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Sample records for restriction enzyme-mediated integration

  1. Exogenous DNA internalisation by sperm cells is improved by combining lipofection and restriction enzyme mediated integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchil, R R; Gupta, J; Singh, A; Sharma, D

    2011-06-01

    1. Three types of exogenous DNA inserts, i.e. complete linearised pVIVO2-GFP/LacZ vector (9620 bp), the LacZ gene (5317 bp) and the GFP gene (2152 bp) were used to transfect chicken spermatozoa through simple incubation of sperm cells with insert. 2. PCR assay, Dot Blot hybridisation and Southern hybridisation showed the successful internalisation of exogenous DNA by chicken sperm cells. 3. Lipofection and Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration (REMI) were used to improve the rate of internalisation of exogenous DNA by sperm cells. 4. Results from dot blot as well as Southern hybridisation were semi-quantified and improved exogenous DNA uptake by sperm cells through lipofection and REMI. Stronger signals were observed from hybridisation of LacZ as well as GFP specific probe with the DNA from lipofected exogenous DNA transfected sperm DNA in comparison with those transfected with nude exogenous DNA.

  2. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Mutants as Biocontrol Agents Against Anthracnose Disease in Avocado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.

  3. Altering the selection capabilities of common cloning vectors via restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The cloning of gene sequences forms the basis for many molecular biological studies. One important step in the cloning process is the isolation of bacterial transformants carrying vector DNA. This involves a vector-encoded selectable marker gene, which in most cases, confers resistance to an antibiotic. However, there are a number of circumstances in which a different selectable marker is required or may be preferable. Such situations can include restrictions to host strain choice, two phase cloning experiments and mutagenesis experiments, issues that result in additional unnecessary cloning steps, in which the DNA needs to be subcloned into a vector with a suitable selectable marker. Results We have used restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption to modify the selectable marker gene of a given vector by cloning a different selectable marker gene into the original marker present in that vector. Cloning a new selectable marker into a pre-existing marker was found to change the selection phenotype conferred by that vector, which we were able to demonstrate using multiple commonly used vectors and multiple resistance markers. This methodology was also successfully applied not only to cloning vectors, but also to expression vectors while keeping the expression characteristics of the vector unaltered. Conclusions Changing the selectable marker of a given vector has a number of advantages and applications. This rapid and efficient method could be used for co-expression of recombinant proteins, optimisation of two phase cloning procedures, as well as multiple genetic manipulations within the same host strain without the need to remove a pre-existing selectable marker in a previously genetically modified strain. PMID:23497512

  4. Use of sperm plasmid DNA lipofection combined with REMI (restriction enzyme-mediated insertion) for production of transgenic chickens expressing eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) or human follicle-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Markowitz, Eliane; Gurevich, Michael; Shore, Laurence S; Katz, Adi; Stram, Yehuda; Shemesh, Mordechai

    2009-05-01

    Linearized p-eGFP (plasmid-enhanced green fluorescent protein) or p-hFSH (plasmid human FSH) sequences with the corresponding restriction enzyme were lipofected into sperm genomic DNA. Sperm transfected with p-eGFP were used for artificial insemination in hens, and in 17 out of 19 of the resultant chicks, the exogenous DNA was detected in their lymphocytes as determined by PCR and expressed in tissues as determined by (a) PCR, (b) specific emission of green fluorescence by the eGFP, and (c) Southern blot analysis. A complete homology was found between the Aequorea Victoria eGFP DNA and a 313-bp PCR product of extracted DNA from chick blood cells. Following insemination with sperm lipofected with p-hFSH, transgenic offspring were obtained for two generations as determined by detection of the transgene for human FSH (PCR) and expression of the gene (RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR) and the presence of the protein in blood (radioimmunoassay). Data demonstrate that lipofection of plasmid DNA with restriction enzyme is a highly efficient method for the production of transfected sperm to produce transgenic offspring by direct artificial insemination.

  5. Statistical properties of multistep enzyme-mediated reactions

    OpenAIRE

    de Ronde, Wiet H.; Daniels, Bryan C.; Mugler, Andrew; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Enzyme-mediated reactions may proceed through multiple intermediate conformational states before creating a final product molecule, and one often wishes to identify such intermediate structures from observations of the product creation. In this paper, we address this problem by solving the chemical master equations for various enzymatic reactions. We devise a perturbation theory analogous to that used in quantum mechanics that allows us to determine the first () and the second (variance) cumu...

  6. Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg

    Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

  7. Integral inventory control in spare parts networks with capacity restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Integral inventory control of repairable items in service networks can result in a significant gain compared to traditional local control mechanisms, in terms of both efficiency and customer service. Research on quantitative decision support models has yielded various useful results. However, in

  8. Numerical evaluation of path-integral solutions to Fokker-Planck equations. II. Restricted stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A path-integral solution is derived for processes described by nonlinear Fokker-Plank equations together with externally imposed boundary conditions. This path-integral solution is written in the form of a path sum for small time steps and contains, in addition to the conventional volume integral, a surface integral which incorporates the boundary conditions. A previously developed numerical method, based on a histogram representation of the probability distribution, is extended to a trapezoidal representation. This improved numerical approach is combined with the present path-integral formalism for restricted processes and is show t give accurate results. 35 refs., 5 figs

  9. Enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogels for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keming; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Lee, Fan; Bae, Ki Hyun; Gao, Shujun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds facilitates the cell expansion process and supplies pluripotent cells of high quality for broad-spectrum applications in regenerative medicine. Herein, we report an enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. HA-Tyr hydrogels were formed by crosslinking the tyramine moieties with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). By changing the HRP and H2O2 concentration, we prepared HA-Tyr hydrogels of different mechanical strength and studied the self-renewal properties of hESCs in these scaffolds. We observed that both the chemical composition and mechanical strength of substrates were important factors affecting cell proliferation and pluripotency. The HA-Tyr hydrogel with a compressive modulus of ∼350Pa supported the proliferation of hESCs at the pluripotent state in both mTeSR1 medium and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that hESCs proliferated well and formed spheroid structures in 3D, without undergoing apoptosis. The hESCs cultured in HA-Tyr hydrogels showed high expression of CD44 and pluripotency markers. These cells exhibited the capability to form cell derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the genetic integrity of the hESCs was unaffected in the 3D cultivation system. The scope of this study is to provide a stable 3D cultivation system for the expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards clinical applications. We report an enzyme mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. Unlike other HA-based photo-crosslinked hydrogel systems reported, we investigated the effects of mechanical strength of hydrogels on the self-renewal properties of hESCs in 3D. Then, we characterized hESCs cultured in hydrogels with lower mechanical strength

  10. On an efficient and accurate method to integrate restricted three-body orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison, Marc A.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a quantitative analysis of the advantages of the Bulirsch-Stoer (1966) method, demonstrating that this method is certainly worth considering when working with small N dynamical systems. The results, qualitatively suspected by many users, are quantitatively confirmed as follows: (1) the Bulirsch-Stoer extrapolation method is very fast and moderately accurate; (2) regularization of the equations of motion stabilizes the error behavior of the method and is, of course, essential during close approaches; and (3) when applicable, a manifold-correction algorithm reduces numerical errors to the limits of machine accuracy. In addition, for the specific case of the restricted three-body problem, even a small eccentricity for the orbit of the primaries drastically affects the accuracy of integrations, whether regularized or not; the circular restricted problem integrates much more accurately.

  11. Integrative Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Lactobacillus casei Zhang to Glucose Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hui, Wenyan; Cao, Chenxia; Pan, Lin; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2018-03-02

    Nutrient starvation is an important survival challenge for bacteria during industrial production of functional foods. As next-generation sequencing technology has greatly advanced, we performed proteomic and genomic analysis to investigate the response of Lactobacillus casei Zhang to a glucose-restricted environment. L. casei Zhang strains were permitted to evolve in glucose-restricted or normal medium from a common ancestor over a 3 year period, and they were sampled at 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, and 8000 generations and subjected to proteomic and genomic analyses. Genomic resequencing data revealed different point mutations and other mutational events in each selected generation of L. casei Zhang under glucose restriction stress. The differentially expressed proteins induced by glucose restriction were mostly related to fructose and mannose metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes, lyase activity, and amino-acid-transporting ATPase activity. Integrative proteomic and genomic analysis revealed that the mutations protected L. casei Zhang against glucose starvation by regulating other cellular carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid catabolism; phosphoenolpyruvate system pathway activation; glycogen synthesis; ATP consumption; pyruvate metabolism; and general stress-response protein expression. The results help reveal the mechanisms of adapting to glucose starvation and provide new strategies for enhancing the industrial utility of L. casei Zhang.

  12. Limits on the expression of enzyme-mediated solvent isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Steady-state analysis of primary solvent isotope effects on enzyme-catalyzed reactions, mediated by solvent-shielded di- or triprotic groups on the enzyme, yields equations describing the upper limit of intramolecular isotopic discrimation. For diprotic groups [P/sub H]/[P/sub D/] = 3k/sub H//k/sub D/ + 3), and for triprotic groups [P/sub H/]/[P/sub D/] = [7(k/sub H//k/sub D/ 2 = 10k/sub H/k/sub D/ + 1]/[(k/sub H//k/sub D/) 2 + 10k/sub H//k/sub D/ + 7]. Given a normal intrinsic isotope effect of k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 7, maximal isotopic discrimation in 50:50 H 2 O:D 2 O is therefore 2.2 and 3.3, respectively, versus 1.0 for a monoprotic group. Intermediate values of isotope discrimination may be interpreted with respect to distinguishing enzyme-mediated catalytic mechanisms from those of direct transfer between solvent and substrate, and to identifying mediating groups, by comparisons of isotopic discrimination at high and low concentrations of substrates and by reference to intrinsic and intermolecular isotope effects

  13. Restrictions and Countermeasures of Rural Vocational Education in Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Developing rural vocational education is of great significance to urban-rural integration: developing rural vocational education is helpful to cultivating new farmers for construction of new socialist countryside,favorable to improving farmers’ ability of finding jobs and starting undertaking, and beneficial to transfer of rural surplus labor and acceleration of urbanization. Restrictions on development rural vocational education mainly include: low value cognition of society and social assessment of rural vocational education; out of balance of cost and expected return of rural vocational education; the quality of supply of rural vocational education failure to satisfy demand of socio-economic development; imperfect rural vocational education system. In view of these,following countermeasures and suggestions are put forward: strengthen propaganda and guidance to build environment of public opinion for rural vocational education; push forward rural vocational compulsory education system to lay social foundation for rural vocational education; reinforce policy support to assist in building rural vocational education system; improve education system to build overall framework of rural vocational education; perfect laws and regulations to establish system and norm for development of rural vocational education.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Programs the Hypothalamus of Adult Male Rats: Integrated Analysis of Proteomic and Metabolomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Amanda P; Souza, Adriana P; Dornellas, Ana P S; Oyama, Lila M; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Santos, Gianni M S; Rosa, José C; Bertolla, Ricardo P; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe; Tashima, Alexandre K; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2017-04-07

    Programming of hypothalamic functions regulating energy homeostasis may play a role in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)-induced adulthood obesity. The present study investigated the effects of IUGR on the hypothalamus proteome and metabolome of adult rats submitted to 50% protein-energy restriction throughout pregnancy. Proteomic and metabolomic analyzes were performed by data independent acquisition mass spectrometry and multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. At age 4 months, the restricted rats showed elevated adiposity, increased leptin and signs of insulin resistance. 1356 proteins were identified and 348 quantified while 127 metabolites were quantified. The restricted hypothalamus showed down-regulation of 36 proteins and 5 metabolites and up-regulation of 21 proteins and 9 metabolites. Integrated pathway analysis of the proteomics and metabolomics data indicated impairment of hypothalamic glucose metabolism, increased flux through the hexosamine pathway, deregulation of TCA cycle and the respiratory chain, and alterations in glutathione metabolism. The data suggest IUGR modulation of energy metabolism and redox homeostasis in the hypothalamus of male adult rats. The present results indicated deleterious consequences of IUGR on hypothalamic pathways involved in pivotal physiological functions. These results provide guidance for future mechanistic studies assessing the role of intrauterine malnutrition in the development of metabolic diseases later in life.

  15. Analysing "Migrant" Membership Frames through Education Policy Discourse: An Example of Restrictive "Integration" Policy within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Shaik, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes combining discourse theory and perspectives on political membership developments in Western European societies. It combines theories and examples of policy discourses about "migrant integration" in the Swiss national context in the sphere of education. This examination aims to deconstruct specific membership framing…

  16. Enzyme mediated synthesis of polypyrrole in the presence of chondroitin sulfate and redox mediators of natural origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Bustamante, G.A.; Evans-Villegas, A.G.; Castillo-Castro, T. del; Castillo-Ortega, M.M.; Cruz-Silva, R.; Huerta, F.; Morallón, E.

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by enzyme mediated oxidation of pyrrole using naturally occurring compounds as redox mediators. The catalytic mechanism is an enzymatic cascade reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is the oxidizer and soybean peroxidase, in the presence of acetosyringone, syringaldehyde or vanillin, acts as a natural catalysts. The effect of the initial reaction composition on the polymerization yield and electrical conductivity of PPy was analyzed. Morphology of the PPy particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy whereas the chemical structure was studied by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic techniques. The redox mediators increased the polymerization yield without a significant modification of the electronic structure of PPy. The highest conductivity of PPy was reached when chondroitin sulfate was used simultaneously as dopant and template during pyrrole polymerization. Electroactive properties of PPy obtained from natural precursors were successfully used in the amperometric quantification of uric acid concentrations. PPy increases the amperometric sensitivity of carbon nanotube screen-printed electrodes toward uric acid detection. - Highlights: • A new method of pyrrole polymerization using naturally occurring redox mediators and doping agents was studied. • The catalytic efficiency of different redox mediators toward pyrrole oxidation was evaluated. • Two different naturally occurring polymers were studied as bifunctional steric stabilizer/doping agents. • Polypyrrole improves the amperometric response of carbon nanotube screen printed electrodes toward uric acid sensing.

  17. Enzyme mediated synthesis of polypyrrole in the presence of chondroitin sulfate and redox mediators of natural origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalva-Bustamante, G.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Evans-Villegas, A.G. [Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castillo-Castro, T. del, E-mail: terecat@polimeros.uson.mx [Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castillo-Ortega, M.M. [Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, 380-8553, Nagano (Japan); Huerta, F. [Departamento Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell, 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Morallón, E. [Departamento Química Física e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by enzyme mediated oxidation of pyrrole using naturally occurring compounds as redox mediators. The catalytic mechanism is an enzymatic cascade reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is the oxidizer and soybean peroxidase, in the presence of acetosyringone, syringaldehyde or vanillin, acts as a natural catalysts. The effect of the initial reaction composition on the polymerization yield and electrical conductivity of PPy was analyzed. Morphology of the PPy particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy whereas the chemical structure was studied by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic techniques. The redox mediators increased the polymerization yield without a significant modification of the electronic structure of PPy. The highest conductivity of PPy was reached when chondroitin sulfate was used simultaneously as dopant and template during pyrrole polymerization. Electroactive properties of PPy obtained from natural precursors were successfully used in the amperometric quantification of uric acid concentrations. PPy increases the amperometric sensitivity of carbon nanotube screen-printed electrodes toward uric acid detection. - Highlights: • A new method of pyrrole polymerization using naturally occurring redox mediators and doping agents was studied. • The catalytic efficiency of different redox mediators toward pyrrole oxidation was evaluated. • Two different naturally occurring polymers were studied as bifunctional steric stabilizer/doping agents. • Polypyrrole improves the amperometric response of carbon nanotube screen printed electrodes toward uric acid sensing.

  18. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia—Perception of Different Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Methods: A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education (n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. Results: The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Conclusion: Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations. PMID:28970391

  19. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education ( n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  20. AN ACCURATE ORBITAL INTEGRATOR FOR THE RESTRICTED THREE-BODY PROBLEM AS A SPECIAL CASE OF THE DISCRETE-TIME GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minesaki, Yukitaka

    2013-01-01

    For the restricted three-body problem, we propose an accurate orbital integration scheme that retains all conserved quantities of the two-body problem with two primaries and approximately preserves the Jacobi integral. The scheme is obtained by taking the limit as mass approaches zero in the discrete-time general three-body problem. For a long time interval, the proposed scheme precisely reproduces various periodic orbits that cannot be accurately computed by other generic integrators

  1. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  2. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E

    2017-09-07

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy. Restricting tail undulations resulted in kinematic adjustments similar to those that occur following tail autotomy, characterized by more flexed hind limb joints. These data suggest that effects of autotomy on locomotion may be linked to the loss of tail movements rather than the loss of mass or a shift in center of mass. We also provide empirical support for the link between lateral tail undulations and step length through the rotation of the pelvic girdle and retraction of the femur. Restriction and autotomy of the tail limits pelvic rotation, which reduces femur retraction and decreases step length. Our findings demonstrate a functional role for tail undulations in geckos, which likely applies to other terrestrial vertebrates.

  3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with restrictive cardiomyopathy may be heart transplant candidates. The outlook depends on the cause of the ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  4. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up in the circulatory system. In time, the heart fails. What causes it? Restrictive cardiomyopathy is often caused by diseases in other parts of the body. One known cause is cardiac ... build up in the heart tissue, making the tissue stiff and thickened. Cardiac ...

  5. Limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and reward-related circuitry integrity affects eating behavior: A longitudinal DTI study in adolescents with restrictive eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Olivo

    Full Text Available Few studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the micro-structural alterations of WM in patients with restrictive eating disorders (rED, and longitudinal data are lacking. Twelve patients with rED were scanned at diagnosis and after one year of family-based treatment, and compared to twenty-four healthy controls (HCs through DTI analysis. A tract-based spatial statistics procedure was used to investigate diffusivity parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (MD, RD and AD, respectively. Reduced FA and increased RD were found in patients at baseline in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation compared with controls. However, no differences were found between follow-up patients and controls, suggesting a partial normalization of the diffusivity parameters. In patients, trends for a negative correlation were found between the baseline FA of the right anterior corona radiata and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire total score, while a positive trend was found between the baseline FA in the splenium of corpus callosum and the weight loss occurred between maximal documented weight and time of admission. A positive trend for correlation was also found between baseline FA in the right anterior corona radiata and the decrease in the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory Revised total score over time. Our results suggest that the integrity of the limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and the reward-related circuitry are important for cognitive control processes and reward responsiveness in regulating eating behavior.

  6. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  7. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings. PMID:24914544

  8. The proviral genome of radiation leukemia virus (RadLV): molecular cloning, restriction analysis and integration sites in tumor cell DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, M.; Merregaert, J.; Nuyten, J.M.; Maisin, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    An infectious clone of the linear, unintegrated RadLV provirus was obtained by insertion in the plasmid pBR322. Its restriction map was indistinguishable from that of the majority of the multiple proviral copies, which are found apparently at random sites in the DNA of RadLV-induced rat thymic lymphomas [fr

  9. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  10. Modification of photo-thermal model by accommodating light integrals using antirrhinum flowering and leaf number data from restricted range of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.; Carew, J.; Pearson, S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of study was to quantify the flowering and leaf number response of Antirrhinum majus L. cv. Chimes White to different photoperiods, night temperatures and light integrals using photo-thermal model. Two experiments were conducted i.e. first one in February (under low ambient light integrals) and the second one in June (under high ambient light integrals). In each experiment plants of an early flowering cv. Chimes White were transferred (after 80% germination) to two night temperature suits (set-point temperatures 10 and 20 degree C), each having four photoperiod chambers (8, 11, 14 and 17 h.d-1). Results revealed that plants flowered earlier at long photoperiod (17 h.d-1), higher mean diurnal temperature (19.2 degree C in February and 23.4 degree C in June) and high ambient light integrals (8.26 MJ.m-2.d-1) and vice versa. These findings were successfully incorporated in to photo-thermal model, which was not reported before in Antirrhinum. The simple linear model hence updated, which would be helpful for growers to predict and quantify flowering time and leaf number (plant quality) of Antirrhinum well before their plantation to maintain its continual supply to the market. (author)

  11. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  12. Enzyme-mediated formulation of stable elliptical silver nanoparticles tested against clinical pathogens and MDR bacteria and development of antimicrobial surgical thread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rupak; Bhagat, Chintan; Shrestha, Pragya; Awal, Suvash; Dudhagara, Pravin

    2017-05-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are believed to be emerging tool against various infectious diseases including multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In the present study, in vitro synthesis of AgNPs was optimized using 1:50 ratio of macerozyme (25 μg/μl) and 1 mM AgNO 3 incubated at 80 °C for 8 h. AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Characterization studies suggest the synthesis of elliptical, stable and crystalline AgNPs with an average size of 38.26 ± 0.4 nm calculated using TEM. The XRD pattern revealed the face-centered-cubic (fcc) form of metallic silver. Good shape integrity and dispersion of AgNPs after 1 year of incubation confirmed their stability. AgNPs were exibited the antimicrobial property against ten pathogenic bacteria, three molds and one yeast. The AgNPs also revealed remarkable antimicrobial activity against three MDR strains i.e. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase positive Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Teicoplanin resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae. The AgNPs coated surgical threads (suture) were revealed the remarkble antibacterial activity against three MDR strains. This is the first report to synthesize antimicrobial elliptical AgNPs using enzymes. The results suggest the possibilities to develop the nanoparticles coated antimicrobial medical fabric to combat against MDR infection.

  13. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  14. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  15. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  16. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  17. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  19. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  20. Restricted Variance Interaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Keeler, Kathleen R.

    2018-01-01

    Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV int...

  1. The effect of whole-grain compared to refined wheat on the gut microbial composition and integrity in a colonic epithelial cell model following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.

    in postmenopausal women who were randomized to either whole-grain wheat (WW) (n=38) or refined wheat (RW) (n=34) consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet for 12-weeks following a 2-week run-in period with RW. Percentage fat mass as well as serum total and LDL cholesterol were found to differ between the two...

  2. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate......Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  3. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  4. About 'restriction', 'justified' and 'necessary'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The article is an academic fairy tale about why and how all national corporate tax protection legislation should undergo a 3-part test to ensure its consistency with EU law. Each Member State introduce a compulsory 3-step test for each new (corporate) tax provision. The test is simple: (1) Does...... the tax provision constitute a restriction in the sense of EU law? (2) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction justified? (3) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction necessary?"...

  5. An evaluation of the Essential Medicines List, Standard Treatment Guidelines and prescribing restrictions, as an integrated strategy to enhance quality, efficacy and safety of and improve access to essential medicines in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Isaac B; Passmore, Phillip R; Sunderland, Bruce V

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has advocated the development and use of country specific Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) and Essential Medicines Lists (EML) as strategies to promote the rational use of medicines. When implemented effectively STGs offer many health advantages. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has official STGs and a Medical and Dental Catalogue (MDC) which serves as a national EML for use at different levels of health facilities. This study evaluated consistency between the PNG Adult STGs (2003 and 2012) and those for children (2005 and 2011) with respect to the MDCs (2002, 2012) for six chronic and/or acute diseases: asthma, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, pneumonia and psychosis. Additionally, the potential impact of prescriber level restrictions on rational medicines use for patient's living in rural areas, where no medical officer is present, was evaluated. Almost all drugs included in the STGs for each disease state evaluated were listed in the MDCs. However, significant discrepancies occurred between the recommended treatments in the STGs with the range of related medicines listed in the MDCs. Many medicines recommended in the STGs for chronic diseases had prescriber level restrictions hindering access for most of the PNG population who live in rural and remote areas. In addition many more medicines were listed in the MDCs which are commonly used to treat arthritis, high blood pressure and psychosis than were recommended in the STGs contributing to inappropriate prescribing. We recommend the public health and rational use of medicines deficiencies associated with these findings are addressed requiring: reviewing prescriber level restrictions; updating the STGs; aligning the MDC to reflect recommendations in the STGs; establishing the process where the MDC would automatically be updated based on any changes made to the STGs; and developing STGs for higher levels of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  6. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  7. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  8. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  9. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  10. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  11. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  12. The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance. Methods We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH). Results We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual). Conclusions A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks

  13. The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-10-26

    Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance. We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH). We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual). A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks exist, yet with some limitations. The IBM

  14. Cardiorespiratory effects of inelastic chest wall restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D; Beck, Kenneth C; Joyner, Michael J; Brice, A Glenn; Johnson, Bruce D

    2002-06-01

    We examined the effects of chest wall restriction (CWR) on cardiorespiratory function at rest and during exercise in healthy subjects in an attempt to approximate the cardiorespiratory interactions observed in clinical conditions that result in restrictive lung and/or chest wall changes and a reduced intrathoracic space. Canvas straps were applied around the thorax and abdomen so that vital capacity was reduced by >35%. Data were acquired at rest and during cycle ergometry at 25 and 45% of peak workloads. CWR elicited significant increases in the flow-resistive work performed on the lung (160%) and the gastric pressure-time integral (>400%) at the higher workload, but it resulted in a decrease in the elastic work performed on the lung (56%) compared with control conditions. With CWR, heart rate increased and stroke volume (SV) fell, resulting in >10% fall in cardiac output at rest and during exercise at matched workloads (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and catecholamines were significantly elevated during CWR exercise conditions (P < 0.05). We conclude that CWR significantly impairs SV during exercise and that a compensatory increase in heart rate does not prevent a significant reduction in cardiac output. O(2) consumption appears to be maintained via increased extraction and a redistribution of blood flow via sympathetic activation.

  15. Novel host restriction factors implicated in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dibya; Rai, Madhu; Gaur, Ritu

    2018-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is known to interact with multiple host cellular proteins during its replication in the target cell. While many of these host cellular proteins facilitate viral replication, a number of them are reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication at various stages of its life cycle. These host cellular proteins, which are known as restriction factors, constitute an integral part of the host's first line of defence against the viral pathogen. Since the discovery of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G) as an HIV-1 restriction factor, several human proteins have been identified that exhibit anti-HIV-1 restriction. While each restriction factor employs a distinct mechanism of inhibition, the HIV-1 virus has equally evolved complex counter strategies to neutralize their inhibitory effect. APOBEC3G, tetherin, sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain 1 (SAMHD1), and trim-5α are some of the best known HIV-1 restriction factors that have been studied in great detail. Recently, six novel restriction factors were discovered that exhibit significant antiviral activity: endoplasmic reticulum α1,2-mannosidase I (ERManI), translocator protein (TSPO), guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), serine incorporator (SERINC3/5) and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP). The focus of this review is to discuss the antiviral mechanism of action of these six restriction factors and provide insights into the probable counter-evasion strategies employed by the HIV-1 virus. The recent discovery of new restriction factors substantiates the complex host-pathogen interactions occurring during HIV-1 pathogenesis and makes it imperative that further investigations are conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-1 replication.

  16. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the activity of human CYP. However, with little confirming evidence from clinical studies, precaution should be exercised when patients are taking Chinese herbal medicines concomitantly with drugs that are CYP substrates. Currently there is sufficient evidence to indicate that herbal drug interactions can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequence. Further clinical trial research should be conducted to verify these herbal drug interactions. Education on herbal drug interactions and communication with patients on their use of herbal products is also important. PMID:26417310

  17. Effect of solvents on the enzyme mediated degradation of copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA) and their copolymers, poly (lactide-co-glycolide) and poly (D, L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) was investigated. The influence of different solvents on the degradation of these polymers at 37 °C in the presence of two different lipases namely Novozym 435 and the free lipase of porcine pancreas was investigated. The rate coefficients for the polymer degradation and enzyme deactivation were determined using continuous distribution kinetics. Among the homopolymers, the degradation of PGA was nearly an order of magnitude lower than that for PCL and PLA. The overall rate coefficients of the copolymers were higher than their respective homopolymers. Thus, PLCL degraded faster than either PCL or PLA. The degradation was highly dependent on the viscosity of the solvent used with the highest degradation observed in acetone. The degradation of the polymers in acetone was nearly twice that observed in dimethyl sulfoxide indicating that the degradation decreases with increase in the solvent viscosity. The degradation of the polymers in water-solvent mixtures indicated an optimal water content of 2.5 wt% of water. (paper)

  18. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  19. Restricted flows of soliton hierarchies: coupled KdV and Harry-Dym case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, M.; Rauch-Wojciechowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    Restricted flows of soliton hierarchies associated to the energy dependent Schroedinger spectral problem are determined explicitely. A remarkable connection with separable potentials is used for proving complete integrability of the restricted flows. A previously unknown lagrangian and hamiltonian formulation of the Neumann system is found. Whole families of generalizations of the Neumann and Garnier systems are given. (au)

  20. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  1. Classifying images using restricted Boltzmann machines and convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Xu, Tongde; Dai, Chenyu

    2017-07-01

    To improve the feature recognition ability of deep model transfer learning, we propose a hybrid deep transfer learning method for image classification based on restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). It integrates learning abilities of two models, which conducts subject classification by exacting structural higher-order statistics features of images. While the method transfers the trained convolutional neural networks to the target datasets, fully-connected layers can be replaced by restricted Boltzmann machine layers; then the restricted Boltzmann machine layers and Softmax classifier are retrained, and BP neural network can be used to fine-tuned the hybrid model. The restricted Boltzmann machine layers has not only fully integrated the whole feature maps, but also learns the statistical features of target datasets in the view of the biggest logarithmic likelihood, thus removing the effects caused by the content differences between datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed method has improved the accuracy of image classification, outperforming other methods on Pascal VOC2007 and Caltech101 datasets.

  2. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  3. The resurgence of selective contracting restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M; Verrilli, D K

    1997-10-01

    As managed care has spread, so has legislation to force plans to contract with any willing provider (AWP) and give patients freedom of choice (FOC). Managed care organizations' selective networks and provider integration reduce patient access to providers, along with provider access to paying patients, so many providers have lobbied for AWP-FOC laws. In opposition are managed care organizations (MCOs), which want full freedom to contract selectively to control prices and utilization. This article comprehensively describes laws in all fifty-one jurisdictions, classifies their relative strength, and assesses the implications of the laws. Most are relatively weak forms and all are limited in application by ERISA and the federal HMO Act. The article also uses an associative multivariate analysis to relate the selective contracting environments to HMO penetration rates, rural population, physician density, and other variables. States with weak laws also have higher HMO penetration and higher physician density, but smaller rural populations. We conclude that the strongest laws overly restrict the management of care, to the likely detriment of cost control. But where market power is rapidly concentrating, not restricting selective contracting could diminish long-term competition and patient access to care. In the face of uncertainty about the impact of these laws, an intermediate approach may be better than all or nothing. States should consider mandating that plans offer point-of-service options, for a separate premium. This option expands patient choice of plans at the time of enrollment and of providers at the time of care, yet maintains plans' ability to control core providers.

  4. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the skills test and the restriction, air brakes shall include any braking system operating fully or...; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.95 Restrictions. (a) Air brake restrictions... skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the State must indicate on the CDL, if issued...

  5. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  6. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...

  7. Restricted Predicates for Hypothetical Datalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sáenz-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical Datalog is based on an intuitionistic semantics rather than on a classical logic semantics, and embedded implications are allowed in rule bodies. While the usual implication (i.e., the neck of a Horn clause stands for inferring facts, an embedded implication plays the role of assuming its premise for deriving its consequence. A former work introduced both a formal framework and a goal-oriented tabled implementation, allowing negation in rule bodies. While in that work positive assumptions for both facts and rules can occur in the premise, negative assumptions are not allowed. In this work, we cover this subject by introducing a new concept: a restricted predicate, which allows negative assumptions by pruning the usual semantics of a predicate. This new setting has been implemented in the deductive system DES.

  8. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  9. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  10. Wireless Power Transfer Roadway Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles represent a major accomplishment in the energy and transportation industry. Unfortunately, they are restricted to a small travel range because of limited battery life. Successful integration of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems into the infrastructure would remove the range restrictions of EVs. To successfully integrate this technology, several requirements must be met. First, the embedment process cannot interfere with the electrical performance of the inductive power t...

  11. An ontology for major histocompatibility restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Randi; Overton, James A; Seymour, Emily; Sidney, John; Kaufman, Jim; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Ellis, Shirley; Hammond, John; Butcher, Geoff W; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    MHC molecules are a highly diverse family of proteins that play a key role in cellular immune recognition. Over time, different techniques and terminologies have been developed to identify the specific type(s) of MHC molecule involved in a specific immune recognition context. No consistent nomenclature exists across different vertebrate species. To correctly represent MHC related data in The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we built upon a previously established MHC ontology and created an ontology to represent MHC molecules as they relate to immunological experiments. This ontology models MHC protein chains from 16 species, deals with different approaches used to identify MHC, such as direct sequencing verses serotyping, relates engineered MHC molecules to naturally occurring ones, connects genetic loci, alleles, protein chains and multi-chain proteins, and establishes evidence codes for MHC restriction. Where available, this work is based on existing ontologies from the OBO foundry. Overall, representing MHC molecules provides a challenging and practically important test case for ontology building, and could serve as an example of how to integrate other ontology building efforts into web resources.

  12. A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon cellular entry retroviruses must avoid innate restriction factors produced by the host cell. For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme, p21 and tetherin are well characterised. Results To identify intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1 replication we screened 19,121 human genes and identified 114 factors with significant inhibition of infection. Those with a known function are involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes including receptor signalling, vesicle trafficking, transcription, apoptosis, cross-nuclear membrane transport, meiosis, DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and RNA processing. We focused on the PAF1 complex which has been previously implicated in gene transcription, cell cycle control and mRNA surveillance. Knockdown of all members of the PAF1 family of proteins enhanced HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration of provirus. Over-expression of PAF1 in host cells renders them refractory to HIV-1. Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses and HIV-2 are also restricted in PAF1 expressing cells. PAF1 is expressed in primary monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocytes and we demonstrate strong activity in MonoMac1, a monocyte cell line. Conclusions We propose that the PAF1c establishes an anti-viral state to prevent infection by incoming retroviruses. This previously unrecognised mechanism of restriction could have implications for invasion of cells by any pathogen.

  13. Intrauterine growth restriction - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been classically defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age, whereas intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined as a rate of foetal growth that is less than normal for the population and for the growth potential of a specific infant. SGA infants have more frequent problems such as perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and many more when compared with their appropriate for gestational age counterpart. They too have growth retardation and various major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, with higher rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality. With the advent of newer technologies, even though the perinatal diagnosis of these SGA/IUGR foetuses has increased, but still perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher than normal foetuses and infants. In this part, we have covered neonatal IUGR classification, postnatal diagnosis, short-term and long-term complications faced by these IUGR infants.

  14. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  15. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  16. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  18. Generating families in the restricted three-body problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hénon, Michel

    The classical restricted three-body problem is of fundamental importance because of its applications in astronomy and space navigation, and also as a simple model of a non-integrable Hamiltonian dynamical system. A central role is played by periodic orbits, of which many have been computed numerically. This is the second volume of an attempt to explain and organize the material through a systematic study of generating families, the limits of families of periodic orbits when the mass ratio of the two main bodies becomes vanishingly small. We use quantitative analysis in the vicinity of bifurcations of types 1 and 2. In most cases the junctions between branches can now be determined. A first-order approximation of families of periodic orbits in the vicinity of a bifurcation is also obtained. This book is intended for scientists and students interested in the restricted problem, in its applications to astronomy and space research, and in the theory of dynamical systems.

  19. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  20. Searching for integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Lack of integrability leads to undesirable consequences in a number of physical systems. The lack of integrability of the magnetic field leads to enhanced particle transport in stellarators and tokamaks with tearing-mode turbulence. Limitations of the luminosity of colliding beams may be due to the onset of stochasticity. Enhanced radial transport in mirror machines caused by the lack of integrability and/or the presence of resonances may be a significant problem in future devices. To improve such systems one needs a systematic method for finding integrable systems. Of course, it is easy to find integrable systems if no restrictions are imposed; textbooks are full of such examples. The problem is to find integrable systems given a set of constraints. An example of this type of problem is that of finding integrable vacuum magnetic fields with rotational transform. The solution to this problem is relevant to the magnetic-confinement program

  1. GENETIC CONTROL OF RESTRICTION AND MODIFICATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Herbert

    1964-01-01

    Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Genetic control of restriction and modification in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1652–1660. 1964.—Bacterial crosses with K-12 strains of Escherichia coli as Hfr donors (Hfr Hayes, Hfr Cavalli, and Hfr P4X-6) and B/r strains of E. coli as F− recipients were found to differ from crosses between K-12 Hfr donors and K-12 F− recipients in two ways: (i) recombinants (leu, pro, lac, and gal) did not appear at discrete time intervals but did appear simultaneously 30 min after matings were initiated, and (ii) the linkage of unselected markers to selected markers was reduced. Integration of a genetic region linked to the threonine locus of K-12 into the B/r genome resulted in a hybrid which no longer gave anomalous results in conjugation experiments. A similar region of the B strain was introduced into the K-12 strain, which then behaved as a typical B F− recipient. These observations are interpreted as the manifestation of host-controlled modification and restriction on the E. coli chromosome. This was verified by experiments on the restriction and modification of the bacteriophage lambda, F-lac, F-gal, and sex-factor, F1. It was found that the genetic region that controlled the mating responses of the K-12 and B/r strains also controlled the modification and restriction properties of these two strains. The genes responsible for the restricting and modifying properties of the K-12 and B strains of E. coli were found to be allelic, linked to each other, and linked to the threonine locus. PMID:14240953

  2. Universal Cycles of Restricted Classes of Words

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Arielle; Godbole, Anant

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that Universal Cycles of $k$-letter words on an $n$-letter alphabet exist for all $k$ and $n$. In this paper, we prove that Universal Cycles exist for restricted classes of words, including: non-bijections, equitable words (under suitable restrictions), ranked permutations, and "passwords".

  3. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  4. Protein restriction in chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECHTEN, JEKT; NAUTA, J; HOP, WCJ; de Jong, MCJ; REITSMABIERENS, WCC; VANAMSTEL, SLBP; VANACKER, KJ; NOORDZIJ, CM; WOLFF, ED

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a protein restricted diet on renal function and growth of children with chronic renal failure. In a multicentre prospective study 56 children (aged 2-18 years) with chronic renal failure were randomly assigned to the protein restricted (0.8-1.1

  5. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  6. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  7. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205... Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Funds made available under this subpart shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion...

  8. 28 CFR 804.3 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions. 804.3 Section 804.3 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS § 804.3 Restrictions. (a) The Agency is not authorized to accept gifts of money, stock...

  9. Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,

  10. R Factor-Controlled Restriction and Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Restriction Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Robert; Roulland-Dussoix, Daisy; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1972-01-01

    Restriction mutants of two different R factor-controlled host specificities (RI and RII) were isolated. All of the restriction mutants examined had a normal modification phenotype. No complementation was observed between the RI and RII host specificities. It is concluded that for each host specificity no protein subunit is shared by the restriction endonuclease and modification methylase. PMID:4565538

  11. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  12. Partial association of restriction polymorphism of the ligand binding domain of human androgen receptor in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hessien

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that the loss of the restriction integrity in the C-terminal part (exons: 7 and 8 of the LBD is associated with the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia to prostate cancer.

  13. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  14. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  15. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-01-01

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  16. distribution, abundance and properties of restriction enzymes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) I and II with a view to ... properties for manipulation of the genes for production of modified starch. .... procurement, storage and handling of the ..... been made on restriction enzymes of potato,.

  17. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Daiber, Andreas; Korac, Bato; Li, Huige; Essop, M Faadiel; Laher, Ismail

    2017-10-23

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance. Intermittent fasting is not only more acceptable to patients, but it also prevents some of the adverse effects of chronic calorie restriction, especially malnutrition. There are many somatic and potentially psychologic benefits of fasting or intermittent calorie restriction. However, some behavioral modifications related to abstinence of binge eating following a fasting period are crucial in maintaining the desired favorable outcomes.

  18. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...... restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. Methods: 35 adults (age......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting...

  19. Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kountzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.

  20. Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, Nitisha; Telenti, Amalio; Rausell, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies--offense or defence--as well as the level of specificity of the antiviral properties. Sequence analysis of primate orthologs of restriction factors serves to localize functional domains and sites responsible for antiviral action. We use recent discoveries to illustrate how evolutionary genomic analyses help identify new antiviral genes and their mechanisms of action.

  1. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  2. The welfare effects of mobility restrictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2003), s. 685-696 ISSN 1094-2025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : mobility restriction * partnership * search Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2003

  3. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Sqd to produce spatially-restricted Egfr activation...

  4. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Squid to produce spatially-restricted EGFR activation...

  5. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep artificial neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as density estimators. Thus, their generative and discriminative

  6. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During cogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster local Egfr activation by the spatially-restricted TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken (Grk...

  7. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  8. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  9. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  10. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  11. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Münk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors. Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.

  13. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  14. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  15. Integral or integrated marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davčik Nebojša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing theorists and experts try to develop business efficient organization and to get marketing performance at higher, business integrated level since its earliest beginnings. The core issue in this paperwork is the dialectic and practical approach dilemma should we develop integrated or integral marketing approach in the organization. The presented company cases as well as dialectic and functional explanations of this dilemma clearly shows that integrated marketing is narrower approach than integral marketing if we take as focal point new, unique and completed entity. In the integration the essence is in getting different parts together, which do not have to make necessary the new entity. The key elements in the definition of the integral marketing are necessity and holistic, e.g. necessity to develop new, holistic entity.

  16. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing Restriction Site Placement for Synthetic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Pablo; Memelli, Heraldo; Ward, Charles; Kim, Joondong; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.; Skiena, Steven

    Restriction enzymes are the workhorses of molecular biology. We introduce a new problem that arises in the course of our project to design virus variants to serve as potential vaccines: we wish to modify virus-length genomes to introduce large numbers of unique restriction enzyme recognition sites while preserving wild-type function by substitution of synonymous codons. We show that the resulting problem is NP-Complete, give an exponential-time algorithm, and propose effective heuristics, which we show give excellent results for five sample viral genomes. Our resulting modified genomes have several times more unique restriction sites and reduce the maximum gap between adjacent sites by three to nine-fold.

  18. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  19. Meta-Analysis of DNA Tumor-Viral Integration Site Selection Indicates a Role for Repeats, Gene Expression and Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Doolittle-Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncoviruses cause tremendous global cancer burden. For several DNA tumor viruses, human genome integration is consistently associated with cancer development. However, genomic features associated with tumor viral integration are poorly understood. We sought to define genomic determinants for 1897 loci prone to hosting human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV or Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV. These were compared to HIV, whose enzyme-mediated integration is well understood. A comprehensive catalog of integration sites was constructed from the literature and experimentally-determined HPV integration sites. Features were scored in eight categories (genes, expression, open chromatin, histone modifications, methylation, protein binding, chromatin segmentation and repeats and compared to random loci. Random forest models determined loci classification and feature selection. HPV and HBV integrants were not fragile site associated. MCPyV preferred integration near sensory perception genes. Unique signatures of integration-associated predictive genomic features were detected. Importantly, repeats, actively-transcribed regions and histone modifications were common tumor viral integration signatures.

  20. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies.

  1. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...... effectiveness canexceed the welfare loss from introducing new distortions. Moreover, it is found that the investment subsidy is gradually phased out of the welfare maximizing policy, which may be a policy combining the two subsidies, when the level of government spending is increased.Keywords: welfare ranking......, indirect and direct policy instruments, restricted government spending JEL: E61, O21, O41...

  2. Effects of restricted and free suckling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of restricted and free suckling in comparison with non-suckling on production and behaviour of cow and calf in dairy production systems. In the first and second study cows of Zebu × Holstein (n=24) and Holstein breed (n=27) and their calves were allocated to two treatments, restricted suckling (RS) and artificial rearing (AR) and studied during eight weeks. In the first study calves were present during milking and RS calves suckled after milking...

  3. 47 CFR 64.1200 - Delivery restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Advertising § 64.1200 Delivery restrictions. (a) No person or entity may: (1) Initiate any telephone call... telephone service, specialized mobile radio service, or other radio common carrier service, or any service... expect them to be included given the identification of the caller and the product being advertised. (6...

  4. Review: Neuroinflammation in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixey, Julie A; Chand, Kirat K; Colditz, Paul B; Bjorkman, S Tracey

    2017-06-01

    Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses. Few studies have focused on how growth restriction interferes with normal brain development in the IUGR neonate but recent studies in growth restricted animal models demonstrate increased neuroinflammation. This review describes the role of neuroinflammation in the progression of brain injury in growth restricted neonates. Identifying the mediators responsible for alterations in brain development in the IUGR infant is key to prevention and treatment of brain injury in these infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  6. On restricted context-free grammars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dassow, J.; Masopust, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2012), s. 293-304 ISSN 0022-0000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : context-free grammars * derivation restriction * normal forms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000011000572

  7. Determination of genotype differences through restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tyrosinase gene or C locus has long been implicated in the coat colour determination. This gene a copper-containing enzyme located on chromosome 11q14.3 is expressed in melanocytes and controls the major steps in pigment production. In camel, C locus a restriction site provoked by the T variant of the mutation was ...

  8. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of any of the following: Processed products; rendered products; bakery waste; candy waste; eggs... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions. 166.2 Section 166.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  10. A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulaitis, A.A.; Stakenas, P.S.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    CfrI, a new restriction endonuclease of unique substrate specificity, has been isolated from a Citrobacter freundii strain. The enzyme recognizes a degenerated sequence PyGGCCPu in double-strand DNA and cleaves it between Py and G residues to yield 5′ -protruding tetranucleotide ends GGCC. Images PMID:6294607

  11. A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii

    OpenAIRE

    Janulaitis, A.A.; Stakenas, P.S.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    CfrI, a new restriction endonuclease of unique substrate specificity, has been isolated from a Citrobacter freundii strain. The enzyme recognizes a degenerated sequence PyGGCCPu in double-strand DNA and cleaves it between Py and G residues to yield 5′ -protruding tetranucleotide ends GGCC.

  12. Strategies in intrauterine growth restriction at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Kim Esther

    2012-01-01

    To establish consensus and to collect evidence on the best management policy in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, the DIGITAT-trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term) was designed. The aim of the DIGITAT study was to compare the effect of induction of

  13. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since it's more difficult to maintain adequate sleep duration among night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our present study was to investigate whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night shift, affects HRV, in order to elucidate on cardiac autonomic modulation among ...

  14. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliate restrictions. 35.39 Section 35.39 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate...

  15. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Diana; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an

  16. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  17. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... and inadequate sleep is a common feature of night shift work. ... night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our ... whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night ... 10 Hence, the variability in heart rate, (with reduced ..... Long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  18. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti, Amelia; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rat Neutrophil Phagocytosis Following Feed Restriction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Berger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2002), s. 172-177 ISSN 0938-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : circulating neutrophil * diet restriction * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2001

  20. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  1. Restricted Choice in the Management of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, R. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Instances from case studies of comprehensive schools in the United Kingdom show that cultural influences restrict possibilities of "rational" action by educational leaders. This article warns against business theory and concludes that we need to know more about how people in schools make choices. (Author/TE)

  2. 32 CFR 701.44 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Fees § 701.44 Restrictions. (a) No fees may be charged by any DON activity if the costs of routine collection and processing of the fee are likely to equal or exceed the...

  3. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15 bluefish in, or harvested from, the EEZ unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a bluefish commercial permit or is issued a bluefish dealer permit. Persons aboard a vessel that...

  4. 38 CFR 1.462 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.462 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which §§ 1..., infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia may be acknowledged only if the patient's written consent is... with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia. (2) Any answer to a request for a disclosure of patient records...

  5. Intrauterine growth restriction: screening, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; Kingdom, John

    2013-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an obstetrical complication, which by definition would screen in 10% of fetuses in the general population. The challenge is to identify the subset of pregnancies affected with pathological growth restriction in order to allow intervention that would decrease morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this guideline is to provide summary statements and recommendations and to establish a framework for screening, diagnosis, and management of pregnancies affected with IUGR. Affected pregnancies are compared with pregnancies in which the fetus is at an appropriate weight for its gestational age. History, physical examination, and laboratory investigations including biochemical markers and ultrasound characteristics of IUGR are reviewed, and a management strategy is suggested. Published literature in English was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in January 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, IUGR, low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should increase clinician recognition of IUGR and guide intervention where appropriate. Optimal long-term follow-up of neonates diagnosed as IUGR may improve their long-term health.

  6. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  7. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2...

  8. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted articles. 1 319.75-2 Section 319.75-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-2 Restricted articles. 1 1 The importation of restricted articles may be subject to prohibitions or restrictions under...

  9. Species attribution and strain typing of Oenococcus oeni (formerly Leuconostoc oenos) with restriction endonuclease fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, C; Giovannetti, L; Granchi, L; Ventura, S

    1996-10-01

    In several wines, malolactic fermentation is required to improve the organoleptic characters and to stabilize the final product. In order to establish a controlled malolactic fermentation in wine, easy identification and sensitive typing of strains of Oenococcus oeni (new name of the malolactic bacterium Leuconostoc oenos) used as starter cultures are necessary. To accomplish these tasks, several strains of Oenococcus oeni isolated from wines of the Chianti region (Italy), along with reference strains and strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, L. carnosum, L. fallax, L. pseudomesenteroides, L. lactis and Weisella paramesenteroides, were studied with RFLP of ribosomal genes and ultrasensitive total DNA restriction pattern analysis performed on polyacrylamide gel. With each of four restriction endonucleases used, identical restriction profiles of ribosomal genes were obtained for all strains of O. oeni. These ribopatterns, being strongly dissimilar to profiles of the other lactic acid bacteria tested, appear to be well suited for the attribution of wine lactic acid bacteria to the species O. oeni. Cluster analysis performed on two total DNA restriction profile data sets showed that the species O. oeni possesses a good degree of genomic homogeneity. Very sensitive typing of strains of O. oeni was obtained with total DNA restriction profiles. The potential of an integrated approach using restriction profiles for species assignment and typing of selected malolactic bacteria is demonstrated.

  10. The Sexual Dimorphism of Dietary Restriction Responsiveness in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko Honjoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species. Here, we report an extreme sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness to DR in C. elegans; the essential hermaphrodites show marked longevity responses to various forms of DR, but the males show few longevity responses and sustain reproductive ability. Our analysis reveals that the sex determination pathway and the steroid hormone receptor DAF-12 regulate the sex-specific DR responsiveness, integrating sex and environmental cues to determine organismal lifespan.

  11. Predicting drug-target interactions using restricted Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2013-07-01

    In silico prediction of drug-target interactions plays an important role toward identifying and developing new uses of existing or abandoned drugs. Network-based approaches have recently become a popular tool for discovering new drug-target interactions (DTIs). Unfortunately, most of these network-based approaches can only predict binary interactions between drugs and targets, and information about different types of interactions has not been well exploited for DTI prediction in previous studies. On the other hand, incorporating additional information about drug-target relationships or drug modes of action can improve prediction of DTIs. Furthermore, the predicted types of DTIs can broaden our understanding about the molecular basis of drug action. We propose a first machine learning approach to integrate multiple types of DTIs and predict unknown drug-target relationships or drug modes of action. We cast the new DTI prediction problem into a two-layer graphical model, called restricted Boltzmann machine, and apply a practical learning algorithm to train our model and make predictions. Tests on two public databases show that our restricted Boltzmann machine model can effectively capture the latent features of a DTI network and achieve excellent performance on predicting different types of DTIs, with the area under precision-recall curve up to 89.6. In addition, we demonstrate that integrating multiple types of DTIs can significantly outperform other predictions either by simply mixing multiple types of interactions without distinction or using only a single interaction type. Further tests show that our approach can infer a high fraction of novel DTIs that has been validated by known experiments in the literature or other databases. These results indicate that our approach can have highly practical relevance to DTI prediction and drug repositioning, and hence advance the drug discovery process. Software and datasets are available on request. Supplementary data are

  12. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  14. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...... hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient's first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident...... growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during...

  15. Investment Restrictions and Contagion in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ilyina

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) to analyze an optimal portfolio rebalancing by a fund manager in response to a "volatility shock" in one of the asset markets, under sufficiently realistic assumptions about the fund manager's performance criteria and investment restrictions; and (2) to analyze the sensitivity of the equilibrium price of an asset to shocks originating in other fundamentally unrelated asset markets for a given mix of common investors. The analysis confirms that certain com...

  16. Optimal Detection under the Restricted Bayesian Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to find a suitable decision rule for a binary composite hypothesis-testing problem with a partial or coarse prior distribution. To alleviate the negative impact of the information uncertainty, a constraint is considered that the maximum conditional risk cannot be greater than a predefined value. Therefore, the objective of this paper becomes to find the optimal decision rule to minimize the Bayes risk under the constraint. By applying the Lagrange duality, the constrained optimization problem is transformed to an unconstrained optimization problem. In doing so, the restricted Bayesian decision rule is obtained as a classical Bayesian decision rule corresponding to a modified prior distribution. Based on this transformation, the optimal restricted Bayesian decision rule is analyzed and the corresponding algorithm is developed. Furthermore, the relation between the Bayes risk and the predefined value of the constraint is also discussed. The Bayes risk obtained via the restricted Bayesian decision rule is a strictly decreasing and convex function of the constraint on the maximum conditional risk. Finally, the numerical results including a detection example are presented and agree with the theoretical results.

  17. Meeting licensing restrictions from a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, V.R.; Ragan, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low level waste has experienced many changes necessitated by technical advancements which led to stricter controls and restrictions for shallow land disposal. Low level waste has evolved from simple contaminated items with minimal radioactivity, to complex waste streams requiring elaborate processing and containment of high quantities of radionuclides. Waste streams also require extensive analysis and qualification to meet many of the restrictions imposed at the burial facility and comply with national standards and regulations for classification. This paper presents a chronological history of many of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and the waste generators' abilities and inabilities to comply. In addition, case histories of some examples are discussed

  18. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  19. Restrictive annuloplasty to treat functional mitral regurgitation: optimize the restriction to improve the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Pasquale; Adragna, Nicola; Argano, Vincenzo

    2008-03-01

    Today, the 'gold standard' treatment of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is the subject of much discussion. Although restrictive annuloplasty is currently considered the most reproducible technique, the means by which the degree of annular restriction is optimized remains problematic. The study was designed in order to identify whether the degree of restriction of the mitral annulus could influence early and midterm results following the treatment of functional MR using restrictive annuloplasty. A total of 32 consecutive patients with functional MR grade > or = 3+ was enrolled, among whom the mean anterior-posterior (AP) mitral annulus diameter was 39 +/- 3 mm. Restrictive mitral annuloplasty (combined with coronary artery bypass grafting) was performed in all patients using a Carpentier-Edwards Classic or Physio ring (size 26 or 28). The degree of AP annular restriction was calculated for each patient, and correlated with early and mid-term residual MR and left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (in terms of LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) reduction). All surviving patients were examined at a one-year follow up. The mean AP mitral annulus restriction achieved was 48 +/- 4%. Intraoperatively, transesophageal echocardiography showed no residual MR in any patient. Before discharge from hospital, transthoracic echocardiography confirmed an absence of residual MR and showed significant LV reverse remodeling (LVEDV from 121 +/- 25 ml to 97 +/- 26 ml; LVEDD from 55 +/- 6 mm to 47 +/- 8 mm). A significant correlation (r = 0.57, p 40% of preoperative) appears to have a favorable influence on early postoperative LV reverse remodeling, and also allows for complete resolution of functional MR. In addition, 'no tolerance' of early residual MR seems to have a favorable influence on mid-term results, leading to a reduction in the one-year recurrence of significant MR.

  20. [Restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T; Urban, K; Karpas, K; Sponer, P

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain what proportion of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) complain of restricted knee joint motion, and to investigate options for improvement of this situation. Our evaluation included a group of 796 patients treated with TKA at our department in the period from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2004. In all cases, a condylar implant with preservation of the posterior cruciate ligaments was used. In addition to medical history, the range of motion, knee joint malalignment and radiological findings were assessed before surgery. After THA, the type of implant and complications, if any, were recorded, and improvement in joint motion was followed up. Based on the results of Kim et al., flexion contracture equal to or higher than 15 degrees and/or flexion less than 75 degrees were made the criteria of stiffness after THA. Patients with restricted THA motion who had aseptic or septic implant loosening were not included. Of the 796 evaluated patients, 32 (4.14 %) showed restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty, as assessed by the established criteria. In 16 patients, stiffness defined by these criteria had existed before surgery, and three patients showed an excessive production of adhesions and heterotopic ossifications. In three patients, the implantation procedure resulted in an elevated level of the original joint line and subsequent development of patella infera and increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. Four patients declined physical therapy and, in six, the main cause of stiffness could not be found. Seventeen patients did not require surgical therapy for restricted motion; TKA provided significant pain relief and they considered the range of motion achieved to be sufficient. One patient underwent redress 3 months after surgery, but with no success. Repeated releases of adhesions, replacement of a polyethylene liner and revision surgery of the extensor knee structures were performed in 15

  1. Third sound in a restricted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, P.W.; Draisma, W.A.; Pinkse, P.W.H.; Beelen, H. van; Jochemsen, R.; Frossati, G.

    1992-01-01

    Bergman's general treatment of third sound waves has been extended to a (restricted) parallel plate geometry. In a parallel plate geometry two independent third sound modes can propagate: a symmetric and an antisymmetric one. Calculations show that at temperatures below 1 K the antisymmetric mode carries the most important part of the temperature amplitude. Because of the relatively strong substrate influence the temperature amplitude of the symmetric mode is suppressed. The ΔT/Δh versus T measurements by Laheurte et al. and of the ΔT/Δh versus ω measurements by Ellis et al. are explained. 7 refs., 2 figs

  2. Identifying product order with restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Li, Zhenyu; Zhu, Qiong; Luo, Mingxing; Wan, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Unsupervised machine learning via a restricted Boltzmann machine is a useful tool in distinguishing an ordered phase from a disordered phase. Here we study its application on the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model, which features a partially ordered product phase. We train the neural network with spin configuration data generated by Monte Carlo simulations and show that distinct features of the product phase can be learned from nonergodic samples resulting from symmetry breaking. Careful analysis of the weight matrices inspires us to define a nontrivial machine-learning motivated quantity of the product form, which resembles the conventional product order parameter.

  3. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  4. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of passage through the restriction point and MCM loading in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, T. W.; Boye, E.; Stokke, T.; Grallert, B.; Syljuåsen, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Passage through the Retinoblastoma protein (RB1)-dependent restriction point and the loading of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) are two crucial events in G1-phase that help maintain genome integrity. Deregulation of these processes can cause uncontrolled proliferation and cancer development. Both events have been extensively characterized individually, but their relative timing and inter-dependence remain less clear. Here, we describe a novel method to simultaneously measure MCM loading and passage through the restriction point. We exploit that the RB1 protein is anchored in G1-phase but is released when hyper-phosphorylated at the restriction point. After extracting cells with salt and detergent before fixation we can simultaneously measure, by flow cytometry, the loading of MCMs onto chromatin and RB1 binding to determine the order of the two events in individual cells. We have used this method to examine the relative timing of the two events in human cells. Whereas in BJ fibroblasts released from G0-phase MCM loading started mainly after the restriction point, in a significant fraction of exponentially growing BJ and U2OS osteosarcoma cells MCMs were loaded in G1-phase with RB1 anchored, demonstrating that MCM loading can also start before the restriction point. These results were supported by measurements in synchronized U2OS cells. PMID:26250117

  6. A statistical mechanical approach to restricted integer partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is twofold: (1) suggesting a statistical mechanical approach to the calculation of the generating function of restricted integer partition functions which count the number of partitions—a way of writing an integer as a sum of other integers under certain restrictions. In this approach, the generating function of restricted integer partition functions is constructed from the canonical partition functions of various quantum gases. (2) Introducing a new type of restricted integer partition functions corresponding to general statistics which is a generalization of Gentile statistics in statistical mechanics; many kinds of restricted integer partition functions are special cases of this restricted integer partition function. Moreover, with statistical mechanics as a bridge, we reveal a mathematical fact: the generating function of restricted integer partition function is just the symmetric function which is a class of functions being invariant under the action of permutation groups. Using this approach, we provide some expressions of restricted integer partition functions as examples.

  7. Sales Restriction, Quality Selection and the Mode of Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Boccard, Nicolas; Wauthy, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    A regulator imposing "sales restrictions" on firms competing in oligopolistic markets may enhance quality provision by the firms. Moreover, for most restrictions levels, the impact on quality selection is invariant to the mode of competition.

  8. Restrictive Dermopathy: Molecular diagnosis of restrictive dermopathy in a stillborn fetus from a consanguineous Iranian family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaminejad, A.; Goodarzi, P.; Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Wehnert, Manfred S.

    2009-01-01

    Restrictive dermopathy (RD) is an autosomal recessive lethal human genetic disorder. It is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, tight and rigid skin with erosions, multiple joint contractures, lung hypoplasia, prominent superficial vasculature and epidermal hyperkeratosis. In the present report, we describe the first case of restrictive dermopathy in a stillborn fetus of Iranian origin, confirmed by molecular genetic diagnosis. In the index case (G-30159), a homozygous one base insertion in ZMPSTE24exon 9 (c.1085-1086insT) was identified. We believe that by increasing awareness of this disease in clinicians, gynecologists and pathologists, we may be able to help families who have had suspected cases of restrictive dermopathy be diagnosed and offer molecular testing in carriers and prenatal diagnosis to prevent the occurrence of further affected cases. (author)

  9. Can we restrict the health care menu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R

    1994-02-01

    The case of Britain's National Health Service is used to illuminate the cross-national debate about whether the availability of health care should be restricted and, if so, how this should be done. Traditionally, the NHS relied on implicit rationing by clinicians within budgetary constraints set by government. However, the logic of the 1989 reforms appeared to require explicit decisions about the packages of health care to be provided to local populations. In practice, purchasers have refused to define such packages. Explicit rationing remains very much the exception. Exploring the reasons for this suggests that defining a restricted menu of health care, by adopting a cost-utility approach and excluding specific procedures or forms of treatment on the Oregon model, is only one of many policy options. There is a large repertory of policy tools for balancing demands and resources, ranging from diluting the intensity of treatment to its earlier termination. Given that health care is characterised by uncertainty, lack of information about outcomes and patient heterogeneity, it may therefore be more 'rational' to diffuse decision-making among clinicians and managers than to try to move towards a centrally determined menu of entitlements.

  10. Restricted Interval Guelph permeameter: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    A constant head permeameter system has been developed for use in small diameter boreholes with any orientation. It is based upon the original Guelph permeameter concept of using a Mariotte siphon reservoir to control the applied head. The new tool, called a Restricted Interval Guelph (RIG) permeameter uses either a single pneumatic packer or straddle packer to restrict the area through which water is allowed to flow so that the borehole wetted area is independent of the applied head. The RIG permeameter has been used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the nonwelded rhyolitic Paintbrush Tuff. Analysis of the acquired data is based upon saturated-unsaturated flow theory that relies upon the quasi-linear approximation to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and the a parameter (sorptive number) of the exponential relative hydraulic conductivity pressure head relationship. These results are compared with a numerical model based upon the solution of the Richards equation using a van Genuchten capillary pressure-saturation formulation. The numerical model incorporates laboratory capillary pressure versus saturation functions measured from cores taken from nearby boreholes. Comparison between the analytical and numerical approaches shows that the simple analytic model is valid for analyzing the data collected. Sensitivity analysis performed with the numerical model shows that the RIG permeameter is an effective tool for estimating permeability and sorptive number for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff

  11. 36 CFR 1275.58 - Deletion of restricted portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of restricted... HISTORICAL MATERIALS OF THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Access by the Public § 1275.58 Deletion of restricted... materials after the deletion of the portions which are restricted under this § 1275.50 or § 1275.52. ...

  12. Intermittent′ restrictive ventricular septal defect in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir S Shetkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is usually large and non-restrictive with equalization of right and left ventricular pressures. Restrictive VSD in TOF is rare. We present an unusual case of TOF with restriction to VSD caused by accessory tricuspid valve tissue that varied with respiration.

  13. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall maintain...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1174 - Whale water restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whale water restrictions. 13... Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1174 Whale water restrictions. (a) May 15 through September 30, the following waters are designated as whale waters. (1) Waters north of a line drawn from Point Carolus to...

  15. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or similar...

  16. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gear areas. 697.23 Section 697... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed...) Restricted Gear Area I—(1) Duration—(i) Mobile Gear. From October 1 through June 15 of each fishing year, no...

  17. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  18. 5 CFR 1304.4605 - Post-employment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post-employment restrictions. 1304.4605 Section 1304.4605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST § 1304.4605 Post-employment restrictions. (a) General Restrictions Applicable...

  19. Motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity alterations in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Batalle, Dafnis; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with short- and long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Structural brain changes underlying these alterations have been described with the use of different magnetic resonance-based methods that include changes in whole structural brain networks. However, evaluation of specific brain circuits and its correlation with related functions has not been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction. In this study, we aimed to investigate differences in tractography-related metrics in cortico-striatal-thalamic and motor networks in intrauterine growth restricted children and whether these parameters were related with their specific function in order to explore its potential use as an imaging biomarker of altered neurodevelopment. We included a group of 24 intrauterine growth restriction subjects and 27 control subjects that were scanned at 1 year old; we acquired T1-weighted and 30 directions diffusion magnetic resonance images. Each subject brain was segmented in 93 regions with the use of anatomical automatic labeling atlas, and deterministic tractography was performed. Brain regions included in motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic networks were defined based in functional and anatomic criteria. Within the streamlines that resulted from the whole brain tractography, those belonging to each specific circuit were selected and tractography-related metrics that included number of streamlines, fractional anisotropy, and integrity were calculated for each network. We evaluated differences between both groups and further explored the correlation of these parameters with the results of socioemotional, cognitive, and motor scales from Bayley Scale at 2 years of age. Reduced fractional anisotropy (cortico-striatal-thalamic, 0.319 ± 0.018 vs 0.315 ± 0.015; P = .010; motor, 0.322 ± 0.019 vs 0.319 ± 0.020; P = .019) and integrity cortico-striatal-thalamic (0.407 ± 0.040 vs 0.399 ± 0.034; P = .018; motor, 0.417 ± 0.044 vs 0

  20. Störmer problem restricted to a spherical surface and the Euler and Lagrange tops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piña, Eduardo; Cortés, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In a recent work, Cortés and Poza (2015 Eur. J. Phys. 36 055009) analysed, in full, the dynamics of a charged particle in the field of a magnetic dipole restricted to a spherical surface with the dipole at its centre. This model can be considered as the classical non-relativistic Störmer problem on a sphere. Here, we started from a Lagrangian approach: we derived the Hamilton equations of motion and observed that in this restricted case the equations can be reduced to quadratures, and they were integrated numerically. From the Hamiltonian function we found, for the polar angle, an equivalent one-dimensional system of a particle in the presence of an effective potential. In the present work we start from a change of variable to the cosine of the polar angle. In terms of this variable we obtain an equation that turns out to be the same as the one of a particle in a quartic potential. Then, we can actually solve the equations of motion for the polar angle using Jacobi elliptic functions, and for the azimuthal angle we use the same integrals which were expressed by Jacobi in terms of theta functions, both in the Euler and Lagrange tops. In this restricted Störmer problem, the student at undergraduate or graduate level will have a good example of an integrable nonlinear physical system in which, after analysis of its complex dynamics, one can obtain an analytical solution by means of some special functions of mathematical physics. Additionally, one discovers that the equations of motion of this restricted case of a charge in a magnetic dipole field have the same mathematical structure as the corresponding equations of other well known integrable classical dynamical systems. (paper)

  1. Essential restriction on the symmetry of a unified theory for the case of massive gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, N.; Pati, C.

    1976-01-01

    In unified gauge theories with massive 'color' gluons, the physical requirement of maintaining 'color' SU(3) as a global classification symmetry is shown to lead to the following restrictions: (i) the local unifying symmetry group must be of the form Gsub(flavor)xGsub(color); (ii) quarks are to be integer charged; (iii) the number of flavors is an integral multiple of the number of 'colors'. (Auth.)

  2. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  3. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  4. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  5. Restrictions on the transnational movement of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Kraemer, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the United States policy on uranium imports. Recently, the US has moved closer to placing legislative restrictions on enrichment by DOE of foreign-origin uranium and has imposed a ban on the import of South African uranium ore and uranium oxide. American uranium producers have also sought relief in the courts against competition from abroad. The impetus for these events comes from a glut of uranium on world markets coupled with the existence of uranium mines outside the US with significant cost advantages over US producers. The remedies sought by the latter, if adopted, hold the potential for broad disruption of significant commercial interests in international trade in nuclear materials and could adversely affect US nonproliferation objectives (NEA) [fr

  6. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  7. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  8. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S P

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  9. Botulinum toxin for treatment of restrictive strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Pilar S; Vera, Rebeca E; Mariñas, Laura G; Gómez de Liaño, Pilar S; Escribano, Jose V

    To study the types of acquired restrictive strabismus treated in a tertiary hospital and the outcome of treatment with botulinum toxin. We performed a 10-year retrospective study of patients with restrictive strabismus aged ≥18 years who were treated with botulinum toxin. Treatment was considered successful if the final vertical deviation was ≤5 PD, horizontal deviation ≤10 PD, with no head turn or diplopia. We included 27 cases (mean age, 61.9 years). Horizontal strabismus was diagnosed in 11.1%, vertical in 51.9%, and mixed in 37%. Strabismus was secondary to cataract surgery in 6 cases, high myopia in 6, orbital fractures in 5, retinal surgery in 5, Graves ophthalmopathy in 4, and repair of conjunctival injury in 1 case. Diplopia was diagnosed in all patients, head turn in 33.3%. The initial deviation was 14 PD (range, 2-40), the mean number of injections per patient was 1.6 (range, 1-3), and the mean dose was 9.5 IU (range, 2.5-22.5). At the end of follow-up, diplopia was recorded in 59.3%, head turn in 18.5%, surgical treatment in 51.9%, and need for prism glasses in 14.8%. Outcome was successful in 37% of patients (4 high myopia, 3 orbital fractures, 2 post-surgical retinal detachment, and 1 post-cataract surgery). Mean follow-up was 3±1.8 years. Vertical deviation was observed in half of the sample. The most frequent deviation was secondary to cataract surgery and high myopia. Treatment with botulinum toxin was successful in one-third of the patients at the end of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Marek

    2008-11-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain.

  11. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydlowski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain

  12. Automated computation of one-loop integrals in massless theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameren, A. van; Vollinga, J.; Weinzierl, S.

    2005-01-01

    We consider one-loop tensor and scalar integrals, which occur in a massless quantum field theory, and we report on the implementation into a numerical program of an algorithm for the automated computation of these one-loop integrals. The number of external legs of the loop integrals is not restricted. All calculations are done within dimensional regularization. (orig.)

  13. Secure Supply Chains : Design Restrictions & Organizational Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludema, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    An important issue in the design of secure supply chains is the understanding of the relation between supply chains and the organizational responsibility of specific parts of these supply chains. Organizational boundaries change over time by means of vertical and/or horizontal (des)-integration and

  14. Pedagogical integration and regionalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gustafsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this research is concerned with the intentions of pedagogical integration and the notion of an expanded concept of teaching as described in the National School Curriculum of Sweden. In the analysis a theoretical synthesis comprising critical discourse analysis and sociological theories of institutional identities and processes is used through a policy ethnography approach. Purpose has been focus on the relationship between the formal, written curriculum and specific, local, classroom practices. The analysis shows that the Pedagogical dimensions of integration were transformed toward economic interests and control at the local political level. Education work is distinctly regionalising into two so-called safety zones, and a hybrid zone. Four different pedagogical identities are also identified in the analysis. The analysis thus suggests that the creation of safety zones restricts education work to pre-existing patterns. Only the hybrid zone is presently carrying a potential to significantly renew education and encourage and social change.

  15. Restricting Factors at Modification of Parameters of Associative Engineering Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, László

    Advancements in product development have reached full integration of engineering activities and processes in product lifecycle management (PLM) systems. PLM systems are based on high-level modeling, simulation and data management. Despite significant development of modeling in PLM systems, a strong demand was recognized for improved decision assistance in product development. Decision assistance can be improved by application of methods from the area of computer intelligence. In order for a product development company to stay competitive, it is important for its modeling system to be relied on local even personal knowledge. The authors analyzed current PLM systems for shortcomings and possibilities for extended intelligence at decision-making during product development. They propose methods in order to increase suitability of current modeling systems to accommodate knowledge based IT at definition of sets of parameters of modeled objects and in the management of frequent changes of modeled objects. In the center of the proposed methodology, constrained parameters act as restricting factors at definition and modification of parameters of associative engineering objects. Paper starts with an outlook to modeling in current engineering systems and preliminary results by the authors. Following this, groups of essential information as handled by he proposed modeling are summarized and procedures for processing of that groups of information are detailed. Next, management of chains of changes along chains of associa-tive product objects and a new style of decision assistance in modeling systems are explained. Changes are created or verified by behavior analysis. Finally, behavior analysis, human intent combination, product data view creation, and change management are discussed as the proposed integrated and coordinated methodology for enhanced support of decision-making in product development.

  16. Integrated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions

  17. 3D Inkjet Printed Helical Antenna with Integrated Lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    The gain of an antenna can be enhanced through the integration of a lens, although this technique has traditionally been restricted to planar antennas due to fabrication limitations of standard manufacturing processes. Here, through a unique

  18. Molecular mechanisms of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli Krishna, Rao; Vishnu Bhat, B

    2017-07-10

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pregnancy specific disease characterized by decreased growth rate of fetus than the normal growth potential at particular gestational age. In the current scenario it is a leading cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the last decade exhilarating experimental studies from several laboratories have provided fascinating proof for comprehension of molecular basis of IUGR. Atypical expression of enzymes governed by TGFβ causes the placental apoptosis and altered expression of TGFβ due to hyper alimentation causes impairment of lung function. Crosstalk of cAMP with protein kinases plays a prominent role in the regulation of cortisol levels. Increasing levels of NOD1 proteins leads to development of IUGR by increasing the levels of inflammatory mediators. Increase in leptin synthesis in placental trophoblast cells is associated with IUGR. In this review, we emphasize on the regulatory mechanisms of IUGR and its associated diseases. They may help improve the in-utero fetal growth and provide a better therapeutic intervention for prevention and treatment of IUGR.

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  20. Estimation of fluctuation in restricted energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Nagata, K.

    1983-01-01

    Restricted Energy Loss (REL) is defined as an energy loss [(dE/dX)/sub E//sub delta/<ν/] that produced the delta-rays of energies less than some specified energy ν and is often used as a simple measure of track structure. For example, REL is a measure of track formation threshold in plastic track detector and the growth rate of track in chemical etching solution is considered to depend only on REL given along the track. Using a stack of elastic sheets, recently, it became possible to identify isotopes of incident particles. In that case, the limit of mass resolution is determined by fluctuation of REL in the length of etch pit produced along the path of particle. A computer program was developed to calculate the probability distribution for energy deposition in absorber allowing for electron escape. In this calculation, it is assumed that all electrons with energies greater than a certain value epsilon/sub d/ escape. This means that this calculation directly gives the fluctuation of REL. Therefore, we tried to use the computer program to estimate the ultimate mass resolution in plastic detector. In this paper, we show firstly the comparison of ASB's calculation with the experimental results obtained by a gas counter and next the results of estimation of ultimate mass resolution in plastic detectors

  1. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  3. [Sodium restriction during pregnancy: an outdated advice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, P W; Peeters, L L

    1999-10-23

    Even in an early phase of pregnancy marked haemodynamic changes occur, including a fall in vascular resistance and blood pressure and a rise in cardiac output. To compensate for the increased intravascular capacity the kidney retains more sodium and water. Apparently, the set point of sodium homeostasis shifts to a higher level at the expense of an expansion of extracellular volume. Studies during the normal menstrual cycle have shown that these changes, albeit smaller, also occur during the luteal phase. These fluctuations with the menstrual cycle are less apparent if salt intake is low, suggesting that a high salt intake is needed to facilitate the process of sodium retention. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia body fluid volumes are low with an enhanced tendency to retain sodium after a volume challenge. These data, together with the lack of an apparent benefit of sodium restriction, suggest that the practice of prescribing a low-salt diet to hypertensive pregnant women should be abandoned.

  4. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  5. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  7. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    the level of ligand production, that result in human breast cancer. We have integrated genetic and biochemical methods to study (1) the effects of a...and spindle-B encode components of the RAD52 DNA repair pathway and affect meiosis and patterning in Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Dev 12, 2711-2723...findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision

  8. Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite the international controversies surrounding religious restrictions and freedoms, the topic has only recently received substantial research attention. Drawing on this new body of research, and multiple research projects in progress, this address explores both the origins and consequences of religious restrictions in the global arena. To understand the motives for restrictions, I propose hypotheses in three areas: the relationship or lack of relationship between institutional religion and the state, the willingness and capacity of the state to ensure freedoms, and the larger social and cultural pressures restricting freedoms, including social and political movements targeting minority religions. Turning to the consequences of religious restrictions, I explore how and why restrictions alter the religious economy (i.e., formation, supply and operation of religions) and are associated with higher levels of religious persecution, religious violence and intrastate conflict in general. Finally, I review additional areas where research is needed. PMID:25364225

  9. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    activity restriction more often than obstetricians in five of the nine scenarios, in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, cervical ripening, total placenta praevia, and intrauterine growth restriction, whereas no differences were found in the remaining scenarios. Compared...... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish...... obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....

  10. Host Specificity of Salmonella typhimurium Deoxyribonucleic Acid Restriction and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Harvey; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1973-01-01

    The restriction and modification genes of Salmonella typhimurium which lie near the thr locus were transferred to a restrictionless mutant of Escherichia coli. These genes were found to be allelic to the E. coli K, B, and A restriction and modification genes. E. coli recombinants with the restriction and modification host specificity of S. typhimurium restricted phage λ that had been modified by each of the seven known host specificities of E. coli at efficiency of plating levels of about 10−2. Phage λ modified with the S. typhimurium host specificity was restricted by six of the seven E. coli host specificities but not by the RII (fi− R-factor controlled) host specificity. It is proposed that the restriction and modification enzymes of this S. typhimurium host specificity have two substrates, one of which is a substrate for the RII host specificity enzymes. PMID:4570605

  11. Economic Integration and Political Disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg

    1997-01-01

    Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...

  12. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Cosmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered.

  13. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300 and reaction time [visual (VRT and auditory (ART] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st day, fourth (4th day and seventh (7th day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18–35 years (n=50 after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep (n=28 working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h; Group II-(Restricted sleep (n=22 - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h. Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ʻtʼ test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSSscore, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  14. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Kishanrao, Sadawarte Sahebrao; Dadarao Dhanvijay, Anup Kumar; Alam, Tanwir

    2016-01-01

    Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300) and reaction time [visual (VRT) and auditory (ART)] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st) day, fourth (4th) day and seventh (7th) day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18-35 years) (n=50) after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep) (n=28) working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h); Group II-(Restricted sleep) (n=22) - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h). Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ' t ' test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSS)score, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  15. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  16. Activity restriction among women with a short cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Gilbert, Sharon A; Iams, Jay D; Spong, Catherine Y; Saade, George; Mercer, Brian M; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sorokin, Yoram; Leveno, Kenneth J; Tolosa, Jorge E; Thorp, John M; Caritis, Steve N; Van Dorsten, J Peter

    2013-06-01

    To estimate determinants of and outcomes associated with activity restriction among women with a short cervix. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of preterm birth among nulliparous women with singleton gestations and cervices less than 30 mm by midtrimester ultrasonography. Women were asked weekly whether they had been placed on pelvic, work, or nonwork rest. "Any activity restriction" was defined as being placed on any type of rest. Factors associated with any activity restriction were determined and the association between preterm birth and activity restriction was estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Of the 657 women in the trial, 646 (98%) responded to questions regarding activity restriction. Two hundred fifty-two (39.0%) were placed on any activity restriction at a median of 23.9 weeks (interquartile range 22.6-27.9 weeks). Women on activity restriction were older, more likely to have private insurance, less likely to be Hispanic, had a shorter cervical length, and were more likely to have funneling and intra-amniotic debris. Preterm birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation was more common among women placed on activity restriction (37% compared with 17%, Prestriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.60-3.53). Results were similar for preterm birth at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Activity restriction did not reduce the rate of preterm birth in asymptomatic nulliparous women with a short cervix.

  17. Can early protein restriction induce the development of binge eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechine, Madge Farias; Borba, Tássia Karin; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Lopes-de-Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that perinatal undernourishment is a factor for binge eating. At 52 days rats born from dams fed on 17% protein (Control) or 8% protein (Undernourished) were distributed into four groups, two of which continued to be fed ad libitum chow and two were submitted to three consecutive Restricted/Refeeding (R/R) cycles. According to the following schedule: Control Naïve (from mothers fed 17% protein/no restriction phase); Control Restricted (from mothers fed 17% protein/restriction phase); Undernourished Naïve (from mothers fed 8% protein/no restriction phase); and Undernourished Restricted (from mothers fed 8% protein/restriction phase). Each cycle consisted of a restriction phase (in the first four days 40% of the mean daily individual chow intake was offered for consumption), followed by a refeeding phase (4 days of chow ad libitum). After the three cycles, all animals were subjected to a feeding test (chow diet and palatable food ad libitum for 24h). During the feeding test, the Undernourished Restricted demonstrated rebound hyperphagia during 2, 4 and 6h. These results suggest the perinatal undernourishment cannot contribute to a binge eating phenotype. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  19. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Protect stores and industrial supplies from tampering. (b) Designation of restricted areas. The OCS... stores and industrial supplies; and (vii) Areas containing hazardous materials. (c) The OCS facility...

  20. Understanding the Multidimensional Effects of Resident Duty Hours Restrictions: A Thematic Analysis of Published Viewpoints in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Katharine S; Kim, Michael J; Gotlib Conn, Lesley; Wright, Frances C; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Keshet, Itay; Ahmed, Najma

    2018-02-01

    Individuals representing various surgical disciplines have expressed concerns with the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) restrictions on resident education and patient outcomes. This thematic review of published viewpoints aimed to describe the effects of these restrictions in surgery. The authors conducted a qualitative systematic review of non-research-based literature published between 2003 and 2015. Articles were included if they focused on the RDH restrictions in surgery and resident wellness, health promotion, resident safety, resident education and/or training, patient safety, medical errors, and/or heterogeneity regarding training or disciplines. A thematic analysis approach guided data extraction. Contextual data were abstracted from the included articles to aid in framing the identified themes. Of 1,482 identified articles, 214 were included in the review. Most were from authors in the United States (144; 67%) and focused on the 80-hour workweek (164; 77%). The emerging themes were organized into three overarching categories: (1) impact of the RDH restrictions, (2) surgery has its own unique culture, and (3) strategies going forward. Published opinions suggested that RDH restrictions alone are insufficient to achieve the desired outcomes and that careful consideration of the surgical training model is needed to maintain the integrity of educational outcomes. Opinions from the surgical community highlight the complexity of issues surrounding the RDH restrictions and suggest that recent changes are not achieving all the desired outcomes and have resulted in unintended outcomes. From the perceptions of the various stakeholders in surgical education studied, areas for new policies were identified.

  1. Gauge Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some authors have formalized the integral in the Mizar Mathematical Library (MML. The first article in a series on the Darboux/Riemann integral was written by Noboru Endou and Artur Korniłowicz: [6]. The Lebesgue integral was formalized a little later [13] and recently the integral of Riemann-Stieltjes was introduced in the MML by Keiko Narita, Kazuhisa Nakasho and Yasunari Shidama [12].

  2. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  3. A FIRST APPROACH TO THE LEXICAL PROFILE OF TELECOMMUNICATION ENGLISH: FREQUENCY, DISTRIBUTION, RESTRICTION AND KEYNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino Rea Rizzo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This corpus-based study is conducted to gain an insight into the lexis of Telecommunication English, with the aim of characterizing the lexical profile of this specialized language. The applied methodology integrates quantitative techniques and qualitative interpretations to perform an analysis from two different perspectives, and according to two parameters: restriction and keyness. The first approach is focused on the lexical behaviour and the extent that a word is restricted to the constituent areas of a domain, whereas the second approach is directed towards the extent that a word is significant in the domain, regardless of lexical category. The set of empirical and statistical data obtained contribute to map the lexical profile and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  4. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  5. Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction.......Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction....

  6. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  7. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central Intelligence...

  8. 32 CFR 234.12 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 234.12 Section 234.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.12 Restriction on animals. Animals, except guide dogs...

  9. 32 CFR 228.15 - Restriction regarding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction regarding animals. 228.15 Section 228.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.15 Restriction regarding animals. No animals except...

  10. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14... livestock restricted. (a) No person other than an enrolled member of the tribe or any association... livestock from tribal members without a special permit issued by the Commissioner. (b) The Commissioner...

  11. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites was ass...

  12. Cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guerineau, Luciana; Perez-Cruz, Miriam; Gomez Roig, María D; Cambra, Francisco J; Carretero, Juan; Prada, Fredy; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fátima; Bartrons, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates. Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e') diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group. Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.

  13. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  14. 49 CFR 236.813a - State, most restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State, most restrictive. 236.813a Section 236.813a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... State, most restrictive. The mode of an electric or electronic device that is equivalent to a track...

  15. ECO-generation for some restricted classes of compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Baril

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We study several restricted classes of compositions by giving one-to-one maps between them and different classes of restricted binary strings or pattern avoiding permutations. Inspired by the ECO method \\cite{BDPP99}, new succession rules for these classes are presented. Finally, we obtain generating algorithms in Constant Amortized Time (CAT for theses classes.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health District...

  17. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselstijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond

  18. Reduced Automatic Motivational Orientation Towards Food in Restricting Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    A striking and characteristic feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that they are extremely successful in regulating their food intake in a destructive manner. A possible explanation for the persistent character of their restricted food intake could be a loss of the

  19. 7 CFR 301.92 - Restrictions on interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on interstate movement. 301.92 Section... Restrictions on interstate movement. (a) No person may move interstate from any quarantined area any regulated... plant that was found infected with Phytophthora ramorum, unless such movement is in accordance with part...

  20. Growth throughout childhood of children born growth restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Fenny; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies that examine growth in growth-restricted children at birth do not discriminate between fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small for gestational age (SGA). These terms however are not synonymous. In SGA, stunting and increased weight gain have been reported. We do not know if this holds

  1. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... the best feed cost/kg gain values at restriction and re-alimentation. It is concluded that restricting growing pigs at 80% of the ad libitum intake of the control yields best performance and ... largely proved not to be very effective due to availability.

  2. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  3. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  4. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Qualitative versus quantitative feed restriction in Pekin breeder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    titative (60% of a group fed ad lib) feed restriction during the rearing period with a ... restriction to reduce growth rate and delay sexual maturity. Since the amount of .... ing in the cost of feed when compared to the more expensive ad lib diet.

  6. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  7. 48 CFR 1403.570 - Restrictions on contractor advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on contractor advertising. 1403.570 Section 1403.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... 1403.570 Restrictions on contractor advertising. ...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5462 - Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Securities § 615.5462 Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities. When consolidated and... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities. 615.5462 Section 615.5462 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND...

  9. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  10. 50 CFR 635.21 - Gear operation and deployment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear operation and deployment restrictions....21 Gear operation and deployment restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57701, Sept. 22, 2010. The green-stick gear authorization requirements under paragraphs (c)(2)(v)(A), (c)(2)(v)(B...

  11. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  12. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  13. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  14. 50 CFR 640.22 - Gear and diving restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear and diving restrictions. 640.22... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.22 Gear and diving restrictions. (a) Prohibited gear and methods. (1) A spiny lobster may not be taken in the EEZ with a spear, hook, or similar device, or gear containing such...

  15. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp...

  16. 37 CFR 1.144 - Petition from requirement for restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.144 Petition from requirement for restriction. After a final..., may petition the Director to review the requirement. Petition may be deferred until after final action on or allowance of claims to the invention elected, but must be filed not later than appeal. A...

  17. 37 CFR 1.142 - Requirement for restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at any time before final action. (b) Claims to the invention or inventions not elected, if not... Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.142 Requirement for restriction. (a) If two or more independent and distinct inventions are claimed in a single application, the examiner in an Office action will...

  18. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  19. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  20. [Restrictions for ICD patients in daily life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbe, Julia; Gradaus, Rainer; Zumhagen, Sven; Böcker, Dirk

    2005-11-01

    Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may experience loss of consciousness. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) may trigger undesired or inhibit necessary therapy in patients with an ICD. Therefore, questions about personal or professional activities for ICD patients arise. Restricting driving or other personal activities has adverse effects on the patient's quality of life. The national Societies of Cardiology provide recommendations for ICD patients concerning driving of motor vehicles. Patients with an ICD that is implanted prophylactically do not have to refrain from driving after recovery from the implantation procedure. Patients with arrhythmias are classified into different groups depending on the risk of recurrence of tachycardias and symptoms. Commercial driving is not allowed for patients with an ICD in Germany except for those with a prophylactic indication without a history of arrhythmias. Those patients may drive small cars but no trucks or busses. Guidelines for medical fitness in commercial or military flying are regulated by the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and ventricular tachycardias are a contraindication for both. Fortunately, loss of consciousness is not dangerous in most jobs. Strong sources of EMI can occur at special workplaces. Patients have to be advised and tested individually concerning their risk for EMI at their employment site before returning safely. Modern life exposes to an increasing amount of EMI. Intact household devices usually do not interfere with ICDs. Mobile phones may interfere with implanted devices. Interaction can be minimized by special precautions like maintaining a distance of minimum 10 cm between mobile phone and ICD. Electronic surveillance systems work differently and have the potential to interact with devices. Patients should be advised to pass those systems with avoiding longer exposure. The presence of an ICD is presently a contraindication for undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

  1. Integrability of a system of two nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukhunashvili, V.Z.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the inverse scattering method has achieved significant successes in the integration of nonlinear models that arise in different branches of physics. However, its region of applicability is still restricted, i.e., not all nonlinear models can be integrated. In view of the great mathematical difficulties that arise in integration, it is clearly worth testing a model for integrability before turning to integration. Such a possibility is provided by the Zakharov-Schulman method. The question of the integrability of a system of two nonlinear Schroedinger equations is resolved. It is shown that the previously known cases exhaust all integrable variants

  2. Restrictions in Availability of Drugs Used for Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Availability of drugs with high lethality has been hypothesized to increase the risk of self-poisoning suicides. A literature search concerning deliberate self-poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted, and the effect of restrictions in availability of barbiturates, tr...... in availability of drugs with high case fatality should be a part of suicide prevention strategies.......Availability of drugs with high lethality has been hypothesized to increase the risk of self-poisoning suicides. A literature search concerning deliberate self-poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted, and the effect of restrictions in availability of barbiturates......, tricyclic antidepressants, dextropropoxyphene, and weak analgesics was reviewed. The correlations between method-specific and overall suicide rates and sales figures for barbiturates, dextropropoxyphene, weak analgesics, and tricyclic antidepressants were reviewed. It is concluded that restriction...

  3. Retroviral restriction and dependency factors in primates and carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Hind J.; Poeschla, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have extended the rapidly developing retroviral restriction factor field to cells of carnivore species. Carnivoran genomes, and the domestic cat genome in particular, are revealing intriguing properties vis-à;-vis the primate and feline lentiviruses, not only with respect to their repertoires of virus-blocking restriction factors but also replication-enabling dependency factors. Therapeutic application of restriction factors is envisioned for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model has promise for testing important hypotheses at the basic and translational level. Feline cell-tropic HIV-1 clones have also been generated by a strategy of restriction factor evasion. We review progress in this area in the context of what is known about retroviral restriction factors such as TRIM5alpha, TRIMCyp, APOBEC3 proteins and BST-2/Tetherin. PMID:21715018

  4. Economic effects of restricting carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the economy-wide effects of reducing CO 2 emissions. NO x and SO 2 emissions can also be included. The policy questions can be approached either by estimating the emission taxes needed to achieve the given levels of emissions or by estimating the level of emissions given the level of taxes. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) is used in this analysis. The general equilibrium models deal with long-run effects, after all markets have equilibrated and all resources are optimally used. They are particularly well-suited to analyze long-run resource allocation, welfare losses and income distribution, beyond the short-run macroeconomic disturbances and business cycle phenomena. As the general equilibrium framework integrates all main economic sectors, the feedbacks and interrelationships between the various sectors are taken into account

  5. Restricted-range fishes and the conservation of Brazilian freshwaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Nogueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29% watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26% show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40% critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked

  6. Restricted-range fishes and the conservation of Brazilian freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Cristiano; Buckup, Paulo A; Menezes, Naercio A; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T; Kasecker, Thais P; Ramos Neto, Mario B; da Silva, José Maria C

    2010-06-30

    Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms) and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29%) watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26%) show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40%) critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked drainage systems. Proper management (e. g. forestry code enforcement, landscape

  7. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  8. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  9. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    Numerical integration of Maxwell's equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit finite difference

  10. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell''s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction

  11. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit –

  12. Biosurfactant and Degradative Enzymes Mediated Crude Oil Degradation by Bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Preetham, Elumalai; Machuca, Laura L.; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the biodegradation of the crude oil by the potential biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis A1 was investigated. The isolate had the ability to synthesize degradative enzymes such as alkane hydroxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase at the time of biodegradation of hydrocarbon. The biosurfactant producing conditions were optimized as pH 7.0, temperature 40°C, 2% sucrose and 3% of yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources for maximum production of biosurfactant (4.85 g l-1). Specifically, the low molecular weight compounds, i.e., C10–C14 were completely degraded, while C15–C19 were degraded up to 97% from the total hydrocarbon pools. Overall crude oil degradation efficiency of the strain A1 was about 87% within a short period of time (7 days). The accumulated biosurfactant from the biodegradation medium was characterized to be lipopeptide in nature. The strain A1 was found to be more robust than other reported biosurfactant producing bacteria in degradation efficiency of crude oil due to their enzyme production capability and therefore can be used to remove the hydrocarbon pollutants from contaminated environment. PMID:28232826

  13. Interorganisational Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite many initiatives to improve coordination of patient pathways and intersectoral cooperation, Danish health care is still fragmented, lacking intra- and interorganisational integration. This study explores barriers to and facilitators of interorganisational integration...... at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results can be grouped into five influencing areas for interorganisational integration: communication/information transfer, committed leadership, patient engagement, the role and competencies of the general practitioner...... and organisational culture. Proposed solutions to barriers in each area hold the potential to improve care integration as experienced by individuals responsible for supporting and facilitating it. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care relate to clinical, professional, functional and normative integration...

  14. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  15. Reduced effectiveness of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is associated with increased serotonin clearance rate in food restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, CP; Li, J-X; Owens, WA; Koek, W; Toney, GM; Daws, LC

    2012-01-01

    Efficacy of antidepressant drugs is often limited. One of the limiting factors may be diet. This study shows that the effect of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is diminished in rats by food restriction that decreased body weight by 8%. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Using high-speed chronoamperometry to measure 5-HT clearance in vivo in rats fed the same food restricted diet, the rate of 5-HT clearance from extracellular fluid in brain was dramatically increased. Increased 5-HT transporter function under conditions of dietary restriction might contribute to the decreased effect of escitalopram. These results suggest that diet plays an integral role in determining efficacy of antidepressant drugs, and might well generalize to other psychoactive drugs that impinge upon the 5-HT transporter. PMID:19419596

  16. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  17. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  18. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  19. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  20. Human cellular restriction factors that target HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings have highlighted roles played by innate cellular factors in restricting intracellular viral replication. In this review, we discuss in brief the activities of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G, bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, cyclophilin A, tripartite motif protein 5 alpha (Trim5α, and cellular microRNAs as examples of host restriction factors that target HIV-1. We point to countermeasures encoded by HIV-1 for moderating the potency of these cellular restriction functions.

  1. Predicting support for restricting food marketing to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-01-01

    To address the obesity crisis, public health experts recommend major reductions in the marketing of unhealthy food to youth. However, policies to restrict food marketing are not currently viewed as politically feasible. This paper examines attitudes and knowledge about food marketing and support for restricting unhealthy food marketing [corrected] among one group of constituents: parents. A survey of 807 parents found that those most likely to support food marketing restrictions were also more likely to have negative views of current food practices. [corrected] These findings suggest that increased public education about the harm caused by food marketing may increase public support for policy interventions.

  2. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  3. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    . There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions.......Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures...

  4. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body temperature (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in daily Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of daily torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956

  5. Division algebras with integral elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca, M.; Ozdes, N.

    1988-06-01

    Pairing two elements of a given division algebra furnished with a multiplication rule leads to an algebra of higher dimension restricted by 8. This fact is used to obtain the roots of SO(4) and SP(2) from the roots ±1 of SU(2) and the weights ±1/2 of its spinor representation. The root lattice of SO(8) described by 24 integral quaternions are obtained by pairing two sets of roots of SP(2). The root system of F 4 is constructed in terms of 24 integral and 24 ''half-integral'' quaternions. The root lattice of E 8 expressed as 240 integral octonions are obtained by pairing two sets of roots of F 4 . 24 integral quaternions of SO(8) forming a discrete subgroup of SU(2) is shown to be the automorphism group of the root lattices of SO(8), F 4 and E 8 . The roots of maximal subgroups SO(16), E 7 XSU(2), E 6 XSU(3), SU(9) and SU(5)XSU(5) of E 8 are identified with a simple method. Subsets of the discrete subgroup of SU(2) leaving maximal subgroups of E 8 are obtained. Constructions of E 8 root lattice with integral octonions in 7 distinct ways are made. Magic square of integral lattices of Goddard, Nahm, Olive, Ruegg and Schwimmer are derived. Possible physical applications are suggested. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    1999-01-01

    A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)......A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)...

  7. Lyapunov vs. geometrical stability analysis of the Kepler and the restricted three body problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahalom, A.; Levitan, J.; Lewkowicz, M.; Horwitz, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we show that although the application of standard Lyapunov analysis predicts that completely integrable Kepler motion is unstable, the geometrical analysis of Horwitz et al. predicts the observed stability. This seems to us to provide evidence for both the incompleteness of the standard Lyapunov analysis and the strength of the geometrical analysis. Moreover, we apply this approach to the three body problem in which the third body is restricted to move on a circle of large radius which induces an adiabatic time dependent potential on the second body. This causes the second body to move in a very interesting and intricate but periodic trajectory; however, the standard Lyapunov analysis, as well as methods based on the parametric variation of curvature associated with the Jacobi metric, incorrectly predict chaotic behavior. The geometric approach predicts the correct stable motion in this case as well. - Highlights: → Lyapunov analysis predicts Kepler motion to be unstable. → Geometrical analysis predicts the observed stability. → Lyapunov analysis predicts chaotic behavior in restricted three body problem. → The geometric approach predicts the correct stable motion in restricted three body problem.

  8. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...... an increasing lack of integration in the health and welfare system. In the 2000’s, there has been a re-centralisation through mergers of hospitals, regions and state agencies. It has become clear, however, that mergers do not promote integration but rather increase the bureaucratisation of the system. Model...

  9. Removal of phase transfer agent leads to restricted dynamics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    has been investigated by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The experi- ... gauche defects near the head group for the 3D SAMs similar to 2D ... chain motion is more restricted in hydroxyl termi- nated SAMs.

  10. HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) - Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) contain the universe of emergency department visits in participating States. Restricted access data files are...

  11. Supporting several levels of restriction in the UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide; Thomsen, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Bas....... This approach potentially increases the usability of the UML, and thus ultimately leads to greater quality and adoption of UML models.......The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Based...

  12. 77 FR 3037 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 13 January 20, 2012 Part II Department of Labor Employee Benefits Security... Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Exemptions...

  13. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertising. (5) Billboards and posters. (c) The requirement may be satisfied for printed material by... in the broadcast of the spoken words “Restricted use pesticide,” or a statement of the terms of...

  14. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... In March 2003, the Administration eased restrictions on those visiting close family members in Cuba, while at the same time it eliminated travel for people-to-people educational exchanges unrelated...

  15. Drought Tip: Keeping Plants Alive under Drought or Water Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartin, Janet; Oki, Loren; Fujino, Dave; Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants that don't receive enough water eventually show signs of water stress. During a drought or under water restrictions aimed at water conservation, keeping plants alive can be particularly difficult.

  16. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  17. 76 FR 14083 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... firms that litigate securities fraud cases on a contingency fee basis. Finally, IFS stated that the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  18. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  19. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  20. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some

  1. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  2. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  3. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  4. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    BEVERELLI, Cosimo; FIORINI, Matteo; HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  5. Open superstring field theory on the restricted Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    It appears that the formulation of an action for the Ramond sector of open superstring field theory requires to either restrict the Hilbert space for the Ramond sector or to introduce auxiliary fields with picture −3/2. The purpose of this note is to clarify the relation of the restricted Hilbert space with other approaches and to formulate open superstring field theory entirely in the small Hilbert space.

  6. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily...

  7. Integrative psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2008-09-01

    The main purposes of the article are to present the history of integration in psychotherapy, the reasons of the development integrative approaches, and the approaches to integration in psychotherapy. Three approaches to integration in psychotherapy exist: theoretical integration, theoretical eclecticism, and common factors in different psychotherapeutic trends. In integrative psychotherapy, the basic epistemology, theory, and clinical practice are based on the phenomenology, field theory, holism, dialogue, and co-creation of dialogue in the therapeutic relationship. The main criticism is that integrative psychotherapy suffers from confusion and many unresolved controversies. It is difficult to theoretically and methodologically define the clinically applied model that is based on such a different epistemological and theoretical presumptions. Integrative psychotherapy is a synthesis of humanistic psychotherapy, object relations theory, and psychoanalytical self psychology. It focuses on the dynamics and potentials of human relationships, with a goal of changing the relations and understanding internal and external resistances. The process of integrative psychotherapy is primarily focused on the developmental-relational model and co-creation of psychotherapeutic relationship as a single interactive event, which is not unilateral, but rather a joint endeavor by both the therapist and the patient/client. The need for a relationship is an important human need and represents a process of attunement that occurs as a response to the need for a relationship, a unique interpersonal contact between two people. If this need is not met, it manifests with the different feelings and various defenses. To meet this need, we need to have another person with whom we can establish a sensitive, attuned relationship. Thus, the therapist becomes this person who tries to supplement what the person did not receive. Neuroscience can be a source of integration through different therapies. We

  8. Integration of Chandrasekhar's integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    We solve Chandrasekhar's integration equation for radiative transfer in the plane-parallel atmosphere by iterative integration. The primary thrust in radiative transfer has been to solve the forward problem, i.e., to evaluate the radiance, given the optical thickness and the scattering phase function. In the area of satellite remote sensing, our problem is the inverse problem: to retrieve the surface reflectance and the optical thickness of the atmosphere from the radiance measured by satellites. In order to retrieve the optical thickness and the surface reflectance from the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA), we should express the radiance at TOA 'explicitly' in the optical thickness and the surface reflectance. Chandrasekhar formalized radiative transfer in the plane-parallel atmosphere in a simultaneous integral equation, and he obtained the second approximation. Since then no higher approximation has been reported. In this paper, we obtain the third approximation of the scattering function. We integrate functions derived from the second approximation in the integral interval from 1 to ∞ of the inverse of the cos of zenith angles. We can obtain the indefinite integral rather easily in the form of a series expansion. However, the integrals at the upper limit, ∞, are not yet known to us. We can assess the converged values of those series expansions at ∞ through calculus. For integration, we choose coupling pairs to avoid unnecessary terms in the outcome of integral and discover that the simultaneous integral equation can be deduced to the mere integral equation. Through algebraic calculation, we obtain the third approximation as a polynomial of the third degree in the atmospheric optical thickness

  9. Immediate metabolic consequences of intrauterine growth restriction and low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Jatinder; Gates, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Optimal fetal growth resulting in a 'normally grown' term infant is of paramount importance for assuring a healthy start for postnatal growth and development. Fetal, infant and childhood growth restriction is an important clinical problem for obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatricians and globally, for public health. Worldwide, an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight and a substantial proportion are small for gestational age. Many advances have been made in defining growth restriction by prenatal techniques, thus allowing the recognition of intrauterine growth restriction. Distinguishing infants who are small but have appropriate growth potential from those with growth restriction is important in order to apply obstetric surveillance, anticipate neonatal problems and plan for postneonatal guidance. It is clear that the fetus in growth-restricted pregnancies has limited supply of nutrients and oxygen. The resultant changes, if involving the placenta as well, can lead to circulatory and metabolic changes affecting both short- and long-term survival and development. In this paper, the causes and immediate consequence of being born with low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction or small for gestational age will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Host Cell Restriction Factors that Limit Influenza A Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villalón-Letelier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection of different cell types induces a unique spectrum of host defence genes, including interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and genes encoding other proteins with antiviral potential. Although hundreds of ISGs have been described, the vast majority have not been functionally characterised. Cellular proteins with putative antiviral activity (hereafter referred to as “restriction factors” can target various steps in the virus life-cycle. In the context of influenza virus infection, restriction factors have been described that target virus entry, genomic replication, translation and virus release. Genome wide analyses, in combination with ectopic overexpression and/or gene silencing studies, have accelerated the identification of restriction factors that are active against influenza and other viruses, as well as providing important insights regarding mechanisms of antiviral activity. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding restriction factors that mediate anti-influenza virus activity and consider the viral countermeasures that are known to limit their impact. Moreover, we consider the strengths and limitations of experimental approaches to study restriction factors, discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo studies, and the potential to exploit restriction factors to limit disease caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses.

  11. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Léger, Damien; Medkour, Terkia; Dubois, Alexandre; Bayon, Virginie; Chennaoui, Mounir; Perrot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping. A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed. Laboratory-based study. 11 healthy male volunteers. Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area. Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  12. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Faraut

    Full Text Available To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed.Laboratory-based study.11 healthy male volunteers.Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area.Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  13. Screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; McCarthy, Fergus P; Walker, Melissa; Kingdom, John

    2012-01-01

    To provide comprehensive background knowledge relevant to the SOGC Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee-approved guideline entitled "Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management." Publications in English were retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in January 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and any key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials, and high-quality prospective and retrospective observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Evidence obtained from at least one properly randomized controlled trial, Cochrane Reviews, and high quality cohort data have been combined to provide clinicians with evidence to optimize their practice for screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction. Considerable advances have been made to improve clinicians' ability to screen, diagnose, and manage pregnancies with suspected IUGR more effectively, including several properly randomized controlled trials. Pregnancies with late-onset IUGR may be managed equally effectively by early delivery or delayed delivery (with increased surveillance) anticipating favourable outcomes. By contrast, many aspects of the management of early-onset IUGR require further clinical trials.

  14. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  15. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  16. Integrated services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M.; Clark, G.; Cosad, C.; Forbes, K.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  17. Integrated services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Montrouge (France); Clark, G. [Schlumberger Testing Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Cosad, C.; Forbes, K. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  18. Information Technologies and Supply Chain Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemoine, W; Mortensen, Ole

    integration. This study illustrates, from an empirical point of view, the problems associ-ated to SC integration among European firms operating in global/international markets. The focus is on the relationship between two echelons in the supply chain: manufacturers and their transport and logistics service......The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of different processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...... integration. Our results show that the current business integra-tion practices between manufacturers and TLSPs are primarily restricted to some sub-processes in three key SC processes: Customer Service Management, order fulfillment and backwards logistics. The use of IT tools to support the integration has...

  19. International Emissions Trading and Induced Carbon-Saving Technical Change : Effects of Restricting the Trade in Carbon Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Matschoss, Patrick; Welsch, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of restricting the tradability of carbon rights in the presence of induced technical change. Unlike earlier approaches aiming at exploring the tradability-technology linkage we focus on climate-relevant 'carbon-saving' technical change. This is achieved by incorporating endogenous investment in carbon productivity into the RICE-99 integrated assessment model of Nordhaus and Boyer (2000). Simulation analysis of various emission reduction scenarios with seve...

  20. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Sharpe

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3'UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies.

  1. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard M; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3'UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies.

  2. Potent and reversible lentiviral vector restriction in murine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Franziska K; Galla, Melanie; Hoffmann, Dirk; Kuehle, Johannes; Zychlinski, Daniela; Maetzig, Tobias; Schott, Juliane W; Schwarzer, Adrian; Goffinet, Christine; Goff, Stephen P; Schambach, Axel

    2017-05-31

    Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or less permissive to retrovirus infection due to the presence of active defense mechanisms, or the absence of important cellular host co-factors. In contrast to multipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. Much remains to be elucidated in the field of anti-viral immunity in stem cells, especially in PSC. In this study, we report that transduction with HIV-1-based, lentiviral vectors (LV) is impaired in murine PSC. Analyses of early retroviral events in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) revealed that the restriction is independent of envelope choice and does not affect reverse transcription, but perturbs nuclear entry and proviral integration. Proteasomal inhibition by MG132 could not circumvent the restriction. However, prevention of cyclophilin A (CypA) binding to the HIV-1 capsid via use of either a CypA inhibitor (cyclosporine A) or CypA-independent capsid mutants improved transduction. In addition, application of higher vector doses also increased transduction. Our data revealed a CypA mediated restriction in iPSC, which was acquired during reprogramming, associated with pluripotency and relieved upon subsequent differentiation. We showed that murine PSC and iPSC are less susceptible to LV. The block observed in iPSC was CypA-dependent and resulted in reduced nuclear entry of viral DNA and proviral integration. Our study helps to improve transduction of murine pluripotent cells with HIV-1-based vectors and contributes to our understanding of retrovirus-host interactions in PSC.

  3. Perceived need for restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brna, Paula M; Gordon, Kevin E; Woolridge, Elaine; Dooley, Joseph M; Wood, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Children and youth with epilepsy have long been subjected to excessive restrictions on extracurricular activities due to concerns over risk of injury. Over time physicians and medical regulatory associations have liberalized the advice given for people with epilepsy to promote independence, self-esteem and general health benefits of physical activity. Current evidence suggests that few restrictions are needed for children with epilepsy beyond water-related precautions and avoidance of very high-risk activities. However, more stringent restrictions on daily activities may be imposed by caregivers. This study was aimed at exploring current perceptions of parents regarding restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy and the child's perspective on restrictions related to the diagnosis. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a sample of parent-child dyads of children/youth with epilepsy attending summer camp for children with epilepsy age 8-18years. A 10-item validated HARCES Parent Scale of Childhood Epilepsy was completed by the parent/guardian and a modified-HARCES completed by the child. The primary objective was to assess the degree of restrictions placed on children with epilepsy from the perspective of child and parent assessed independently. Agreement of perceived restrictions between parent-child dyads was also determined. 21 parent/guardian-child pairs were recruited with mean age of children/youth 12.7years (range 9-16years). Total HARCES scores for parents and guardians ranged from 11-26 (x=16.5; SD 4.9) while total scores for children with epilepsy similarly ranged from 10-25 (x=15.2; SD 4.9). There were no differences in total parent scores when analyzed by child's age (13years), gender, age of seizure onset, seizure frequency or seizure type. Total HARCES scores showed no agreement between parent and child pairs with correlation of 0.2798 (95% CI -0.173-0.635). Children and youth with epilepsy often face activity restrictions based on

  4. INTEGRATED EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accepting and valuing people with disabilities is a key aspect of social policies promoted worldwide. The implementation of these policies aim normalize the lives of people with disabilities through full integration in the society to which they belong. Removing discrimination and social barriers equates to a maturing of the society, maturing translated by accepting diversity that surrounds us. Each person must be appreciated at its true value regardless of its condition of normality or deviation from it. Valuing individuals can be achieved only through a full acceptance in society, by assigning statuses and fulfilling social roles. School integration of children with special educational needs in mainstream education is a challenge and involves many aspects to be successful. It is the premise of social integration, the basis for future socio-professional insertion. Integrated education is the first step towards a world of equal opportunities, a world without discrimination.

  5. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integral cryptanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Wagner, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers a cryptanalytic approach called integral cryptanalysis. It can be seen as a dual to differential cryptanalysis and applies to ciphers not vulnerable to differential attacks. The method is particularly applicable to block ciphers which use bijective components only.......This paper considers a cryptanalytic approach called integral cryptanalysis. It can be seen as a dual to differential cryptanalysis and applies to ciphers not vulnerable to differential attacks. The method is particularly applicable to block ciphers which use bijective components only....

  7. Systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a view of systems integration, from an ergonomics/human factors perspective, emphasising the process of systems integration as is carried out by humans. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on. The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management. For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above.

  8. Functional Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Pierre; DeWitt-Morette, Cecile

    2010-06-01

    Acknowledgements; List symbols, conventions, and formulary; Part I. The Physical and Mathematical Environment: 1. The physical and mathematical environment; Part II. Quantum Mechanics: 2. First lesson: gaussian integrals; 3. Selected examples; 4. Semiclassical expansion: WKB; 5. Semiclassical expansion: beyond WKB; 6. Quantum dynamics: path integrals and operator formalism; Part III. Methods from Differential Geometry: 7. Symmetries; 8. Homotopy; 9. Grassmann analysis: basics; 10. Grassmann analysis: applications; 11. Volume elements, divergences, gradients; Part IV. Non-Gaussian Applications: 12. Poisson processes in physics; 13. A mathematical theory of Poisson processes; 14. First exit time: energy problems; Part V. Problems in Quantum Field Theory: 15. Renormalization 1: an introduction; 16. Renormalization 2: scaling; 17. Renormalization 3: combinatorics; 18. Volume elements in quantum field theory Bryce DeWitt; Part VI. Projects: 19. Projects; Appendix A. Forward and backward integrals: spaces of pointed paths; Appendix B. Product integrals; Appendix C. A compendium of gaussian integrals; Appendix D. Wick calculus Alexander Wurm; Appendix E. The Jacobi operator; Appendix F. Change of variables of integration; Appendix G. Analytic properties of covariances; Appendix H. Feynman's checkerboard; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Gestational food restriction decreases placental interleukin-10 expression and markers of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in murine intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Ganguly, Amit; Wadehra, Madhuri; Pellegrini, Matteo; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2016-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects up to 10% of pregnancies and often results in short- and long-term sequelae for offspring. The mechanisms underlying IUGR are poorly understood, but it is known that healthy placentation is essential for nutrient provision to fuel fetal growth, and is regulated by immunologic inputs. We hypothesized that in pregnancy, maternal food restriction (FR) resulting in IUGR would decrease the overall immunotolerant milieu in the placenta, leading to increased cellular stress and death. Our specific objectives were to evaluate (1) key cytokines (eg, IL-10) that regulate maternal-fetal tolerance, (2) cellular processes (autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress) that are immunologically mediated and important for cellular survival and functioning, and (3) the resulting IUGR phenotype and placental histopathology in this animal model. After subjecting pregnant mice to mild and moderate FR from gestational day 10 to 19, we collected placentas and embryos at gestational day 19. We examined RNA sequencing data to identify immunologic pathways affected in IUGR-associated placentas and validated messenger RNA expression changes of genes important in cellular integrity. We also evaluated histopathologic changes in vascular and trophoblastic structures as well as protein expression changes in autophagy, ER stress, and apoptosis in the mouse placentas. Several differentially expressed genes were identified in FR compared with control mice, including a considerable subset that regulates immune tolerance, inflammation, and cellular integrity. In summary, maternal FR decreases the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-10 and suppresses placental autophagic and ER stress responses, despite evidence of dysregulated vascular and trophoblast structures leading to IUGR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of traffic restriction on road and construction fugitive dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gang; Li, Gang; Qin, Jian-Ping; Fan, Shou-Bin; Huang, Yu-Hu; Nie, Lei

    2009-05-15

    By monitoring the road and construction dust fall continuously during the "Good Luck Beijing" sport events, the reduction of road and construction dust fall caused by traffic restriction was studied. The contribution rate of road and construction dust to particulate matter of Beijing atmosphere environment, and the emission ratio of it to total local PM10 emission were analyzed. The results show that the traffic restriction reduces road and construction dust fall significantly. The dust fall average value of ring roads was 0.27 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the "traffic restriction" period, and the values were 0.81 and 0.59 g x (m2 x d)(-1) 1 month and 7 days before. The dust fall average value of major arterial and minor arterial was 0.21 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the "traffic restriction" period, and the values were 0.54 and 0.58 g x (m2 x d)(-1) 1 month and 7 days before. The roads emission reduced 60%-70% compared with before traffic restriction. The dust fall average values of civil architecture and utility architecture were 0.61 and 1.06 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the "traffic restriction" period, and the values were 1.15 and 1.55 g x (m2 x d)(-1) 20 days before. The construction dust reduced 30%-47% compared with 20 days before traffic restriction. Road and construction dust emission are the main source of atmosphere particulate matter in Beijing, and its contribution to ambient PM10 concentration is 21%-36%. PM10 emitted from roads and constructions account for 42%-72% and 30%-51% of local emission while the local PM10 account for 50% and 70% of the total emission.

  12. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-12-01

    Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  14. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  15. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  16. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Krisko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune restriction factors represent important specialized barriers to zoonotic transmission of viruses. Significant consideration has been given to their possible use for therapeutic benefit. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous retroelements as well as a broad range of viruses including Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV, Human Papilloma virus (HPV, and Human T Cell Leukemia virus (HTLV. The best characterized members of this family are APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F and their restriction of HIV. HIV has evolved to counteract these powerful restriction factors by encoding an accessory gene designated viral infectivity factor (vif. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC3 efficiently restricts CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. However, our results also show that CXCR4-tropic HIV can escape from APOBEC3 restriction and replicate in vivo independent of Vif. Molecular analysis identified thymocytes as cells with reduced A3G and A3F expression. Direct injection of vif-defective HIV into the thymus resulted in viral replication and dissemination detected by plasma viral load analysis; however, vif-defective viruses remained sensitive to APOBEC3 restriction as extensive G to A mutation was observed in proviral DNA recovered from other organs. Remarkably, HIV replication persisted despite the inability of HIV to develop resistance to APOBEC3 in the absence of Vif. Our results provide novel insight into a highly specific subset of cells that potentially circumvent the action of APOBEC3; however our results also demonstrate the massive inactivation of CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif.

  17. Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla P. Meek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64 and older adults (age 65+ with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.

  18. Evaluation of placenta in foetal demise and foetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch, Ujwala; Guruvare, Shyamala; Bhat, Sudha S; Rai, Lavanya; Rao, Sugandhi

    2013-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the pathological changes of the placenta in foetal death and foetal growth restriction and to find correlation of the findings with clinical causes. Prospective study at a tertiary care hospital. Gross and histopathological examinations of the placentae were carried out in pregnancies with foetal demise (IUD) and Foetal Growth Restriction (FGR). SPSS, version 11.5. Placentae of twenty seven women with foetal demise and of equal number of women with foetal growth restriction were studied. Placental weight was less than 10(th) percentile in 61.5% women in IUD group and in 93% women in the FGR group. Gross examination of placentae showed abnormalities in 12 (44%) women of IUD group and in 16 (59%) women of FGR group. Histopathological abnormalities were observed in 74.1% women of the IUD group and in 66.7% women of FGR group. Placental histopathology correlated with clinical risk factors in 60% women of IUD group and in 40% women of FGR group. Among the women with no clinically explainable cause for IUD and FGR, 86% and 57% had placental histopathological abnormalities respectively. The histopathological abnormalities of the placenta can be used to document the clinical causes of foetal demise and growth restriction; it may explain the causes in cases of clinically unexplained foetal demise and foetal growth restriction.

  19. Restrictions on Software for Personal and Professional Use

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of computer security incidents detected at CERN are due to additional software installed for personal and professional use. As a consequence, the smooth operation of CERN is put at risk and often many hours are lost solving the problems. To reduce this security risk, installation and/or use of software on CERN's computing and network infrastructure needs to be restricted. Therefore: Do NOT install software for personal use Do NOT install 'free' or other software unless you have the expertise to configure and maintain it securely. Please comply to these rules to keep our computer systems safe. Further explanation of these restrictions is at http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions Restricted software, known to cause security and/or network problems (e.g. KaZaA and other P2P/Peer-to-Peer file sharing applications, Skype P2P telephony software, ICQ, VNC, ...), is listed at: http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions/list

  20. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects.

  1. Restrictions of process machine retooling at machine-building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of the national economy depends on the technological level of the machine-building enterprises production equipment. Today in Russia there are objective and subjective restrictions for the optimum policy formation of the manufacturing equipment renewal. The analysis of the manufacturing equipment age structure dynamics in the Russian machine-building complex indicates the negative tendencies intensification: increase in the equipment service life, reduction in the share of up-to-date equipment, and drop in its use efficiency. The article investigates and classifies the main restrictions of the manufacturing equipment renewal process, such as regulatory and legislative, financial, organizational, competency-based. The economic consequences of the revealed restrictions influence on the machine-building enterprises activity are shown.

  2. Almost-Quantum Correlations Violate the No-Restriction Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2018-05-18

    To identify which principles characterize quantum correlations, it is essential to understand in which sense this set of correlations differs from that of almost-quantum correlations. We solve this problem by invoking the so-called no-restriction hypothesis, an explicit and natural axiom in many reconstructions of quantum theory stating that the set of possible measurements is the dual of the set of states. We prove that, contrary to quantum correlations, no generalized probabilistic theory satisfying the no-restriction hypothesis is able to reproduce the set of almost-quantum correlations. Therefore, any theory whose correlations are exactly, or very close to, the almost-quantum correlations necessarily requires a rule limiting the possible measurements. Our results suggest that the no-restriction hypothesis may play a fundamental role in singling out the set of quantum correlations among other nonsignaling ones.

  3. The ability of multimerized cyclophilin A to restrict retrovirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanbakht, Hassan; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Yuan Wen; Yeung, Darwin F.; Li Xing; Song Byeongwoon; Sodroski, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In owl monkeys, the typical retroviral restriction factor of primates, TRIM5α, is replaced by TRIMCyp. TRIMCyp consists of the TRIM5 RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains, as well as the intervening linker regions, fused with cyclophilin A. TRIMCyp restricts infection of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), with capsids that can bind cyclophilin A. The TRIM5 coiled coil promotes the trimerization of TRIMCyp. Here we show that cyclophilin A that is oligomeric as a result of fusion with a heterologous multimer exhibits substantial antiretroviral activity. The addition of the TRIM5 RING, B-box 2 and Linker 2 to oligomeric cyclophilin A generated a protein with antiretroviral activity approaching that of wild-type TRIMCyp. Multimerization increased the binding of cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, promoting accelerated uncoating of the capsid and restriction of infection

  4. Integrated Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    the theoretical foundations of play and learning. In this presentation, we explore pedagogical potentials of new technologies and traditional toys integrated into a physical and virtual toy (hereinafter called integrated toy) with specific focus on the open-ended toy and non-formal learning. The integrated toy......Toys play a crucial role in supporting children’s learning and creation of meaning in their everyday life. Children also play with toys out of an interest to interact with others e.g. peers and adults. Tendencies of digital technology in toys have led to greater opportunities for manipulation...... and interaction supporting children’s play and learning such that technology is ever-present in the play environments of children. Although electronics have been deployed in tools for play and learning, most of it has facilitated individual learning. Computer games, for instance, most often are designed...

  5. Affective neural response to restricted interests in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Heacock, Jessica; Schauder, Kimberly B; Loring, Whitney A; Rogers, Baxter P; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Newsom, Cassandra R; Cockhren, Jurnell; Cao, Aize; Bolton, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Restricted interests are a class of repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) whose intensity and narrow focus often contribute to significant interference with daily functioning. While numerous neuroimaging studies have investigated executive circuits as putative neural substrates of repetitive behavior, recent work implicates affective neural circuits in restricted interests. We sought to explore the role of affective neural circuits and determine how restricted interests are distinguished from hobbies or interests in typical development. We compared a group of children with ASD to a typically developing (TD) group of children with strong interests or hobbies, employing parent report, an operant behavioral task, and functional imaging with personalized stimuli based on individual interests. While performance on the operant task was similar between the two groups, parent report of intensity and interference of interests was significantly higher in the ASD group. Both the ASD and TD groups showed increased BOLD response in widespread affective neural regions to the pictures of their own interest. When viewing pictures of other children's interests, the TD group showed a similar pattern, whereas BOLD response in the ASD group was much more limited. Increased BOLD response in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex distinguished the ASD from the TD group, and parent report of the intensity and interference with daily life of the child's restricted interest predicted insula response. While affective neural network response and operant behavior are comparable in typical and restricted interests, the narrowness of focus that clinically distinguishes restricted interests in ASD is reflected in more interference in daily life and aberrantly enhanced insula and anterior cingulate response to individuals' own interests in the ASD group. These results further support the involvement of affective neural networks in repetitive behaviors in ASD. © 2013 The

  6. [Suplemented restricted diet in old patients with chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplan, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    In last decades was confirmed remarkable increase in number of old patients with chronic kidney disease. Despide of developments in dialysis technology and kidney transplantation there is a growing number of old patients who are not suitable for these methods. Recently were published data showing long-term effect of protein restricted diet supplemented with keto amino acids in elderly. Based on our results obtained in re-analysis of 3 000 patients we can confirm also good compliance and low risk of malnutrition.Key words: chronic kidney disease - keto amino acids - old age - restricted diet.

  7. Restriction genes for retroviruses influence the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Hansen, Bettina; Nissen, Kari K

    2013-01-01

    known for a long time. Today human restriction genes for retroviruses include amongst others TRIMs, APOBEC3s, BST2 and TREXs. We have therefore looked for a role of these retroviral restriction genes in MS using genetic epidemiology. We here report that markers in two TRIMs, TRIM5 and TRIM22...... and a marker in BST2, associated statistically with the risk of getting MS, while markers in or near APOBEC3s and TREXs showed little or no effect. This indicates that the two TRIMs and BST2 influence the risk of disease and thus supports the hypothesis of a viral involvement....

  8. Site-specific DNA transesterification catalyzed by a restriction enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2007-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases use Mg2+ to hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds at specific DNA sites. We show here that BfiI, a metal-independent restriction enzyme from the phospholipase D superfamily, catalyzes both DNA hydrolysis and transesterification reactions at its recognition site. In the presence of alcohols such as ethanol or glycerol, it attaches the alcohol covalently to the 5′ terminus of the cleaved DNA. Under certain conditions, the terminal 3′-OH of one DNA strand can attack the t...

  9. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...... of the proposed estimators are established. In addition, a class of goodness-of-fit test is presented to assess the adequacy of the model. The finite sample behavior of the proposed estimators is evaluated through simulation studies, and the approach is applied to a set of real life data collected from...

  10. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  11. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  12. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...

  13. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  14. Integrated marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    St. John Health consists of nine hospitals throughout southern Michigan. Recently, in an attempt to brand the system as the state's premiere place for medical services, the system launched 'Real Medicine', a campaign that brands all nine hospitals together. Using print, radio, and television spots, the effort also integrates direct mail collateral and brochures to reach consumers.

  15. Integrative teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; Smids, Annejoke; Kors, Ninja

    2007-01-01

    This is an article about the integration of instrumental teaching, aural skills and keyboard skills and music theory at the pre-tertiary level. Team teaching and discipline crossover offer a possible solution to students’ inability to apply skills taught by specialists in separate fields. A personal

  16. Box Integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    By a "box integral" we mean here an expectation $\\langle|\\vec r - \\vec q|^s \\rangle$ where $\\vec r$runs over the unit $n$-cube,with $\\vec q$ and $s$ fixed, explicitly:\\begin eqnarray*&&\\int_01 \\cdots \\int_01 \\left((r_1 - q_1)2 + \\dots+(r_n-q_n)2\\right)^ s/2 \\ dr_1 \\cdots dr_n.\\end eqnarray* The study ofbox integrals leads one naturally into several disparate fields ofanalysis. While previous studies have focused upon symbolic evaluationand asymptotic analysis of special cases (notably $s = 1$), we workherein more generally--in interdisciplinary fashion--developing resultssuch as: (1) analytic continuation (in complex $s$), (2) relevantcombinatorial identities, (3) rapidly converging series, (4) statisticalinferences, (5) connections to mathematical physics, and (6)extreme-precision quadrature techniques appropriate for these integrals.These intuitions and results open up avenues of experimental mathematics,with a view to new conjectures and theorems on integrals of thistype.

  17. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, C.; Romeo, G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  18. Nuclear-electronic orbital reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock approach: Restricted basis sets and open-shell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear electronic orbital (NEO) reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (RXCHF) approach couples select electronic orbitals to the nuclear orbital via Gaussian-type geminal functions. This approach is extended to enable the use of a restricted basis set for the explicitly correlated electronic orbitals and an open-shell treatment for the other electronic orbitals. The working equations are derived and the implementation is discussed for both extensions. The RXCHF method with a restricted basis set is applied to HCN and FHF − and is shown to agree quantitatively with results from RXCHF calculations with a full basis set. The number of many-particle integrals that must be calculated for these two molecules is reduced by over an order of magnitude with essentially no loss in accuracy, and the reduction factor will increase substantially for larger systems. Typically, the computational cost of RXCHF calculations with restricted basis sets will scale in terms of the number of basis functions centered on the quantum nucleus and the covalently bonded neighbor(s). In addition, the RXCHF method with an odd number of electrons that are not explicitly correlated to the nuclear orbital is implemented using a restricted open-shell formalism for these electrons. This method is applied to HCN + , and the nuclear densities are in qualitative agreement with grid-based calculations. Future work will focus on the significance of nonadiabatic effects in molecular systems and the further enhancement of the NEO-RXCHF approach to accurately describe such effects

  19. Nuclear-electronic orbital reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock approach: Restricted basis sets and open-shell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The nuclear electronic orbital (NEO) reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (RXCHF) approach couples select electronic orbitals to the nuclear orbital via Gaussian-type geminal functions. This approach is extended to enable the use of a restricted basis set for the explicitly correlated electronic orbitals and an open-shell treatment for the other electronic orbitals. The working equations are derived and the implementation is discussed for both extensions. The RXCHF method with a restricted basis set is applied to HCN and FHF{sup −} and is shown to agree quantitatively with results from RXCHF calculations with a full basis set. The number of many-particle integrals that must be calculated for these two molecules is reduced by over an order of magnitude with essentially no loss in accuracy, and the reduction factor will increase substantially for larger systems. Typically, the computational cost of RXCHF calculations with restricted basis sets will scale in terms of the number of basis functions centered on the quantum nucleus and the covalently bonded neighbor(s). In addition, the RXCHF method with an odd number of electrons that are not explicitly correlated to the nuclear orbital is implemented using a restricted open-shell formalism for these electrons. This method is applied to HCN{sup +}, and the nuclear densities are in qualitative agreement with grid-based calculations. Future work will focus on the significance of nonadiabatic effects in molecular systems and the further enhancement of the NEO-RXCHF approach to accurately describe such effects.

  20. Incremental Effect of the Addition of Prescriber Restrictions on a State Medicaid's Pharmacy-Only Patient Review and Restriction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Shellie L; Pham, Timothy; Teel, Ashley; Nesser, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Patient review and restriction programs (PRRPs), used by state Medicaid programs to limit potential abuse and misuse of opioids and related controlled medications, often restrict members to a single pharmacy for controlled medications. While most states use a restricted pharmacy access model, not all states include restricted prescriber access. Oklahoma Medicaid (MOK) added a restricted prescriber access feature to its PRRP in July 2014. To evaluate the incremental effect that the addition of a prescriber restriction to MOK's pharmacy-only PRRP had on the pharmacy and resource utilization of the enrolled members. MOK members with at least 6 months of enrollment in the pharmacy-only PRRP were restricted to a maximum of 3 prescribers for controlled substances in July 2014 and were identified as "cases." Using a propensity score method, cases were matched to controls from the MOK non-PRRP enrolled population based on demographics and baseline health care utilization. Data from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2014, were evaluated. Each member's monthly health care resource utilization, defined in terms of medical and pharmacy costs, prescription counts, and opioid use per member per month (PMPM), was analyzed. A difference-indifferences (DID) regression estimated the change in resource utilization following the July 2014 policy change. This study included 378 controls and 126 cases after propensity matching. No differences were noted for daily morphine equivalents, benzodiazepine prescriptions, or maintenance prescriptions. There were decreases in mean PMPM use for both groups for short-acting opioid (SAO) claims (P evidence that overall opioid claims were affected, the addition of prescriber restrictions may have resulted in an incremental change to SAO, prescriber, and pharmacy use in the PRPP population. Use of PRRPs may be an effective tool in reducing inappropriate use of prescription opioids within payer systems. The question remains whether these changes

  1. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY... candidates on canvassing or speaking tours. (12) Participation in or organizing a political parade. (13...

  2. 4 CFR 201.9 - Restrictions on charging fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on charging fees. 201.9 Section 201.9 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.9... the news media. (2) The Board shall provide without charge to all but commercial users: (i) The first...

  3. Effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting the ranging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we assessed the effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting movement patterns of several wild ungulates in Akagera National Park (NP), Rwanda. Following the turmoil of the Rwandan genocide and civil war (1991–1995), large numbers of returning war refugees brought about an increasing pressure on land use, ...

  4. DOPING AND OTHER RESTRICTED METHODS IN SPORTS SUMMARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since sport has become an industry, it has lost all its elements of tolerance and chivalry and become an arena which is made for making profi t. Under those conditions everyone wanted to succeed by no means. The stocks such as: power, speed and endurance were of immeasurable value on the market. The level of the biomothoric dimensions could be raised as a matter of course or, unfortunately, by using restricted substances where the science was abused. Many private laboratories have started with the production of the restricted substances whose aim was to raise the level of power, strength and endurance, but only temporary, because the harmful effects lasted much longer and even caused lethal consequences. The natives from the South Africa used to use a kind of alcohol drink which was called “dop”. That word came to Europe by the Dutchmen, where it has become a “doping” in English. These restricted substances can be classifi ed into the groups with a specifi c effect. These substances are called restricted substances and methods in sports. These are the substances such as: stimulants, narcotics, canabiodies, anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, beta-2 agonists, anti-estrogen agenses, covered agenses and glycocorticoids.

  5. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  6. 13 CFR 120.383 - Restrictions on loan processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on loan processing. 120.383 Section 120.383 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS.... Since greater risk may be associated with a loan to an applicant under this program, a Certified Lender...

  7. 17 CFR 1.22 - Use of customer funds restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.22 Use of customer funds restricted. No futures commission merchant shall use, or permit the use of, the customer funds of...

  8. On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. (Chao); R.A. Sitters (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider some special cases of the restricted assignment problem. In this scheduling problem on parallel machines, any job j can only be assigned to one of the machines in its given subset Mj of machines. We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it

  9. First order normalization in the perturbed restricted three–body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper performs the first order normalization that will be employed in the study of the nonlinear stability of triangular points of the perturbed restricted three – body problem with variable mass. The problem is perturbed in the sense that small perturbations are given in the coriolis and centrifugal forces. It is with variable ...

  10. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  11. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  12. Moment Restriction-based Econometric Methods: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kunitomo (Naoto); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Nishiyama (Yoshihiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMoment restriction-based econometric modelling is a broad class which includes the parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric approaches. Moments and conditional moments themselves are nonparametric quantities. If a model is specified in part up to some finite dimensional parameters,

  13. 29 CFR 15.23 - Restrictions on certain claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions noted: (a) Money or currency. Claims may be allowed for loss of money or currency (which includes... currency is limited to an amount which is determined to have been reasonable for the claimant to have had... motor vehicles were required to be used for official Government business (official Government business...

  14. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not knowingly do business under a covered transaction with a person who is— (1) Debarred or... excluded from the covered transaction. (b) Violation of the restriction under paragraph (a) of this section may result in disallowance of costs, annulment or termination of award, issuance of a stop work order...

  15. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum ...

  16. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  17. The Historical Foundations of Religious Restrictions in Contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP abolished its total ban on religious activities in 1982. However, the distrust that the CCP feels for religions remains obvious today, and the religious restrictions in contemporary China remain tight. Conventional wisdom tells us that the official atheist ideology of Marxism-Leninism is the main reason behind the CCP’s distrust for, and restriction of, religion. However, taking a historical institutionalist perspective, this paper argues that the religious restrictions in contemporary China are in fact rooted in the fierce political struggles of the country’s two major revolutions in the first half of the twentieth century. Without the support of religious groups, the Nationalist Republicans would have found it difficult to survive and succeed in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty during the Chinese Republican Revolution in the first decade of the twentieth century. Likewise, without cooperating with a wide range of religious groups, the CCP would have struggled to defeat the Nationalist regime and the Japanese invaders in the Chinese Communist Revolution between 1920s and 1940s. Thanks to the collaborations and struggles with various religious groups during the two revolutions which lead to its eventual ascent to power, the CCP thoroughly understands the organisational strength and mobilising capability embedded within religious groups. The tight restrictions on religious affairs in contemporary China is therefore likely to stem from the CCP’s worry that prospective competitors could mobilise religious groups to challenge its rule through launching, supporting, or sponsoring collective actions.

  18. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  19. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  20. 12 CFR 5.65 - Restrictions on undercapitalized institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on undercapitalized institutions. 5.65 Section 5.65 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES... defined in 12 CFR part 6. ...

  1. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hatchability of incubated duck eggs owing to restricted feed intake. ... Egg numbers, infertile eggs, fertile eggs, dead embryos, and duck- lings hatched were recorded for each of the 12 pens. At the same time as the six male and 24 female ducks were ..... treatment but thereafter there was a drop, even lower than the.

  2. 78 FR 51696 - Restrictions on Legal Assistance to Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1626 Restrictions on Legal Assistance to Aliens AGENCY... assistance to aliens. The revisions are intended to implement three statutory changes on aliens eligible for... provided to aliens, were enacted in 1996 and have been reincorporated annually with amendments. Section 504...

  3. 31 CFR 360.48 - Restrictions on reissue; denominational exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; denominational exchange. 360.48 Section 360.48 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... GOVERNING DEFINITIVE UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Reissue and Denominational Exchange § 360.48 Restrictions on reissue; denominational exchange. Reissue is not permitted solely to change denominations. ...

  4. Use of qualitative feed restriction as a management strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of qualitative feed restriction through the use low-quality diet on finisher broiler performance, and to determine if sufficient compensatory growth can be achieved at that phase of broiler production. Seventytwo (72) 4 weeks old broiler chicks of Anak strain ...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4362 - Rights and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parking areas or facilities. (ii) Any contract or lease, including franchises and licenses, to which a declarant is a party. (iii) The requirements of paragraphs (a)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section do not apply... restrictions are acceptable: (i) A requirement that leases have a minimum initial term of up to 1 year; or (ii...

  6. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems with slope restricted nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Du, Jiajia; Gao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The problem of absolute stability of Lur'e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  7. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Slope Restricted Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of absolute stability of Lur’e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  8. 28 CFR 549.13 - Programming, duty, and housing restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programming, duty, and housing... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.13 Programming, duty, and housing restrictions. (a) The CD will assess any inmate with an infectious disease for appropriateness for programming...

  9. Restriction Inhibition Assay: A Qualitative and Quantitative Method to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rich fractions (PRFs) with high affinity for EcoRI and HindIII restriction sequences and correlate their interaction to an anticancer activity. Methods: pBR322 linear plasmid DNA was used as a template to screen the sequence-selective inhibition of ...

  10. Restricted Interests and Anxiety in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Michael A.; Lin, C. Enjey; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    A preoccupation with restricted interests (RI) is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Engagement in RI is commonly observed in this population and impacts social, adaptive, and emotional functioning. The presence of anxiety disorders and overlap in symptom expression with RI, such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), in children…

  11. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.88 Multispecies open access permit restrictions. (a) Handgear permit. A vessel issued a valid open access NE multispecies Handgear permit is...

  12. Proposal of Realization Restricted Quantum Game with Linear Optic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haijun; Fang Ximing

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum game with the restricted strategic space and its realization with linear optical system, which can be played by two players who are separated remotely. This game can also be realized on any other quantum computers. We find that the constraint brings some interesting properties that are useful for making game models.

  13. 76 FR 50535 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7555] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I hereby...

  14. 7 CFR 1786.167 - Restrictions to additional RUS financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions to additional RUS financing. 1786.167... additional RUS financing. (a) No borrower that prepays an electric loan at a discount as provided under this... borrower is unable to obtain financing at reasonable terms to restore the system from non-RUS sources...

  15. 31 CFR 315.6 - Restrictions on registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchased as a gift to a minor under a gifts-to-minors statute must be registered as prescribed by the... States but only if the bonds are purchased on a payroll deduction plan and the owner provides a taxpayer... resident of any restricted area. (c) Minors. (1) Minors may purchase with their wages, earnings, or other...

  16. Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in term...

  17. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of

  18. Growth restriction and gender influence cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Derks, Jan; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of fetal growth restriction and gender on cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates during the first 3 days of life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 68 (41 males)

  19. Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of Embryonic and Maximal Placental Growth on Organ Development in the Adult Sheep. ... Objective: It is apparent that maternal under nutrition at specific period during pregnancy has differential effects on placental and fetal development, such that the resulting ...

  20. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide interstate transmission or billing and collection services to an entity offering any service within the scope...

  1. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...% and less All uses (domestic and nondomestic) Unclassified Paraquat (dichloride) and paraquat bis... subsoil ......do Do. ......do All subsoil uses Unclassified Sulfotepp Sprays and smoke generators All uses Restricted Inhalation hazard to humans. Zinc Phosphide All formulations 2% and less All domestic uses and non...

  2. Restrictive Language Policy in Practice: English Learners in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    As the most restrictive language policy context in the United States, Arizona's monolingual and prescriptive approach to teaching English learners continues to capture international attention. More than five school years after initial implementation, this study uses qualitative data from the individuals doing the policy work to provide a holistic…

  3. Effect of quantitative feed restriction on pullet development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hen-day and hen-housed production levels as well as cost of feed per unit weight or dozen eggs, were not significantly affected by the treatments. These studies showed that when growing birds are restricted in quantity of feed fed, they respond with a reduction in mature weight, but the laying phase is unaffected.

  4. 49 CFR 591.7 - Restrictions on importations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS § 591.7 Restrictions on importations. (a) A vehicle or... a vehicle or equipment item under § 591.5(j) does not intend to export or destroy the vehicle or...

  5. 24 CFR 888.315 - Restrictions on retroactive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND... Elderly or Handicapped, and Special Allocations Projects § 888.315 Restrictions on retroactive payments...

  6. Removing the Restrictions Imposed on Finite State Machines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines an effective method of removing the fixed and finite state amount of memory that restricts finite state machines from carrying out compilation jobs that require larger amount of memory. The study is ... The conclusion reviewed the various steps followed and made projections for further reading. Keyword: ...

  7. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are

  8. 15 CFR 2008.15 - General restrictions on access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions on access. 2008.15 Section 2008.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED...

  9. Calvin's Restrictions on Interest : Guidelines for the Credit Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Calvin’s view on the legitimacy of interest has had a great impact on the economic development of Western society. Although Calvin took a fundamentally positive attitude to interest, he also proposed several restrictions on the charging of interest. In this article, we investigate the relevance of

  10. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  11. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  12. Guiding IEP Teams on Meeting the Least Restrictive Environment Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Teri A.; Hart, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Leslie; Love, Jessica; Baxter, Christine M.; Gartin, Barbara; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Two diametrically opposed beliefs are held concerning the meaning of the least restrictive environment (LRE) when determining the class placements of students with disabilities. One group adheres to the placement philosophy that the LRE is always the general education setting. The other group believes that the LRE is where the students' needs may…

  13. Restrictive or Liberal Red-Cell Transfusion for Cardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazer, C David; Whitlock, Richard P; Fergusson, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of a restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion strategy on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who had a E...

  14. 7 CFR 982.41 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentages in effect at the end of the previous marketing year shall be applicable. [51 FR 29548, Aug. 19... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 982.41 Free and restricted percentages. The free and...

  15. Data Input and Content Exploration in Scenarios with Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractAs technology evolves, new devices and interaction techniques are developed. These transformations create several challenges in terms of usability and user experience. Our research faces some challenges for data input or content exploration in scenarios with restrictions. It is not our

  16. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines (extented abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as standalone models for density estimation, activity recognition and so on.

  17. The non-isospectral AKNS hierarchy with reality conditions restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lingjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will prove the existence of the non-isospectral AKNS hierarchy with reality conditions restriction and construct the matrix form Darboux transformation. Using this Darboux transformation, the solutions of the relevant nonlinear equations can be expressed explicitly

  18. 77 FR 65840 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Advance... for our advance notice of proposed rulemaking that solicits public comment on whether and how we... importation of plant material that is a host of CWR. This action will allow interested persons additional time...

  19. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic

  20. Deep Restricted Kernel Machines Using Conjugate Feature Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suykens, Johan A K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this letter is to propose a theory of deep restricted kernel machines offering new foundations for deep learning with kernel machines. From the viewpoint of deep learning, it is partially related to restricted Boltzmann machines, which are characterized by visible and hidden units in a bipartite graph without hidden-to-hidden connections and deep learning extensions as deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines. From the viewpoint of kernel machines, it includes least squares support vector machines for classification and regression, kernel principal component analysis (PCA), matrix singular value decomposition, and Parzen-type models. A key element is to first characterize these kernel machines in terms of so-called conjugate feature duality, yielding a representation with visible and hidden units. It is shown how this is related to the energy form in restricted Boltzmann machines, with continuous variables in a nonprobabilistic setting. In this new framework of so-called restricted kernel machine (RKM) representations, the dual variables correspond to hidden features. Deep RKM are obtained by coupling the RKMs. The method is illustrated for deep RKM, consisting of three levels with a least squares support vector machine regression level and two kernel PCA levels. In its primal form also deep feedforward neural networks can be trained within this framework.

  1. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J

    2018-05-01

    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endogenous technology in dairy farming under environmental restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Komen, M.H.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an applied general equilibrium AGE model written in mixed-complementarity format is used to analyse the effects of an increase in milk quota in the Netherlands when nitrogen emissions in agriculture are restricted. The model combines the strengths of AGE models and mathematical

  3. Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in terms...

  4. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A.; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of “worry” about their teen driver’s safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen’s driving. Methods We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental “worry,” and influence of rules regarding their teen’s driving, reported by teen’s driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver’s license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”) or perceived influence of parental rules (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”). Results Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying “a lot” was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Conclusions and Practical Applications Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver’s safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively

  6. Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction among children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H S S; Lau, P H B; Fong, K H; Poon, D; Lam, C C C

    2005-10-01

    To study children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong, their neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction in society. Parents' opinion on current medical and rehabilitation services was also sought. Systematic survey using questionnaires. Four associations in Hong Kong: Child Assessment Service, Hong Kong Association for Parents of Children with Physical Disabilities, Association of Parents of the Severely Mentally Handicapped, and Hong Kong Physically Handicapped and Able-Bodied Association. Parents of children with cerebral palsy. Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction. Information from 181 children with cerebral palsy was analysed. Among them, 56% were boys. The mean age was 7 years 6 months (standard deviation, 3 years 11 months). The most common diagnostic type was spastic cerebral palsy. Co-morbidities in children with cerebral palsy were common. Limitation in daily activities including mobility and self-care tasks was considerable and this posed great stress to parents when taking care of their children. Children's participation in both social and leisure activities was regarded as a low priority. A high percentage (70%) of parents reported difficulty in travelling. The reasons involved problems in transportation, building access (entry and exit), and attitudes of the general public. These environmental factors restricted the social participation of the children and their families. Over 75% of parents were satisfied with the current medical and rehabilitation services. Children with cerebral palsy have multiple and complex needs. The findings of this study may serve as a reference for parents, service providers, and policy makers to work in partnership to achieve a more comprehensive health-care service for children with cerebral palsy and to facilitate better integration into the community.

  7. Mobile/Modular BSL-4 Facilities for Meeting Restricted Earth Return Containment Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Pace, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    NASA robotic sample return missions designated Category V Restricted Earth Return by the NASA Planetary Protection Office require sample containment and biohazard testing in a receiving laboratory as directed by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 8020.12D - ensuring the preservation and protection of Earth and the sample. Currently, NPR 8020.12D classifies Restricted Earth Return for robotic sample return missions from Mars, Europa, and Enceladus with the caveat that future proposed mission locations could be added or restrictions lifted on a case by case basis as scientific knowledge and understanding of biohazards progresses. Since the 1960s, sample containment from an unknown extraterrestrial biohazard have been related to the highest containment standards and protocols known to modern science. Today, Biosafety Level (BSL) 4 standards and protocols are used to study the most dangerous high-risk diseases and unknown biological agents on Earth. Over 30 BSL-4 facilities have been constructed worldwide with 12 residing in the United States; of theses, 8 are operational. In the last two decades, these brick and mortar facilities have cost in the hundreds of millions of dollars dependent on the facility requirements and size. Previous mission concept studies for constructing a NASA sample receiving facility with an integrated BSL-4 quarantine and biohazard testing facility have also been estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. As an alternative option, we have recently conducted an initial trade study for constructing a mobile and/or modular sample containment laboratory that would meet all BSL-4 and planetary protection standards and protocols at a faction of the cost. Mobile and modular BSL-2 and 3 facilities have been successfully constructed and deployed world-wide for government testing of pathogens and pharmaceutical production. Our study showed that a modular BSL-4 construction could result in approximately 90% cost reduction when compared to

  8. Placental weight and birth weight to placental weight ratio in monochorionic and dichorionic growth-restricted and non-growth-restricted twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Alves Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65 and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162 placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022 and dichorionic (p<0.001 twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36 or dichorionic (p=0.68 twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies.

  9. 10 CFR 2.903 - Protection of restricted data and national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of restricted data and national security... Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.903 Protection of restricted data and national security information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding Restricted Data or...

  10. 10 CFR 1045.33 - Appointment of restricted data management official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of restricted data management official. 1045... DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.33 Appointment of restricted data management official. (a) Each agency with access to RD or FRD shall...

  11. Discrete restricted four-body problem: Existence of proof of equilibria and reproducibility of periodic orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minesaki, Yukitaka [Tokushima Bunri University, Nishihama, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We propose the discrete-time restricted four-body problem (d-R4BP), which approximates the orbits of the restricted four-body problem (R4BP). The d-R4BP is given as a special case of the discrete-time chain regularization of the general N-body problem published in Minesaki. Moreover, we analytically prove that the d-R4BP yields the correct orbits corresponding to the elliptic relative equilibrium solutions of the R4BP when the three primaries form an equilateral triangle at any time. Such orbits include the orbit of a relative equilibrium solution already discovered by Baltagiannis and Papadakis. Until the proof in this work, there has been no discrete analog that preserves the orbits of elliptic relative equilibrium solutions in the R4BP. For a long time interval, the d-R4BP can precisely compute some stable periodic orbits in the Sun–Jupiter–Trojan asteroid–spacecraft system that cannot necessarily be reproduced by other generic integrators.

  12. Effect of caloric restriction on gut permeability, inflammation markers, and fecal microbiota in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Hastreiter, Ljiljana; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Fischer, Sandra; Büttner, Janine; Kellerer, Teresa; Clavel, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael; Haller, Dirk; Hauner, Hans

    2017-09-20

    Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. The 4-week very-low calorie diet (VLCD, 800 kcal/day) induced a mean weight loss of 6.9 ± 1.9 kg accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), fasting plasma glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Plasma high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMW adiponectin) was significantly increased after VLCD. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) were significantly decreased after 28 days of VLCD. Using three different methods, gut paracellular permeability was decreased after VLCD. These changes in clinical parameters were not associated with major consistent changes in dominant bacterial communities in feces. In summary, a 4-week caloric restriction resulted in significant weight loss, improved gut barrier integrity and reduced systemic inflammation in obese women.

  13. 78 FR 40958 - Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2504A & R-2504B; Camp Roberts, CA, and Restricted Area R-2530...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...-0515; Airspace Docket No. 13-AWP-8] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2504A & R-2504B; Camp Roberts, CA, and Restricted Area R-2530; Sierra Army Depot, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the descriptions of restricted areas R...

  14. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum - Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  15. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  17. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  18. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Nielsen, M. W.; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    and describe the decision process. Specific attention is given to how the engineering input was presented and how it was able to facilitate the design development. Site and context, building shape, organization of functions and HVAC-systems were all included to obtain a complete picture of the building......, low-energy consumption, and high-quality indoor environment. We use this case study to investigate how technical knowledge about building performance can be integrated into the conceptual design stage. We have selected certain points during the design process that represented design challenges...

  19. On integrability of the Killing equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro; Yasui, Yukinori

    2018-04-01

    Killing tensor fields have been thought of as describing the hidden symmetry of space(-time) since they are in one-to-one correspondence with polynomial first integrals of geodesic equations. Since many problems in classical mechanics can be formulated as geodesic problems in curved space and spacetime, solving the defining equation for Killing tensor fields (the Killing equation) is a powerful way to integrate equations of motion. Thus it has been desirable to formulate the integrability conditions of the Killing equation, which serve to determine the number of linearly independent solutions and also to restrict the possible forms of solutions tightly. In this paper, we show the prolongation for the Killing equation in a manner that uses Young symmetrizers. Using the prolonged equations, we provide the integrability conditions explicitly.

  20. Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: an illustrative case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new diagnostic category in DSM-5. Although replacing Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, it is not restricted to childhood presentations. In keeping with the broader aim of revising and updating criteria and text to better reflect lifespan issues and clinical expression across the age range, ARFID is a diagnosis relevant to children, adolescents, and adults. This case example of a 13-year old boy with ARFID illustrates key issues in diagnosis and treatment planning. The issues discussed are not exhaustive, but serve as a guide for central diagnostic and treatment issues to be considered by the clinician. It is anticipated that the inclusion of specific criteria for ARFID as a category within Feeding and Eating Disorders in DSM-5 will stimulate research into its typology, prevalence, and incidence in different populations and facilitate the development of effective, evidence-based interventions for this patient group. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Focusing and restricting: two aspects of motivational selectivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Freund, Alexandra M

    2006-03-01

    Using a short-term longitudinal design, the authors investigated implications of 2 facets of motivational selectivity--restricting (to few goals) and focusing (on central and similar goals)--for goal-pursuit investment. Participants were 20-69 years old (Time 1, N = 177; Time 2, N = 160). Results show that motivational selectivity in terms of focusing (but not in terms of restricting) is associated with an enhanced involvement in goal pursuit (assessed 3 months later), irrespective of age. Structural equation models demonstrated that this association is completely mediated by the degree of mutual facilitation among goals. Furthermore, motivational selectivity increases from middle to older adulthood. This contributes to the maintenance of high goal involvement into later adulthood, despite aging-related increases in resource limitations. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Performance of a New Restricted Biased Estimator in Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin ASAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the variance of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE inflates when the explanatory variables are correlated. This situation is called the multicollinearity problem. As a result, the estimations of the model may not be trustful. Therefore, this paper introduces a new restricted estimator (RLTE that may be applied to get rid of the multicollinearity when the parameters lie in some linear subspace  in logistic regression. The mean squared errors (MSE and the matrix mean squared errors (MMSE of the estimators considered in this paper are given. A Monte Carlo experiment is designed to evaluate the performances of the proposed estimator, the restricted MLE (RMLE, MLE and Liu-type estimator (LTE. The criterion of performance is chosen to be MSE. Moreover, a real data example is presented. According to the results, proposed estimator has better performance than MLE, RMLE and LTE.

  3. Evaluating the economic cost of natural gas strategic storage restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejarque, Joao Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to implement a single market for gas. One of the components of this market is a regulated provision for ''security of supply'' which consists of rules for the implementation and use of a given reserve stock of gas. We investigate the impact of this policy on the profitability of a storage operator, using data from Denmark and Italy. Keeping storage capacity constant, the costs of the strategic stock are around 20% of the value of the storage market for Denmark, and 16% for Italy. This cost is due to the inability to extract arbitrage profits from the captive stock. Furthermore, the strategic storage restriction induces behavior that would virtually never be replicated by a private storage operator in an unconstrained market, in particular in the first 6 months of the year when unconstrained firms empty their reservoirs much faster, suggesting the strategic restriction is unnecessarily distorting the market. (author)

  4. Endocrine responses to water restriction in desert sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muna M.M.

    1994-01-01

    For ruminants grazing in semi-arid areas, the maintenance of balanced water and energy metabolism is challenging to productivity.The metabolic effects of water restriction usually stimulate endocrine which control metabolic activity depending on the thermal environment.Radioimmunoasay technique was used to determine the level of endocrine hormones, namely thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),thyroxine(T4) and cortisol in desert sheep.Intermittent watering every 24h, 48h and 72h increased TSH level during the morning but decreased it during the afternoon.T4 level decreased during both morning and afternoon.The cortisol level was depressed by water restriction during the morning and afternoon but showed an overlapping pattern with that of the control during the afternoon. (Author)

  5. Circumvention of MHC class II restriction by genetic immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, K; Lu, C; Chang, H D; Croft, M; Zanetti, M; Gerloni, M

    2001-11-12

    The fate of T cell responses to peptide-based vaccination is subject to constraints by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction. Using as a model system of T and B cell epitopes from the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite, we show that vaccination by somatic transgene immunization readily primes Balb/c mice (H-2(d)) a strain previously reported to be non-responder to immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine encompassing these epitopes. Following genetic vaccination Balb/c mice developed a primary T cell response comparable to that of the responder strain C57Bl/6 (H-2(b)). Following booster immunization on day 45 Balb/c mice responded with a typical T cell memory response. Priming induced the formation of specific antibodies, which rose sharply after booster immunization. These findings suggests that genetic immunization can circumvent MHC class II restriction.

  6. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... differences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean...... were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion...

  7. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2013-08-22

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified 19 studies of which we included five, involving 3130 women. We excluded eight studies, one awaits classification and five are ongoing studies. All the included studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, four studies, 2902 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the

  8. Control of wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; En, Chang Yong

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simulation and practical control system for wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment. A wheeled mobile robot with 3 wheels is fabricated and controlled by proportional derivative active force control (PD-AFC) to move in a pre-planned restricted environment to maintain the tracking errors at zero level. A control system with two loops, outer by PD controller and inner loop by Active Force Control, are designed to control the wheeled mobile robot. Fuzzy logic controller is implemented in the Active force Control to estimate the inertia matrix that will be used to calculate the actual torque applied on the wheeled mobile robot. The mobile robot is tested in two different trajectories, namely are circular and straight path. The actual path and desired path are compared.

  9. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  10. DOE Land Disposal Restrictions strategy report for radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report is based on preliminary information available at the time of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Strategy Workshop in June 1989, and the critical review of the workshop data conducted by the Office Of Defense Programs and the affected Operations Offices in July and August 1989. The purpose of the workshop and this subsequent report is to identify the magnitude and scope of LDR issues and impacts regarding the storage, treatment, and disposal of RMW, and to suggest potential strategies for addressing LDR requirements. This report was prepared under the overall direction and coordination of the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Environmental Guidance Division, RCRA/CERCLA Unit (EH-231). The report is a product of the LDR Strategy Workshop held during the month of June 1989. The workshop was divided into two work groups: a Land Disposal Restriction compliance strategy group and a RMW Best Demonstrated Available Technology and National Capacity Variance group

  11. Restrictive extraocular myopathy: A presenting feature of acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Heireman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with binocular diplopia in primary gaze for 1 year. Orthoptic evaluation showed 10-prism diopter right eye hypotropia and 6-prism diopter right eye esotropia. The elevation and abduction of the right eye were mechanically restricted. This was associated with systemic features suggestive of acromegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. An elevated serum insulin-like growth factor I level and the failure of growth hormone suppression after an oral glucose load biochemically confirmed the diagnosis of acromegaly. Computed tomography (CT of the orbit demonstrated bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle bellies. All tests regarding Graves-Basedow disease were negative. Although rare, diplopia due to a restrictive extraocular myopathy could be the presenting symptom of acromegaly.

  12. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Horhoianu, I A; Dumitrascu, M C; Horhoianu, V

    2014-06-15

    The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth charts and their characteristics: populational growth charts, standard growth charts, individualized growth charts, customized growth charts and growth trajectories.

  13. Work-hour restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Robert O; Austin, Mary T; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the standardized work-hour limitations have created an ethical dilemma for residents. A survey tool was designed to assess factors that influence the number of hours residents work and report. The program directors of pediatrics, internal medicine, and general surgery at our institution supported their residents' participation. A voluntary, anonymous survey of these residents was performed. One hundred seventy of 265 eligible residents were surveyed. Eighty-one percent of residents surveyed responded. Eighty percent of respondents reported exceeding work-hour restrictions at least once within the past 6 months. The factor of greatest influence measured was concern for patient care (80%). Forty-nine percent of respondents admitted underreporting their work hours. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions have created an ethical dilemma for residents. Our data show that a significant number of residents feel compelled to exceed work-hour regulations and report those hours falsely.

  14. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Summary Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 h, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits in multiple organisms. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMD, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into effective and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. PMID:27304506

  15. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  16. Effect of restriction of working memory on reported paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T

    1999-02-01

    56 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Watson, Clark, and Tellegen's 1988 Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Experimental group participants, but not control group participants, rehearsed a five-digit number while completing the Paranormal Belief Scale. Analysis showed higher reported paranormal belief for experimental group participants but no differences on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of restriction in working memory on the critical evaluation of paranormal phenomena.

  17. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture.

  18. Restrictions of process machine retooling at machine-building enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova Elena; Tipner Ludmila; Ershov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    The competitiveness of the national economy depends on the technological level of the machine-building enterprises production equipment. Today in Russia there are objective and subjective restrictions for the optimum policy formation of the manufacturing equipment renewal. The analysis of the manufacturing equipment age structure dynamics in the Russian machine-building complex indicates the negative tendencies intensification: increase in the equipment service life, reduction in the share of...

  19. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cabelkova

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  20. Effects of the restriction of hand gestures on disfluency.

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Sheena; Forrest, Victoria; Lickley, Robin; Beck, Janet M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental pilot study of disfluency and gesture rates in spontaneous speech where speakers perform a communication task in three conditions: hands free, one arm immobilized, both arms immobilized. Previous work suggests that the restriction of the ability to gesture can have an impact on the fluency of speech. In particular, it has been found that the inability to produce iconic gestures, which depict actions and objects, results in a higher rate of disfluency. Mode...

  1. Restrictions on running IRC (Internet Relay Chat) at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Due to the large number of computer security incidents at CERN where intruders have used IRC (Internet Relay Chat) software to control computers, IRC connections will be blocked in the CERN firewall from 1st February 2005. Personal use of IRC software is not permitted at CERN. Further details of the restrictions on both personal and professional use of IRC are documented at http://cern.ch/security/IRC.

  2. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  3. Inherited thrombophilia in pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriu, Letitia; Copaciu, Elena; Tulbure, Dan; Talmaci, Rodica; Secara, Diana; Coriu, Daniel; Cirstoiu, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The role of mutation in the factor V gene, prothrombin gene, MTHFR gene, as risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction during pregnancy, is not very well known so far. This is a retrospective study of 151 pregnant women with a history of complicated pregnancy: intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss or maternal venous thromboembolism, who were admitted in Bucharest Emergency University Hospital, during the period January 2010 to July 2014. Genetic testing was performed for all the cases to detect: factor V Leiden mutation, G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, C677T mutation and A1298C mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Blood samples were obtained as soon as the diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction was established with ultrasonography. The following gene mutations were associated with increased risk of IUGR: G20210A prothrombin gene mutation (OR 4.81, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.22, p= 0.043), G1691A factor V gene mutation (factor V Leiden) (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.61 - 4.080, p= 0.347), C677T MTHFR gene mutation (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.79 to 3.26, p= 0.186), compound heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C (OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.81- 3.42, p= 0.169). Particularly, for G20210A prothrombin gene mutation we found statistically significant risk (p≤0.05) of IUGR.

  4. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, AR; Horhoianu, IA; Dumitrascu, MC; Horhoianu, V

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the t...

  5. A database for compliance with land disposal restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The new restrictions on land disposal introduce additional challenges to hazardous waste managers. Laboratory waste streams consisting of small volumes of diverse waste types will be particularly difficult to manage due to the large number of possible treatment standards that could be applied. To help remedy this management problem, a user-friendly database has been developed to provide the regulatory information required for each of the hazardous wastes present in the wastes stream of a large research laboratory. 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Restricted access: aboriginal women and health care in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Falcon-Borduas, Amelie

    2010-01-01

    Restricted Access: Aboriginal Women and Health Care in Canada” addresses the barriers faced by indigenous women when accessing health care services in Canada. Using the distinction of practical (or needs-based) and strategic (or equity-based) barriers, it highlights the impact of physical isolation, cultural differences, and socio-economic disparities when using health services. However, the emphasis is placed on strategic challenges and more specifically on the impact of marginalization fro...

  7. Restrictions on SU(5) as a grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellard, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symetry breakdown are examined. They are shown that, in particular, theories SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt

  8. Essays on Currency Competition, Institutional Restrictions and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Arghya

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on currency competition, institutional restrictions and exchange rates. When faced with currency competition, a country's government has two tools at its disposal: reduce the level of inflation or place institutional barriers to the use of foreign currency. In the first chapter, I propose a two-country, two-currency New Monetarist model to study currency competition. I model institutional barriers as a `tax' on the real value of foreign currency hol...

  9. RESTRICTING PESTICIDE USE: THE IMPACT ON PROFITABILITY BY FARM SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Gerald W.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Vasavada, Utpal

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 226 cash grain farms in the Lake States-Corn Belt region are analyzed to estimate the impact of restricting pesticide use on profits. These 226 farms are classified into small medium, and large farms according to their sale revenues. The results suggest the existence of pest management practices that could substantially reduce pesticide use without incurring economic losses. The reductions in profit associated with gradual reduction in pesticide expenditure appear to increase with...

  10. Host and viral determinants for MxB restriction of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matreyek, Kenneth A; Wang, Weifeng; Serrao, Erik; Singh, Parmit Kumar; Levin, Henry L; Engelman, Alan

    2014-10-25

    Interferon-induced cellular proteins play important roles in the host response against viral infection. The Mx family of dynamin-like GTPases, which include MxA and MxB, target a wide variety of viruses. Despite considerable evidence demonstrating the breadth of antiviral activity of MxA, human MxB was only recently discovered to specifically inhibit lentiviruses. Here we assess both host and viral determinants that underlie MxB restriction of HIV-1 infection. Heterologous expression of MxB in human osteosarcoma cells potently inhibited HIV-1 infection (~12-fold), yet had little to no effect on divergent retroviruses. The anti-HIV effect manifested as a partial block in the formation of 2-long terminal repeat circle DNA and hence nuclear import, and we accordingly found evidence for an additional post-nuclear entry block. A large number of previously characterized capsid mutations, as well as mutations that abrogated integrase activity, counteracted MxB restriction. MxB expression suppressed integration into gene-enriched regions of chromosomes, similar to affects observed previously when cells were depleted for nuclear transport factors such as transportin 3. MxB activity did not require predicted GTPase active site residues or a series of unstructured loops within the stalk domain that confer functional oligomerization to related dynamin family proteins. In contrast, we observed an N-terminal stretch of residues in MxB to harbor key determinants. Protein localization conferred by a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the N-terminal 25 residues, which was critical, was fully rescuable by a heterologous NLS. Consistent with this observation, a heterologous nuclear export sequence (NES) abolished full-length MxB activity. We additionally mapped sub-regions within amino acids 26-90 that contribute to MxB activity, finding sequences present within residues 27-50 particularly important. MxB inhibits HIV-1 by interfering with minimally two steps of infection

  11. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  12. Model of adipose tissue cellularity dynamics during food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, H A; Géloën, A; Soulage, C O

    2015-01-07

    Adipose tissue and adipocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to obesity. Size of fat cells depends on the balance of synthesis and mobilization of lipids and can undergo important variations throughout the life of the organism. These variations usually occur when storing and releasing lipids according to energy demand. In particular when confronted to severe food restriction, adipocyte releases its lipid content via a process called lipolysis. We propose a mathematical model that combines cell diameter distribution and lipolytic response to show that lipid release is a surface (radius squared) limited mechanism. Since this size-dependent rate affects the cell׳s shrinkage speed, we are able to predict the cell size distribution evolution when lipolysis is the only factor at work: such as during an important food restriction. Performing recurrent surgical biopsies on rats, we measured the evolution of adipose cell size distribution for the same individual throughout the duration of the food restriction protocol. We show that our microscopic model of size dependent lipid release can predict macroscopic size distribution evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  14. Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, along with a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLE κ (at least for 8/3 iθ and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u-bar , and that the coefficients of pure u ( u-bar ) powers are holomorphic in w ( w-bar ). We identify these coefficients (the ‘hypotrochoid fields’) with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators Riva and Cardy (in SLE 8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u 2 , led to the stress–energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as nontrivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT. (paper)

  15. BARRIER MARKET RESTRICTIONS, THEIR ECONOMIC NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimova Ekaterina Yurievna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject: indicators of modern economic growth in construction, published by the government agencies, reflect individual directions of growth. At the same time, the analysis of the reasons for the unachieved results is conducted by various researchers primarily from the standpoint of the inadequacy of economic and other resources. This article deals with the problem of ensuring the growth of construction enterprises from the viewpoint of systemic barriers, and in this regard, these barriers are defined as the subject of the present research. Research objectives: studying the concept of barrier market restrictions, their impact on the activities of construction companies. Materials and methods: statistical data in the field of housing construction, provided by the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation and Rosstat, is examined to solve the given tasks set. The content of state programs and activities of state institutions in the field of support and development of construction activities is considered. Based on investigations of sustainable economic development, an understanding of the constraints and incentives for development is revealed. Results: we have identified the content of barrier market restrictions, which are not possible to overcome only by involving additional economic resources in the turnover. The ways of confronting these restrictions are shown. Conclusions: it was shown that implementation of promising activities is impossible without overcoming various systemic constraints. Their structure is described in sufficient detail. Principles of economic sustainable development are proposed. It was proved that the reserve system can serve as an effective way to overcome market barriers.

  16. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

  17. Cytosine methylation dysregulation in neonates following intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Einstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and control subjects.Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4A gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins.Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease.

  18. Cytosine Methylation Dysregulation in Neonates Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar D.; Fazzari, Melissa J.; Verma, Amit; Barzilai, Nir; Greally, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM), manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and control subjects. Methods and Findings Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4A) gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins. Conclusions Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease. PMID:20126273

  19. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

  20. Aging, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction in different model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions.

  1. Waste management and the land disposal restriction storage prohibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    RCRA Sect. 3004(j) prohibits storage of wastes that have been prohibited from land disposal, unless that storage is for the purpose of accumulating sufficient quantities of hazardous wastes to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. This requirement was incorporated as part of the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) regulations. Under the LDR storage prohibition, facilities may only store restricted wastes in containers and tanks. As stated in the Third LDR rule, storage of prohibited waste is only allowed in non-land based storage units since land-based storage is a form of disposal. The EPA has recognized that generators and storers of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) may find it impossible to comply with storage prohibition in cases where no available treatment capacity exists. Additionally, under the current regulatory interpretation, there is no provision that would allow for storage of wastes for which treatment capacity and capability are not available, even where capacity is legitimately being developed. Under the LDR program, restricted wastes that are disposed of, or placed into storage before an LDR effective date, are not subject to the LDR requirements. However, if such wastes are removed from a storage or disposal site after the effective date, such wastes would be subject to LDR requirements. The purpose of this information brief is to clarify what waste management practices constitute removal from storage

  2. Weak values in a classical theory with an epistemic restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanjai, Angela; Cavalcanti, Eric G; Bartlett, Stephen D; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Weak measurement of a quantum system followed by postselection based on a subsequent strong measurement gives rise to a quantity called the weak value: a complex number for which the interpretation has long been debated. We analyse the procedure of weak measurement and postselection, and the interpretation of the associated weak value, using a theory of classical mechanics supplemented by an epistemic restriction that is known to be operationally equivalent to a subtheory of quantum mechanics. Both the real and imaginary components of the weak value appear as phase space displacements in the postselected expectation values of the measurement device's position and momentum distributions, and we recover the same displacements as in the quantum case by studying the corresponding evolution in our theory of classical mechanics with an epistemic restriction. By using this epistemically restricted theory, we gain insight into the appearance of the weak value as a result of the statistical effects of post selection, and this provides us with an operational interpretation of the weak value, both its real and imaginary parts. We find that the imaginary part of the weak value is a measure of how much postselection biases the mean phase space distribution for a given amount of measurement disturbance. All such biases proportional to the imaginary part of the weak value vanish in the limit where disturbance due to measurement goes to zero. Our analysis also offers intuitive insight into how measurement disturbance can be minimized and the limits of weak measurement. (paper)

  3. Better understanding flow-restricted environments from hideout return analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollar, Ph.; Viricel-Honorez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the chemical phenomena in flow-restricted areas of the secondary side of steam generators (SG) is a key point in fighting against corrosion (IGA) in these areas. Hence, more than 150 hideout returns from French plants are used to assess the chemical environment in flow-restricted areas. The influence of several parameters such as tube support plates design, SG blowdown flowrate and temperature at the end of hideout returns, on returned weights and on flow-restricted environments predicted by modelling are examined. A correlation between different operating and returned chemistry indexes (molar ratios), and IGA is sought: no link is found between IGA and Na/Cl molar ratio at the beginning of hideout returns. However, as IGA extends, the returned weights of sodium and chloride seem to decrease, suggesting a greater hideout and a lower hideout return efficiency, perhaps due to SG fouling, and/or a smaller hideout/hideout return thanks to an improved operating chemistry. Using the pH computed from hideout return data as an index for the presence of IGA is also studied: no correlation is found between the two. Improving plants chemistry is finally proposed, based on an optimization of hideout returns. (authors)

  4. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic sleep restrictions cause a reduction in leptin and an increase in ghrelin, both of which are associated with hunger. Given that light/dark patterns are closely tied to sleep/wake patterns, we compared, in a within-subjects study, the impact of morning light exposures (60 lux of 633-nm [red], 532-nm [green], or 475-nm [blue] lights to dim light exposures on leptin and ghrelin concentrations after subjects experienced 5 consecutive days of both an 8-hour (baseline and a 5-hour sleep-restricted schedule. In morning dim light, 5-hour sleep restriction significantly reduced leptin concentrations compared to the baseline, 8-hour sleep/dim-light condition (1,32 = 2.9; =0.007. Compared to the 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition, the red, green, and blue morning light exposures significantly increased leptin concentrations (1,32 = 5.7; <0.0001, 1,32 = 3.6; =0.001, and 1,32 = 3.0; =0.005, resp.. Morning red light and green light exposures significantly decreased ghrelin concentrations (1,32 = 3.3; <0.003 and 1,32 = 2.2; =0.04, resp., but morning blue light exposures did not. This study is the first to demonstrate that morning light can modulate leptin and ghrelin concentrations, which could have an impact on reducing hunger that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  5. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  6. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers. PMID:22345238

  7. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Civitarese

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction without malnutrition extends life span in a range of organisms including insects and mammals and lowers free radical production by the mitochondria. However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood.The current study was undertaken to examine muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in response to caloric restriction alone or in combination with exercise in 36 young (36.8 +/- 1.0 y, overweight (body mass index, 27.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2 individuals randomized into one of three groups for a 6-mo intervention: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% caloric restriction; and CREX, caloric restriction with exercise (CREX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increased energy expenditure (EE. In the controls, 24-h EE was unchanged, but in CR and CREX it was significantly reduced from baseline even after adjustment for the loss of metabolic mass (CR, -135 +/- 42 kcal/d, p = 0.002 and CREX, -117 +/- 52 kcal/d, p = 0.008. Participants in the CR and CREX groups had increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function such as PPARGC1A, TFAM, eNOS, SIRT1, and PARL (all, p < 0.05. In parallel, mitochondrial DNA content increased by 35% +/- 5% in the CR group (p = 0.005 and 21% +/- 4% in the CREX group (p < 0.004, with no change in the control group (2% +/- 2%. However, the activity of key mitochondrial enzymes of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase, beta-oxidation (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and electron transport chain (cytochrome C oxidase II was unchanged. DNA damage was reduced from baseline in the CR (-0.56 +/- 0.11 arbitrary units, p = 0.003 and CREX (-0.45 +/- 0.12 arbitrary units, p = 0.011, but not in the controls. In primary cultures of human myotubes, a nitric oxide donor (mimicking eNOS signaling induced mitochondrial biogenesis but failed to induce SIRT1 protein expression, suggesting that additional factors may regulate SIRT1 content during CR.The observed increase in

  8. Virtual integral holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venolia, Dan S.; Williams, Lance

    1990-08-01

    A range of stereoscopic display technologies exist which are no more intrusive, to the user, than a pair of spectacles. Combining such a display system with sensors for the position and orientation of the user's point-of-view results in a greatly enhanced depiction of three-dimensional data. As the point of view changes, the stereo display channels are updated in real time. The face of a monitor or display screen becomes a window on a three-dimensional scene. Motion parallax naturally conveys the placement and relative depth of objects in the field of view. Most of the advantages of "head-mounted display" technology are achieved with a less cumbersome system. To derive the full benefits of stereo combined with motion parallax, both stereo channels must be updated in real time. This may limit the size and complexity of data bases which can be viewed on processors of modest resources, and restrict the use of additional three-dimensional cues, such as texture mapping, depth cueing, and hidden surface elimination. Effective use of "full 3D" may still be undertaken in a non-interactive mode. Integral composite holograms have often been advanced as a powerful 3D visualization tool. Such a hologram is typically produced from a film recording of an object on a turntable, or a computer animation of an object rotating about one axis. The individual frames of film are multiplexed, in a composite hologram, in such a way as to be indexed by viewing angle. The composite may be produced as a cylinder transparency, which provides a stereo view of the object as if enclosed within the cylinder, which can be viewed from any angle. No vertical parallax is usually provided (this would require increasing the dimensionality of the multiplexing scheme), but the three dimensional image is highly resolved and easy to view and interpret. Even a modest processor can duplicate the effect of such a precomputed display, provided sufficient memory and bus bandwidth. This paper describes the

  9. The influence of food restriction on the small bowel: Does intensive short‑term food restriction lead to weight loss?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makovický, Peter; Tůmová, E.; Volek, Z.; Makovický, P.; Arnone, J.M.; Švecová, Ivana; Samasca, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2017), s. 361-365 ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : experimental medicine * food restriction * rabbit * slimming * small bowel weight loss Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Pathology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  10. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  11. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  12. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  13. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell’s equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Botchev, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit - finite

  14. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Feinman, Richard D

    2005-11-16

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO). Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG), low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The conclusion is probably not

  15. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO. Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG, low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The

  16. DeepX: Deep Learning Accelerator for Restricted Boltzmann Machine Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lok-Won

    2018-05-01

    Although there have been many decades of research and commercial presence on high performance general purpose processors, there are still many applications that require fully customized hardware architectures for further computational acceleration. Recently, deep learning has been successfully used to learn in a wide variety of applications, but their heavy computation demand has considerably limited their practical applications. This paper proposes a fully pipelined acceleration architecture to alleviate high computational demand of an artificial neural network (ANN) which is restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) ANNs. The implemented RBM ANN accelerator (integrating network size, using 128 input cases per batch, and running at a 303-MHz clock frequency) integrated in a state-of-the art field-programmable gate array (FPGA) (Xilinx Virtex 7 XC7V-2000T) provides a computational performance of 301-billion connection-updates-per-second and about 193 times higher performance than a software solution running on general purpose processors. Most importantly, the architecture enables over 4 times (12 times in batch learning) higher performance compared with a previous work when both are implemented in an FPGA device (XC2VP70).

  17. Sex selection and restricting abortion and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Julie

    2007-11-01

    Sex selection in India and China is fostered by a limiting social structure that disallows women from performing the roles that men perform, and relegates women to a lower status level. Individual parents and individual families benefit concretely from having a son born into the family, while society, and girls and women as a group, are harmed by the widespread practice of sex selection. Sex selection reinforces oppression of women and girls. Sex selection is best addressed by ameliorating the situations of women and girls, increasing their autonomy, and elevating their status in society. One might argue that restricting or prohibiting abortion, prohibiting sex selection, and prohibiting sex determination would eliminate sex selective abortion. But this decreases women's autonomy rather than increases it. Such practices will turn underground. Sex selective infanticide, and slower death by long term neglect, could increase. If abortion is restricted, the burden is placed on women seeking abortions to show that they have a legally acceptable or legitimate reason for a desired abortion, and this seriously limits women's autonomy. Instead of restricting abortion, banning sex selection, and sex determination, it is better to address the practice of sex selection by elevating the status of women and empowering women so that giving birth to a girl is a real and positive option, instead of a detriment to the parents and family as it is currently. But, if a ban on sex selective abortion or a ban on sex determination is indeed instituted, then wider social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted simultaneously.

  18. Calorie restriction increases cigarette use in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Hess, Judith M; Henningfield, Jack; Gorelick, David A

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and smokers often gain weight when they quit. This is a major barrier to smoking cessation, especially among women. However, strict dieting is not recommended during smoking cessation out of concern that it might promote relapse. This concern derives, in part, from the observation that calorie restriction increases self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals. This relationship has never been experimentally demonstrated in humans. To evaluate whether calorie restriction increases cigarette smoking in humans. Seventeen (nine males, eight females) healthy, normal-weight smokers not attempting to quit were cycled in partially counterbalanced order, double-blind, through four diets-normal calorie (2,000-2,800 kcal/day), low calorie (700 kcal/day deficit), low-carbohydrate (CHO)/normal-calorie, and low-CHO/low-calorie-for 6 days per diet in an inpatient research ward. Smoking was assessed by cigarette counts, breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and cigarette craving. Compared with the normal-calorie diet, while on the low-calorie diet, subjects smoked 8% more cigarettes (Plow-CHO/normal-calorie diet showed no significant effect on either variable, but there was a 15% increase in breath CO levels (Plow-CHO/low-calorie diet. There were no changes in self-reported cigarette craving or mood. Consistent with animal studies, moderate calorie restriction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in cigarette smoking, with no independent effect of CHO deprivation. These findings suggest that dieting may increase smoking behavior and could impede smoking-cessation attempts.

  19. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  20. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional