empirical research addressing organizational capacity building to do and use evaluation is limited. This exploratory descriptive survey of internal evaluators in Canada asked about evaluation capacity building in the…

  11. Tissue characterization using magnetic resonance elastography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, S.A.; Smith, J.A.; Lawrence, A.J.; Dresner, M.A.; Manduca, A.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Ehman, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The well-documented effectiveness of palpation as a diagnostic technique for detecting cancer and other diseases has provided motivation for developing imaging techniques for non-invasively evaluating the mechanical properties of tissue. A recently described approach for elasticity imaging, using propagating acoustic shear waves and phase-contrast MRI, has been called magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The purpose of this work was to conduct preliminary studies to define methods for using MRE as a tool for addressing the paucity of quantitative tissue mechanical property data in the literature. Fresh animal liver and kidney tissue specimens were evaluated with MRE at multiple shear wave frequencies. The influence of specimen temperature and orientation on measurements of stiffness was studied in skeletal muscle. The results demonstrated that all of the materials tested (liver, kidney, muscle and tissue-simulating gel) exhibit systematic dependence of shear stiffness on shear rate. These data are consistent with a viscoelastic model of tissue mechanical properties, allowing calculation of two independent tissue properties from multiple-frequency MRE data: shear modulus and shear viscosity. The shear stiffness of tissue can be substantially affected by specimen temperature. The results also demonstrated evidence of shear anisotropy in skeletal muscle but not liver tissue. The measured shear stiffness in skeletal muscle was found to depend on both the direction of propagation and polarization of the shear waves. (author)

  12. Reaction mechanisms and evaluation of effective process operation for catalytic oxidation and coagulation by ferrous solution and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, Y.M. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Sangmyung Univ., Cheonan (Korea); Bae, W.K. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang Univ., Ansan, Kyounggi (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the removal efficiencies of COD{sub cr} and colour for the dyeing wastewater by ferrous solution and the different dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Fenton process. In the case of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} divided dosage, 7:3 was more effective than 3:7 to remove COD{sub cr} and colour. The results showed that COD was mainly removed by Fenton coagulation, where the ferric ions are formed in the initial step of Fenton reaction. On the other hand colour was removed by Fenton oxidation rather than Fenton coagulation. This paper also aims at pursuing to investigate the effective removal mechanisms using ferrous ion coagulation, ferric ion coagulation and Fenton oxidation process. The removal mechanism of COD{sub cr} and colour was mainly coagulation by ferrous ion, ferric ion and Fenton oxidation. The removal efficiencies were dependent on the ferric ion amount at the beginning of the reaction. However the final removal efficiency of COD and colour was in the order of Fenton oxidation, ferric ion coagulation and ferrous ion coagulation. The reason of the highest removal efficiency by Fenton oxidation can be explained by the chain reactions with ferrous solution, ferric ion and hydrogen peroxide. (orig.)

  13. GPRA (Government Performance and Results Act) and research evaluation for basic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shoji

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) is to ask federal agencies for evaluating their program performance especially from cost-efficiency aspect and to report to Congress. GPRA is to hold agencies accountable for their programs by requiring that they think strategically (in most cases every 5 years) and set, measure and report goals annually. The agencies which have responsibilities for enhancing basic science like Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Fund (NSF) are not excluded by reasons of the difficulties of economic evaluations. In Japan, based on 'the Rationalization program for the public corporations' of 2001, the research developing type corporations should make a cost-performance evaluation in addition to the conventional ones. They have same theme as US agencies struggles. The purpose of this report is to get some hints for this theme by surveying GPRA reports of DOE and NSF and analyzing related information. At present, I have to conclude although everybody accepts the necessities of socio-economic evaluations and investment criteria for basic research, studies and discussions about ways and means are still continuing even in the US. (author)

  14. Handwriting features of children with developmental coordination disorder--results of triangular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Margieh, Jumana Aassy; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2013-11-01

    Developmental coordination disorders (DCD) is one of the most common disorders affecting school-aged children. The study aimed to characterize the handwriting performance of children with DCD who write in Arabic, based on triangular evaluation. Participants included 58 children aged 11-12 years, 29 diagnosed with DCD based on the DSM-IV criteria and the M-ABC, and 29 matched typically developed controls. Children were asked to copy a paragraph on a sheet of paper affixed to a digitizer supplying objective measures of the handwriting process. The handwriting proficiency screening questionnaire (HPSQ) was completed by their teachers while observing their performance and followed by evaluation of their final written product. Results indicated that compared to controls, children with DCD required significantly more on-paper and in-air time per stroke while copying. In addition, global legibility, unrecognizable letters and spatial arrangement measures of their written product were significantly inferior. Significant group differences were also found between the HPSQ subscales scores. Furthermore, 82.8% of all participants were correctly classified into groups based on one discriminate function which included two handwriting performance measures. These study results strongly propose application of triangular standardized evaluation to receive better insight of handwriting deficit features of individual children with DCD who write in Arabic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  16. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  17. Evaluation of quantum mechanics path integrals by the approximations exact on a class of polynomial functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Shidkov, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The method for numerical evaluation of path integrals in Eucledean quantum mechanics without lattice discretization is elaborated. The method is based on the representation of these integrals in the form of functional integrals with respect to the conditional Wiener measure and on the use of the derived approximate exact on a class of polynomial functionals of a given degree. By the computations of non-perturbative characteristics, concerned the topological structure of vacuum, the advantages of this method versus lattice Monte-Carlo calculations are demonstrated

  18. Evaluation of intrastromal corneal ring segments for treatment of keratoconus with a mechanical implantation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tunc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS implantation in patients with keratoconus using a mechanical implantation technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty eyes of 17 patients with keratoconus were enrolled. ICRSs (Keraring were implanted after dissection of the tunnel using Tunc′s specially designed dissector under suction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, spherical equivalent, keratometric readings, inferosuperior asymmetry index (ISAI, and ultrasound pachymetry. All 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups were completed, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The mean preoperative UDVA for all eyes was 1.36 ± 0.64 logMAR. At 12 months, the mean UDVA was 0.51 ± 0.28 logMAR (P = 0.001, and the mean preoperative CDVA was 0.57 ± 0.29 logMAR, which improved to 0.23 ± 0.18 (P = 0.001 at 1 year. There was a significant reduction in spherical equivalent refractive error from -6.42 ± 4.69 diopters (D preoperatively to -1.26 ± 1.45 D (P = 0.001 at 1 year. In the same period, the mean K-readings improved from 49.38 ± 3.72 D to 44.43 ± 3.13 D (P = 0.001, and the mean ISAI improved from 7.92 ± 3.12 to 4.21 ± 1.96 (P = 0.003. No significant changes in mean central corneal thickness were observed postoperatively. There were no major complications during and or after surgery. Conclusion: ICRS implantation using a unique mechanical dissection technique is a safe and effective treatment for keratoconus. All parameters improved by the 1-year follow-up.

  19. comparison of elastic-plastic FE method and engineering method for RPV fracture mechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yingxue; Zheng Bin; Zhang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    This paper described the FE analysis of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for a crack in RPV belt line using ABAQUS code. It calculated and evaluated the stress intensity factor and J integral of crack under PTS transients. The result is also compared with that by engineering analysis method. It shows that the results using engineering analysis method is a little larger than the results using FE analysis of 3D elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, thus the engineering analysis method is conservative than the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics method. (authors)

  20. Methods for improving mechanical properties of partially stabilized zirconia and the resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for improving mechanical surface properties of a rigid body comprising partially stabilized zirconia as a constituent is described comprising the following steps: (i) providing a rigid body having an exposed surface and an interior volume; (ii) subjecting the exposed surface region of partially stabilized zirconia to external heating to heat the exposed surface region to 1100 0 C-1600 0 C without heating the interior volume above 500 0 C-800 0 C; and (iii) cooling the rigid body to a temperature of less than 500 0 C to cause a portion of the exposed surface region to transform from the tetragonal lattice modification to the monoclinic lattice modification, thereby creating a compressive stress field in the exposed surface region and improving the mechanical surface properties of the exposed surface region. In a ceramic body comprising a first exposed region of a partially stabilized zirconia, and a second region of a partially stabilized zirconia at an interior portion of the ceramic body, the improvement is described comprising the ceramic body having in the first, exposed region a greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification than in the second region; having in the first, exposed region 5 percent to 100 percent in the monoclinic lattice modification; and having a molded surface finish in the first, exposed region; the first, exposed region being subjected to a compressive field resulting from the greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of new organic and phosphorous derivatives against ionizing radiation: study of the in vitro mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouillac, C.

    2006-10-01

    This work falls under a research program. The aim was to synthesize new organic phosphorylated compounds having an interesting radio pharmacological activity without toxicity. That is why, we carried out the synthesis of new benzothiazole and thiadiazole N-substituted derivatives as thiols, amino thiols, acids thio-sulfonic and phosphoro thioates. All these compounds were characterized by NMR (proton, carbon, phosphorus, 2D), by mass spectrometry, elementary analyzes and for some of them by diffraction of x-rays. The activity of the majority of them was evaluated by in vitro tests. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical study: the aim of D.F.T. calculation was the study of the mechanism of capture of the free radicals by our compounds. In addition, a study of relation structure activity (Q.S.A.R.) was carried out. Our results allow us to create a model making it possible to establish structure-activity relationship. (author)

  2. Boraflex test results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, K.; Kline, D.E.; Haley, T.C.

    1993-02-01

    New data developed, collected, and evaluated to further assess the in-pool performance of the neutron absorber material, Boraflex. The data are from new EPRI test programs, utility surveillance programs, and blackness testing at a number of plants. This new data provides a basis for quantifying the gap phenomenon in full length panels of Boraflex in spent fuel racks; the maximum anticipated gap size, frequency of gap occurrence, and axial distribution of gaps. Methods have been developed to assess the reactivity effects of gaps and Boraflex shrinkage. The analyses presented demonstrates that the reactivity effect of gaps is very small, not much larger than the statistical variations inherent in the calculational method. The data and analyses presented serve to close the issue of gap formation and shrinkage in panels of Boraflex and the effect of such gaps and shrinkage on the reactivity of the fuel/rack configuration. Ongoing EPRI programs to assess the long term performance of Boraflex in spent fuel storage racks are described

  3. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  4. Angularly Deformed Special Relativity and its Results for Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the deformed Special Relativity, which leads to an essentially new theoretical context of quantum mechanics, is presented. The formulation of the theory arises from a straightforward analogy with the Special Relativity, but its foundations are laid through the hypothesis on breakdown of the velocity-momentum parallelism which affects onto the Einstein equivalence principle between mass and energy of a relativistic particle. Furthermore, the derivation is based on the technique ...

  5. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Morphological Studies of Rice Husk (Treated/Untreated)-CaCO3 Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepak; Joshi, Garvit; Gupta, Ayush

    2016-10-01

    Natural fiber reinforced composites are a very popular area of research because of the easy availability and biodegradability of these fibers. The manufacturing of natural fiber composite is done by reinforcing fibers in the particulate form, fiber form or in woven mat form. Natural fiber composites also utilize industrial wastes as a secondary reinforcements like fly ash, sludge etc. By keeping all these point of views in the present investigation the effect of rice husk flour (chemically treated/untreated) and micro sized calcium carbonate with epoxy resin have been evaluated. The diameter of rice husk flour was maintained at 600 µm through mechanical sieving machine. The husk flour was chemically treated with NaOH (5 % w/v). Mechanical properties like hardness, flexural impact and compression strength were evaluated and found to be superior in modified or chemically treated flour as compared to unmodified or untreated flour reinforced composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was also undertaken for the developed composites. SEM study shows the distribution of the rice husk flour and calcium carbonate over the matrix.

  6. A Dynamic Market Mechanism for Markets with Shiftable Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Kiani, Arman

    2014-01-01

    renewables, this mechanism accommodates both consumers with a shiftable Demand Response and an adjustable Demand Response. The overall market mechanism is evaluated in a Day Ahead Market and is shown in a numerical example to result in a reduction of the cost of electricity for the consumer, as well......In this paper, we propose a dynamic market mechanism that converges to the desired market equilibrium. Both locational marginal prices and the schedules for generation and consumption are determined through a negotiation process between the key market players. In addition to incorporating...

  7. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE: Program Planning and Evaluation Should Follow Results Act Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    As you requested, we examined the extent to which DOD has applied the Results Act's outcome-oriented principles to the CB Defense Program, focusing in particular on research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E...

  8. Results of laboratory and in-situ measurements for the description of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Ingeborg; Alheid, Hans-Joachim [BGR Hannover, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Jockwer, Norbert [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, 38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, Juan Carlos [ENRESA, Emilio Vargas 7, E-Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [AITEMIN, c/ Alenza, 1 - 28003 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Eduardo [International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering, CIMNE, Edificio C-1, Campus Norte UPC, C/Gran Capitan, s/n, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Weber, Hans Peter [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, Michael [ETHZ, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, ETH Zentrum, HG Raemistrasse 101, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, Georg [COLENCO Power Engineering Ltd, CPE, Taefern Str. 26, 5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Ammon, Christian [Rothpletz, Lienhard, Cie AG, Schifflaendestrasse 35, 5001 Aarau (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The Heater Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory aims at producing a validated model of thermo-hydro-mechanically (THM) coupled processes. The experiment consists of an engineered barrier system where in a vertical borehole, a heater is embedded in bentonite blocks, surrounded by the host rock, Opalinus Clay. The experimental programme comprises permanent monitoring before, during, and after the heating phase, complemented by geotechnical, hydraulic, and seismic in-situ measurements as well as laboratory analyses of mineralogical and rock mechanics properties. After the heating, the experiment was dismantled for further investigations. Major results of the experimental findings are outlined. (authors)

  9. Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses About the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Bystander Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuchao; Conolly, Rory B; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2006-11-21

    This report describes the development of a computational systems biology approach to evaluate the hypotheses of molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptive response to low dose ionizing radiation. Our concept is that computational models of signaling pathways can be developed and linked to biologically based dose response models to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms which lead to adaptive response. For development of quantitatively accurate, predictive models, it will be necessary to describe tissues consisting of multiple cell types where the different types each contribute in their own way to the overall function of the tissue. Such a model will probably need to incorporate not only cell type-specific data but also spatial information on the architecture of the tissue and on intercellular signaling. The scope of the current model was more limited. Data obtained in a number of different biological systems were synthesized to describe a chimeric, “average” population cell. Biochemical signaling pathways involved in sensing of DNA damage and in the activation of cell cycle checkpoint controls and the apoptotic path were also included. As with any computational modeling effort, it was necessary to develop these simplified initial descriptions (models) that can be iteratively refined. This preliminary model is a starting point which, with time, can evolve to a level of refinement where large amounts of detailed biological information are synthesized and a capability for robust predictions of dose- and time-response behaviors is obtained.

  10. VUV treatment combined with mechanical strain of stretchable polymer foils resulting in cell alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barb, R.-A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Magnus, B. [Innovacell Biotechnologie AG, Innsbruck (Austria); Innerbichler, S. [Innerbichler GmbH, Breitenbach am Inn (Austria); Greunz, T. [CDL-MS-MACH, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Wiesbauer, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Marksteiner, R. [Innovacell Biotechnologie AG, Innsbruck (Austria); Stifter, D. [CDL-MS-MACH, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Heitz, J., E-mail: johannes.heitz@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Elastic polyurethane (PU) foils were exposed to the vacuum-UV in reactive atmosphere. • The photomodification resulted in improved cytocompatibilty. • Parallel microgrooves formed on the irradiated PU surfaces after strong elongation. • Cells seeded onto microgrooves aligned their shapes in the direction of the grooves. • Elongation occurred also for cells on PU subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching. - Abstract: Cell-alignment along a defined direction can have a direct effect on the cell functionality and differentiation. Oriented micro- or nanotopographic structures on cell culture substrates can induce cell-alignment. Surface chemistry, wettability, and stiffness of the substrate are also important material features as they strongly influence the cell–substrate interactions. For improved bio-compatibility, highly elastic polyurethane (PU) foils were exposed to the vacuum-UV (VUV) light of a Xe{sub 2}{sup *} excimer lamp at 172 nm in a nitrogen containing atmosphere (N{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}). The irradiation resulted in a change in the chemical surface composition. Additionally, the formation of regular parallel microgrooves was observed on the irradiated surfaces after strong uni-axial deformation (i.e., more than about 50% strain) of the photo-modified PU foils. Cell seeding experiments demonstrated that the VUV modified polymer foils strongly enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. Cells seeded onto microgrooves aligned their shapes and elongated in the direction of the grooves. A similar effect was observed for cells seeded on photo-modified PU foils subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching at lower strain levels (i.e., typically 10% strain) without groove-formation. The cells had also here an elongated shape, however they not always align in a defined direction relative to the stretching.

  11. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is n...

  12. [Contract focused short-term group therapy--results of an evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Rainer; Meyer, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    A short description outlines the development of commission focused short-term therapy (AFoG) for children and adolescents. Subsequently the generic principles of psychotherapy are applied to AFoG in order to underline the basic assumptions of this variation of systemic group therapy. Behavioural changes arising in different contexts (school, family, group therapy) show the need for an appropriate flexibility of group therapy techniques. The evaluation was accomplished using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 4-18) at the beginning and 3 month after the end of the group therapy. The results show positive effects which finally are discussed critically.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of SA 333 Gr.6, AISI 304 and Zr-2.5% Nb through Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, K.S.; Rath, B.N.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Ramadasan, E.; Kulkarni, R.V.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2009-08-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique has been employed in evaluating the tensile property data on three materials, namely SA333 Gr.6 carbon steel (used as PHT piping), AISI 304 (used as calandria vessel) and Zr-2.5% Nb (used as coolant tube) in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) with a view to exploring the applicability of ABI technique in providing reliable mechanical property data. The exercise was carried out in cooperation with a second laboratory where conventional tension tests alone were conducted such that the output of the study could be independently monitored and evaluated in an unbiased manner. The results generated in the authors' laboratory were found to be fully in agreement with what were obtained through conventional tension tests. Thus the study has been successful in establishing the reliability of the data obtained through miniature route especially in the case of coolant tube which has immense applications. (author)

  14. The Study of Pulmonary Complication of Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Sabzeie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The main indication of mechanical ventilation is in the treatment of neonates with respiratory failure. With the increased use of mechanical ventilation, its complications have increased too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of complications and short-term improvement in infants undergoing mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Materials & Methods: In this prospective-analytic study, all infants requiring mechanical ventilation and admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit of Fatemiyeh and Be’sat hospitals, have been evaluated for one year (2012. Their data included: neonatal age, sex, gestational age, birth weight, weight at admission, diagnosis, length of hospitalization, disease outcome (improvement-died, need for mechanical ventilation, complications and culture results (blood, endotracheal tube, urine, CSF insert in check list. The data were analysed by SPSS and c2 statistical test. Results: In this study, a total of 114 infants hospitalized in intensive care unit and needed mechanical ventilation was studied of whom 72 were male and 42 were female. The mean of gestational age in the admitted neonates was 32.9 ± 0.85 weeks. The majority of neonates (80.70% were undergoing mechanical ventilation with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. 67% of neonates were suffering from complications of mechanical ventilation. The prevalent complication was seen in the neonates was narrowing or obstruction of the endotracheal tube (52.63%. 47.37% of infants died and respiratory distress syndrome was the common cause of death in these neonates (46.29%. In our study, there was significant relationship between resuscitation at birth (P=0.002, time required for mechanical ventilation (P=0.0000 and Apgar score (P=0.0000 and complications of mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The results show that the high prevalence of pulmonary complications is associated with mechanical

  15. Report on result 1998. Research and development on fusion area. Part 3 (biomolecular mechanism and design); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Yugo ryoiki kenkyu kaihatsu daisan bunsatsu (bimolecular mechanism and design)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An organism is a molecular mechanical system consisting of nucleic acid, peptide and protein having a self-forming and a self-repairing function. For the purpose of creating cells, tissues and molecular mechanism alternating these biological functions, their basic technology was developed. Concretely, studies were made on three-dimensional cellular structural module engineering and biomolecular mechanism and design. Studies on biological soft tissue resulted in success by giving atmospheric glow discharge treatment to the inner surface of a tubular PVC. An artificial vitreous body was created using PVA hydrogels. In addition, liver cells were successfully cultured for the first time in the world. Studies on biological hard tissue revealed that osteopontin plays a role of a trigger for the initial differentiation of the osteoblast cell. Further, a basic experiment was carried out on the initial response of the cartilage cell. In the research on the molecular mechanism, examination was made on the mechanism of a double-head molecular motor. Examination was also made on the adjustment of the hydrogenase LB film as an electricity/hydrogen energy conversion element and on the biomolecular mechanism and design. (NEDO)

  16. Evaluating mechanical properties of hybrid laser arc girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pussegoda, L. N.; Begg, D.; Holdstock, R.; Jodoin, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd Techonology, Kanata, ON, (Canada); Ligh, K.; Rondeau, D. [Appliead Thermal Sciences Inc., Sanford, ME, (United States); Hansen, E. [ESAB, Florence, SC, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a promising new process for making girth welds on steel pipelines. This study investigated the mechanical properties of overmatched X80 and X100 pipeline steel girth welds made using the HLAW process. The testing of this process was conducted on NPS36 pipes of 10.4 mm and 14.3 mm thickness, respectively. Various weld positions were produced on X80 and X100 pipes. Laser inspection data were collected during the whole welding process. Also standard tests for girth welds, Charpy V-notch impact tests, CTOD tests, all weld metal (AWM) tension tests, were carried out. The results showed that the fracture transition temperature is higher at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions than at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions. The effect of clock position on fracture toughness is currently being explored; a modified CTOD has been developed to reduce the possibility of crack deviation.

  17. Evaluation of femur of orchiectomized Guinea pigs by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estanislau, Cristiane de Abreu; Rahal, Sheila Canavese; Araujo, Fabio Andre Pinheiro de; Sergio Swain Muller; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino; Estanislau, Caroline de Abreu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of castration on bones in the male guinea pigs and to observe whether mechanical testing correlates with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twelve male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 21-27 days, and with average initial weight of 279 grams were used. The animals were equally allocated to two groups: GI - orchiectomized animals and GII - intact control animals. They underwent euthanasia at seven months following surgery. DXA measurement was performed at the mid third of the right femoral diaphysis in the cortical region and at the left femoral neck in order to verify its correlation with results of mechanical testing. Three-point bending test of right femur and axial compression test of left femur were performed. Bone mineral density of GI was significantly lower only at femoral neck. No differences were observed in the maximum load values between GI and GII for both bending and axial compression tests. The bending test revealed lower bone stiffness in GI compared to GII, but in the axial compression test no differences between groups were observed. Only left femur showed positive correlation coefficient between maximum load and bone mineral density according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggest that hormonal deprivation in guinea pigs induces reduction of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck area and reduction of bone stiffness in the mid-femoral diaphysis. (author)

  18. Evaluation of femur of orchiectomized Guinea pigs by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanislau, Cristiane de Abreu; Rahal, Sheila Canavese; Araujo, Fabio Andre Pinheiro de, E-mail: crisestanislau@hotmail.co, E-mail: sheilacr@fmvz.unesp.b, E-mail: fabioandre@fmvz.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinaria; Sergio Swain Muller, E-mail: diretoria@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino, E-mail: louzada@fmva.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Estanislau, Caroline de Abreu, E-mail: caestanis@hotmail.co

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of castration on bones in the male guinea pigs and to observe whether mechanical testing correlates with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twelve male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 21-27 days, and with average initial weight of 279 grams were used. The animals were equally allocated to two groups: GI - orchiectomized animals and GII - intact control animals. They underwent euthanasia at seven months following surgery. DXA measurement was performed at the mid third of the right femoral diaphysis in the cortical region and at the left femoral neck in order to verify its correlation with results of mechanical testing. Three-point bending test of right femur and axial compression test of left femur were performed. Bone mineral density of GI was significantly lower only at femoral neck. No differences were observed in the maximum load values between GI and GII for both bending and axial compression tests. The bending test revealed lower bone stiffness in GI compared to GII, but in the axial compression test no differences between groups were observed. Only left femur showed positive correlation coefficient between maximum load and bone mineral density according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggest that hormonal deprivation in guinea pigs induces reduction of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck area and reduction of bone stiffness in the mid-femoral diaphysis. (author)

  19. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties; Avaliacao do PVDF envelhecido em etanol combustivel: difusao, cristalinidade e propriedades termicas dinamico-mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F., E-mail: agmar@metalmat.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  20. The role of the anomaly cancellation mechanism in the evaluation of the radiatively induced Chern-Simons term in extended QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistel, O.A.; Dallabona, G.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the possible role played by the anomaly cancellation mechanism in the evaluation of the radiatively induced Chern-Simons (CS) term, arising from the Lorentz and CPT non-invariant fermionic sector, of an extended version of QED. We explicit evaluate the most general mathematical structure associated to the AVV triangle amplitude, closely related to the one involved in the CS term evaluation, using for this purposes an alternative calculational strategy to handle divergences in QFT's. We show that the requirement of consistency with the choices made in the construction of the Standard Model's renormalizability, in the evaluation of the AVV Green function, leave no room for a nonvanishing radiatively induced CS term, independently of the regularization prescription or equivalent philosophy adopted, in accordance with what was previously conjectured by other authors. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of quality characteristics and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meats treated with different dose rates of ionizing radiation and use of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula

    2012-01-01

    The Mechanically Deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used in traditional meat products, in greater proportion in those emulsified, replacing meat raw materials more expensive. The raw material can have high MDCM the microbial load, as a result of contamination during processing or failure during the evisceration. The irradiation process is accepted as one of the most effective technologies when compared to conventional techniques of preservation, to reduce contamination of pathogens and spoilage. However, little information is available about the use and effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation processing. Irradiation causes chemical changes in food, a major cause of deterioration of quality of raw or cooked meat products during refrigerated storage, frozen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation on the production of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken added or without added antioxidants, during the cold storage and evaluation of functional properties. The results showed that among the tested dose rates using cobalt-60 source, dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h-1 was the best for processing MDCM. Furthermore, the use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to reduce lipid oxidation generated by irradiation of the samples, showed a synergistic effect to the processing with ionizing radiation in reduction of psychrotrophic bacteria count and contributed to a better sensory quality. The use of radiation in the processing FDMI did not adversely affect the functional properties studied. (author)