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Sample records for restricted energy loss

  1. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  2. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  3. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, Pweight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, Pweight loss relative to energy deficit in mice. PMID:26784324

  4. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  5. Restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic particles in thin targets - A search for deviations from constancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K.K.; Esberg, J.; Hansen, K.R.; Knudsen, H.; Lund, M.; Thomsen, H.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Uggerhoj, U.I., E-mail: ulrik@phys.au.d [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Moller, S.P. [Institute for Storage Ring Facilities, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Sona, P. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Mangiarotti, A. [LIP, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Ketel, T.J. [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dizdar, A. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Ballestrero, S. [University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2010-05-01

    Experimental results for the restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic electrons, with Lorentz factors up to 3x10{sup 5}, in a 535mum thin silicon detector are presented. The combination of high Lorentz factors and thin targets, opens for the possibility to study two mutually excluding effects, both based upon theory and on scarce experimental observations. One is a disappearance of the density effect when the transit time becomes so short that the effect of plasma-oscillations becomes negligible. This would result in an increased energy loss as the Lorentz factor increases. The other is an effect based on the existence of a coherence length over which there are contributions to the energy loss. This effect leads to a substantially decreased energy loss for thin targets as the Lorentz factor increases. The latter is shown to be incompatible with our measurements, whereas the former may be present with a correction of a few percent to an otherwise constant energy loss. Furthermore, we point to significant effects related to synchrotron and transition radiation, that must be carefully considered in a possible future experiment, and may as well have been of significance for the conclusion in earlier experiments.

  6. Restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic particles in thin targets: A search for deviations from constancy

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, K K; Hansen, K R; Knudsen, H; Lund, M.; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhoj, U I; Moller, S P; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Ballestrero, S

    2010-01-01

    Experimental results for the restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic electrons, with Lorentz factors up to 3x10^5, in a 535@mm thin silicon detector are presented. The combination of high Lorentz factors and thin targets, opens for the possibi lity to study two mutually excluding effects, both based upon theory and on scarce experimental observations. One is a disappearance of the density effect when the transit time becomes so short that the effect of plasma-oscillations becomes negligible. Th is would result in an increased energy loss as the Lorentz factor increases. The other is an effect based on the existence of a coherence length over which there are contributions to the energy loss. This effect leads to a substantially decreased energy l oss for thin targets as the Lorentz factor increases. The latter is shown to be incompatible with our measurements, whereas the former may be present with a correction of a few percent to an otherwise constant energy loss. Furthermore, we point to signifi cant eff...

  7. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  8. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie N; Taylor, Moira A; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; MacDonald, Ian A; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

  9. Physical activity and weight loss are independent predictors of improved insulin sensitivity following energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-02-01

    The role of physical activity and the joint effect with sleep duration on insulin sensitivity (IS) during energy restriction followed by weight maintenance were determined. One hundred and two subjects (28 males) (mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 years; BMI: 31.9 ± 3.0 kg/m(2) ) followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 weeks, followed by a 44-week period of weight maintenance. Body composition (three-compartment model based on body weight, total body water, and body volume), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were assessed before the diet and at 8, 20, and 52 weeks after the start. Compared to baseline, IS was improved significantly after 8 weeks (P physical activity counts. Maintaining daily physical activity during energy restriction is as important as weight loss itself in the improvement of IS; there was no additional effect of change in sleep duration. During weight maintenance, improved IS is maintained better if physical activity returns to baseline or higher. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  11. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Macarulla, M Teresa; Portillo, María P; Rodríguez, Víctor M

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is known to have an antiobesogenic effect because it mimics energy restriction. However, hardly any evidence exists concerning the combined effects of RSV and energy restriction on body fat reduction. So, the aim of the present study was to determine whether RSV increases body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks to obtain a diet-induced obesity model. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25%) without or with RSV supplementation (30 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. Final body weight, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissues weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were assessed. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities, as well as their genetic expressions, were measured in white adipose tissue. Final body weight, white adipose tissue weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and insulin were reduced in both groups, but no differences were found among them. FAS, ACC, and LPL activities and expressions were also similar in both groups. These results suggest a lack of any adjuvant effect of RSV on energy restriction for obesity treatment purposes.

  12. Habitual physical activity and plasma metabolomic patterns distinguish individuals with low vs. high weight loss during controlled energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss (WL) induced by energy restriction is highly variable even in controlled clinical trials. An integrative analysis of the plasma metabolome coupled to traditional clinical variables may reveal a WL “responder” phenotype. Therfore, we predicted WL in overweight and obese individuals on a...

  13. The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Wright, Claire; Pegington, Mary; McMullan, Debbie; Mitchell, Ellen; Martin, Bronwen; Cutler, Roy G; Evans, Gareth; Whiteside, Sigrid; Maudsley, Stuart; Camandola, Simonetta; Wang, Rui; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P; Howell, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Intermittent energy restriction may result in greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and weight control than daily energy restriction (DER). We tested two intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction (IECR) regimens, including one which allowed ad libitum protein and fat (IECR+PF). Overweight women (n 115) aged 20 and 69 years with a family history of breast cancer were randomised to an overall 25 % energy restriction, either as an IECR (2500-2717 kJ/d, diets (mean - 0·34 (95% CI - 0·66, - 0·02) units) and the IECR+PF diet (mean - 0·38 (95% CI - 0·75, - 0·01) units). Reductions with the IECR diets were significantly greater compared with the DER diet (mean 0·2 (95% CI - 0·19, 0·66) μU/unit, P= 0·02). Both IECR groups had greater reductions in body fat compared with the DER group (IECR: mean - 3·7 (95% CI - 2·5, - 4·9) kg, P= 0·007; IECR+PF: mean - 3·7 (95% CI - 2·8, - 4·7) kg, P= 0·019; DER: mean - 2·0 (95% CI - 1·0, 3·0) kg). During the weight maintenance phase, 1 d of IECR or IECR+PF per week maintained the reductions in insulin resistance and weight. In the short term, IECR is superior to DER with respect to improved insulin sensitivity and body fat reduction. Longer-term studies into the safety and effectiveness of IECR diets are warranted.

  14. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Portillo, María Puy

    2008-12-01

    Very little evidence exists concerning the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Moreover, although an effect of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on lipolysis has been suggested, it has not been consistently shown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether trans-10, cis-12-CLA increases the reduction of body fat induced by energy restriction, and to analyse its effect on lipolysis and adipose tissue lipase expression (hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose tissue TAG lipase (ATGL)). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet during 7 weeks in order to make them fatter. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25 %) without or with supplementation of 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 3 weeks. Basal glycerol release and lipolysis stimulated by several drugs acting at different levels of the lipolytic cascade were measured in epididymal adipose tissue. The expression of HSL and ATGL was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. No differences were found in adipose tissues size between the experimental groups. Medium adipocyte size and total number of adipocytes were similar in both experimental groups. Animals fed the CLA-enriched diet showed similar lipolytic rates as well as HSL and ATGL expressions to the controls. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12-CLA does not promote adipose tissue lipid mobilisation nor does it heighten body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment.

  15. Effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on short-term weight loss and long-term weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J B; Pedersen, E; Petersen, K S; Clifton, P M

    2014-06-01

    Effective strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on weight loss after 8 weeks and weight loss maintenance after 12 months. Secondary aims were to determine changes in waist and hip measurements and diet quality. In a randomized parallel study, overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg m(-2)) women were stratified by age and BMI before randomization. Participants undertook an 8-week intensive period with weight, waist and hip circumference measured every 2 weeks, followed by 44 weeks of independent dieting. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline and 12 months, from which diet quality was determined. Weight loss was not significantly different between the two groups at 8 weeks (-3.2 ± 2.1 kg CER, n = 20, -2.0 ± 1.9 kg IER, n = 25; P = 0.06) or at 12 months (-4.2 ± 5.6 kg CER, n = 17 -2.1 ± 3.8 kg IER, n = 19; P = 0.19). Weight loss between 8 and 52 weeks was -0.7 ± 49 kg CER vs. -1 ± 1.1 kg IER; P = 0.6. Waist and hip circumference decreased significantly with time (P intermittent dieting was as effective as continuous dieting over 8 weeks and for weight loss maintenance at 12 months. This may be useful for individuals who find CER too difficult to maintain.

  16. Pegylated human recombinant leptin (PEG-OB) causes additional weight loss in severely energy-restricted, overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukshorn, Chris J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Saris, Wim H M

    2003-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that falling leptin concentrations observed during fasting act as a peripheral signal of starvation, which serves to conserve energy in the face of limited reserves. An extension of this hypothesis is that exogenous leptin should affect energy regulation during severe energy restriction. To explore this hypothesis, we assessed whether elevated leptin concentrations achieved with the use of long-acting pegylated human recombinant leptin [polyethylene glycol-OB protein (PEG-OB)] affected weight loss and changes in body composition, energy expenditure, appetite, and metabolic variables during semistarvation in healthy overweight men. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was executed in overweight men with a mean (+/- SEM) age of 34.8 +/- 1.3 y and body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.8 +/- 0.5. All subjects received weekly treatment with 80 mg PEG-OB (n = 12) or matching placebo (n = 10) for 46 d while their energy intake was reduced to 2.1 MJ/d by means of a very-low-energy diet. Body composition (hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution), energy expenditure (ventilated hood), and appetite (visual analogue scales) were evaluated at the start and the end of the study. Metabolic variables were measured throughout the study period. Compared with placebo treatment, treatment with PEG-OB led to significant (P < 0.03) additional weight loss (14.6 +/- 0.8 compared with 11.8 +/- 0.9 kg) and a reduction in appetite (P < 0.05) after 46 d, but the 2 treatment groups did not differ significantly in changes in body composition, energy expenditure, and metabolic variables. Our observations support the hypothesis that the decrease in leptin concentrations during starvation increases appetite in humans.

  17. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Headland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the effects of intermittent energy restriction on weight and biological markers in long term intervention studies of >6 months duration. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases for intervention trials lasting 6 months or longer investigating the effects of intermittent energy restriction. A total of nine studies were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. All studies included an intermittent energy restriction arm, with six being directly compared to continuous energy restriction. A total of 981 subjects were enrolled and randomised, with weight loss observed in all intermittent energy restriction arms regardless of study duration or follow up length. Eight interventions in six trials were used for the meta-analyses, with results indicating neither intermittent or continuous energy restriction being superior with respect to weight loss, 0.084 ± 0.114 (overall mean difference between groups ± standard error; p = 0.458. The effects of intermittent energy restriction in the long term remain unclear. The number of long term studies conducted is very limited, and participant numbers typically small (less than 50 completers, indicating the need for larger, long term trials of 12 months or more, to be conducted in order to understand the impact of intermittent energy restriction on weight loss and long term weight management. Blood lipid concentrations, glucose, and insulin were not altered by intermittent energy expenditure in values greater than those seen with continuous energy restriction.

  18. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pcarb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  20. Energy-restricted diets based on a distinct food selection affecting the glycemic index induce different weight loss and oxidative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Parra, Dolores; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2008-08-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) based diets could influence the accompanying physiological adaptations to energy restriction in the treatment of obesity. It was aimed to investigate the effects of two energy-restricted diets with different food distribution and GI values on weight loss and energy metabolism in the nutritional treatment of obesity. Participants (n=32; BMI: 32.5+/-4.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to follow two energy-restricted diets with higher-GI or lower-GI for 8 weeks. The energy restriction was -30% in relation to energy expenditure. Anthropometry, energy expenditure and mitochondrial oxidation were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the intervention. Body weight was also measured one year after the treatment. The work was approved by the ethical committees of the University of Navarra (54/2006). Volunteers consuming the lower-GI diet showed a significantly higher weight loss than their counterparts (-5.3+/-2.6% vs -7.5+/-2.9%; p=0.032), although the decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) was similar between groups (p=0.783). Mitochondrial oxidation was significantly affected by the type of diet (p=0.001), being activated after the lower-GI treatment (p=0.022). Interestingly, one year after the nutritional intervention weight regain was only statistically significant in the higher-GI group (p=0.033). Lower-GI energy-restricted diets achieved through a specific differential food selection can improve the energy adaptations during obesity treatment, favouring weight loss and probably weight maintenance compared with higher-GI hypocaloric diets.

  1. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  2. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  3. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  4. Effect of a conventional energy-restricted modified diet with or without meal replacement on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Sandy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension are essential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies showed favorable effects of weight loss in overweight subjects on cardiometabolic risk profile. Methods This open-label, randomized, controlled study investigated the effect of an energy-restricted modified diet with (MR or without meal replacements for weight control (C on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight women. Of 105 randomized participants, 87 were eligible for per protocol analysis. Anthropometric, clinical, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Dietary intervention resulted in a significant weight loss in both groups (MR: -5.98 ± 2.82 kg; p 5% was higher in MR (77% versus C group (50% (p = 0.010. A significant reduction in waist circumference (WC and body fat mass (BFM was observed in both groups. Body cell mass (BCM and lean body mass (LBM decreased, while percentage of BCM of body weight increased in MR more than in C group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP significantly decreased and to a similar extent in both groups. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C but also HDL-C declined significantly in both groups, while no change occurred in triglycerides. Conclusions Both dietary intervention strategies had a similar effect on weight loss and body fat distribution, but rate of responder was significantly higher in MR group. Systolic BP decreased to a similar extent in both groups. Cardiometabolic risk profile improved only partly in both groups.

  5. Longitudinal variation of circulating irisin after an energy restriction-induced weight loss and following weight regain in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Pardo, María; Arturo, Roca-Rivada; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered peptide irisin has been hypothesized to be a regulator of body metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether circulating human irisin levels are modulated by body size and changes in adiposity during an energy restriction treatment and the subsequent weight regain. A group of 94 obese patients (50 men, 44 women; 49.4 ± 9.4 years; BMI 35.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ) participated in a weight loss program following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) with a weight maintenance follow-up. The patients were evaluated at 0, 8, and 24 weeks after starting treatment. In addition, 48 normal-weight subjects (16 men, 32 women; 35.71 ± 8.8 years; BMI 22.9 ± 2.2 kg/m(2) ) participated as controls. Plasma irisin, body weight, body composition, and hormones controlling energy homeostasis were measured. Irisin levels were higher in obese subjects (353.1 ± 18.6 ng/mL) than in those of normal-weight (198.4 ± 7.8 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.001) and were also higher in men (340.9 ± 20 ng/mL) than in women (267.6 ± 12 ng/mL; P weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, as measured by bioimpedance, but not with height or leptin levels. Interestingly, irisin levels paralleled body weight reduction after the dietary treatment (week 8) and again returned to the baseline levels at 24 weeks in those patients regaining the lost weight. Irisin strongly reflects body fat mass, suggesting that the irisin circulating levels are conditioned by adiposity level. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    : 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting......) were measured before and after WL. Results: Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR......Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...

  7. Energy losses in switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  8. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  9. Contribution of energy restriction and macronutrient composition to changes in adipose tissue gene expression during dietary weight-loss programs in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, Frédéric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Vega, Nathalie;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hypoenergetic diets are used to reduce body fat mass and metabolic risk factors in obese subjects. The molecular changes in adipose tissue associated with weight loss and specifically related to the dietary composition are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated adipose tissue gene...... diet. SUBJECTS: Two sets of 47 women in each dietary arm were selected among 648 subjects matched for anthropometric and biological parameters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We measured adipose tissue gene expression changes in one set using a candidate gene approach. The other set was used to survey 24...... expression from human obese women according to energy deficit and the fat and carbohydrate content of the diet. DESIGN AND SETTING: Obese subjects recruited among eight European clinical centers were followed up 10 wk of either a low-fat (high carbohydrate) or a moderate-fat (low carbohydrate) hypoenergetic...

  10. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  11. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  12. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet.

  13. Quadratic Loss of Isotonic Normal Means Under Simultaneous Order Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳萍; 史宁中

    2002-01-01

    For two normal populations with unknown means μ and unknown variances σ2,assume that there are simple order restrictions among the means and variances:μ1≤μ2 and σ12≥σ22>0,This case is said to be simultaneous order restriction by Shi (Maximum likelihood estimation of means and variances from normal populations under simultaneous order restrictions.J.Multivariate,Anal.50(1994),282-293.)and an iterative algorithm of computing the order restricted maximum likelihood estimates of μi and σi2 was given in that paper,This paper shows that the restricted maximum likelihood estimate of μi has smaller mean square loss than the usual estimate xi under some conditions.

  14. Parton energy loss in glasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurenche, P. [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, BP 110, F-74941, Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, GSP-1, 117940, Kosygina Str. 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-08

    We study the synchrotron-like gluon emission in AA-collisions from fast partons due to interaction with the coherent glasma color fields. Our results show that for RHIC and LHC conditions the contribution of this mechanism to parton energy loss is much smaller than the radiative energy loss in the plasma phase.

  15. Moderate Walking Enhances the Effects of an Energy-Restricted Diet on Fat Mass Loss and Serum Insulin in Overweight and Obese Adults in a 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleist, Bernadette; Wahrburg, Ursel; Stehle, Peter; Schomaker, Ralph; Greiwing, Andreas; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Egert, Sarah

    2017-08-09

    Background: Increased physical activity may be advantageous for weight loss.Objective: We investigated the effects of an energy-restricted diet with and without moderate walking on body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and endocrine and cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese participants.Methods: A 12-wk, randomized, 2-arm, parallel, controlled, energy-restricted (500-800 kcal/d) dietary intervention study was conducted in 82 men and women [mean baseline characteristics: age, 39.4 y; weight, 99.3 kg; body mass index (in kg/m(2)), 31.9]. Participants were divided into 2 groups. One group received a hypoenergetic diet (DI) only (n = 44). The second group received the same DI and participated in a regular walking program of 2.5 h/wk (DI + walking; n = 38).Results: After the 12-wk intervention, body weight was significantly decreased in the DI + walking group and the DI group (-8.8 compared with -7.0 kg, P = 0.064 for intergroup differences). The decrease in body weight was accompanied by a significant reduction in total fat mass, which was significantly more pronounced in the DI + walking group than in the DI group (-6.4 ± 3.1 compared with -4.8 ± 3.0 kg; P = 0.020). REE after 12 wk was not significantly different compared with the baseline REE. Diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol were similarly significantly improved by both interventions. In the DI + walking group, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were also significantly reduced. Serum free triiodothyronine was significantly decreased and serum cortisol was significantly increased in both groups.Conclusions: Participation in a 12-wk weight-loss study resulted in significant reductions in body weight and fat mass and was associated with significant improvements in biomarkers for cardiovascular disease risk. Moderate weight loss was not accompanied by a reduction in REE

  16. Energy losses in photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. Abdulsadek

    1994-10-01

    The maximum power generated by photovoltaic (PV) arrays is not fully used. During summer, the main cause for the energy loss is the system design that necessitates an oversizing of the PV array to supply the load during the winter season when the solar energy is limited. Other reasons that cause energy loss are: the mismatch between the array and the load or battery, the loss in the batteries, and the loss due to the PV array disconnect. The array disconnect loss takes place during summer season when the battery is fully charged. To avoid the disconnect loss, a novel battery voltage regulator (BVR) is used. This supplies the load directly from the array when the battery is fully charged. Energy losses have been analyzed and divided into fundamental (unavoidable) and non-fundamental losses. Both conventional (using a conventional BVR) and new (using a novel BVR) PV systems are studied. A load that consumes constant power for 24 h a day through the year is considered. The climatic condition of Cairo city is taken as the test case.

  17. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, K A

    2011-07-01

    Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass.

  18. Energy restriction and the prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    Energy restriction (ER) to control weight is a potential strategy for breast cancer prevention. The protective effects of habitual continuous energy restriction (CER) and weight loss on breast tumour formation have been conclusively demonstrated in animal studies over the past 100 years, and more recently in women using data from observational studies and bariatric surgery. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) and intermittent fasting (IF) are possible alternative preventative approaches which may be easier for individuals to undertake and possibly more effective than standard CER. Here, we summarise the available data on CER, IER and IF with special emphasis on their potential for breast cancer prevention. In animals, IER is superior or equivalent to CER with the exception of carcinogen-induced tumour models when initiated soon after carcinogen exposure. There are no human data on IER and breast cancer risk, but three studies demonstrated IER and CER to be equivalent for weight loss. IF regimens also reduce mammary tumour formation in animal models and also led to weight loss in human subjects, but have not been directly compared with CER. Animal and some human data suggest that both IER and IF may differ mechanistically compared with CER and may bring about greater reduction in hepatic and visceral fat stores, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and cell proliferation, and increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels. Although IER and IF were first studied 65 years ago, we conclude that further studies are required to assess their values compared with CER.

  19. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and ...

  20. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  1. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy-loss distributions of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, N.N.; Nakhutin, I.E.; Shatunov, V.G.

    1976-03-05

    The f-f coincidence method was used to investigate the change in the form of the energy-loss distributions of Cf/sup 252/ fission fragments in air, down to fragment energies approx.0.8 MeV. A theoretical model is considered for the estimate of the mean-squared deviations of the fragment energy-loss distributions. (AIP)

  3. Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.

  4. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Leanne M; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Martin, Corby K; de Jonge, Lilian; Williamson, Donald A; Delany, James P; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic and behavioral adaptations to caloric restriction (CR) in free-living conditions have not yet been objectively measured. Forty-eight (36.8+/-1.0 y), overweight (BMI 27.8+/-0.7 kg/m(2)) participants were randomized to four groups for 6-months; energy intake at 100% of energy requirements; CR: 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX: 12.5% CR plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; LCD: low calorie diet (890 kcal/d) until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Body composition (DXA) and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 14-days by doubly labeled water (DLW) and activity related energy activity (AREE) were measured after 3 (M3) and 6 (M6) months of intervention. Weight changes at M6 were -1.0+/-1.1% (CONTROL), -10.4+/-0.9% (CR), -10.0+/-0.8% (CR+EX) and -13.9+/-0.8% (LCD). At M3, absolute TDEE was significantly reduced in CR (-454+/-76 kcal/d) and LCD (-633+/-66 kcal/d) but not in CR+EX or controls. At M6 the reduction in TDEE remained lower than baseline in CR (-316+/-118 kcal/d) and LCD (-389+/-124 kcal/d) but reached significance only when CR and LCD were combined (-351+/-83 kcal/d). In response to caloric restriction (CR/LCD combined), TDEE adjusted for body composition, was significantly lower by -431+/-51 and -240+/-83 kcal/d at M3 and M6, respectively, indicating a metabolic adaptation. Likewise, physical activity (TDEE adjusted for sleeping metabolic rate) was significantly reduced from baseline at both time points. For control and CR+EX, adjusted TDEE (body composition or sleeping metabolic rate) was not changed at either M3 or M6. For the first time we show that in free-living conditions, CR results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may influence weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Clinical

  5. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M Redman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and behavioral adaptations to caloric restriction (CR in free-living conditions have not yet been objectively measured. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-eight (36.8+/-1.0 y, overweight (BMI 27.8+/-0.7 kg/m(2 participants were randomized to four groups for 6-months; CONTROL: energy intake at 100% of energy requirements; CR: 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX: 12.5% CR plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; LCD: low calorie diet (890 kcal/d until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Body composition (DXA and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE over 14-days by doubly labeled water (DLW and activity related energy activity (AREE were measured after 3 (M3 and 6 (M6 months of intervention. Weight changes at M6 were -1.0+/-1.1% (CONTROL, -10.4+/-0.9% (CR, -10.0+/-0.8% (CR+EX and -13.9+/-0.8% (LCD. At M3, absolute TDEE was significantly reduced in CR (-454+/-76 kcal/d and LCD (-633+/-66 kcal/d but not in CR+EX or controls. At M6 the reduction in TDEE remained lower than baseline in CR (-316+/-118 kcal/d and LCD (-389+/-124 kcal/d but reached significance only when CR and LCD were combined (-351+/-83 kcal/d. In response to caloric restriction (CR/LCD combined, TDEE adjusted for body composition, was significantly lower by -431+/-51 and -240+/-83 kcal/d at M3 and M6, respectively, indicating a metabolic adaptation. Likewise, physical activity (TDEE adjusted for sleeping metabolic rate was significantly reduced from baseline at both time points. For control and CR+EX, adjusted TDEE (body composition or sleeping metabolic rate was not changed at either M3 or M6. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time we show that in free-living conditions, CR results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may

  6. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  7. Energy Budget, Behavior and Leptin in Striped Hamsters Subjected to Food Restriction and Refeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Qiao-Xia; Chen, Ke-Xin; Wang, Yu-Kun; Cao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short “compensatory growth” rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight. PMID:23372694

  8. Effects of obesity, energy restriction and neutering on the faecal microbiota of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Manuela M; Kessler, Alexandre M; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Knotts, Trina A; Kim, Kyoungmi; Wei, Alfreda; Ramsey, Jon J; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-09-29

    Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction. Lean neutered cats had a bacterial profile similar to obese rodents and humans, with a greater abundance (Penergy restriction (PEnergy reduction was concurrent with significant shifts in two low-abundance bacterial genera and trends in four additional genera. The greatest change was a reduction in the Firmicutes genus, Sarcina, from 4·54 to 0·65 % abundance after energy restriction. The short duration of energy restriction may explain why few bacterial changes were observed in the obese cats. Additional work is needed to understand how neutering, obesity and weight loss are related to changes in feline microbiota and how these microbial shifts affect host physiology.

  9. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  10. Energy Loss of Proton in Extraction Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Bao-jie; ZENG; Zi-qiang

    2015-01-01

    The particle is transported in vacuum in accelerator,and is exported through extraction windows.The Kapton foil is used in a 3 MeV proton accelerator.The energy loss of 3 MeV proton is calculated when it comes through Kapton foil of different thicknesses with Monte Carlo method.The energy loss of 3 MeV proton in

  11. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation (EEgest) in twin-bearing ewes. Multiparous twin-bearing ewes were fed either adequate (A: n = 10) or restricted to 60% of energy and protein requirements (R: n = 10) during the last 6...

  12. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M B; Kopeliovich, B Z; Potashnikova, I K; McGaughey, P L; Moss, J M; Peng, J C; Garvey, G T; Leitch, M J; Adams, M R; Alde, D M; Baer, H W; Barlett, M L; Brown, C N; Cooper, W E; Carey, T A; Danner, G; Hoffmann, G W; Hsiung, Y B; Kaplan, D M; Klein, A; Lee, C; Lillberg, J W; McCarthy, R L; Mishra, C S; Wang, M J

    2001-05-14

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of 2H, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. Employing a new formulation of the Drell-Yan process in the rest frame of the nucleus, this analysis examines the effect of initial-state energy loss and shadowing on the nuclear-dependence ratios versus the incident proton's momentum fraction and dimuon effective mass. The resulting energy loss per unit path length is -dE/dz = 2.32+/-0.52+/-0.5 GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in a nuclear environment.

  13. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M B; Potashnikova, I K; McGaughey, P L; Moss, J M; Peng, J C; Garvey, G T; Leitch, M J; Adams, M R; Alde, D M; Baer, Howard W; Barlett, M L; Brown, C N; Cooper, W E; Carey, T A; Danner, G; Hoffmann, G W; Hsiung, Y B; Kaplan, D M; Klein, A; Lee, C; Lillberg, J W; McCarthy, R L; Mishra, C S; Wang, M J

    2001-01-01

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of $^2H$, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. Employing a new formulation of the Drell-Yan process in the rest frame of the nucleus, this analysis examines the effect of initial-state energy loss and shadowing on the nuclear-dependence ratios versus the incident proton's momentum fraction and dimuon effective mass. The resulting energy loss per unit path length is $-dE/dz = 2.32 \\pm 0.52\\pm 0.5$ GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in nuclear environment.

  14. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  15. Comparison of the effect of daily consumption of probiotic compared with low-fat conventional yogurt on weight loss in healthy obese women following an energy-restricted diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Mousavi, Neda; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-02-01

    Despite evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics and low-fat dairy products, to our knowledge, no study has compared the beneficial effect on weight loss of consuming a probiotic yogurt (PY) compared with a standard low-fat yogurt (LF) during a hypoenergetic program. We compared the effect of the PY with LF yogurt consumption on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y) who usually consumed standard LFs were asked to consume either PY or LF every day with their main meals for 12 wk while following a weight-loss program. A total of 89 participants were randomly assigned to one of the 2 intervention groups. Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A statistically significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over the 12 wk in both groups. However, no significant differences in weight loss and anthropometric measurements were seen between groups after the intervention. Compared with the LF group, the PY group had a greater (mean ± SD) decrease in total cholesterol (PY = -0.36 ± 0.10 mmol/L, LF = -0.31 ± 0.10 mmol/L; P = 0.024), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (PY = -0.35 ± 0.10 mmol/L, LF = -0.31 ± 0.11 mmol/L; P = 0.018), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (PY = -0.55 ± 0.32, LF = -0.42 ± 0.20; P = 0.002), 2-h postprandial glucose (PY = -0.61 ± 0.24 mmol/L, LF = -0.44 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P loss. However, it may have positive effects on lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity during a weight-loss program. This trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir/ as IRCT201402177754N8. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  17. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  18. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, J M; Johnson, M B; Leitch, M J; McGaughey, P L; Kopeliovich, B Z; Potashnikova, I K; Peng, J C

    2001-01-01

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan (DY) dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of $^2H$, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. A light-cone formulation of the DY process is employed in the rest frame of the nucleus. In this frame, for $x_2\\ll x_1$, DY production appears as bremsstrahlung of a virtual photon followed by decay into dileptons. We treat the two sources of nuclear suppression, energy loss and shadowing, in a consistent formulation. Shadowing, involving no free parameters, is calculated within the light-cone dipole formalism. Initial-state energy loss, the only unknown in the problem, is determined from a fit to the nuclear-dependence ratio versus $x_1$. With the assumption of constant energy loss per unit path length, we find $-dE/dz = 2.32 \\pm 0.52\\pm 0.5$ GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in nuclear environment.

  19. Measurement of mean excitation energy by energy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuChang-Shi

    1997-01-01

    The mean excitation energy(MEE) for Al,Ti,Fe,Cu and Ta has been determined experimentally by the Landan equation,which describes the most probable energy loss of electrons in the incidence direction,and the results are consistent with the values given in the literature,THese provide a quick,easy and accurate evaluation method for the experimental MEE.

  20. Quantitative Analysis Method of Output Loss due to Restriction for Grid-connected PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuzuru; Oozeki, Takashi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Itou, Takamitsu; Kitamura, Kiyoyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yokota, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    Voltage of power distribution line will be increased due to reverse power flow from grid-connected PV systems. In the case of high density grid connection, amount of voltage increasing will be higher than the stand-alone grid connection system. To prevent the over voltage of power distribution line, PV system's output will be restricted if the voltage of power distribution line is close to the upper limit of the control range. Because of this interaction, amount of output loss will be larger in high density case. This research developed a quantitative analysis method for PV systems output and losses to clarify the behavior of grid connected PV systems. All the measured data are classified into the loss factors using 1 minute average of 1 second data instead of typical 1 hour average. Operation point on the I-V curve is estimated to quantify the loss due to the output restriction using module temperature, array output voltage, array output current and solar irradiance. As a result, loss due to output restriction is successfully quantified and behavior of output restriction is clarified.

  1. Short-term intermittent energy restriction interventions for weight management: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L; McGarty, A; Hutchison, L; Ells, L; Hankey, C

    2017-10-04

    This systematic review synthesized the available evidence on the effect of short-term periods of intermittent energy restriction (weekly intermittent energy restriction; ≥7-d energy restriction) in comparison with usual care (daily continuous energy restriction), in the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016. Only randomized controlled trials of interventions (≥12 weeks) in adults with overweight and obesity were included. Five studies were included in this review. Weekly intermittent energy restriction periods ranged from an energy intake between 1757 and 6276 kJ/d(-1) . The mean duration of the interventions was 26 (range 14 to 48) weeks. Meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in weight loss between weekly intermittent energy restriction and continuous energy restriction post-intervention (weighted mean difference: -1.36 [-3.23, 0.51], p = 0.15) and at follow-up (weighted mean difference: -0.82 [-3.76, 2.11], p = 0.58). Both interventions achieved comparable weight loss of >5 kg and therefore were associated with clinical benefits to health. The findings support the use of weekly intermittent energy restriction as an alternative option for the treatment of obesity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the long-term sustainable effects of weekly intermittent energy restriction on weight management. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  2. Microgrids: Energy management by loss minimization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Basu, S. Chowdhury, S.P. Chowdhury

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy management is a techno-economic issue, which dictates, in the context of microgrids, how optimal investment in technology front could bring optimal power quality and reliability (PQR of supply to the consumers. Investment in distributed energy resources (DERs, with their connection to the utility grid at optimal locations and with optimal sizes, saves energy in the form of line loss reduction. Line loss reduction is the indirect benefit to the microgrid owner who may recover it as an incentive from utility. The present paper focuses on planning of optimal siting and sizing of DERs based on minimization of line loss. Optimal siting is done, here, on the loss sensitivity index (LSI method and optimal sizing by differential evolution (DE algorithms, which is, again, compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. Studies are conducted on 6-bus and 14-bus radial networks under islanded mode of operation with electric demand profile. Islanding helps planning of DER capacity of microgrid, which is self-sufficient to cater its own consumers without utility’s support.

  3. Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z. [Centre of Excellence in Nanomaterials, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Hasan, S. T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Sharma, A. C. [Physics Department, Sibli National College, Azamgarh-276128 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

  4. ENERGY-LOSS FUNCTIONS DERIVED FROM REELS SPECTRA FOR ALUMINUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zhang; Z.J. Ding; H.M. Li; K. Salma; X. Sun; R. Shimizu; T. Koshikawa; K. Goto

    2005-01-01

    The effective energy loss functions for Al have been derived from differential inverse inelastic mean free path based on the extended Landau approach. It has been revealed that the effective energy loss function is very close in value to the theoretical surface energy loss function in the lower energy loss region but gradually approaches the theoretical bulk energy loss function in the higher energy loss region. Moreover, the intensity corresponding to surface excitation in effective energy loss functions decreases with the increase of primary electron energy. These facts show that the present effective energy loss function describes not only surface excitation but also bulk excitation. At last, REELS spectra simulated by Monte Carlo method based on use of the effective energy loss functions has reproduced the experimental REELS spectra with considerable success.

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  6. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  7. Physical activity, energy restriction, and the risk of pancreatic cancer: Prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Lumey, L.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because of their influence on insulin concentrations, we hypothesized that both physical activity and energy restriction may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We examined the associations between physical activity, proxies for energy restriction, and pancreatic cancer risk

  8. Physical activity, energy restriction, and the risk of pancreatic cancer: Prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Lumey, L.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because of their influence on insulin concentrations, we hypothesized that both physical activity and energy restriction may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We examined the associations between physical activity, proxies for energy restriction, and pancreatic cancer

  9. Energy losses in mechanically modified bacterial magnetosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molcan, Matus; Gojzewski, Hubert; Skumiel, Andrzej; Dutz, Silvio; Kovac, Jozef; Kubovcikova, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Vekas, Ladislau; Timko, Milan

    2016-09-01

    Magnetosomes are isolated from the Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 bacteria. Two samples are compared: magnetosomes normally prepared of a ‘standard’ length and magnetosomes of a short length. Chains of magnetosomes are shortened by mechanical modification (cleavage) by means of sonication treatment. They represent a new geometry of magnetosomes that have not been investigated before. The effect of the sonication is analysed using transmission and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Scanning imaging reveals three types of shortening effect in a sample of shortened magnetosomes, namely, membrane collapse, membrane destruction, and magnetosome cleavage. Dynamic light scattering shows a reduction of hydrodynamic diameter in a sample of shortened magnetosomes. The magnetic properties of magnetosomes are analysed and compared in DC and AC magnetic fields based on the evaluation of quasi-static hysteresis loops (energy losses) and calorimetric hyperthermia measurements (specific absorption rate), respectively. A sample of shortened magnetosomes behaves magnetically in a different manner, showing that both the energy loss and the specific absorption rate are reduced, and thereby indicates a variation in the heating process. The magnetic properties of magnetosomes, together with the new and stable geometry, are balanced, which opens the way for a better adaptation of the magnetic field parameters for particular applications.

  10. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  11. Energy restriction affect liver development in Hu sheep ram lambs through Hippo signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Guo-Min; Jin, Yu-Hang; Guo, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Yi-Xuan; El-Samahy, M A; Wang, Feng

    2017-09-02

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary energy restriction on postnatal liver development in Hu sheep ram lambs. A total of 16 ram lambs were randomly divided into two groups: 100% energy requirements diet and 55% energy requirements diet, which were fed for 75 d. Results showed that the final body and liver weights decreased with energy restriction (p Energy restriction caused a significant decrease in the levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and an increase in growth hormone secretion (p energy restriction, respectively (p energy restriction group (p energy restriction group (p energy restriction in ram lambs impairs liver development by increasing apoptosis, which may occur via the Hippo signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  13. Parton energy loss in hot and dense QCD medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jie; MAO Yaxian; XIANG Wenchang; ZHOU Daicui

    2006-01-01

    Induced gluon radiation and energy loss of heavy quark in hot and dense QCD media are discussed. Using the light-cone path integral approach, an analytical formula of the energy loss of heavy quark is derived. The results show that the quark energy loss obviously depends on the mass of quark, i. e. a remarkable suppression occurs in the case of heavy quark comparing to a light one. The radiative energy loss of energetic quark is proportional to L2, where L is the length of the medium. The dependence of energy loss on L2 turns to L with decreasing quark energy.

  14. Expected energy-based restricted Boltzmann machine for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, S; Uchibe, E; Doya, K

    2015-04-01

    In classification tasks, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) have predominantly been used in the first stage, either as feature extractors or to provide initialization of neural networks. In this study, we propose a discriminative learning approach to provide a self-contained RBM method for classification, inspired by free-energy based function approximation (FE-RBM), originally proposed for reinforcement learning. For classification, the FE-RBM method computes the output for an input vector and a class vector by the negative free energy of an RBM. Learning is achieved by stochastic gradient-descent using a mean-squared error training objective. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of FE-RBM function approximation can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network. In this study, we propose that the learning performance of RBM function approximation can be further improved by computing the output by the negative expected energy (EE-RBM), instead of the negative free energy. To create a deep learning architecture, we stack several RBMs on top of each other. We also connect the class nodes to all hidden layers to try to improve the performance even further. We validate the classification performance of EE-RBM using the MNIST data set and the NORB data set, achieving competitive performance compared with other classifiers such as standard neural networks, deep belief networks, classification RBMs, and support vector machines. The purpose of using the NORB data set is to demonstrate that EE-RBM with binary input nodes can achieve high performance in the continuous input domain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Extreme calorie restriction and energy source starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent distinct physiological states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, L.G.M.; Almering, M.J.H.; Dijk, M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; De Winde, J.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation methods used to investigate microbial calorie restriction often result in carbon and energy starvation. This study aims to dissect cellular responses to calorie restriction and starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using retentostat cultivation. In retentostats, cells are continuousl

  16. Partonic Energy Loss and the Drell-Yan Process

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We examine the current status of the extraction of the rate of partonic energy loss in nuclei from A dependent data. The advantages and difficulties of using the Drell-Yan process to measure the energy loss of a parton traversing a cold nuclear medium are discussed. The prospects of using relatively low energy proton beams for a definitive measurement of partonic energy loss are presented.

  17. Glycine supplementation during calorie restriction accelerates fat loss and protects against further muscle loss in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldow, Marissa K; Ham, Daniel J; Godeassi, Daniel P; Chee, Annabel; Lynch, Gordon S; Koopman, René

    2016-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces co-morbidities associated with obesity, but also reduces lean mass thereby predisposing people to weight regain. Since we demonstrated that glycine supplementation can reduce inflammation and muscle wasting, we hypothesized that glycine supplementation during CR would preserve muscle mass in mice. High-fat fed male C57BL/6 mice underwent 20 days CR (40% reduced calories) supplemented with glycine (1 g/kg/day; n = 15, GLY) or l-alanine (n = 15, ALA). Body composition and glucose tolerance were assessed and hindlimb skeletal muscles and epididymal fat were collected. Eight weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and glucose intolerance. CR caused rapid weight loss (ALA: 20%, GLY: 21%, P fat mass (ALA: 41%, GLY: 49% P fat mass (14%, p fat mass (26%, P fat mass (pre CR) and the mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation (r = 0.51 to 0.68, P loss of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  19. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  20. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful.

  1. Hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression during recovery from food restriction superimposed on short-day photoperiod-induced weight loss in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoë A; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Reilly, Laura; Stevens, Valerie; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2007-09-01

    Previously, 40% food restriction of male Siberian hamsters over 21 days in short-day (SD) photoperiod induced characteristic changes in expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes; mRNAs for neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and leptin receptor were upregulated, and those of proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript were depressed. The present study examined the effect of refeeding hamsters for 6 days (approximately 50% recovery of weight differential) or 19 days (resumption of appropriate weight trajectory). Hyperphagia continued throughout refeeding, but differences in fat pad weights and leptin levels had disappeared after 19 days. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene expression was depressed by prior restriction in both refed groups. The depressive effect of prior restriction on proopiomelanocortin gene expression had disappeared after 19 days of refeeding. There was no effect of prior food restriction on neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide gene expression. Expression of the anorexigenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor was downregulated in the ventromedial nucleus after SD exposure for 12 wk. In the SD food restriction study, there were effects of photoperiod on brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but not of prior food restriction. Hypothalamic energy balance genes in the hamster respond asynchronously to return to a seasonally appropriate body weight. The achievement of this weight rather than the weight at which caloric restriction was imposed is the critical factor. The differential responses of hypothalamic energy balance genes to food restriction and refeeding are poorly characterized in any species, a critical issue given their potential relevance to human weight loss strategies that involve caloric restriction.

  2. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...... that the thermal insulation and cooling machine efficiency are the most important loss element in a superconducting cable system...

  3. Low-loss energy storage flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H. E.; Studer, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetically-levitated, ironless-armature spokeless rotor is used. Ironless armature construction eliminates core losses due to hysteresis and eddy currents. Device combines features of homopolar salient poles and stationary ironless electronically commutated armature.

  4. Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Parr, Alice; Cusack, Rhodri; Thompson, Russell; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, Maria; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, deficits reflect the extent of damage to a restricted but complex brain circuit comprising specific regions within both frontal and posterior cortex. PMID:20679241

  5. A simple method for realistic estimation of the most probable energy loss in thin gas layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, V. M.; Merson, G. I.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for the estimation of the relativistic rise of the most probable ionisation loss in thin gas layers is suggested. The method is based on the similarity of the most probable and restricted energy loss of relativistic charged particles in matter. This allows to correct the Landau-Sternheimer theory taking into account the fact that particle collisions with internal atomic electrons do not influence the most probable value of the ionisation loss. The effective values of the charge number and average ionisation potential which are simple to calculate are used for this correction. A similarity of the energy loss distributions for various gases and gas layers is found. This similarity is expressed in a constant fraction of the ionisation loss distribution tail area ( ˜ 1:3.5). It is the value which was used for correction of the Landau-Sternheimer formula.

  6. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Wietecha, Tomasz; Houston, Barbara; Omer, Mohamed; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Subramanian, Savitha; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Chait, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. Objective We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. Methods Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. Results By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. Conclusions These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter

  7. Fasting ghrelin does not predict food intake after short-term energy restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Mars, M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Stafleu, A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of ghrelin as a hunger signal during energy restriction and to test the hypothesis that changes in fasting leptin concentrations during energy restriction are associated with changes in fasting ghrelin concentrations. Research Methods and Procedures: Thirty-five healthy,

  8. Energy loss correction for a crystal calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Miao; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MAO Ze-Pu; MO Xiao-Hu; QIU Jin-Fa; WANG Yi-Fang; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Ji-Ke; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; YANG Ming; YOU Zheng-Yun; YU Guo-Wei; BIAN Jian-Ming; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZANG Shi-Lei; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Ling; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Zhi-Peng; ZHU Yong-Sheng; CAO Guo-Fu; ZOU Jia-Heng; DENG Zi-Yan; HE Kang-Lin; HUANG Bin; JI Xiao-Bin; LI Gang

    2008-01-01

    Material effect of inner-detectors on the performances of the BESⅢ Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC)is investigated.The BESⅢ Time-Of-Flight counters(TOF)have been utilized to improve the energy resolution and detection efficiency for photons after a careful energy calibration.A matching algorithm between TOF and EMC energy deposits is developed,and the effects of beam-related background are discussed.The energy resolution is improved and the photon detection efficiency can be increased by the combined measurement of EMC and TOF detectors.

  9. Collisional Energy Loss of Non Asymptotic Jets in a QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Adil, A; Horowitz, W A; Wicks, S

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the collisional energy loss suffered by a heavy (charm) quark created at a finite time within a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in the classical linear response formalism. We pay close attention to the problem of formulating a conserved current and accounting for binding and radiative energy loss effects. We find that the finite time correction is on the order of a Debye length as expected and the overall energy loss is similar in magnitude to the energy loss suffered by a charge created in the asymptotic past. This result has significant implications for the relative contribution to energy loss from collisional and radiative sources and will have ramifications for the ``single electron puzzle'' at RHIC as well as other experimental observables.

  10. The electron energy loss rate due to radiative recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junjie; Kaastra, Jelle; Badnell, N. R.

    2017-02-01

    Context. For photoionized plasmas, electron energy loss rates due to radiative recombination (RR) are required for thermal equilibrium calculations, which assume a local balance between the energy gain and loss. While many calculations of total and/or partial RR rates are available from the literature, specific calculations of associated RR electron energy loss rates are lacking. Aims: Here we focus on electron energy loss rates due to radiative recombination of H-like to Ne-like ions for all the elements up to and including zinc (Z = 30), over a wide temperature range. Methods: We used the AUTOSTRUCTURE code to calculate the level-resolved photoionization cross section and modify the ADASRR code so that we can simultaneously obtain level-resolved RR rate coefficients and associated RR electron energy loss rate coefficients. We compared the total RR rates and electron energy loss rates of H i and He i with those found in the literature. Furthermore, we utilized and parameterized the weighted electron energy loss factors (dimensionless) to characterize total electron energy loss rates due to RR. Results: The RR electron energy loss data are archived according to the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) data class adf48. The RR electron energy loss data are also incorporated into the SPEX code for detailed modeling of photoionized plamsas. Full Tables 1 and 2 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A10

  11. Measurement of TeV muon energy loss in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakumoto, W.K.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Kim, B.J. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)); Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schellman, H.; Schumm, B.A. (Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Bachmann, K.T.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H. (Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)); Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.O.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.; Rapidis, P.A.; Yovanovitch, D. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)); Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

    1992-05-01

    We measure the energy loss of high-energy muons (up to 1 TeV) from cosmic-ray muons incident on the iron-scintillator calorimeter of the Chicago-Columbia-Fermilab-Rochester Collaboration (Lab E) neutrino detector at Fermilab. Measurements of the differential energy loss spectra in Fe and the average {ital dE}/{ital dx} energy loss in Fe are presented as functions of muon energy and are compared against calculations. There is reasonable agreement between the measurements and calculations except in the region of small energy losses (under a few GeV) for 1-TeV muons, where the measurement is about 30% lower than the calculation. This level of agreement with theory implies that reliable simulations of the performance of muon detectors for future TeV colliders can be done.

  12. Muon Energy Loss Upsteam of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolopoulos, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Poppleton, A

    2006-01-01

    A method for the estimation of the muon energy loss downstream of the Muons Spectrometer is presented. The method provides an improved and updated parametrization of the muon energy loss in ATLAS, along with an estimation based on the actual energy deposition in the calorimeters. The latter aims to account, on an event-by-event basis, for the statistical fluctuations of the energy loss. The final implementation of the presented method combines both the energy loss parametrization and the calorimeter information. This hybrid method provides on average a 5% improvement on the muon stand-alone momentum resolution, reaching 10% for , and reduces the non-gaussian tails. The method is implemented inside the ATHENA framework, in the MuidCaloEnergyTools package.

  13. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J.I. (Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. (Dept. Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain))

    1994-05-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: (i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and (ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  14. Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction. The effect of modest energy deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Batterham, Rachel L; Stensel, David J

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3-36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3-36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Torque model of hydro turbine with inner energy loss characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the result and analysis of the composition of energy loss occurring in the hydro turbine. Two new types of energy losses,namely the hydraulic loss in the flow channel and the impact loss,are defined. All losses within the hydro turbine are divided into four types and the loss coefficients are defined accordingly. Expressions or characteristic descriptions of these losses as well as the calibration method of the loss coefficients are presented. Furthermore,the torque model of the hydro turbine where the inner energy loss takes place is established. The developed model has been used to calculate the power loss due to the mechanical friction generated by the units’ rotation to solve the difficulty of measurements of the mechanical friction loss in the hydro turbine. The definition of the impact loss explains the phenomenon that the loss of no-load is greater than that of the rated operation. A set of conversion coefficients are defined using the characteristic parameters at the rated operation,which are used to transform the parameters in the torque model into those that are easily measured. Therefore,the expression of the hydro turbine power is converted into a function that has the main servomotor displacement as its single variable. This makes the proposed model be convenient to use. Finally,the proposed model and methods are calibrated and verified using the measured data of a hydropower plant. Good agreement between the modeled results and the measurements indicates that the proposed model can represent the inner energy loss characteristics of the hydro turbine.

  16. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng;

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in ob......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein....../day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P...... and women had similar reductions (p weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14...

  17. Characteristic energy losses of electrons in organic NTCDA-films

    CERN Document Server

    Komolov, S A; Sidorenko, A G; Alyaev, Y G; Novolodskij, V A

    2001-01-01

    The studies on the characteristic energy losses of slow electrons in the NTCDA thin film on the ZnO (0001) surface are presented. It is shown, that the spectrum of the energy losses (E sub p =4.0; 5.6; 12.5 and 14.5 eV) in the area of low energies (< 60 eV) reflects the structure of transitions between the valency zone and the conductivity zone. The energy losses on the plasma oscillations excitation the excitation of pi-plasmon with the energy of 6.5 eV and excitation of the pi-sigma plasmon with the energy of 25 eV become prevailing with the growth of the initial electrons energy

  18. Energy loss and coronary flow simulation following hybrid stage I palliation: a hypoplastic left heart computational fluid dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H; Niehaus, Justin; Gottliebson, William; Abdallah, Shaaban

    2013-08-01

    The theoretical differences in energy losses as well as coronary flow with different band sizes for branch pulmonary arteries (PA) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remain unknown. Our objective was to develop a computational fluid dynamic model (CFD) to determine the energy losses and pulmonary-to-systemic flow rates. This study was done for three different PA band sizes. Three-dimensional computer models of the hybrid procedure were constructed using the standard commercial CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. The computer models were controlled for bilateral PA reduction to 25% (restrictive), 50% (intermediate) and 75% (loose) of the native branch pulmonary artery diameter. Velocity and pressure data were calculated throughout the heart geometry using the finite volume numerical method. Coronary flow was measured simultaneously with each model. Wall shear stress and the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic volume flow rates were calculated. Computer simulations were compared at fixed points utilizing echocardiographic and catheter-based metric dimensions. Restricting the PA band to a 25% diameter demonstrated the greatest energy loss. The 25% banding model produced an energy loss of 16.76% systolic and 24.91% diastolic vs loose banding at 7.36% systolic and 17.90% diastolic. Also, restrictive PA bands had greater coronary flow compared with loose PA bands (50.2 vs 41.9 ml/min). Shear stress ranged from 3.75 Pascals with restrictive PA banding to 2.84 Pascals with loose banding. Intermediate PA banding at 50% diameter achieved a Qp/Qs (closest to 1) at 1.46 systolic and 0.66 diastolic compared with loose or restrictive banding without excess energy loss. CFD provides a unique platform to simulate pressure, shear stress as well as energy losses of the hybrid procedure. PA banding at 50% provided a balanced pulmonary and systemic circulation with adequate coronary flow but without extra energy losses incurred.

  19. Energy substitution game under the supply capacity restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhuo; Chen Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with Chinese economic growth, energy plays a more and more important role in the national economy. The imbalance between insufficient energy supply and huge energy demand has become a major problem in energy utilization, and energy substitution is attracting more and more attention as a key to the sustainable and sound development of Chinese economy. Explored the possibilities of the mutual substitution of the two types of energy with different functions with game theory in light of the supply capacity. As a con-clusion, there are four equilibrium results corresponding to different levels of supply capac-ity. Subsequently, we carry on the study further by numerical simulation, investigate in one group of results most close to Chinese energy status and find the equilibrium price as well as the demand variation pattern.

  20. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  1. Energy Loss in Pulse Detonation Engine due to Fuel Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid viscosity is a significant factor resulting in the energy loss in most fluid dynamical systems. To analyze the energy loss in the pulse detonation engine (PDE due to the viscosity of the fuel, the energy loss in the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is investigated based on the generalized multisymplectic method in this paper. Firstly, the single detonation energy is simplified as an impulse; thus the complex detonation process is simplified. And then, the symmetry of the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is studied in the generalized multisymplectic framework and the energy loss expression is obtained. Finally, the energy loss in the Burgers model is investigated numerically. The results in this paper can be used to explain the difference between the theoretical performance and the experimental performance of the PDE partly. In addition, the analytical approach of this paper can be extended to the analysis of the energy loss in other fluid dynamic systems due to the fluid viscosity.

  2. Bremsstrahlung Energy Losses for Cosmic Ray Electrons and Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently cosmic ray electrons and positrons, i.e. cosmic ray charged leptons, have been observed. To understand the distances from our solar system to the sources of such lepton cosmic rays, it is important to understand energy losses from cosmic electrodynamic fields. Energy losses for ultra-relativistic electrons and/or positrons due to classical electrodynamic bremsstrahlung are computed. The energy losses considered are (i) due to Thompson scattering from fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the background cosmic thermal black body radiation and (ii) due to the synchrotron radiation losses from quasi-static domains of cosmic magnetic fields. For distances to sources of galactic length proportions, the lepton cosmic ray energy must be lass than about a TeV.

  3. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-01-01

    ... scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons...

  4. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation. PMID:28106818

  5. The optimum grain size for minimizing energy losses in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, M.F. de [Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda/Universidade Federal Fluminense Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, Vila Santa Cecilia, 27255-125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mcampos@metal.eeimvr.uff.br; Teixeira, J.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado 532, 05508-901, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Landgraf, F.J.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado 532, 05508-901, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: landgraf@ipt.br

    2006-06-15

    A model able to predict the optimum grain size for textured electrical steels used in motors or transformers is presented. The model is based on the Pry and Bean model for the anomalous losses. The validity of the model is restricted to the frequency range of 1-1000 Hz. The model predicts that the optimum grain size decreases as: resistivity decreases or frequency increases or thickness of steel sheet increases. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental results.

  6. Radiative energy loss of neighboring subjets arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    We compute the in-medium energy loss probability distribution of two neighboring subjets at leading order, in the large-$N_c$ approximation. Our result exhibits a gradual onset of color decoherence of the system and accounts for two expected limiting cases. When the angular separation is smaller than the characteristic angle for medium-induced radiation, the two-pronged substructure lose energy coherently as a single color charge, namely that of the parent parton. At large angular separation the two subjets lose energy independently. Our result is a first step towards quantifying effects of energy loss as a result of the fluctuation of the multi-parton jet substructure and therefore goes beyond the standard approach to jet quenching based on single parton energy loss. We briefly discuss applications to jet observables in heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Harvie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent energy restriction (IER has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  8. Less-than-expected weight loss in normal-weight women undergoing caloric restriction and exercise is accompanied by preservation of fat-free mass and metabolic adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K; De Souza, M J; Williams, N I

    2017-03-01

    Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic hormones associated with energy conservation. Weight loss occurred in SEV (-3.7±0.9 kg, Ploss was significantly less than predicted (SEV: -11.1±1.0 kg; MOD: -6.5±1.1 kg; both PFat mass declined in SEV (Pfat-free mass remained unchanged in all groups (P>0.33). RMR decreased by -6±2% in MOD (P=0.020). In SEV, RMR did not change on a group level (P=0.66), but participants whose RMR declined lost more weight (P=0.020) and had a higher baseline RMR (P=0.026) than those whose RMR did not decrease. Characteristic changes in leptin (P=0.003), tri-iodothyronine (P=0.013), insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.016) and ghrelin (P=0.049) occurred only in SEV. The energy deficit and adaptive changes in RMR explained 54% of the observed weight loss. In normal-weight women, caloric restriction and exercise resulted in less-than-predicted weight loss. In contrast to previous literature, weight loss consisted almost exclusively of fat mass, whereas fat-free mass was preserved.

  9. Tailoring the energy distribution and loss of 2D plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiao; López, Josué J; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to tailor the energy distribution of plasmons at the nanoscale has many applications in nanophotonics, such as designing plasmon lasers, spasers, and quantum emitters. To this end, we analytically study the energy distribution and the proper field quantization of 2D plasmons with specific examples for graphene plasmons. We find that the portion of the plasmon energy contained inside graphene (energy confinement factor) can exceed 50%, despite graphene being infinitely thin. In fact, this very high energy confinement can make it challenging to tailor the energy distribution of graphene plasmons just by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment or the geometry, such as changing the separation distance between two coupled graphene layers. However, by adopting concepts of parity-time symmetry breaking, we show that tuning the loss in one of the two coupled graphene layers can simultaneously tailor the energy confinement factor and propagation characteristics, causing the phenomenon of loss-indu...

  10. Tailoring the energy distribution and loss of 2D plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Rivera, Nicholas; López, Josué J.; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-10-01

    The ability to tailor the energy distribution of plasmons at the nanoscale has many applications in nanophotonics, such as designing plasmon lasers, spasers, and quantum emitters. To this end, we analytically study the energy distribution and the proper field quantization of 2D plasmons with specific examples for graphene plasmons. We find that the portion of the plasmon energy contained inside graphene (energy confinement factor) can exceed 50%, despite graphene being infinitely thin. In fact, this very high energy confinement can make it challenging to tailor the energy distribution of graphene plasmons just by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment or the geometry, such as changing the separation distance between two coupled graphene layers. However, by adopting concepts of parity-time symmetry breaking, we show that tuning the loss in one of the two coupled graphene layers can simultaneously tailor the energy confinement factor and propagation characteristics, causing the phenomenon of loss-induced plasmonic transparency.

  11. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents.......A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents....

  12. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  13. The energy loss of medium-energy He+ ions backscattered from a Cu(100) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Weg, W.F. van der

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented for the shape of the surface peak in the energy spectrum of backscattered ions in a channeling and blocking experiment. The elastic energy loss distribution of the ions is calculated by use of Monte Carlo simulation. The inelastic energy loss distribution is calculated by use of

  14. Holographic energy loss in non-relativistic backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Atashi, Mahdi; Farahbodnia, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study some aspects of energy loss in non-relativistic theories from holography. We analyze the energy lost by a rotating heavy point particle along a circle of radius $l$ with angular velocity $\\omega$ in theories with general dynamical exponent $z$ and hyperscaling violation exponent $\\theta$. It is shown that this problem provides a novel perspective on the energy loss in such theories. A general computation at zero and finite temperature is done and it is shown that how the total energy loss rate depends non-trivially on two characteristic exponents $(z,\\theta)$. We find that at zero temperature there is a special radius $l_c$ where the energy loss is independent of different values of $(z,\\theta)$. Also, there is a crossover between a regime in which the energy loss is dominated by the linear drag force and by the radiation because of the acceleration of the rotating particle. We discover different behaviors at finite temperature case.

  15. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  16. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  17. Energy loss of low energy ion N+q grazing on the Al(111) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bi-Tao; Chen Chun-Hua; Song Yu-Shou; Gu Jian-Gang

    2007-01-01

    The total energy loss of N+q ions (for v < Bohr velocity) grazing on the Al(111) has been simulated without any 'fit' parameter and compared with the experimental data. The energy loss due to the charge exchange, happening before the N+q hits the Al(111) surface, is studied. The present simulation shows that the energy loss strongly depends on the charge state of the projectile and the lattice orientation of Al(111) surface. The calculated total energy loss agrees with experimental data very well.

  18. Effects of feed restriction and forage:concentrate ratio on digestibility, methane emission, and energy utilization by goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rebeca Castro Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to to evaluate how feed restriction and different forage:concentrate ratios affect digestibility, methane emission (using the SF6 technique, and energy utilization of Anglo-Nubian goats. Fifteen (15 dry and non-pregnant Anglo Nubian goats, averaging 30±2.9 kg body weight, were used. The experiment was divided into two trials, the first of which was designed to study the effects of feed restriction (0% or ad libitum; 15% of feed restriction or equivalent to 85% of ad libitum intake; and 40% of feed restriction or equivalent to 60% of ad libitum intake and the second, to study the effects of forage:concentrate (F:C ratios (75:25, 54:46, and 25:75 in the diet. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer gas method was used to collect and estimate methane (CH4 emissions. Feed restriction level did not affect apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber. Methane emission (g d−1 decreased linearly as intake level decreased. However, energy loss in methane proportional to organic matter intake was similar among levels of feed restriction; consequently, dietary metabolizability did not differ among treatments. Methane gas (g d−1 as a function of F:C ratio revealed a quadratic response, showing the highest values when animals were fed the 46:54 F:C ratio diet (18.2 g d−1, suggesting that the decrease in absolute CH4 occurred when the level of concentrate inclusion in the diet surpassed approximately 50%. The results presented herein may be relevant for the ongoing and future efforts towards completion of an IPCC inventory regarding the contribution of goats to the greenhouse gas effects on the planet.

  19. Comparative effects of energy restriction and resveratrol intake on glycemic control improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, I; Aguirre, L; Macarulla, M T; Etxeberria, U; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A; Contreras, J; Portillo, M P

    2017-02-20

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR). A glucose tolerance test was performed, and serum glucose, insulin, fructosamine, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations determined. Muscle triacylglycerol content and protein expression of insulin receptor (IRβ), protein kinase B (Akt), Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) were measured. In RSV rats, fructosamine concentrations were reduced, HOMA-IR remained unchanged, but glucose tolerance was improved, without changes in phosphorylation of IRβ, Akt, and AS160 or in GLUT-4 protein expression. Rats under energy restriction showed an improvement in all the markers related to glycemic control, as well as increased phosphorylation of AS160 and protein expression of GLUT-4. In rats from RR group the results were similar to R group, with the exception of IRβ and Akt phosphorylation, which were increased. In conclusion, mild energy restriction is more efficient than intake of RSV within a standard balanced diet, and acts by means of a different mechanism from that of RSV. No additive effects between RSV and energy restriction were observed. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.

  20. Health effects of lean fish consumption in overweight and obese young adults following an energy-restricted diet for eight weeks

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In the cross-European study SEAFOODplus YOUNG it was recently shown that consumption of lean fish increases weight loss in men and has other positive health effects. The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether lean fish consumption increases weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors in a dose-dependent manner during an eight-week energy restriction in young overweight or mildly obese healthy adults. A total of 126 Icelandic individuals were grouped into three isocaloric die...

  1. Dependence of bunch energy loss in cavities on beam velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1999-03-01

    Beam energy loss in a cavity can be easily computed for a relativistic bunch using time-domain codes like MAFIA or ABCI. However, for nonrelativistic beams the problem is more complicated because of difficulties with its numerical formulation in the time domain. We calculate the cavity loss factors for a bunch in frequency domain as a function of its velocity and compare results with the relativistic case.

  2. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chi; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension positionsensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out(FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown.

  3. Dynamical Effects on Jet Energy Loss in QCD Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size dynamically screened QCD medium is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We develop a theory which allows calculating, to first order in the number of scattering centers, the energy loss of a heavy quark traveling through a finite size dynamical QCD medium. We show that the result for a dynamical medium is significantly larger compared to a medium consisting of randomly distributed static scattering centers. Therefore, a quantitative description of jet suppression at RHIC and LHC experiments must correctly account for the dynamics of the medium's constituents. Furthermore, qualitative predictions that come from this energy loss formalism are also presented.

  4. Leptin responsiveness to energy restriction: genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hoebee, B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Serum leptin concentrations are an important afferent signal in energy balance homeostasis. It has been speculated that the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction is affected by the functionality of the leptin receptor. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the effect of polymorphisms in

  5. Parton energy loss in a classical strongly coupled QGP

    OpenAIRE

    Dusling, Kevin; Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy loss of heavy quarks in the gas, liquid and solid phase of a classical quark-gluon plasma (cQGP) using molecular dynamics simulations. The model consists of massive quarks and gluons interacting as a classical non-relativistic colored Coulomb gas. We show that the electric force decorrelates on a short time scale causing the energy loss to be mostly diffusive and langevin-like in the cQGP. We find that the drag coefficient changes with the heavy quark mass, while the...

  6. Computation of electron energy loss spectra by an iterative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, Peter [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM-MPC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Ljungberg, Mathias Per [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Foerster, Dietrich [LOMA, Université de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Sánchez-Portal, Daniel [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM-MPC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    A method is presented to compute the dielectric function for extended systems using linear response time-dependent density functional theory. Localized basis functions with finite support are used to expand both eigenstates and response functions. The electron-energy loss function is directly obtained by an iterative Krylov-subspace method. We apply our method to graphene and silicon and compare it to plane-wave based approaches. Finally, we compute electron-energy loss spectrum of C{sub 60} crystal to demonstrate the merits of the method for molecular crystals, where it will be most competitive.

  7. Validity of resting energy expenditure predictive equations before and after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan R Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the validity of REE predictive equations before and after 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention in Spanish obese (30 kg/m(2>BMI<40 kg/m(2 women. METHODS: We measured REE (indirect calorimetry, body weight, height, and fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM, dual X-ray absorptiometry in 86 obese Caucasian premenopausal women aged 36.7±7.2 y, before and after (n = 78 women the intervention. We investigated the accuracy of ten REE predictive equations using weight, height, age, FFM and FM. RESULTS: At baseline, the most accurate equation was the Mifflin et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 241-247 when using weight (bias:-0.2%, P = 0.982, 74% of accurate predictions. This level of accuracy was not reached after the diet intervention (24% accurate prediction. After the intervention, the lowest bias was found with the Owen et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 1-19 equation when using weight (bias:-1.7%, P = 0.044, 81% accurate prediction, yet it provided 53% accurate predictions at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation in the accuracy of REE predictive equations before and after weight loss in non-morbid obese women. The results acquire especial relevance in the context of the challenging weight regain phenomenon for the overweight/obese population.

  8. Varying and inverting the mass hierarchy in collisional energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the LHC give access to the medium-induced suppression patterns of heavy-flavored single inclusive hadron spectra at high transverse momentum. This opens novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of the medium produced in the collision. In this note, we point out that the capacity of a QCD medium to absorb the recoil of a partonic projectile is an independent signature, which may differ for different media at the same density. In particular, while the mass hierarchy (i.e., the projectile mass dependence) of radiative energy loss depends solely on a property of the projectile, the mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss depends significantly on properties of the medium. By varying these properties in a class of models, we find that the mass hierarchy of collisional parton energy loss can be modified considerably and can even be inverted, compared to that of radiative parton energy loss. This may help to disentangle the relative strengths of radiative and collision...

  9. Probing Plasmonic Nanostructures with Electron Energy - Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren

    for nonlocal response. The experimental work comprises the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to excite and study both localized and propagating surface plasmons in metal structures. Following a short introduction, we present the theoretical foundation to describe nonlocal response in Maxwell...

  10. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  11. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  12. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale...... microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons....

  13. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets: Prospects from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, N

    2009-01-01

    The details of jet energy loss, as measured at RHIC with single particles and mu lti-particle correlations, are unresolved, and new experimental measurements are necessary in order to shed light on the mechanism and behavior of energy loss. Utilizing the ATLAS electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, full jet reconstru ction in a heavy ion environment will be performed over a wide range of $p_T$ an d rapidity. With fully reconstructed jets, new and more sensitive probes are ava ilable to test models of energy loss. In this talk, we present a series of obser vables such as the jet $R_{AA}$, the transverse momentum, $j_T$, spectrum of fra gments, the fragmentation function $D(z)$, jet shapes, and di-jet correlations, that aresensitive to perturbative and non-perturbative energy loss. We also disc uss the current level of sensitivity to expected modifications using several dif ferent jet algorithms, the cone, $k_T$, and anti-$k_T$ algorithms.

  14. Calculation of the Local Free Energy Landscape in the Restricted Region by the Modified Tomographic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun

    2016-03-31

    The free energy landscape is the most important information in the study of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. However, it is difficult to calculate. In a large collective variable space, a molecule must take a long time to obtain the sufficient sampling during the simulation. To save the calculation quantity, decreasing the sampling region and constructing the local free energy landscape is required in practice. However, the restricted region in the collective variable space may have an irregular shape. Simply restricting one or more collective variables of the molecule cannot satisfy the requirement. In this paper, we propose a modified tomographic method to perform the simulation. First, it divides the restricted region by some hyperplanes and connects the centers of hyperplanes together by a curve. Second, it forces the molecule to sample on the curve and the hyperplanes in the simulation and calculates the free energy data on them. Finally, all the free energy data are combined together to form the local free energy landscape. Without consideration of the area outside the restricted region, this free energy calculation can be more efficient. By this method, one can further optimize the path quickly in the collective variable space.

  15. Loss of Intellectual Function in Children with Phenylketonuria after Relaxation of Dietary Phenylalanine Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seashore, Margretta R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discontinuation at ages five to six of dietary restriction in 14 children with classic phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder which, if untreated, is associated with mental retardation) resulted in deterioration in intellectual function for some of the Ss. Deficits included visual motor integration and cognitive problem solving. (CL)

  16. Flow effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Luan; LIU Jia; WANG EnKe

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential.The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD.It turns out,considering the collective flow with velocity vz along the jet direction,the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium.The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium.The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption,however,decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation,which is (1-vz) times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity.In the presence of collective flow,the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order.So that the total effective energy loss is decreased.The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high PT hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Energy current loss instability model on a computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edighoffer, John A.

    1995-04-01

    The computer program called Energy Stability in a Recirculating Accelerator (ESRA) Free Electron Laser (FEL) has been written to model bunches of particles in longitudinal phase space transversing a recirculating accelerator and the associated rf changes and aperture current losses. This energy-current loss instability was first seen by Los Alamos's FEL group in their energy recovery experiments. This code addresses these stability issues and determines the transport, noise, feedback and other parameters for which these FEL systems are stable or unstable. Two representative systems are modeled, one for the Novosibirisk high power FEL racetrack microtron for photochemical research, the other is the CEBAF proposed UV FEL system. Both of these systems are stable with prudent choices of parameters.

  18. Theoretical study of core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy at graphene nanoribbon edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, N.; Hasnip, P. J.; Probert, M. I. J.; Yuan, J.

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study of simulated atomic-resolution electronic energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for different graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is presented. The results of ab initio studies of carbon 1s core-loss EELS on GNRs with different ribbon edge structures and different hydrogen terminations show that theoretical core-loss EELS can distinguish key structural features at the atomic scale. In addition, the combination of polarized core-loss EELS with symmetry resolved electronic partial density of states calculations can be used to identify the origins of all the primary features in the spectra. For example, the nature of the GNR edge structure (armchair, zigzag, etc) can be identified, along with the degree of hydrogenation. Hence it is possible to use the combination of ab initio calculations with high resolution, high energy transmission core-loss EELS experiments to determine the local atomic arrangement and chemical bonding states (i.e. a structural fingerprint) in GNRs, which is essential for future practical applications of graphene.

  19. Theoretical study of core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy at graphene nanoribbon edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, N; Hasnip, P J; Probert, M I J; Yuan, J

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study of simulated atomic-resolution electronic energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for different graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is presented. The results of ab initio studies of carbon [Formula: see text] core-loss EELS on GNRs with different ribbon edge structures and different hydrogen terminations show that theoretical core-loss EELS can distinguish key structural features at the atomic scale. In addition, the combination of polarized core-loss EELS with symmetry resolved electronic partial density of states calculations can be used to identify the origins of all the primary features in the spectra. For example, the nature of the GNR edge structure (armchair, zigzag, etc) can be identified, along with the degree of hydrogenation. Hence it is possible to use the combination of ab initio calculations with high resolution, high energy transmission core-loss EELS experiments to determine the local atomic arrangement and chemical bonding states (i.e. a structural fingerprint) in GNRs, which is essential for future practical applications of graphene.

  20. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Norton, Layne E

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain...

  1. Deconvolution of the energy loss function of the KATRIN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannen, V.; Heese, I.; Weinheimer, C.; Sejersen Riis, A.; Valerius, K.

    2017-03-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims at a direct and model independent determination of the neutrino mass with 0.2 eV/c2 sensitivity (at 90% C.L.) via a measurement of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum. The main components of the experiment are a windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), differential and cryogenic pumping sections and a tandem of a pre- and a main-spectrometer, applying the concept of magnetic adiabatic collimation with an electrostatic retardation potential to analyze the energy of beta decay electrons and to guide electrons passing the filter onto a segmented silicon PIN detector. One of the important systematic uncertainties of such an experiment are due to energy losses of β-decay electrons by elastic and inelastic scattering off tritium molecules within the source volume which alter the shape of the measured spectrum. To correct for these effects an independent measurement of the corresponding energy loss function is required. In this work we describe a deconvolution method to extract the energy loss function from measurements of the response function of the experiment at different column densities of the WGTS using a monoenergetic electron source.

  2. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet. The trial had two phases: 1 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg. Fat mass decreased similarly (P P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively. LDL peak particle size increased (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  3. WTO law and economics and restrictive practices in energy trade : The case of the OPEC cartel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The World Trade Organization cannot deal comprehensively with restrictive export practices maintained by energy cartels such as the OPEC. The main reason for this is the absence of competition rules in the multilateral trading system. However, in spite of the fact that the WTO does not have rules on

  4. Effects of moderate energy restriction on physical performance and substrate utilization in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Hoogzaad, L.V.; Berg, H. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    Energy restriction (ER) has shown to be an effective 'anti-aging' factor in rodents, resulting in an increased life span and preventing or delaying the occurrence of many age-related diseases in rodents. As a part of a feasibility study on the potential application of ER in humans, we studied the ef

  5. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats : Changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. P.; Van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Hoffmann, K.; Novati, A.; Hulshof, H. J.; Fuchs, E.; Meerlo, P.; Desprez, Tifany

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed

  6. Effects of moderate energy restriction on physical performance and substrate utilization in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Hoogzaad, L.V.; Berg, H. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    Energy restriction (ER) has shown to be an effective 'anti-aging' factor in rodents, resulting in an increased life span and preventing or delaying the occurrence of many age-related diseases in rodents. As a part of a feasibility study on the potential application of ER in humans, we studied the

  7. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  8. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  9. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  10. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  11. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  12. Anisotropic plasmons, excitons, and electron energy loss spectroscopy of phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Barun; Kumar, Piyush; Thakur, Anmol; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh; Bhowmick, Somnath; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we explore the anisotropic electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) in monolayer phosphorene based on ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations. Similarly to black phosphorus, the EELS of undoped monolayer phosphorene is characterized by anisotropic excitonic peaks for energies in the vicinity of the band gap and by interband plasmon peaks for higher energies. On doping, an additional intraband plasmon peak also appears for energies within the band gap. Similarly to other two-dimensional systems, the intraband plasmon peak disperses as ωpl∝√{q } in both the zigzag and armchair directions in the long-wavelength limit and deviates for larger wave vectors. The anisotropy of the long-wavelength plasmon intraband dispersion is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of the effective masses: ωpl(q y ̂) /ωpl(q x ̂) =√{mx/my } .

  13. In Situ Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Holtz, Megan E; Gao, Jie; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2012-01-01

    In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) through liquids is a promising approach for exploring biological and materials processes. However, options for in situ chemical identification are limited: X-ray analysis is precluded because the holder shadows the detector, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is degraded by multiple scattering events in thick layers. Here, we explore the limits of EELS for studying chemical reactions in their native environments in real time and on the nanometer scale. The determination of the local electron density, optical gap and thickness of the liquid layer by valence EELS is demonstrated for liquids. By comparing theoretical and experimental plasmon energies, we find that liquids appear to follow the free-electron model that has been previously established for solids. Signals at energies below the optical gap and plasmon energy of the liquid provide a high signal-to-background ratio as demonstrated for LiFePO4 in aqueous solution. The potential for using...

  14. Power Loss Analysis and Comparison of Segmented and Unsegmented Energy Coupling Coils for Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sai Chun; McDannold, Nathan J

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigated the power losses of unsegmented and segmented energy coupling coils for wireless energy transfer. Four 30-cm energy coupling coils with different winding separations, conductor cross-sectional areas, and number of turns were developed. The four coils were tested in both unsegmented and segmented configurations. The winding conduction and intrawinding dielectric losses of the coils were evaluated individually based on a well-established lumped circuit model. We found that the intrawinding dielectric loss can be as much as seven times higher than the winding conduction loss at 6.78 MHz when the unsegmented coil is tightly wound. The dielectric loss of an unsegmented coil can be reduced by increasing the winding separation or reducing the number of turns, but the power transfer capability is reduced because of the reduced magnetomotive force. Coil segmentation using resonant capacitors has recently been proposed to significantly reduce the operating voltage of a coil to a safe level in wireless energy transfer for medical implants. Here, we found that it can naturally eliminate the dielectric loss. The coil segmentation method and the power loss analysis used in this paper could be applied to the transmitting, receiving, and resonant coils in two- and four-coil energy transfer systems.

  15. Research of the temperature measurement of high-energy laser energy meter and energy loss compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ji'an; Wang, Fang; Li, Qian

    2009-11-01

    The energy measurement of high energy laser is converts incident laser energy into heat energy, calculates energy utilizing absorber temperature rise, thus the energy value can be gained. Temperature measurement of high-energy laser energy meter and energy loss compensation during the course of the measurement were studied here. Firstly, temperature-resistance characteristics of resistance wire was analyzed, which was winded on exterior surface of the absorbing cavity of high-energy laser energy meter and used in temperature measurement. Least square method was used to process experiment data and a compensation model was established to calibrate the relationship of temperature vs. resistance. Experiment proved that, error between resistance wire and Pt100 is less than 0.01Ω and temperature error is less than 0.02°C. This greatly improves accuracy of the high energy meter measurement result. Secondly, aimed to the compensation of laser energy loss caused by absorbing cavity's heat exchange, the heat energy loss of absorbing cavity, resulted from thermal radiation, heat convection and heat conduction was analyzed based on heat transfer theory. Its mathematics model was established. Least square method was used to fit a curve of experiment data in order to compensate energy loss. Repetitiveness of measurement is 0.7%, which is highly improved.

  16. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  17. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  18. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  19. Neuropeptide Y resists excess loss of fat by lipolysis in calorie-restricted mice: a trait potential for the life-extending effect of calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjoon; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Tanaka, Katsuya; Hayashi, Hiroko; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2017-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic peptide that plays an essential role in caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the mechanisms underlying the NPY-mediated effects in CR are poorly defined. Here, we report that NPY deficiency in male mice during CR increases mortality in association with lipodystrophy. NPY(-/-) mice displayed a rapid decrease in body weight and fat mass, as well as increased lipolysis during CR. These alterations in fat regulation were inhibited by the lipolysis inhibitor, acipimox, a treatment associated with reduced mortality. The lipolytic/thermogenic signaling, β3-adrenergic receptor/hormone sensitive lipase, was markedly activated in white adipose tissue of NPY(-/-) mice compared with that of NPY(+/+) mice, and thermogenesis was controlled by NPY under negative energy balance. These results demonstrate the critical role of NPY in the regulation of lipid metabolic homeostasis and survival via control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in a state of negative energy balance. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intermittent energy restriction in type 2 diabetes: A short discussion of medication management

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Sharayah; Peter M. Clifton; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. METHODS A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included “VLCD” or “very low energy diet” or “very low energy restriction” or “IER” or “intermittent fasting” or “calorie restriction” or “di...

  1. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  2. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both Penergy intake deficits of approximately 30 % (both P=0·015). Resting and meal-induced thermogenesis were not significantly affected by either ER intervention. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the ability of substantial ER to acutely alter postprandial glucose-lipid metabolism (with partial ER producing the more favourable overall response), as well as incomplete energy-intake compensation amongst overweight/obese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health.

  3. Very Low Energy Supernovae from Neutrino Mass Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The continuing difficulty of achieving a reliable explosion in simulations of core-collapse supernovae, especially for more massive stars, has led to speculation concerning the observable transients that might be produced if such a supernova fails. Even if a prompt outgoing shock fails to form in a collapsing presupernova star, one must still consider the hydrodynamic response of the star to the abrupt loss of mass via neutrinos as the core forms a protoneutron star. Following a suggestion by Nadezhin (1980), we calculate the hydrodynamical responses of typical supernova progenitor stars to the rapid loss of approximately 0.2 to 0.5 M_sun of gravitational mass from their centers. In a red supergiant star, a very weak supernova with total kinetic energy ~ 10^47 erg results. The binding energy of a large fraction of the hydrogen envelope before the explosion is of the same order and, depending upon assumptions regarding the neutrino loss rates, most of it is ejected. Ejection speeds are ~ 100 km/s and luminosit...

  4. Retinal nerve fibre layer loss in hereditary spastic paraplegias is restricted to complex phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiethoff Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness was shown as part of the neurodegenerative process in a range of different neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer′s disease (AD, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA and multiple system atrophy (MSA. To further clarify the specificity of RNFL thinning as a potential marker of neurodegenerative diseases we investigated RNFL thickness in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP, an axonal, length-dependent neurodegenerative pathology of the upper motor neurons. Methods Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT was performed in 28 HSP patients (clinically: pure HSP = 22, complicated HSP = 6; genetic subtypes: SPG4 = 13, SPG5 = 1, SPG7 = 3, genetically unclassified: 11 to quantify peripapillary RNFL thickness. Standardized examination assessed duration of disease, dependency on assistive walking aids and severity of symptoms quantified with Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale (SPRS. Results HSP patients demonstrated no significant thinning of global RNFL (pglobal = 0.61. Subgroup analysis revealed significant reduction in temporal and temporal inferior sectors for patients with complex (p Conclusion Clinically pure HSP patients feature no significant reduction in RNFL, whereas complex phenotypes display an abnormal thinning of temporal and temporal inferior RNFL. Our data indicate that RNFL thinning does not occur unspecifically in all neurodegenerative diseases but is in HSP restricted to subtypes with multisystemic degeneration.

  5. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N{sup 4}). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as 〈S{sup ^2}〉 are also developed and tested.

  6. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Weitao

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N4). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as < hat{S}2rangle are also developed and tested.

  7. Multiple scattering of low energy ions in matter: Influence of energy loss and interaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhtiche, A. [Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université Yahia Farès de Médéa (Algeria); Khalal-Kouache, K., E-mail: kkouache@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of inelastic energy loss and interaction potential on transmitted ions at low energy is studied. For this purpose, angular distributions of slow He{sup +} ions transmitted through thin Ag films are calculated using the theory of multiple scattering. Thin films (20–50 Å at 2 keV and 50–200 Å at 10 keV) are considered so that the total path length of transmitted ions can be approximated by the value of the target thickness in this calculation. The corresponding values of the relative energy loss ΔE/E are comprised between 0.04 and 0.17. We show that even if low values of the thickness are considered, the total energy loss of ions in the target should be included in the calculation. These calculated angular distributions are also influenced by the potential used to describe the interaction between the incident ion and the target atom.

  8. Jet energy loss in heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Levai, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The suppression of hadron production originated from the induced jet energy loss is one of the most accepted and well understood phenomena in heavy ion collisions, which indicates the formation of color deconfined matter consists of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. This phenomena has been seen at RHIC energies and now the first LHC results display a very similar effect. In fact, the suppression is so close to each other at 200 AGeV and 2.76 ATeV, that it is interesting to investigate if such a suppression pattern can exist at all. We use the Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev description of induced jet energy loss combined with different nuclear shadowing functions and describe the experimental data. We claim that a consistent picture can be obtained for the produced hot matter with a weak nuclear shadowing. The interplay between nuclear shadowing and jet energy loss playes a crucial role in the understanding of the experimental data.

  9. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  10. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  11. Simulating electron energy loss spectroscopy with the MNPBEM toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Within the MNPBEM toolbox, we show how to simulate electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of plasmonic nanoparticles using a boundary element method approach. The methodology underlying our approach closely follows the concepts developed by García de Abajo and coworkers (Garcia de Abajo, 2010). We introduce two classes eelsret and eelsstat that allow in combination with our recently developed MNPBEM toolbox for a simple, robust, and efficient computation of EEL spectra and maps. The classes are accompanied by a number of demo programs for EELS simulation of metallic nanospheres, nanodisks, and nanotriangles, and for electron trajectories passing by or penetrating through the metallic nanoparticles. We also discuss how to compute electric fields induced by the electron beam and cathodoluminescence. Catalogue identifier: AEKJ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKJ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 38886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1222650 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab 7.11.0 (R2010b). Computer: Any which supports Matlab 7.11.0 (R2010b). Operating system: Any which supports Matlab 7.11.0 (R2010b). RAM:≥1 GB Classification: 18. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKJ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 370 External routines: MESH2D available at www.mathworks.com Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Simulation of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for plasmonic nanoparticles. Solution method: Boundary element method using electromagnetic potentials. Reasons for new version: The new version of the toolbox includes two additional classes for the simulation of electron energy

  12. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, N.A.; Fisher, R.F.; Asher, S.E.; Kazmerski, L.L.

    1987-07-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy is used to study hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Core-level and plasma excitations were examined as a function of hydrogen content. This technique and its interpretation reveals a consistent picture of the electron excitations within this important material. The a-Si:H thin films were fabricated by rf sputtering. Their hydrogen concentrations ranged from 0% to 15%. Hydrogen content was determined by infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inspection of the silicon Auger-KLL peak confirmed the silicon core levels.

  13. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  14. Nonequilibrium electron energy-loss kinetics in metal clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Guillon, C; Fatti, N D; Vallee, F

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafast energy exchanges of a non-Fermi electron gas with the lattice are investigated in silver clusters with sizes ranging from 4 to 26 nm using a femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence for a cluster-size-dependent slowing down of the short-time energy losses of the electron gas when it is strongly athermal. A constant rate is eventually reached after a few hundred femtoseconds, consistent with the electron gas internal thermalization kinetics, this behaviour reflecting evolution from an individual to a collective electron-lattice type of coupling. The timescale of this transient regime is reduced in small nanoparticles, in agreement with speeding up of the electron-electron interactions with size reduction. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations of the electron kinetics.

  15. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  16. Constraints on dark energy with the LOSS SN Ia sample

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2013-01-01

    We present a cosmological analysis of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) photometry sample introduced by Ganeshalingam et al. (2010). These SNe provide an effective anchor point to estimate cosmological parameters when combined with datasets at higher redshift. The data presented by Ganeshalingam et al. (2010) have been rereduced in the natural system of the KAIT and Nickel telescopes to minimise systematic uncertainties. We have run the light-curve-fitting software SALT2 on our natural-system light curves to measure light-curve parameters for LOSS light curves and available SN Ia datasets in the literature. We present a Hubble diagram of 586 SNe in the redshift range z=0.01-1.4 with a residual scatter of 0.176 mag. Of the 226 low-z objects in our sample, 91 objects are from LOSS, including 45 SNe without previously published distances. Assuming a flat Universe, we find that the best fit for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -0.86^+0.13_-0.16 (stat) +- 0.11 (s...

  17. Effects of FTO genotype on weight loss and metabolic risk factors in response to calorie restriction among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakata, Yoshio; Murotake, Yukako; Hotta, Kikuko; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-05-01

    Effects of gene variants in the fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene (primarily rs9939609) on weight loss induced by lifestyle intervention are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FTO gene variations are associated with weight-reduction and changes in metabolic risk factors in response to a 14-week calorie restriction. In total, 204 Japanese women (aged 24-66 years; BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) enrolled as subjects and attended dietary lectures instructing them on how to consume a nutritionally balanced diet of 1,200 kcal/day. Fat mass, both at baseline (P = 0.100) and after the intervention (P = 0.020), was higher in subjects with the AA genotype (n = 15; 7.3%) than in those with TT (n = 114; 55.9%) and TA (n = 75; 36.8%) genotypes. The change in fat-mass tended to be smaller in subjects with the AA genotype than in those with other genotypes (P = 0.065). However, the subjects with the risk allele could still decrease their body weight and improve metabolic risk factors significantly. Our data suggest that the impact of FTO rs9939609 in Japanese women may not be great enough to change body weight or metabolic risk factors in response to calorie restriction. Environmental and behavioral factors may overcome the effects of genes on weight reduction.

  18. Elastic deformation and energy loss of flapping fly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Gorb, Stanislav; Nasir, Nazri; Schützner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    During flight, the wings of many insects undergo considerable shape changes in spanwise and chordwise directions. We determined the origin of spanwise wing deformation by combining measurements on segmental wing stiffness of the blowfly Calliphora vicina in the ventral and dorsal directions with numerical modelling of instantaneous aerodynamic and inertial forces within the stroke cycle using a two-dimensional unsteady blade elementary approach. We completed this approach by an experimental study on the wing's rotational axis during stroke reversal. The wing's local flexural stiffness ranges from 30 to 40 nN m(2) near the root, whereas the distal wing parts are highly compliant (0.6 to 2.2 nN m(2)). Local bending moments during wing flapping peak near the wing root at the beginning of each half stroke due to both aerodynamic and inertial forces, producing a maximum wing tip deflection of up to 46 deg. Blowfly wings store up to 2.30 μJ elastic potential energy that converts into a mean wing deformation power of 27.3 μW. This value equates to approximately 5.9 and 2.3% of the inertial and aerodynamic power requirements for flight in this animal, respectively. Wing elasticity measurements suggest that approximately 20% or 0.46 μJ of elastic potential energy cannot be recovered within each half stroke. Local strain energy increases from tip to root, matching the distribution of the wing's elastic protein resilin, whereas local strain energy density varies little in the spanwise direction. This study demonstrates a source of mechanical energy loss in fly flight owing to spanwise wing bending at the stroke reversals, even in cases in which aerodynamic power exceeds inertial power. Despite lower stiffness estimates, our findings are widely consistent with previous stiffness measurements on insect wings but highlight the relationship between local flexural stiffness, wing deformation power and energy expenditure in flapping insect wings.

  19. Energy loss for heavy quarks in relation to light partons: is radiative energy loss for heavy quarks anomalous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Roy A; Wei, R; Ajitanand, N N; Alexander, J M; Gong, X; Jia, J; Mawi, A; Mohapatra, S; Reynolds, D; Salnikov, S; Taranenko, A

    2009-10-01

    The scaling properties of jet-suppression measurements are compared for nonphotonic electrons (e+/-) and neutral pions (pi(0)) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV. For a broad range of transverse momenta and collision centralities, the comparison is consistent with jet quenching dominated by radiative energy loss for both heavy and light partons. Less quenching is indicated for heavy quarks via e+/-; this gives an independent estimate of the transport coefficient q that agrees with its magnitude obtained from quenching of light partons via pi(0)'s.

  20. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apolinário, Liliana, E-mail: lilianamarisa.cunha@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, Néstor [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Milhano, Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Salgado, Carlos A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring is allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  1. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways.

  2. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work, the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  3. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, Liliana; Armesto, Néstor; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2014-11-01

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring is allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  4. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Keijer, Jaap; Herreman, Laure; Palm, Inge; Hegeman, Maria A; Swarts, Hans J M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-05-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.

  5. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu, Linfan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808 (United States); Guo, Jiandong, E-mail: jdguo@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  6. ANALYSIS OF STORAGE SYSYTEM INFLUENCE ON ENERGY LOSSES IN POWER SYSTEM (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology  for evaluation of storage  system influence on energy losses. The methodology makes it possible to investigate  influence of some operational modes of devices on energy losses for a wide range of variants pertaining to reset conditions. The paper provides mathematical dependences that determine criteria for maximization of energy loss reduction.

  7. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen; Mortensen, N. Asger; Brongersma, Mark L.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-12-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons.

  8. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-01-01

    Light elements such as alkali metal (lithium, sodium) or halogen (fluorine, chlorine) are present in various substances and indeed play significant roles in our life. Although atomic behaviours of these elements are often a key to resolve chemical or biological activities, they are hardly visible in transmission electron microscope because of their smaller scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons. In this method, we demonstrate the single-atom detection of lithium, fluorine, sodium and chlorine with near-atomic precision, which is limited by the incident probe size, signal delocalization and atomic movement in nanospace. Moreover, chemical shifts of lithium K-edge have been successfully identified with various atomic configurations in one-dimensional lithium compounds. PMID:26228378

  9. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-07-31

    Light elements such as alkali metal (lithium, sodium) or halogen (fluorine, chlorine) are present in various substances and indeed play significant roles in our life. Although atomic behaviours of these elements are often a key to resolve chemical or biological activities, they are hardly visible in transmission electron microscope because of their smaller scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons. In this method, we demonstrate the single-atom detection of lithium, fluorine, sodium and chlorine with near-atomic precision, which is limited by the incident probe size, signal delocalization and atomic movement in nanospace. Moreover, chemical shifts of lithium K-edge have been successfully identified with various atomic configurations in one-dimensional lithium compounds.

  10. Calculated and experimental low-loss electron energy loss spectra of dislocations in diamond and GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R; Gutiérrez-Sosa, A; Bangert, U; Heggie, M I; Blumenau, A T; Frauenheim, T; Briddon, P R

    2002-01-01

    First-principles calculations of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra for bulk GaN and diamond are compared with experimental spectra acquired with a scanning tunnelling electron microscope offering ultra-high-energy resolution in low-loss energy spectroscopy. The theoretical bulk low-loss EEL spectra, in the E sub g to 10 eV range, are in good agreement with experimental data. Spatially resolved spectra from dislocated regions in both materials are distinct from bulk spectra. The main effects are, however, confined to energy losses lying above the band edge. The calculated spectra for low-energy dislocations in diamond are consistent with the experimental observations, but difficulties remain in understanding the spectra of threading dislocations in GaN.

  11. Energy Loss Effect in High-Energy Drell-Yan Dimuon Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; WANG Hong-Min

    2002-01-01

    By means of the nuclear parton distribution obtained from DGLAP equation,measured Drell Yan production cross sections for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets are analyzed within Glauber framework which takes into account energy loss of the beam proton.It is shown that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the FNAL E866.

  12. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J Schouten

    Full Text Available Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of The Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945 existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945. We studied the association between energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood on the risk of ovarian cancer later in life. In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Follow-up for cancer was established by record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 364 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2220 subcohort members (sampled from the total cohort directly after baseline with complete information confounders were available for case-cohort analyses. In multivariable analysis, ovarian cancer risk was lower for participants with an unemployed father during the 1930s (Hazard Ratio (HR, 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.47-1.06 compared to participants with an employed father as well as for participants living in a city during World War II (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90 compared to participants living in the country-side. Residence in a Western City during the famine (Hunger Winter was not associated with a decreased risk. Our results show a relation between proxy variables for modest energy restriction over a longer period of time during childhood or early adulthood and a reduced ovarian cancer risk.

  13. Standby Energy Conservation Plan No. 2: Building Temperature Restrictions Plan. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This report analyzes the environmental impacts of the proposed Building Temperature Restrictions Plan. The Plan would result in fuel and energy savings which could be diverted to other areas. Environmental impacts, with emphasis on air quality, were analyzed and found to result in a very minor improvement in air quality. Public health impacts are also minimal, and although some individuals may experience discomfort, it can be minimized by adjustments in clothing. The change in temperature is insufficient to have any significant impact on persons suffering from most diseases.

  14. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  15. Structural Variations to a Donor Polymer with Low Energy Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2017-08-01

    Two regioregular narrow band gap conjugated polymers with a D’-A-D-A repeat unit architecture, namely PIFCF and PSFCF, were designed and synthesized. Both polymers contain strictly organized fluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (FBT) orientations and different solubilizing side chains for solution processing. Compared to the previously reported asymmetric pyridyl-[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) based regioregular polymer, namely PIPCP, PIFCF and PSFCF exhibit wider band gaps, tighter π-π stacking, and improved hole mobilities. When incorporated into solar cells with fullerene acceptors, the Eloss = Eg - eVoc values of PIFCF and PSFCF devices are increased compared to solar cells based on PIPCP. Determination of Ect in these solar cells reveals that, relative to PIPCP, PIFCF solar cells lose more energy from Eg - Ect, and PSFCF solar cells lose more energy from both Eg - Ect and Ect - eVoc. The close structural relationship between PIPCP and PIFCF provides an excellent framework to establish molecular features that impact the relationship between Eg and Ect. Theoretical calculations predict that Eloss of PIFCF:PC61BM would be higher than in the case of PIPCP:PC61BM, due to greater Eg - Ect. These findings provide insight into the design of high performance, low voltage loss photovoltaic polymeric materials with desirable optoelectronic properties.

  16. Method of Sum of Power Losses as a Way for Determining the ki Coefficients of Energy Losses in Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczyszyn A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows application of the method of sum of power losses to determining energy losses which occur in hydraulic rotary motor in situation when not all laboratory data are at one’s disposal or when no use is made of data contained in catalogue charts. The method makes it possible to determine the coefficients, ki, of energy losses occurring in the motor. The method of sum of power losses is based on the approach proposed by Z. Paszota, in the papers [3 ÷ 9]. It consists in adding power flow of energy losses occurring in the motor to power flow output and comparing the sum to the power flow input. Application of the method is exemplified by using a A6VM hydraulic motor.

  17. An Experimental Study of Pile-Supported OWC-Type Breakwaters: Energy Extraction and Vortex-Induced Energy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wave energy converters with breakwaters is a promising concept for wave energy utilization. On the basis of fulfilling the wave protection demands, pile-supported Oscillating Water Column (OWC-type breakwaters can also meet the local needs of electricity far from the lands. In the present study, the wave energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were analyzed based on a two-point measurement method. The importance of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss on the wave energy dissipation of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were experimentally investigated. It was found that the trends of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss were generally correlated. The effects of the pneumatic damping induced by top opening affected the vortex-induced energy loss more than the energy extraction. Results showed that a larger pneumatic damping was preferable for the purpose of increasing energy extraction, whereas for a smaller pneumatic damping the vortex-induced energy loss was more important to the energy dissipation. With increasing draft, the energy extraction decreased, but the vortex-induced energy loss complementally contributed to the total energy dissipation and made the energy dissipation at the same level as that for a shallower draft.

  18. Restricted Equilibrium and the Energy Cascade in Rotating and Stratified Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Herbert, Corentin; Marino, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Most of the turbulent flows appearing in nature (e.g. geophysical and astrophysical flows) are subjected to strong rotation and stratification. These effects break the symmetries of classical, homogenous isotropic turbulence. In doing so, they introduce a natural decomposition of phase space in terms of wave modes and potential vorticity modes. The appearance of a new time scale associated to the propagation of waves, in addition to the eddy turnover time, increases the complexity of the energy transfers between the various scales; nonlinearly interacting waves may dominate at some scales while balanced motion may prevail at others. In the end, it is difficult to predict \\emph{a priori} if the energy cascades downscale as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, upscale as expected from balanced dynamics, or follows yet another phenomenology. In this paper, we suggest a theoretical approach based on equilibrium statistical mechanics for the ideal system, inspired from the restricted partition function formalism i...

  19. Using radiative energy losses to constrain the magnetization and magnetic reconnection rate at the base of black hole jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William J.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the severe radiative energy losses which occur at the base of black hole jets using a relativistic fluid jet model, including in situ acceleration of non-thermal leptons by magnetic reconnection. Our results demonstrate that including a self-consistent treatment of radiative energy losses is necessary to perform accurate magnetohydrodynamic simulations of powerful jets and that jet spectra calculated via post-processing are liable to vastly overestimate the amount of non-thermal emission. If no more than 95 per cent of the initial total jet power is radiated away by the plasma travels as it travels along the length of the jet, we can place a lower bound on the magnetization of the jet plasma at the base of the jet. For typical powerful jets, we find that the plasma at the jet base is required to be highly magnetized, with at least 10 000 times more energy contained in magnetic fields than in non-thermal leptons. Using a simple power-law model of magnetic reconnection, motivated by simulations of collisionless reconnection, we determine the allowed range of the large-scale average reconnection rate along the jet, by restricting the total radiative energy losses incurred and the distance at which the jet first comes into equipartition. We calculate analytic expressions for the cumulative radiative energy losses due to synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission along jets, and derive analytic formulae for the constraint on the initial magnetization.

  20. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent.

  1. Metabolomic changes in fatty liver can be modified by dietary protein and calcium during energy restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taru K Pilvi; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Helena Simolin; Piet Finckenberg; Anne Huotari; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Riitta Korpela; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Eero M Mervaala

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the effect of energy restriction (ER) on liver lipid and primary metabolite profile by using metabolomic approach. We also investigated whether the effect of energy restriction can be further enhanced by modification of dietary protein source and calcium.METHODS: Liver metabolomic profile of lean and obese C57BI/6] mice (n = 10/group) were compared with two groups of weight-reduced mice. ER was performed on control diet and whey protein-based high-calcium diet (whey + Ca). The metabolomic an alyses were performed using the UPLC/MS based lipidomic platform and the HPLC/MS/MS based primary metabolite platform.RESULTS: ER on both diets significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and lipid droplet size, while only whey + Ca diet significantly decreased blood glucose (P 0.05, vs lean). These changes were accompanied with up-regulated TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway metabolites.CONCLUSION: ER-induced changes on hepatic metabolomic profile can be significantly affected by dietary protein source. The therapeutic potential of whey protein and calcium should be further studied.

  2. Energy dissipation end states of the sphere restricted planar three-body problem with collisional interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, T. S. J.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a large number of gravitational granular mechanics simulations to investigate the role of energy dissipation in the sphere-restricted planar three-body problem where, for a given angular momentum, multiple end-state configurations are available to the system. For the case of three equal spheres, previous studies have mapped all relative equilibria of the problem as a function of angular momentum. We find trends in the production of end states as a function of angular momentum and dissipation parameters, as well as outline the dynamical-mechanical interactions that generate these results. For strongly dissipative systems a relationship between the minimum energy function of the system and the end-state dynamics is uncovered. In particular, the likelihood of achieving one end state over another is largely governed by the geometrical projection of the minimum energy function. In contrast, for systems with low-energy dissipation the end state becomes a function of the relative depth of the different energy wells available to the system. This study highlights the importance of having well-defined dissipative properties of a gravitational granular system, such as those used to study the dynamics of rubble pile asteroids and planetary rings.

  3. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  4. Parametric study of minimum converter loss in an energy-storage dc-to-dc converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R. C.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Through a combination of analytical and numerical minimization procedures, a converter design that results in the minimum total converter loss (including core loss, winding loss, capacitor and energy-storage-reactor loss, and various losses in the semiconductor switches) is obtained. Because the initial phase involves analytical minimization, the computation time required by the subsequent phase of numerical minimization is considerably reduced in this combination approach. The effects of various loss parameters on the optimum values of the design variables are also examined.

  5. Low energy electron loss peaks of CuInTe/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, C. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik); Schulze, S. (Technische Hochschule, Karl-Marx-Stadt (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik/Elektronische Bauelemente); Tomlinson, R.D. (Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1982-09-01

    Reflection low energy electron loss spectra were observed from CuInTe/sub 2/ monocrystals. The spectra were taken with a LEED system to obtain the first derivative of the scattered electron energy distribution using primary energies of 50, 90, and 190 eV. The second derivative and the loss maxima energies have been determined after a smoothing procedure. The loss peaks are coordinated to plasmon features, surfaces states, and interband transitions.

  6. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2013-09-28

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  7. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  8. Exploring energy loss by vector flow mapping in children with ventricular septal defect: Pathophysiologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Takanashi, Manabu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Ando, Hisashi; Kimura, Sumito; Oka, Norihiko; Miyaji, Kagami; Ishii, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Vector flow mapping is a novel echocardiographic flow visualization method, and it has enabled us to quantitatively evaluate the energy loss in the left ventricle (intraventricular energy loss). Although intraventricular energy loss is assumed to be a part of left ventricular workload itself, it is unclear what this parameter actually represents. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss. We enrolled 26 consecutive children with ventricular septal defect (VSD). On echocardiography vector flow mapping, intraventricular energy loss was measured in the apical 3-chamber view. We measured peak energy loss and averaged energy loss in the diastolic and systolic phases, and subsequently compared these parameters with catheterization parameters and serum brain natrium peptide (BNP) level. Diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were strongly and positively correlated with right ventricular systolic pressure (r=0.76, 0.68, and 0.56, penergy loss were significantly correlated with BNP (r=0.75, 0.69 and 0.49, penergy loss in the left ventricle. The results of the present study encourage further studies in other study populations to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss for its possible clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR and total sleep deprivation (TSD produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00 and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75. During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00 and TSD (22:00–06:00, such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01 and saturated fat (p = 0.02 during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12. Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03. Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001. Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  10. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Laura E; Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni

    2016-12-19

    Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34-0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00-04:00) and TSD (22:00-06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01) and saturated fat (p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  11. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, B Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Marsh, Jeremy; Mukherjee, Purna

    2009-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect), malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate) for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  12. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfried B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect, malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  13. Quadratic Loss of Isotonic Normal Means under Simultaneous Order Restrictions%同时序约束下保序正态均值的均方损失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳萍; 史宁中

    2002-01-01

    For two normal populations with unknown means μ and unknown vari-ances σ2, assume that there are simple order restrictions among the means and vari-ances: μ1 ≤μ2 and σ12 ≥σ22 > 0. This case is said to be simultaneous order re-striction by Shi (Maximum likelihood estimation of means and variances from normalpopulations under simultaneous order restrictions, J. Multivariate Anal., 50(1994),282-293.) and an iterative algorithm of computing the order restricted maximumlikelihood estimates ofμi and σi was given in that paper. This paper shows that therestricted maximum likelihood estimate ofμi has smaller mean square loss than theusual estimate xi under some conditions.

  14. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (Pexercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART.

  15. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, J. J.

    1981-11-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  16. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  17. Ghrelin Gene Expression in Broiler Proventriculus Tissue are Changed by Feed Restriction, Different Dietary Energy and Protein Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Ghazanfari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction and different energy and protein contents of diet on ghrelin gene expression in broiler chicken. Approach: Feeding programs consisted of ad libitum and feed restriction, two energy levels (3100 and 2800 kcal ME kg-1 and three protein levels (22.3, 19.3 and 16.3% CP. Feed restriction was applied during 22-32 days of age. Proventriculus samples were collected at 21, 32 and 49 days of age. Ghrelin mRNA expression in proventriculus tissue was quantitate using Real Time quantitative PCR. Results: We found that ghrelin gene expression was increased in restricted chicks compared with those fed ad libitum at 32 days of age (p = 0.09 but feed restriction had no effect on ghrelin gene expression at 49 days of age. A positive response in ghrelin gene expression was achieved by decreasing energy level in the diet at 21 days of age (pConclusion: The present study, we investigated the effects of feed restriction and different energy and protein contents of the diet on ghrelin gene expression in broiler chicken. We have characterized chicken ghrelin cDNA in proventriculus tissue in broiler chicken. We also found that ghrelin gene expression is differently suppressed by diet manipulations. Additional studies are necessary to investigate the role of nutrition on ghrelin gene expression in proventriculus tissue in broiler chicken.

  18. The effects of energy and carbohydrate restriction in patients with chronic diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J R; West, T E; Sönksen, P H; Lowy, C; Iles, C

    1977-12-01

    Thirty-five freshly presenting, diabetic patients received 5 hour, 100 g oral glucose tolerance tests when first seen and after a period of carbohydrate and energy restriction. After treatment, the significant improvement in glucose tolerance was accompanied by increased insulin secretion and lower concentrations of blood ketone bodies, lactate, glycerol, FFA, triglycerides, cholesterol and pre-beta lipoprotein. There were no significant changes in serum growth hormone or blood pyruvate concentrations. Improvement in glucose tolerance was greater in patients who were obese (greater than 115% of desirable body weight for height) on presentation and was related to the improvement in insulin secretion and the diminished lipolysis. An hypothesis to explain the changes in insulin secretion is prosposed. Eleven out of the 35 patients showed sufficient improvement in glucose tolerance to require no treatment other than diet.

  19. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-04-18

    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  20. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  1. Collisional Energy Loss of a Heavy Quark in an Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through a quark-gluon plasma in which the quark and gluon distributions are anisotropic in momentum space. Following the calculation outlined for QED in an earlier work we indicate the differences encountered in QCD and their effect on the collisional energy loss results. For a 20 GeV bottom quark we show that momentum space anisotropies can result in the collisional heavy quark energy loss varying with the angle of propagation by up to 50%. For low velocity quarks we show that anisotropies result in energy gain instead of energy loss with the energy gain focused in such a way as to accelerate particles along the anisotropy direction thereby reducing the momentum-space anisotropy. The origin of this negative energy loss is explicitly identified as being related to the presence of plasma instabilities in the system.

  2. Generalization of radiative jet energy loss to non-zero magnetic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena, E-mail: magda@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Djordjevic, Marko [Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-03-19

    Reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions require accurate computation of radiative energy loss. While all available energy loss formalisms assume zero magnetic mass - in accordance with the one-loop perturbative calculations - different non-perturbative approaches report a non-zero magnetic mass at RHIC and LHC. We here generalize a recently developed energy loss formalism in a realistic finite size QCD medium, to consistently include a possibility for existence of non-zero magnetic screening. We also present how the inclusion of finite magnetic mass changes the energy loss results. Our analysis suggests a fundamental constraint on magnetic to electric mass ratio.

  3. Stellar energy loss rates in the pair-annihilation process beyond the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; González-Sánchez, A.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the stellar energy loss due to neutrino-pair production in e+e- annihilation in the context of a 331 model, a left-right symmetric model and a simplest little Higgs model in a way that can be used in supernova calculations. We also present some simple estimates which show that such process can act as an efficient energy loss mechanism in the shocked supernova core. We find that the stellar energy loss is almost independent of the parameters of the models in the allowed range for these parameters. This work complements other studies on the stellar energy loss rate in e+e- annihilation.

  4. Restriction on the energy and luminosity of e(+)e(-) storage rings due to beamstrahlung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telnov, V I

    2013-03-15

    The role of beamstrahlung in high-energy e(+)e(-) storage-ring colliders (SRCs) is examined. Particle loss due to the emission of single energetic beamstrahlung photons is shown to impose a fundamental limit on SRC luminosities at energies 2E(0)≳140  GeV for head-on collisions and 2E(0)≳40  GeV for crab-waist collisions. With beamstrahlung taken into account, we explore the viability of SRCs in the 2E(0)=240-500   GeV range, which is of interest in the precision study of the Higgs boson. At 2E(0)=240  GeV, SRCs are found to be competitive with linear colliders; however, at 2E(0)=400-500  GeV, the attainable SRC luminosity would be a factor 15-25 smaller than desired.

  5. Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooly, C H; Das, S K; Golden, J K; McCrory, M A; Dallal, G E; Saltzman, E; Kramer, F M; Roberts, S B

    2007-12-01

    To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets. Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months. Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20-42 years. Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating behaviors. Foods craved at baseline were more than twice as high in energy density as the habitual diet (3.7+/-1.5 vs 1.7+/-0.3 kcal/g; Pcraved foods after 6 months of ER. There was a significant relationship between reported portion size of craved food consumed at baseline and lifetime high body mass index (r=0.49, P=0.005). Additionally, there was a significant association between susceptibility to hunger and craving frequency at baseline, and there were significant relationships between hunger score, craving frequency, strength and percentage of time that cravings are given in to after 6 months of ER. In multiple regression models, subjects who lost a greater percentage of weight craved higher energy-dense foods at month 6 of ER, but also reported giving in to food cravings less frequently (adjusted R (2)=0.31, P=0.009). High energy density and fat content, and low protein and fiber contents were identifying characteristics of craved foods. The relationships between craving variables and hunger score suggest that the relative influence of hunger susceptibility on cravings may be important before and especially after ER. Portion size of craved foods and frequency of giving in to food cravings appear to be important areas for focus in lifestyle modification programs for long-term weight loss.

  6. Effects of almond consumption on the post-lunch dip and long-term cognitive function in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jaapna; Tan, Sze-Yen; Mattes, Richard D

    2017-02-01

    The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the acute effect of an almond-enriched high-fat lunch or high-carbohydrate lunch on the post-lunch decline in cognitive function, and (2) evaluate the effects of chronic almond consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet on the memory and attention domains of cognitive function. In total, eighty-six overweight and obese adults were randomised to consume either an almond-enriched diet (AED) or a nut-free control diet (NFD) over a 12-week weight loss intervention. Participants were also randomised to receive either an almond-enriched high-fat lunch (A-HFL) (>55 % energy from fat, almonds contributing 70-75 % energy) or a high-carbohydrate lunch (HCL) (>85 % energy from carbohydrates) at the beginning and end of the weight loss intervention. Memory and attention performance indices decreased after lunch consumption (Pconsumption at a midday meal can reduce the post-lunch dip in memory. However, long-term almond consumption may not further improve cognitive function outcomes in a weight loss intervention.

  7. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  8. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemel, Michael B; Thompson, Warren; Milstead, Anita; Morris, Kristin; Campbell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    ...+ influx and, as a consequence, stimulates lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases lipid accumulation, whereas increasing dietary calcium inhibits these effects and markedly accelerates fat...

  9. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  10. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  11. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  12. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  13. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  14. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Swain, Janis; Goldfine, Allison B; Rifai, Nader; Ludwig, David S

    2004-11-24

    Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss. To test whether dietary composition affects the physiological adaptations to weight loss, as assessed by resting energy expenditure. DESIGN, STUDY, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized parallel-design study of 39 overweight or obese young adults aged 18 to 40 years who received an energy-restricted diet, either low-glycemic load or low-fat. Participants were studied in the General Clinical Research Centers of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass, before and after 10% weight loss. The study was conducted from January 4, 2001, to May 6, 2003. Resting energy expenditure measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported hunger. Resting energy expenditure decreased less with the low-glycemic load diet than with the low-fat diet, expressed in absolute terms (mean [SE], 96 [24] vs 176 [27] kcal/d; P = .04) or as a proportion (5.9% [1.5%] vs 10.6% [1.7%]; P = .05). Participants receiving the low-glycemic load diet reported less hunger than those receiving the low-fat diet (P = .04). Insulin resistance (P = .01), serum triglycerides (P = .01), C-reactive protein (P = .03), and blood pressure (P = .07 for both systolic and diastolic) improved more with the low-glycemic load diet. Changes in body composition (fat and lean mass) in both groups were very similar (P = .85 and P = .45, respectively). Changes in dietary composition within prevailing norms can affect physiological adaptations that defend body weight. Reduction in glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.

  15. Comparison of radiative energy loss models in a hot QCD medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.

    2010-01-01

    The suppression of high $p_{T}$ hadron production in heavy ion collisions is thought to be due to energy loss by gluon radiation off hard partons in a QCD medium. Existing models of QCD radiative energy loss in a color-charged medium give estimates of the coupling strength of the parton to the

  16. REFINED ALGORITHMS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY LOSSES CALCULATION IN 0,38 KV NETWORKS IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach for closer definition of electrical energy losses size in air lines due to the accounting of environment temperature influence and flowing current size on the wire resistance is offered. Multifunctional microprocessor devices for energy losses calculation are elaborated.

  17. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge stat...

  18. Comparison of radiative energy loss models in a hot QCD medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.

    2010-01-01

    The suppression of high $p_{T}$ hadron production in heavy ion collisions is thought to be due to energy loss by gluon radiation off hard partons in a QCD medium. Existing models of QCD radiative energy loss in a color-charged medium give estimates of the coupling strength of the parton to the mediu

  19. Energy loss of a heavy particle near 3D charged rotating hairy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Jalil [Ilam University, Physics Department, P.O.Box 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a charged rotating black hole in three dimensions with a scalar charge and discuss the energy loss of a heavy particle moving near the black-hole horizon. We also study quasi-normal modes and find the dispersion relations. We find that the effect of scalar charge and electric charge increases the energy loss. (orig.)

  20. Energy loss of a heavy particle near 3D charged rotating hairy black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a charged rotating black hole in three dimensions with a scalar charge and discuss the energy loss of a heavy particle moving near the black-hole horizon. We also study quasi-normal modes and find the dispersion relations. We find that the effect of scalar charge and electric charge increases the energy loss.

  1. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  2. Electromagnetic therapeutic coils design to reduce energy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrek Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of power loss reduction in applicators used in magnetotherapy. To generate magnetic field whose distribution is optimal and to reduce the power loss, the authors establish a set of parameters to evaluate the model of device. Results make it possible to infer that the real power input necessary to operate the magnetic field generator properly may vary significantly depending on construction and localization. The issues raised in this paper should be treated as a basis for further discussion on the construction of applicators used, e.g., in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

  3. Energy loss in unstable QGP - problem of the upper cut-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrington Margaret E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss of a highly energetic parton in a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma is studied as an initial value problem. An extremely prolate plasma, where the momentum distribution is infinitely elongated along one direction, is considered. The energy loss is strongly time and direction dependent and its magnitude can much exceed the equilibrium value. It is logarithmically ultraviolet divergent. We argue that a good approximation to the energy loss can be obtained if this divergence is cut off with the parton energy.

  4. Channeling energy loss and dechanneling of He along axial and planar directions of Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, S.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the energy loss and the dechanneling of He ions in the energy of 1.5 MeV and 2 MeV along the and axial directions as well as the {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} planar directions of Si were studied by the simulation of the channeling Rutherford backscattering spectra. The simulation was done based on the considerations that a fraction of the aligned beam enters the sample as a random component due to the ions scattering from the surface, and the dechanneling starts at the greater penetration depths, xDech. It was presumed that the dechanneling process follows a simple exponential law with a parameter λ which is proportional to the half-thickness. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to set the best parameters of energy loss ratio, xDech and λ. The experimental results are well reproduced by this simulation. Differences between various axial and planar channels in the Si crystal and their influence on the energy loss ratio and dechanneling of He ions are described. Moreover, the energy dependence of energy loss ratio and dechanneling of He ions were investigated. It is shown that the dechanneling behavior of ions depends on the energy and energy loss of the ions along a channel. The channeled to random energy loss increases by decreasing ions energy.

  5. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind

  6. Short-term moderate energy restriction does not affect indicators of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, R.E.W. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verhagen, H.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H.E.; Berg, H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Restriction of energy intake (ER), without malnutrition of essential nutrients, has repeatedly been demonstrated to increase longevity in rodents. In the antioxidant theory of aging the lack of balance between the generation of free radicals and free radical scavenging was thought to be a main

  7. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind crossov

  8. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind crossov

  9. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between

  10. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M; Graaf, C de; Groot, C P G M de; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between

  11. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  12. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Marmitt, G. G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center — Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  13. Effects of a 6-month caloric restriction induced-weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome: a MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghachem, Ahmed; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of a caloric restriction (CR) on body composition, lipid profile, and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Secondary analyses were performed on 73 inactive obese postmenopausal women (age 57.7 ± 4.8 years; body mass index 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m) who participated in the 6-month CR arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorize participants with MetS (n = 20, 27.39%) and without MetS (n = 53, 72.61%). Variables of interest were: body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), glucose homeostasis at fasting state and during a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp, fasting lipids, and resting blood pressure. By design, the MetS group had a worse cardiometabolic profile, whereas both groups were comparable for age. Fifty-five participants out of 73 displayed no change in MetS status after the intervention. Twelve participants out of 20 (or 60.0%) in the MetS group had no more MetS after weight loss (P = NS), whereas 6 participants out of 53 (or 11.3%) in the other group developed the MetS after the intervention (P = NS). Overall, indices of body composition and body fat distribution improved significantly and similarly in both groups (P between 0.03 and 0.0001). Furthermore, with the exception of triglyceride levels and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, which decrease significantly more in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05), no difference was observed between groups for the other variables of the cardiometabolic profile. Despite no overall significant effects on MetS, heteregeneous results were obtained in response to weight loss in the present study, with some improving the MetS, whereas other displaying deteriorations. Further studies are needed to identify factors and phenotypes associated with positive and negative cardiometabolic

  14. Mesospheric energy loss rates by OH and O2 emissions at 23°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takahashi

    Full Text Available The nightglow OH(9, 4 and O2 atmospheric (0,1 band emission intensities and their rotational temperatures T(OH and T(O2, respectively, observed at Cachoeira Paulista (23°S, 45°W, Brazil, during the period from October 1989 to December 1990, have been analyzed to study the nighttime mesospheric energy loss rates through the radiations from the vibrationally excited OH* and electronically excited O2* bands. The total emission rates of the OH Meinel bands, O2 atmospheric (0,0 and O2 infrared atmospheric (1Δg bands were calculated using reported data for the relative band intensities I(ν'',ν'/I(9,4, IO2A(0,0/IO2A(0,1 and IO2(1Δg/IO2A(0,1. It was found that there is a minimum in equivalent energy loss rate by the OH* Meinel bands during December/January (equivalent energy loss rate of 0.39K/day*, where day* means averaged over the night and maximum in equivalent energy loss rate during September (equivalent energy loss rate of 0.98K/day*. Energy loss rate by the O2* radiation, on the other hand, is weaker than that by the OH* Meinel bands, showing equivalent energy loss rates of 0.12K/day* and 0.22K/day* during January and September, respectively.

  15. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  16. Addressing student models of energy loss in quantum tunnelling

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, M C; Bao, L; Wittmann, Micael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Bao, Lei

    2005-01-01

    We report on a multi-year, multi-institution study to investigate student reasoning about energy in the context of quantum tunnelling. We use ungraded surveys, graded examination questions, individual clinical interviews, and multiple-choice exams to build a picture of the types of responses that students typically give. We find that two descriptions of tunnelling through a square barrier are particularly common. Students often state that tunnelling particles lose energy while tunnelling. When sketching wave functions, students also show a shift in the axis of oscillation, as if the height of the axis of oscillation indicated the energy of the particle. We find inconsistencies between students' conceptual, mathematical, and graphical models of quantum tunnelling. As part of a curriculum in quantum physics, we have developed instructional materials to help students develop a more robust and less inconsistent picture of tunnelling, and present data suggesting that we have succeeded in doing so.

  17. Energy losses in the Polish power system and possibilities of reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchta, F.; Janiczek, R.; Sobieszczanski, S. [Politechnika Slaska, Katowice (Poland). PSE SA

    1993-11-01

    Analyzes energy losses in power generation and power distribution systems in Poland. The following aspects of power losses in power generation are evaluated: structure of existing power plants in Poland, types of equipment used in coal-fired power plants, efficiency of condensation units (about 36.0% or 11.6-10 MJ/kWxh), efficiency of planned modernization of existing power units, effects of flue gas desulfurization on efficiency of power generation in coal-fired power plants, energy policy of Poland, investment in coal-fired power plants, feasibility of clean coal programs, effects of replacing conventional coal combustion by combined-cycle power plants with coal gasification on energy efficiency and energy losses, energy losses during power transmission and distribution. 19 refs.

  18. Postnatal growth after intrauterine growth restriction alters central leptin signal and energy homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Coupé

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is closely linked with metabolic diseases, appetite disorders and obesity at adulthood. Leptin, a major adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in direct proportion to body fat stores, enters the brain and regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Deficient leptin neuronal signalling favours weight gain by affecting central homeostatic circuitry. The aim of this study was to determine if leptin resistance was programmed by perinatal nutritional environment and to decipher potential cellular mechanisms underneath.We clearly demonstrated that 5 months old IUGR rats develop a decrease of leptin sentivity, characterized by no significant reduction of food intake following an intraperitoneal injection of leptin. Apart from the resistance to leptin injection, results obtained from IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up growth differed from those of IUGR rats with no catch-up since we observed, for the first group only, fat accumulation, increased appetite for food rich in fat and increased leptin synthesis. Centrally, the leptin resistant state of both groups was associated with a complex and not always similar changes in leptin receptor signalling steps. Leptin resistance in IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up was associated with alteration in AKT and mTOR pathways. Alternatively, in IUGR rats with no catch-up, leptin resistance was associated with low hypothalamic expression of LepRa and LepRb. This study reveals leptin resistance as an early marker of metabolic disorders that appears before any evidence of body weight increase in IUGR rats but whose mechanisms could depend of nutritional environment of the perinatal period.

  19. EELOSS: The Program for calculation of electron energy loss data

    OpenAIRE

    田中 俊一

    1980-01-01

    核融合炉をはじめ、各種原子力施設におけるbeta線やgamma線の遮蔽、あるいはドジメトリィにおいて必要とされる種々の電子のエネルギ損失データを計算するための汎用コード:EELOSSが開発された。本コードにより、0.01~15MeVの範囲の任意の電子に対する任意の物質中での下記のような電子のエネルギ損失データが得られる。(1)Collision Stopping Power (2)Restricted Collision Stopping Power (3)Radiative Stopping Power (4)Bremsstrahlung Production Cross Section 本研究では、EELOSSコードで得られるデータの精度や信頼性、あるいは実際の遮蔽計算への適用性等についても、種々の実験値との比較から検討され、EELOSSコードの有効性が実証された。...

  20. Food restriction during pregnancy in rabbits: effects on hormones and metabolites involved in energy homeostasis and metabolic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, L; Brecchia, G; Canali, C; Cardinali, R; Polisca, A; Zerani, M; Boiti, C

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of food restriction during rabbit pregnancy on hormones and metabolites involved in energy homeostasis and metabolic programming. Pregnant does were assigned to four groups: the control group was fed a standard ration while the others received a restricted amount of food (30% restriction) during early (0-9 days), mid (9-18 days), and late (19-28 days) pregnancy. The pregnancy induced a coordinated range of adaptations to fulfil energy requirements of both mother and foetus, such as hyperleptinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, reduced insulin sensitivity, increased cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid. Food restriction altered leptin, insulin, T3, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations depending on the gestational phase in which it was applied. Collectively, present data confirm that the endocrinology of pregnancy and the adaptive responses to energy deficit make the rabbit an ideal model for studying nutritional-related disorders and foetal programming of metabolic disease.

  1. Neutrino energy loss by electron capture in magnetic field at the crusts of neutron stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Jing; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the p-f shell model,the effect of strong magnetic field on neutrino energy loss rates by electron capture is investigated.The calculations show that the magnetic field has only a slight effect on the neutrino energy loss rates in the range of 108-1013 G on the surfaces of most neutron stars.But for some magnetars,the range of the magnetic field is 1013-1018 G,and the neutrino energy loss rates are greatly reduced,even by more than four orders of magnitude due to the strong magnetic field.

  2. Partonic energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions jet suppression versus jet fragmentation softening

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the modification of a jet fragmentation function due to medium-induced partonic energy loss in context of leading particle observables in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. We also analyze the relation between in-medium softening jet fragmentation function and suppression of the jet rates due to energy loss outside the jet cone. The predicted anti-correlation between two effects allows to probe a fraction of partonic energy loss carried out of the jet cone and truly lost to the jet.

  3. Energy loss and longitudinal wakefield of relativistic short proton bunches in electron clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boine-Frankenheim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is the numerical computation of the wakefield and energy loss per unit length for relativistic, short (<10  ns proton bunches interacting with an electron cloud inside the beam pipe. We present analytical expressions for the energy loss in the impulse kick approximation. For the simulation of the wakefields a 2D self-consistent, electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC code is employed. Results for the energy loss and for the wakefields are presented for the parameter scope of the CERN LHC and SPS. For selected parameters the results are compared to a three-dimensional (3D electromagnetic PIC code.

  4. Metabolic effects of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention combined with low or high dairy intake in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Astrup, Arne;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy...... intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy...... metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate...

  5. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Colorado U.

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  6. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, M; De Graaf, C.; de Groot, C. P. G. M.; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. SUBJECTS: A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). MEASUREMENTS: Fasting serum leptin concentrations a...

  7. Limits for Recombination in a Low Energy Loss Organic Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2016-11-03

    Donor-acceptor organic solar cells often show high quantum yields for charge collection, but relatively low open-circuit voltages (VOC) limit power conversion efficiencies to around 12%. We report here the behavior of a system, PIPCP:PC61BM, that exhibits very low electronic disorder (Urbach energy less than 27 meV), very high carrier mobilities in the blend (field-effect mobility for holes >10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1), and a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (50 meV). These characteristics should give excellent performance, and indeed, the VOC is high relative to the donor energy gap. However, we find the overall performance is limited by recombination, with formation of lower-lying triplet excitons on the donor accounting for 90% of the recombination. We find this is a bimolecular process that happens on time scales as short as 100 ps. Thus, although the absence of disorder and the associated high carrier mobility speeds up charge diffusion and extraction at the electrodes, which we measure as early as 1 ns, this also speeds up the recombination channel, giving overall a modest quantum yield of around 60%. We discuss strategies to remove the triplet exciton recombination channel.

  8. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  9. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Stonehouse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644 and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high were found in studies largely including women (90% women. These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate. Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate. No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects.

  10. Generalization of radiative jet energy loss to non-zero magnetic mass

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions require accurate computation of radiative energy loss. With this goal, an energy loss formalism in a realistic finite size dynamical QCD medium was recently developed. While this formalism assumes zero magnetic mass - in accordance with the one-loop perturbative calculations - different non-perturbative approaches report a non-zero magnetic mass at RHIC and LHC. We here generalize the energy loss to consistently include a possibility for existence of non-zero magnetic screening. We also present how the inclusion of finite magnetic mass changes the energy loss results. Our analysis indicates a fundamental constraint on magnetic to electric mass ratio.

  11. An investigation of standby energy losses in residential sector: Solutions and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [G. Narayanamma Institute of Technology and Science (for Women), Hyderabad (India); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the standby power losses of household appliances and determines these losses by field measurements and bottom-up approaches. It is revealed that average standby power losses of e-appliances at household in Oman is 103.4 Watts and could further increase if other miscellaneous appliances are also taken into account. Calculations show that TV sets alone are responsible to consume 1.89 MW standby powers across the country. The paper considers various technological and socio-economic options to diminish the standby power consumption and signify that 42.72% of energy consumed by appliances can be saved by end-users implementing suitable measures. Energy management programmes like energy efficiency standards, labelling and policy instruments to tackle the standby power losses are also discussed. Finally, paper looks into the barriers and their way-outs to implement the energy efficiency standards and labelling.

  12. Energy Loss of a Heavy Fermion in an Anisotropic QED Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy fermion propagating in a QED plasma with an electron distribution function which is anisotropic in momentum space. We show that in the presence of such anisotropies there can be a significant directional dependence of the heavy fermion energy loss with the effect being quite large for highly-relativistic velocities. We also repeat the analysis of the isotropic case more carefully and show that the final result depends on the intermediate scale used to separate hard and soft contributions to the energy loss. We then show that the canonical isotropic result is obtained in the weak-coupling limit. For intermediate-coupling we use the residual scale dependence as a measure of our theoretical uncertainty. We also discuss complications which could arise due to the presence of unstable soft photonic modes and demonstrate that the calculation of the energy loss is safe.

  13. Stellar energy loss rates in the pair-annihilation process beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Apartado Postal C-585, Zacatecas (Mexico); Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Facultad de Fisica, Apartado Postal C-580, Zacatecas (Mexico); Gonzalez-Sanchez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Facultad de Fisica, Apartado Postal C-580, Zacatecas (Mexico); PSL Research University, Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France)

    2017-01-15

    We calculate the stellar energy loss due to neutrino-pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation in the context of a 331 model, a left-right symmetric model and a simplest little Higgs model in a way that can be used in supernova calculations. We also present some simple estimates which show that such process can act as an efficient energy loss mechanism in the shocked supernova core. We find that the stellar energy loss is almost independent of the parameters of the models in the allowed range for these parameters. This work complements other studies on the stellar energy loss rate in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of Power/Energy Losses in Electric Distribution Systems based on an Efficient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Grigoras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the power/energy losses constitutes an important tool for an efficient planning and operation of electric distribution systems, especially in a free energy market environment. For further development of plans of energy loss reduction and for determination of the implementation priorities of different measures and investment projects, analysis of the nature and reasons of losses in the system and in its different parts is needed. In the paper, an efficient method concerning the power flow problem of medium voltage distribution networks, under condition of lack of information about the nodal loads, is presented. Using this method it can obtain the power/energy losses in power transformers and the lines. The test results, obtained for a 20 kV real distribution network from Romania, confirmed the validity of the proposed method.  

  15. Energy loss of keV He2+ scattered off an Al(110) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limburg, J; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R; Hausmann, S; Heiland, W; Narmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results of measurements of energy loss suffered by He-projectiles scattered off an Al surface. The measured loss distributions are modeled in terms of the (classical) friction experienced by the projectiles due to their interaction with the electron gas at the Al surface. Simulat

  16. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  17. Incorporation of Finite Element Analysis into Annual Energy Loss Estimation for Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of estimating the annual energy losses for wind turbine generators are investigated in this paper. Utilizing a high amount of transient simulations with motion is first demonstrated. Usage of a space-time transformation for prediction of iron losses is also explored. The methods, ...

  18. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  19. The calculation of mechanical energy loss for incompressible steady pipe flow of homogeneous fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士和; 薛娇; 范敏

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of the mechanical energy loss is one of the fundamental problems in the field of Hydraulics and Enginee- ring Fluid Mechanics. However, for a non-uniform flow the relation between the mechanical energy loss in a volume of fluid and the kinematical and dynamical characteristics of the flow field is not clearly established. In this paper a new mechanical energy equation for the incompressible steady non-uniform pipe flow of homogeneous fluid is derived, which includes the variation of the mean tur- bulent kinetic energy, and the formula for the calculation of the mechanical energy transformation loss for the non-uniform flow bet- ween two cross sections is obtained based on this equation. This formula can be simplified to the Darcy-Weisbach formula for the uniform flow as widely used in Hydraulics. Furthermore, the contributions of the mechanical energy loss relative to the time avera- ged velocity gradient and the dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy in the turbulent uniform pipe flow are discussed, and the con- tributions of the mechanical energy loss in the viscous sublayer, the buffer layer and the region above the buffer layer for the turbu- lent uniform flow are also analyzed.

  20. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  1. Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Edson P; Rossouw, David; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-06-01

    Energy resolution is one of the most important parameters in electron energy-loss spectroscopy. This is especially true for measurement of surface plasmon resonances, where high-energy resolution is crucial for resolving individual resonance peaks, in particular close to the zero-loss peak. In this work, we improve the energy resolution of electron energy-loss spectra of surface plasmon resonances, acquired with a monochromated beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, by the use of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. We test the performance of the algorithm in a simulated spectrum and then apply it to experimental energy-loss spectra of a lithographically patterned silver nanorod. By reduction of the point spread function of the spectrum, we are able to identify low-energy surface plasmon peaks in spectra, more localized features, and higher contrast in surface plasmon energy-filtered maps. Thanks to the combination of a monochromated beam and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, we improve the effective resolution down to 30 meV, and evidence of success up to 10 meV resolution for losses below 1 eV. We also propose, implement, and test two methods to limit the number of iterations in the algorithm. The first method is based on noise measurement and analysis, while in the second we monitor the change of slope in the deconvolved spectrum.

  2. Interdependence of reabsorption and internal energy losses in luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digaum, Jennefir; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    As a complementary device to photovoltaic (PV) cells, luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) can reduce the cost of solar energy by replacing the expensive PV material with inexpensive energy-harvesting plastic or glass matrix. However, due to its low efficiency, LSCs are still not commercially viable. The low efficiency is due to the various losses associated with light harvesting and trapping. Most of these losses come from reabsorption and escape of reemitted energy from the LSC device. State-of-the-art LSC technology focuses on decreasing reabsorption loss by employing luminophores with a large Stokes shift. But these materials typically have low quantum yield. Increasing the Stokes shift of the luminophore reduces reabsorption but introduces substantial loss due to low quantum yield and the Stokes shift of the re-emitted photons. The interdependence of these losses is studied computationally using a ray-tracing model that accounts for reabsorption, Stokes shift, escape cone loss, and matrix loss. It is shown that using high Stokesshift luminophores does not give the highest energy efficiency. Higher energy efficiency is obtained by optimizing the Stokes shift. Even greater performance can be achieved by employing high-quantum-yield dyes with intermediate Stokes shift. LSC devices based on this approach could be nearly twice as efficient as those based on conventional luminophores, such as Rhodamine B.

  3. Energy losses of positive and negative charged particles in electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, M. M.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2017-02-01

    A heavy charged particle propagation through electron gas has been studied using combination of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the Green’s functions method. The energy loss of a charged particle has been found in the case of large transferred momentum taking into account the interference term in the expression for the rate. The dependence of the energy loss of a charged particles in electron gas with nonzero temperature on the sign of the charge has been obtained.

  4. Parton energy loss at strong coupling and the universal bound

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, D E

    2008-01-01

    The apparent universality of jet quenching observed in heavy ion collisions at RHIC for light and heavy quarks, as well as for quarks and gluons, is very puzzling and calls for a theoretical explanation. Recently it has been proposed that the synchrotron--like radiation at strong coupling gives rise to a universal bound on the energy of a parton escaping from the medium. Since this bound appears quite low, almost all of the observed particles at high transverse momentum have to originate from the surface of the hot fireball. Here I make a first attempt of checking this scenario against the RHIC data and formulate a "Universal Bound Model" of jet quenching that can be further tested at RHIC and LHC.

  5. On the use of energy loss mechanisms to constrain Lorentz invariance violations

    CERN Document Server

    Mazón, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent and probably incoming observations of very high energy astroparticles, such as those reported by the IceCube collaboration, we readdress the energy loss mechanism by Lorentz violating particles. We analytically show that Cohen-Glashow's formula for energy loss is connected with a Poisson distribution for the number of decays, whose large fluctuations prevent from placing bounds on Lorentz invariance violations. However, this model ignores the sharp change in the decay width after each process. We propose replacing Poisson statistics with a new distribution that takes this into account. We study the average final energy and its fluctuations according to the new statistics, contrasting it with Cohen-Glashow's result and discussing the reliability of energy loss mechanisms to constrain violations of Lorentz invariance.

  6. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, C., E-mail: vockenhuber@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Arstila, K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jensen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thöni, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Whitlow, H.J. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  7. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Arstila, K.; Jensen, J.; Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Thöni, M.; Whitlow, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N2, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  8. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  9. High intake of dairy during energy restriction does not affect energy balance or the intestinal microflora compared to low dairy intake in overweight individuals in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Blædel, Trine; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2017-01-01

    During weight loss, dairy calcium is proposed to accelerate weight and fat mass loss through increased fecal fat excretion. The primary objective was to investigate if a high-dairy energy-restricted diet is superior to low-dairy in terms of changes in body weight, body composition and fecal fat...... (2100 kJ) deficit diet either high (HD: 1500 mg calcium/d) or low (LD: 600 mg calcium/d) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Habitual calcium intake was ~1000 mg/d. Body weight loss (HD: -6.6±1.3 kg, LD: -7.9±1.5 kg, P=0.73), fat mass loss (HD: -7.8±1.3 %, LD: -8.5±1.1 %, P=0.76), changes in fecal fat...... excretion (HD: -0.57±0.76 g, LD: 0.46±0.70 g, P=0.12) and microbiota composition were similar for the groups over 24 weeks. However, total fat mass loss was positively associated with relative abundance of Papillibacter (P=0.017) independent of diet group. Consumption of a high dairy diet did...

  10. COMPONENTS OF TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY LOSSES POWER IN PQR SPATIAL COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Zhemerov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To obtain relations determining the components of the total losses power with p-q-r power theory for three-phase four-wire energy supply systems, uniquely linking four components: the lowest possible losses power, losses power caused by the reactive power, losses power caused by the instantaneous active power pulsations, losses power caused by current flowing in the neutral wire. Methodology. We have applied concepts of p-q-r power theory, the theory of electrical circuits and mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have obtained the exact relation, which allows to calculate the total losses power in the three-phase four-wire energy supply system using three components corresponding to the projections of the generalized vectors of voltage and current along the pqr axis coordinates. Originality. For the first time, we have established a mathematical relationship between spatial representation of instantaneous values of the vector components and the total losses power in the three-phase four-wire energy supply systems. Practical value. We have elucidated an issue that using the proposed methodology would create a measuring device for determining the current value of the components of total losses power in three-phase systems. The device operates with measuring information about instantaneous values of currents and voltages.

  11. Cimetidine suspension as adjuvant to energy restricted diet in treating obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Andersen, T; Breum, Leif;

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of cimetidine suspension compared with placebo suspension on weight loss in moderately obese patients taking a 5 MJ/day diet supplemented with dietary fibre. To determine the relation between the effectiveness of the blinding and weight loss. DESIGN--Randomised doub...

  12. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  13. Hysteresis model and statistical interpretation of energy losses in non-oriented steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mănescu, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.paltanea@upb.ro; Păltânea, Gheorghe; Gavrilă, Horia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the hysteresis energy losses in two non-oriented industrial steels (M400-65A and M800-65A) were determined, by means of an efficient classical Preisach model, which is based on the Pescetti–Biorci method for the identification of the Preisach density. The excess and the total energy losses were also determined, using a statistical framework, based on magnetic object theory. The hysteresis energy losses, in a non-oriented steel alloy, depend on the peak magnetic polarization and they can be computed using a Preisach model, due to the fact that in these materials there is a direct link between the elementary rectangular loops and the discontinuous character of the magnetization process (Barkhausen jumps). To determine the Preisach density it was necessary to measure the normal magnetization curve and the saturation hysteresis cycle. A system of equations was deduced and the Preisach density was calculated for a magnetic polarization of 1.5 T; then the hysteresis cycle was reconstructed. Using the same pattern for the Preisach distribution, it was computed the hysteresis cycle for 1 T. The classical losses were calculated using a well known formula and the excess energy losses were determined by means of the magnetic object theory. The total energy losses were mathematically reconstructed and compared with those, measured experimentally.

  14. Hysteresis model and statistical interpretation of energy losses in non-oriented steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mănescu (Păltânea), Veronica; Păltânea, Gheorghe; Gavrilă, Horia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the hysteresis energy losses in two non-oriented industrial steels (M400-65A and M800-65A) were determined, by means of an efficient classical Preisach model, which is based on the Pescetti-Biorci method for the identification of the Preisach density. The excess and the total energy losses were also determined, using a statistical framework, based on magnetic object theory. The hysteresis energy losses, in a non-oriented steel alloy, depend on the peak magnetic polarization and they can be computed using a Preisach model, due to the fact that in these materials there is a direct link between the elementary rectangular loops and the discontinuous character of the magnetization process (Barkhausen jumps). To determine the Preisach density it was necessary to measure the normal magnetization curve and the saturation hysteresis cycle. A system of equations was deduced and the Preisach density was calculated for a magnetic polarization of 1.5 T; then the hysteresis cycle was reconstructed. Using the same pattern for the Preisach distribution, it was computed the hysteresis cycle for 1 T. The classical losses were calculated using a well known formula and the excess energy losses were determined by means of the magnetic object theory. The total energy losses were mathematically reconstructed and compared with those, measured experimentally.

  15. Energy loss of protons in SrTiO{sub 3} studied by medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedyulin, S.N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, M.P.; Razavi, F.S. [Department of Physics, Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario, L2S 3A1 (Canada); Goncharova, L.V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The energy loss of medium energy protons (55-170 keV/amu) was studied for a thin SrTiO{sub 3} film on Si. The thickness of the film and the structure of the SrTiO{sub 3}/Si interface was determined by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). These film parameters, together with energy losses extracted from MEIS spectra, were used to calculate stopping cross sections of SrTiO{sub 3} by an iterative procedure. In comparison with Andersen and Ziegler values, the data are systematically lower over the whole energy range.

  16. CMB bounds on dark matter annihilation: Nucleon energy losses after recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weniger, C.; Serpico, P.D.; Iocco, F.; Bertone, G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the propagation and energy losses of protons and antiprotons produced by dark matter annihilation at redshifts 100energy injected into e± and γ’s, b

  17. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; McGlory, Chris; Damas, Felipe; Mazara, Nicole; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2017-09-12

    Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1.2 g/kg/d, n = 12) or higher protein (2.4 g/kg per d, n = 12). Pre- and postintervention testing included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, primed constant infusion of ring-[(13)C6]phenylalanine, and (15)[N]phenylalanine to measure acute postabsorptive MPS and MPB; D2O to measure integrated MPS; and gene and protein expression. There was a decrease in acute MPS after ER (higher protein, 0.059 ± 0.006 to 0.051 ± 0.009%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.005-0.045 ± 0.006%/h; P resistance exercise (higher protein, 0.067 ± 0.01%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.006%/h), and integrated MPS followed a similar pattern. There was no change in MPB (energy balance, 0.080 ± 0.01%/hr; ER rested legs, 0.078 ± 0.008%/hr; ER exercised legs, 0.079 ± 0.006%/hr). We conclude that a reduction in MPS is the main mechanism that underpins LBM loss early in ER in adult men.-Hector, A. J., McGlory, C., Damas, F., Mazara, N., Baker, S. K., Phillips, S. M. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  18. Photo nuclear energy loss term for muon-nucleus interactions based on xi scaling model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, R.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EMC) experiments discovered a significant deviation of the ratio of structure functions of iron and deuteron from unity. It was established that the quark parton distribution in nuclei are different from the corresponding distribution in the nucleus. It was examined whether these results have an effect on the calculation of photo nucleus energy loss term for muon-nucleus nuclear interaction. Though the EMC and SLAC data were restricted to rather large q sq region it is expected that the derivation would persist even in the low q sq domain. For the ratio of iron and deuteron structure function a rather naive least square fit of the form R(x) = a + bx was taken and it is assumed that the formula is valid for the whole q sq region the absence of any knowledge of R(x) for small q sq.

  19. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; CUI Shu-Wen; YAN Zhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions should not include Drell-Yan experimental data.

  20. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANChun-Gui; CUIShu-Wen; YANZhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Dre11-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Dre11-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions shoul""""d not include Dre11-Yan experimental data.

  1. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  2. Energy Loss of Fast Quarks in Nuclear Drell-Yan Dimuon Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; CUI Shu-Wen; SHEN Peng-Nian; LI Guang-Lie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The energy loss effect in nuclear matter, which is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in the deep inelastic scattering process, can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of the quark energy loss parametrization given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analysed for 800-GeV protons incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866.

  3. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...... is demonstrated. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow dynamics of the food temperature, compared with the air temperature, we are able to further lower both the energy consumption and the peak value of power requirement. The Pareto optimal curve is found by off-line optimization....

  4. Energy loss to intravalley acoustic modes in nano-dimensional wire structures at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Das, B.; Basu, A.; Das, J.; Bhattacharya, D. P.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2017-03-01

    The theory of rate of loss of energy of non-equilibrium electrons due to inelastic interaction with the intravalley acoustic phonons in a nano-dimensional semiconductor wire has been developed under the condition of low lattice temperature, when the approximations of the well known traditional theory are not valid. Numerical results are obtained for narrow-channel GaAs-GaAlAs wires structures. On comparison with other available results it is revealed that the finite energy of the intravalley acoustic phonons and, the use of the full form of the phonon distribution without truncation to the equipartition law, produce significant changes in the energy loss characteristics at low temperatures.

  5. On Energy Diagnosis of Steam Power Plants: A Comparison among Three Global Losses Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Taccani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of energy systems diagnosis are: i identifying components responsible for highest losses increments in comparison with design conditions, ii quantifying energy-efficiency recovery when design conditions are restored in a particular system component. In this paper the energy diagnosis of an existing steam power plant is faced on the basis of three different formulae expressing global losses.

    A simulation model of a real 320 MW steam power plant has been implemented with a commercial modular energy systems simulation software (Aspen+. The functional decay of different components of the plant has been simulated using the model. The results show that the components actually responsible for the additional power losses can be identified and the effect of restoring design conditions can be quantified in most cases with sufficient approximation by using the General Formula for the Efficiency or the Lost work Impact Formula (developed in the ambit of thermoeconomics.

  6. Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nuehrenberg, J.

    1999-06-01

    ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the `orbit improved` configuration, while the decrement is observed in the `standard` configuration. (author)

  7. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    of low-energy DH systems. Various design concepts are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, triple pipes. These technologies are potentially energyefficient and cost-effective solutions for DH networks in low-heat density......The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design...... areas. We start with a review of theories and methods for steady-state heat loss calculation. Next, the article shows how detailed calculations with 2D-modeling of pipes can be carried out by means of computer software based on the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by comparison...

  8. Method and apparatus for low-loss storage of thermal energy and for low-loss withdrawal of the stored thermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1980-08-26

    A mehtod is described for low-loss thermal energy storage in and withdrawal from a heat accumulator connected with an energy source and a heat consumer in a circulatory system through which a heat-carrying flow medium circulates. The method consits of passing the flow medium through the energy source so as to withdraw thermal energy from the energy source and effect absorption of the thermal energy by the flow medium, guiding the flow medium in respective layers within the heat accumulator in a direction from the center of the heat accumulator toward the periphery thereof so as to store the thermal energy in a heat storage mass disposed in the heat accumulator; and guiding the flow medium in the layers thereof through the heat accumulator in a direction from the periphery of the heat accumulator to the center thereof, and passing the flow medium from the heat accumulator through the consumer so as to withdraw thermal energy therefrom and transfer it to the consumer.

  9. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Low-Loss Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in Wurtzite III-Nitride Ternary Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat, Alberto; Sastre, Xavier; Peiró, Francesca; Estradé, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the dielectric response of III-nitride semiconductors is studied using density functional theory (DFT) band structure calculations. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the features in the low-loss electron energy-loss spectra of ternary alloys, but the results are also relevant to optical and UV spectroscopy results. In addition, the dependence of the most remarkable features with composition is tested, i.e. applying Vegard's law to band gap and plasmon energy. For this purpose, three wurtzite ternary alloys, from the combination of binaries AlN, GaN, and InN, were simulated through a wide compositional range (i.e., Al x Ga1-x N, In x Al1-x N, and In x Ga1-x N, with x=[0,1]). For this DFT calculations, the standard tools found in Wien2k software were used. In order to improve the band structure description of these semiconductor compounds, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation potential was also used. Results from these calculations are presented, including band structure, density of states, and complex dielectric function for the whole compositional range. Larger, closer to experimental values, band gap energies are predicted using the novel potential, when compared with standard generalized gradient approximation. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the collective excitation features in the dielectric response reveals their compositional dependence, which sometimes departs from a linear behavior (bowing). Finally, an advantageous method for measuring the plasmon energy dependence from these calculations is explained.

  10. Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernette, Catherine M; White, B Douglas; Zizza, Claire A

    2011-06-01

    After age 70 to 75 years, average body weight decreases both in ailing and healthy people because of a loss of appetite that results in reduced energy intake and the loss of body fat and lean muscle tissue. This so-called anorexia of aging predisposes elderly people to continued pathologic weight loss and malnutrition-major causes of morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals must understand the many factors involved in the anorexia of aging to help older adults prevent unintentional weight loss. Psychological, social, and cultural factors are important effectors; however, physiological factors are emphasized here because they are not thoroughly understood and they make it inherently difficult for most people to alter their body weight. Monoamines, steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), endocannabinoids, and proteins all influence body weight. This review is an analysis of proteins from the brain, pancreas, adipose tissue, and gastrointestinal tract that are known to affect energy intake and energy balance, with an attempt to identify those factors that may change with aging. The articles included in this review were obtained by a PubMed database search using the keywords mouse OR rat OR human AND aged OR aging OR older OR elderly AND adult AND anorexia OR "unintentional weight loss," and each of the individual proteins discussed, as well as from the reference lists of those articles. The results reveal that some proteins may be important in the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons, whereas others may not have a significant role. However, many of the proteins that could conceivably have a role in unintentional weight loss have not yet been studied with that question in mind. Preventing unintentional weight loss in older adults is an important goal and further research on the role of proteins important for the maintenance of energy balance and the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons is

  11. Energy loss straggling in Aluminium foils for Li and C ions in fractional energy loss limits (ΔE/E) ∼10-60%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Shyam; Sharma, V.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The energy loss straggling of Li and C ions in Al foils of various thicknesses has been measured, within the fractional energy loss limit (∆E/E) ∼ 10-60%. These measurements have been performed using the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility available at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The measured straggling values have been compared with the corresponding predicted values adopting popularly used collisional straggling formulations viz Bohr, Lindhard and Scharff, Bethe-Livingston, Titeica. In addition, the experimental data has been compared to the Yang et al. empirical formula and Close Form Model, recently proposed by Montanari et al. The straggling values derived by Titeica theory were found to be in better agreement with the measured values as compared to other straggling formulations. The charge-exchange straggling component has been estimated from the measured data based on Titeica's theory. Finally, a function of the ion effective charge and the energy loss fraction within the target has been fitted to the latter straggling component.

  12. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  13. Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam; Danielle Kulpins; Melinda M. Manore

    2016-01-01

    Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA) (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise) and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines) of carbohydrates, protein, essential ...

  14. Comparative analysis of characteristic electron energy loss spectra and inelastic scattering cross-section spectra of Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, A. S.; Igumenov, A. Yu.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Zhigalov, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    The inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra of Fe have been calculated based on experimental spectra of characteristic reflection electron energy loss as dependences of the product of the inelastic mean free path by the differential inelastic electron scattering cross section on the electron energy loss. It has been shown that the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have certain advantages over the electron energy loss spectra in the analysis of the interaction of electrons with substance. The peaks of energy loss in the spectra of characteristic electron energy loss and inelastic electron scattering cross sections have been determined from the integral and differential spectra. It has been shown that the energy of the bulk plasmon is practically independent of the energy of primary electrons in the characteristic electron energy loss spectra and monotonically increases with increasing energy of primary electrons in the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra. The variation in the maximum energy of the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra is caused by the redistribution of intensities over the peaks of losses due to various excitations. The inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have been analyzed using the decomposition of the spectra into peaks of the energy loss. This method has been used for the quantitative estimation of the contributions from different energy loss processes to the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra of Fe and for the determination of the nature of the energy loss peaks.

  15. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-09-01

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C60). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan(3) 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutrino energy loss by electron capture on strongly screened iron group nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing-Jing; Luo Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    The influences on the neutrino energy loss rates in iron group nuclei at the same density are investigated in the presence of strong electron screening and in the absence of electron screening. The results show that at a temperature of 15 × 109 K, the neutrino energy loss rates which come from the electron capture processfor most iron group nuclei decrease no more than 2 orders of magnitude but for the others (such as 53,55,56,57,58,59,60Co, 56,59Ni) they can decrease about 3 orders of magnitude due to strong electron screening (SES), whereas, at a temperature of 109K the neutrino energy loss rates of the most iron group nuclei can be diminished greatly due to the SES. For example, 61Fe, 60Fe,and 62Ni the neutrino energy loss rates decrease about 4, 15 and 16 orders of magnitude and for 57Cr, 58Cr, and 60Cr decrease about 18, 12, and 10 orders of magnitude respectively. According to our calculations the neutrino energy loss rates of nuclei 58Mn, 59Mn, 60Mn, and 62Mn may decrease about 13 orders of magnitude at a temperature of 109 K due to the SES.

  17. Athermal Energy Loss from X-rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Films on Solid Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozorezov, Alexander G.; Lambert, Colin J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Sagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.

    2013-01-01

    When energy is deposited in a thin-film cryogenic detector, such as from the absorption of an X-ray, an important feature that determines the energy resolution is the amount of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the elementary excitation systems coming into thermal equilibrium. This form of energy loss will be position-dependent and therefore can limit the detector energy resolution. An understanding of the physical processes that occur when elementary excitations are generated in metal films on dielectric substrates is important for the design and optimization of a number of different types of low temperature detector. We have measured the total energy loss in one relatively simple geometry that allows us to study these processes and compare measurements with calculation based upon a model for the various di.erent processes. We have modeled the athermal phonon energy loss in this device by finding an evolving phonon distribution function that solves the system of kinetic equations for the interacting system of electrons and phonons. Using measurements of device parameters such as the Debye energy and the thermal di.usivity we have calculated the expected energy loss from this detector geometry, and also the position-dependent variation of this loss. We have also calculated the predicted impact on measured spectral line-shapes, and shown that they agree well with measurements. In addition, we have tested this model by using it to predict the performance of a number of other types of detector with di.erent geometries, where good agreement is also found.

  18. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  19. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  20. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  1. Loss of ZMPSTE24 (FACE-1) causes autosomal recessive restrictive dermopathy and accumulation of Lamin A precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Claire L; Cadiñanos, Juan; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Bernard, Rafaëlle; Courrier, Sébastien; Boccaccio, Irène; Boyer, Amandine; Kleijer, Wim J; Wagner, Anja; Giuliano, Fabienne; Beemer, Frits A; Freije, Jose M; Cau, Pierre; Hennekam, Raoul C M; López-Otín, Carlos; Badens, Catherine; Lévy, Nicolas

    2005-06-01

    Restrictive dermopathy (RD) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, tight and rigid skin with prominent superficial vessels, bone mineralization defects, dysplastic clavicles, arthrogryposis and early neonatal death. In two patients affected with RD, we recently reported two different heterozygous splicing mutations in the LMNA gene, leading to the production and accumulation of truncated Prelamin A. In other patients, a single nucleotide insertion was identified in ZMPSTE24. This variation is located in a homopolymeric repeat of thymines and introduces a premature termination codon. ZMPSTE24 encodes an endoprotease essential for the post-translational cleavage of the Lamin A precursor and the production of mature Lamin A. However, the autosomal recessive inheritance of RD suggested that a further molecular defect was present either in the second ZMPSTE24 allele or in another gene involved in Lamin A processing. Here, we report new findings in RD linked to ZMPSTE24 mutations. Ten RD patients were analyzed including seven from a previous series and three novel patients. All were found to be either homozygous or compound heterozygous for ZMPSTE24 mutations. We report three novel 'null' mutations as well as the recurrent thymine insertion. In all cases, we find a complete absence of both ZMPSTE24 and mature Lamin A associated with Prelamin A accumulation. Thus, RD is either a primary or a secondary laminopathy, caused by dominant de novo LMNA mutations or, more frequently, recessive null ZMPSTE24 mutations, most of which lie in a mutation hotspot within exon 9. The accumulation of truncated or normal length Prelamin A is, therefore, a shared pathophysiological feature in recessive and dominant RD. These findings have an important impact on our knowledge of the pathophysiology in Progeria and related disorders and will help direct the development of therapeutic approaches.

  2. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00364770; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  3. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  4. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. [Departamento Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 649, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Echenique, P.M. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-05-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  6. Absolute Determination of Optical Constants by a Direct Physical Modeling of Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, H; Toth, J; Tokesi, K; Ding, Z J

    2016-01-01

    We present an absolute extraction method of optical constants of metal from the measured reflection electron energy loss (REELS) spectra by using the recently developed reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The method is based on a direct physical modeling of electron elastic and electron inelastic scattering near the surface region where the surface excitation becomes important to fully describe the spectrum loss feature intensity in relative to the elastic peak intensity. An optimization procedure of oscillator parameters appeared in the energy loss function (ELF) for describing electron inelastic scattering due to the bulk- and surface-excitations was performed with the simulated annealing method by a successive comparison between the measured and Monte Carlo simulated REELS spectra. The ELF and corresponding optical constants of Fe were obtained from the REELS spectra measured at incident energies of 1000, 2000 and 3000 eV. The validity of the present optical data has been verified with the f- and ps-sum r...

  7. An analytic solution for energy loss and time-of-flight calculations for intermediate-energy light ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, RJM; Hulsbergen, W; Prendergast, EP; van den Brink, A; de Haas, AP; Habets, JJLM; Kamermans, R; Koopmans, M; Kuijer, PG; de Laat, CTAM; Ostendorf, RW; Peghaire, A; Rossewij, M

    1999-01-01

    Particle identification in intermediate heavy-ion collisions, using a modern 4 pi detector which contains several active layers, relies on a parametrisation or numerical integration of the energy loss in thick layers of detector material for different ions. Here an analytical solution applicable ove

  8. Electron energy loss spectroscopy with parallel readout of energy and momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald; Sforzini, Jessica; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a high energy resolution electron source that matches the requirements for parallel readout of energy and momentum of modern hemispherical electron energy analyzers. The system is designed as an add-on device to typical photoemission chambers. Due to the multiplex gain, a complete phonon dispersion of a Cu(111) surface was measured in seven minutes with 4 meV energy resolution.

  9. Radiation Energy Loss from Laser-Heated Shenguang-Ⅱ Hohlraums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Tie-Qiang; HUANG Tian-Xuan; SUN Ke-Xu; WANG Guang-Yu; DUAN Qing-Sheng; PEI Wen-Bing; GU Pei-Jun; ZHANG Xing-Hong; DING Yong-Kun; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; YANG Jia-Min

    2004-01-01

    @@ The x ray energy loss out of laser-heated hohlraum through laser entrance holes (LEH) is discussed in detail according to a simple theoretical model and is compared with the hohlraum experimental data measured at Shenguang Ⅱ laser facility. The radiation loss is considered to be composed of two parts, that is, direct contribution from laser spots and re-emitted part from the x ray-heated hohlraum inner wall, and the former accounts for about 20% of the total loss for the Shenguang Ⅱ hohlraums. Owing to the non-equilibrium characteristics of laser target coupling the direct contribution part is non-equilibrium in spectrum.

  10. Protein or energy restriction during late gestation alters fetal growth and visceral organ mass: an evidence of intrauterine programming in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wu, D Q; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Qiao, J Y; Ran, T; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on postnatal fetal growth and visceral organ mass of goats. Eighty pregnant goats with similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and body weight (BW, 20.0 ± 1.0 kg before pregnancy) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (CON), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER) diets until parturition, after which offspring received normal diets for nutritional recovery. Kids were killed and visceral tissues were harvested at birth and week 6. Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P nutritional recovery, there was no difference (P = 0.91) in BW among groups; the kids from nutritional restriction groups showed a greater (P goats, particularly the proportional responses of fetal organs relative to BW, including thymus, small intestine, kidney and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiative Energy Loss of Heavy Quark and Dead Cone Effect in Ultra-relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Wen-Chang; DING Heng-Tong; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The lowest-order heavy quark radiative energy loss has been analysed to quantify the dead cone effect. The medium-induced gluon radiation is found to fill the dead cone, it is reduced at large gluon energies compared to the radiation of light quarks. We calculate the radiative energy loss of heavy quarks in the condition of dead cone effect. It is found that the radiative energy loss with dead cone effect is smaller than that without the dead cone effect.

  12. Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping

    by applying two main optimization strategies to traditional refrigeration systems. The first strategy is a new defrost-on-demand scheme, which based on an objective function between quality loss and energy consumption, continuously seeks an optimal time interval for defrosting in dynamic situation. The second...... strategy is through utilization of the thermal mass of the refrigerated foodstuffs, the day-night temperature variation and the capacity control of the compressor, to realize a trade-off between system energy consumption and food quality loss....

  13. Structural basis for catalytically restrictive dynamics of a high-energy enzyme state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovermann, Michael; Ådén, Jörgen; Grundström, Christin; Elisabeth Sauer-Eriksson, A.; Sauer, Uwe H.; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    An emerging paradigm in enzymology is that transient high-energy structural states play crucial roles in enzymatic reaction cycles. Generally, these high-energy or `invisible' states cannot be studied directly at atomic resolution using existing structural and spectroscopic techniques owing to their low populations or short residence times. Here we report the direct NMR-based detection of the molecular topology and conformational dynamics of a catalytically indispensable high-energy state of an adenylate kinase variant. On the basis of matching energy barriers for conformational dynamics and catalytic turnover, it was found that the enzyme's catalytic activity is governed by its dynamic interconversion between the high-energy state and a ground state structure that was determined by X-ray crystallography. Our results show that it is possible to rationally tune enzymes' conformational dynamics and hence their catalytic power--a key aspect in rational design of enzymes catalysing novel reactions.

  14. Quark energy loss in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Li-Hua; 10.1103/Phys.RevC.81.035207

    2011-01-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on nuclear targets is an ideal tool to study the energy loss effect of an outgoing quark in a nuclear medium. By means of the short hadron formation time, the experimental data with quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus are picked out. A leading-order analysis is performed for the hadron multiplicity ratios as a function of the energy fraction on helium, neon, and copper nuclei relative to deuteron for the various identified hadrons. It is shown that the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions can be neglected. It is found that the theoretical results considering the nuclear modification of fragmentation functions due to quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. Whether the quark energy loss is linear or quadratic with the path length is not determined. The obtained energy loss per unit length is 0.38 \\pm 0.03 GeV/fm for an outgoing quark by the global fit.

  15. Energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Nace; Petrović, Srdjan; Nešković, Nebojša

    2013-05-01

    A detailed study of the energy loss distributions of the relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent Si crystals is presented in this work. The bending angle was varied from 0 to 20 μrad, while the crystal thickness was equal to 1 mm. The proton energy was chosen to be 7 TeV in accordance with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. An accurate energy loss model was used, which takes into account the trajectory dependence of the energy loss of protons during their motion through the crystal channels. Further, the dispersion of the proton's scattering angle caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The calculated dependence of the number of dechanneled protons on the bending angle was excellently fitted by the Gompertz type dechanneling function.

  16. Energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Nace, E-mail: nacestoj@pmf.ukim.mk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Petrović, Srdjan; Nešković, Nebojša [Laboratory of Physics (010), Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-05-01

    A detailed study of the energy loss distributions of the relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent < 100 > Si crystals is presented in this work. The bending angle was varied from 0 to 20 μrad, while the crystal thickness was equal to 1 mm. The proton energy was chosen to be 7 TeV in accordance with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. An accurate energy loss model was used, which takes into account the trajectory dependence of the energy loss of protons during their motion through the crystal channels. Further, the dispersion of the proton’s scattering angle caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The calculated dependence of the number of dechanneled protons on the bending angle was excellently fitted by the Gompertz type dechanneling function.

  17. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, E. W.; Ratcliff, L. E.; Payne, M. C.; Haynes, P. D.; Hine, N. D. M.

    2016-04-20

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable.

  18. Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines of carbohydrates, protein, essential fatty acids (EFAs, B-vitamins, calcium, iron, and vitamin D. Low EA and the associated nutrient deficiencies are more common in athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports (i.e., aesthetic, gravitational, and weight category sports because low body fat and mass confer a competitive advantage. Other athletes at risk for energy and nutrient deficits include athletes following a vegetarian or gluten-free diet (GFD. Careful dietary planning can help an athlete meet energy and nutrient needs. This review covers the nutrition issues associated with low EA and special diets (i.e., vegetarian and GFD and describes strategies to help female athletes meet their energy and nutrient needs.

  19. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success.

  20. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Nace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled through the bent Si crystals, with the constant curvature radius, R = 50 m, are studied here. The proton energy is 7 TeV and the thickness of the crystal is varied from 1 mm to 5 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, L, from 2.1 to 10.6, respectively. The proton energy was chosen in accordance with the large hadron collider project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated by the computer simulation method using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane. Dispersion of the proton scattering angle caused by its collisions with the crystal’s electrons was taken into account. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  1. Characterization of Solidified Gas Thin Film Targets via $\\alpha$ Particle Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Beveridge, J L; Douglas, J L; Huber, T M; Jacot-Guillarmod, R; Kim, S K; Knowles, P E; Kunselman, A R; Maier, M; Marshall, G M; Mason, G R; Mulhauser, F; Olin, A; Petitjean, C; Porcelli, T A; Zmeskal, J

    1996-01-01

    A method is reported for measuring the thickness and uniformity of thin films of solidified gas targets. The energy of alpha particles traversing the film is measured and the energy loss is converted to thickness using the stopping power. The uniformity is determined by measuring the thickness at different positions with an array of sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to study the film deposition mechanism. Thickness calibrations for a TRIUMF solid hydrogen target system are presented.

  2. High-resolution proton energy-loss spectrometer for surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Kanasaki, Junichi; Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsuda, Kouji; Aoki, Masahiko.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a new ion-beam surface analyzer, proton energy loss spectrometer. It analyzes ions incident at 100 keV and scattered by 180degC at solid surfaces with a resolution of 5eV. The results of computer simulation of the energy spectra of scattered ions and the informations on surface electronic and atomic structures possibly derived by the analysis are described. Application of the spectrometer in several areas of science and technology is briefly discussed.

  3. Electron-energy-loss spectral library and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1983-09-01

    An electron energy loss spectral library can be an invaluable tool in materials research from a fundamental as well as a practical standpoint. Although it will not alleviate all the complications associated with quantification, this type of library can help to elucidate details of spectral profiles previously found intractable. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy. The author also wishes to express his gratitude to the organizing committee for partial financial support provided to attend this meeting.

  4. Energy losses of charged particles in a finite layer of substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, V. A.

    1985-04-01

    The energy lost by a charged particle as it crosses a plane-parallel plate with dielectric permittivity in a vacuum is calculated theoretically, applying the intermediate transition to the Heaviside transformation and considering various combinations of particle Lorentz factor and plate thickness. The problems encountered in comparing the theoretical predictions with experimental data are examined, and the application of the model of energy loss in very thin layers of Ermilova et al. (1974) is found to explain the observed anomalies.

  5. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-09

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles.

  6. Restrictions on negative energy density for the Dirac field in flat spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wei-Xing; Yu Hong-Wei; Li Fei; Wu Pu-Xun; Ren Zhong-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the quantum Dirac field in n + 1-dimensional flat spacetime and derives a lower bound in the form of quantum inequality on the energy density averaged against spacetime sampling functions. The stateindependent quantum inequality derived in the present paper is similar to the temporal quantum energy inequality and it is stronger for massive field than for massless one. It also presents the concrete results of the quantum inequality in 2 and 4-dimensional spacetimes.

  7. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons axially channeled in the bent Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Nace; Petrović, Srdjan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent Si crystal are studied. The crystal thickness is equal to 1 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, Λ, equal to 1.22, whereas the bending angle, α, was varied from 0 to 30 μrad. The proton energy of 7 TeV was chosen in accordance with the concept of using the bent crystals as a tool for selective deflection of the beam halo particles from the LUA9 experiment at LHC. For the continuum interaction potential of the proton and the crystal the Molière's expression was used and the energy loss of a proton was calculated by applying the trajectory dependent stopping power model. Further, the uncertainness of the scattering angle of the proton caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The energy loss distribution of the channeled protons was obtained via the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. The analysis of the obtained theoretical data shows that the shape of the energy loss distribution strongly depends on the horizontal or vertical direction of the curvature of the crystal. The number of dechanneled protons as a function of the bending angle also strongly depends on the direction of the crystal's curvature. As a result, the dechanneling rates and ranges, obtained from the Gompertz type sigmoidal fitting functions, have different sets of values for different bending orientations. We have also studied the influence of the proton beam divergence on the energy loss distribution of channeled protons.

  8. A proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karl; Murphy, Shane; Palmer, Richard E.

    2017-03-01

    A compact proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy measurements is described. Using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a field emission (FE) electron source in conjunction with this analyzer, which is placed at a glancing angle to the surface plane, FE sample current and electron reflectivity imaging may be performed simultaneously. This is demonstrated in measurements of Ag nanostructures prepared on graphite by electron-beam lithography, where a material contrast of 13% is observed, with a lateral resolution of 25 nm, between the silver and graphite in electron reflectivity images. Topological contrast mechanisms such as edge enhancement and shadowing are also observed, giving rise to additional features in the electron reflectivity images. The same instrument configuration has been used to measure electron energy loss spectra on bare graphite, where the zero loss peak, π band plasmon loss peak and secondary electron peaks are observed. Using this simple and compact analyzer an STM, with sufficient open access to the tip-sample junction, may easily be augmented to provide simultaneous elemental and topographic mapping, supplementing STM image measurements with FE sample current and electron reflectivity images, as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, in the same instrument.

  9. Arylesterase activity is associated with antioxidant intake and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene methylation in metabolic syndrome patients following an energy restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Mansego, Maria L; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The arylesterase (ARE) activity linked to the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene is known to protect lipoproteins from oxidation and provide defense against metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. The epigenetic regulation of enzymatic activities is gaining importance nowadays. This research aimed to assess the potential relationships between the ARE activity with the methylation levels of the PON1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, anthropometrics, biochemical markers and antioxidant dietary components. Forty-seven subjects (47 ± 10 y.o; BMI 36.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2); 46.8 % female) with MetS features, who followed a six-month energy-restricted dietary weight-loss intervention, were included in this study (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). Anthropometric, biochemical, enzymatic and dietary data were assessed using validated procedures. PON1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation was analyzed by a microarray technical approach. Volunteers reduced ARE activity in parallel with body weight (p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.006), total fat mass (p = 0.020), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.018), mean blood pressure (p = 0.022) and triglycerides (p = 0.014). Methylation levels of some CpG sites of the PON1 gene correlated negatively with ARE activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, dietary vitamin C (p = 0.001), tocopherols (p = 0.009) and lycopene (p = 0.038) were positively associated with ARE activity and showed an inverse correlation (p = 0.004, p = 0.029 and p = 0.021, respectively) with the methylation of some selected CpG sites of the PON1 gene. In conclusion, ARE activity decreased in parallel with MetS-related markers associated to the energy restriction, while dietary antioxidants might enhance the ARE activity by lowering the PON1 gene methylation in patients with MetS features.

  10. Effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and foetal hepatic and small intestinal energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Doscher, F E; Meyer, A M; Caton, J S; Awda, B J; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2014-08-01

    To determine how nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation influence ewe and foetal hepatic and small intestinal energy use, 32 primiparous ewes on d 50 of gestation were fed 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of NRC recommendations with 0 (CON) or 5 mg/d (MEL) of dietary melatonin. On d 130 of gestation, small intestine and liver were weighed and collected. Data were analysed as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Liver weight (g/kg EBW) decreased (p = 0.02) in RES ewes. Jejunum weight (g/kg BW) increased (interaction p = 0.04) in ADQ-MEL ewes compared with all other treatments. Total in vitro O2 consumption (mol/min/tissue) and total citrate synthase activity (mol/min/tissue and mol/min/kg EBW) in liver decreased (p ≤ 0.03) in RES ewes. Oxygen consumption (mol/min/kg EBW) increased (interaction p = 0.02) in jejunum of ADQ-CON versus RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Citrate synthase activity (mol/min/kg of EBW) increased (interaction p = 0.03) in jejunum of ADQ-MEL compared with RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Foetal liver weight (g/kg BW) decreased (p = 0.02) in RES versus ADQ. Foetal small intestine weight (g/kg BW) decreased (interaction p = 0.05) in RES-MEL versus ADQ-MEL. Total O2 consumption (mol/min/tissue) and total citrate synthase activity (mol/min/kg of BW) in foetal liver decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in RES versus ADQ. Foetal small intestinal O2 consumption (mol/min/kg of BW) was greater (interaction p = 0.03) in RES-CON and ADQ-MEL than RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Maternal nutrient restriction had a greater effect than melatonin supplementation on liver and jejunum mass and energy utilization in dams and foetuses. Because intestinal mass and energy utilization were more responsive to melatonin supplementation in ewes fed adequate nutrition compared with restricted ewes, melatonin may have limited use as a therapeutic supplement to help overcome potential negative effects of nutrient restriction.

  11. New Free Electron Wire for Loss Free Utilization of Electrical Energy and Highly Energy Efficient Electrical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Haldar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New Free Electrons Wire will enable the use of electrical energy and also energy in various other forms, in a loss free way, at room temperature. Free Electrons confined in vacuum at the order of 10-4 torr or more, at the core of the wire, can move a distance as long as about, to a few kilometers without any collision. The vacuum is maintained in a tube made up of alternate layers of Teflon and Silicon Oxynitride. The columbic repulsion between these free electrons will actually conduct energy without any loss. The free electrons trapped in vacuum tube, should be at a particular density of around 2.02 x 108 electrons per unit area. A metal encapsulation(s over the wire is there to keep the electromagnetic field remain confined within the free electron wire, to make it harmless to the health of living creatures. Apart from loss free energy transportation, the free electron wire is also capable of generating very high electromagnetic field due to the free electrons, simply by removing the metal encapsulation(s, which can be used for various purposes. The materials and techniques adopted will make New Free Electron Wire producible commercially, at the cost of general copper wires.

  12. Competing Effects Of Electronic And Nuclear Energy Loss On Microstructural Evolution In Ionic-covalent Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ishimaru, Manabu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Edmondson, P. D. [Univ. of Oxford, (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Xue, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, Peng [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Moll, Sandra [TN International/AREVA, Montigny Le Bretonneux (France); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Hardiman, Christopher M. [North Carolina State Univ. (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shannon, Steven [North Carolina State Univ. (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence

  13. Nanoscale mapping of optical band gaps using monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, W.; Granerød, C. S.; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Johansen, K. M. H.; Jensen, I. J. T.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu; Prytz, Ø.

    2017-03-01

    Using monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy in a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope we demonstrate band gap mapping in ZnO/ZnCdO thin films with a spatial resolution below 10 nm and spectral precision of 20 meV.

  14. Bandgap determination of P(VDF–TrFE) copolymer film by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Mandal; K Henkel; K Müller; D Schmeißer

    2010-08-01

    The ferroelectric of poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene), P(VDF–TrFE) is confirmed for 100 nm thickness spin coated copolymer film. The homogeneous coverage of the copolymer film is investigated by the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Most importantly, the existing bandgap in the crystalline phase of the copolymer is determined directly from the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

  15. Loss of energy dissipation capacity from the deadzone in linear and nonlinear viscous damping devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Tong; Thomas Liebner

    2007-01-01

    In a viscous damping device under cyclic loading, after the piston reaches a peak stroke, the reserve movement that follows may sometimes experience a short period of delayed or significantly reduced device force output. A similar delay or reduced device force output may also occur at the damper's initial stroke as it moves away from its neutral position.This phenomenon is referred to as the effect of "deadzone". The deadzone can cause a loss of energy dissipation capacity and less efficient vibration control. It is prominent in small amplitude vibrations. Although there are many potential causes of deadzone such as environmental factors, construction, material aging, and manufacture quality, in this paper, its general effect in linear and nonlinear viscous damping devices is analyzed. Based on classical dynamics and damping theory, a simple model is developed to capture the effect of deadzone in terms of the loss of energy dissipation capacity. The model provides several methods to estimate the loss of energy dissipation within the deadzone in linear and sublinear viscous fluid dampers.An empirical equation of loss of energy dissipation capacity versus deadzone size is formulated, and the equivalent reduction of effective damping in SDOF systems has been obtained. A laboratory experimental evaluation is carried out to verify the effect of deadzone and its numerical approximation. Based on the analysis, a modification is suggested to the corresponding formulas in FEMA 356 for calculation of equivalent damping ifa deadzone is to be considered.

  16. Mapping boron in silicon solar cells using electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchamp, Martial; Boothroyd, Chris; Kovács, András

    2011-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to study the B distribution in a p-i-n layered solar cell structure. The boron concentration in the p-doped Si layer is expected to be ~1021 cm−3 and should not exceed 1017 cm−3 in the neighbouring intrinsic layer. We show that B concentrations...

  17. Fast-ion Energy Loss During TAE Avalanches in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E D; Darrow, D S; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G J; Kubota, S; Podesta, M; White, R B; Bortolon, A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M

    2012-07-11

    Strong TAE avalanches on NSTX, the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] are typically correlated with drops in the neutron rate in the range of 5% - 15%. In previous studies of avalanches in L-mode plasmas, these neutron drops were found to be consistent with modeled losses of fast ions. Here we expand the study to TAE avalanches in NSTX H-mode plasmas with improved analysis techniques. At the measured TAE mode amplitudes, simulations with the ORBIT code predict that fast ion losses are negligible. However, the simulations predict that the TAE scatter the fast ions in energy, resulting in a small (≈ 6%) drop in fast ion β. The net decrease in energy of the fast ions is sufficient to account for the bulk of the drop in neutron rate, even in the absence of fast ion losses. This loss of energy from the fast ion population is comparable to the estimated energy lost by damping from the Alfven wave during the burst. The previously studied TAE avalanches in L-mode are re-evaluated using an improved calculation of the potential fluctuations in the ORBIT code.

  18. Energy loss caused by shielding effect of steel cage outside source tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The energy loss, produced by shielding effect of steel cage outside the source tube, is quite considerable.With PENELOPE software package, MC results have been obtained based on the simulation of different source conformations. The result illustrates that the naked source tubes can improve the utilization ratio of the cobalt facilities. It demonstrates the applied value of the naked source tube in engineering.

  19. DETERMINATION OF HEAT LOSS FACTOR OF SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR WITH THE ABSORBER MADE FROM POLYMERIC PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratskii V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is studied thermal loss factor of solar energy collector, which absorber represents the register made from polymeric pipes. Input data are results of tests in non-stationary thermal regime at the zero water flow rate and the minimum sunlight.

  20. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M; Rees, J.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called "cavity radiation". The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  1. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M.; Rees, John R.; /SLAC

    2005-08-08

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called ''cavity radiation''. The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  2. Where do the main losses of energy resources occur - at the point of consumption or at the point of production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Alexander

    2010-09-15

    This is an opinion of an independent consultant about key sources of energy losses. It differentiates from the one commonly accepted. The main loser of energy is an energy sector - producers of energy and the distribution networks, responsible for transporting of energy, not the housing and the transportation sector. This opinion is based on the GCE Group's experience. The author proposes to focus the work to reduce energy losses on increasing the energy efficiency of energy sector, not on the end consumer. This will allow to reduce the cost of energy unit production and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  4. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-04-17

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Modelling moisture content and dry matter loss during storage of logging residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbakk, Tore; Hoeiboe, Olav Albert (Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)); Dibdiakova, Janka (Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., Aas (Norway)); Nurmi, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-04-15

    To achieve optimal utilisation of logging residues for energy, it is important to know how different handling and storage methods affect fuel properties. The aim of this study was to model how the moisture content and dry matter losses of logging residues develop during storage. Logging residues were collected from five different stands of spruce and pine during different seasons of the year and stored in the same location. The logging residues were stored in covered piles of bundled residues and loose residues. Only minor differences were found in the moisture content profiles between piles of bundles and loose residues. Logging residues located in the centre of both types of piles had considerably lower moisture content than the outer parts. The moisture content significantly affected dry matter loss, with the highest dry matter losses being found in the samples with the least favourable drying conditions. The dry matter losses varied between 1 and 3% per month. Significantly higher dry matter losses were found in the spruce bundles than in the pine bundles. Seasoned logging residues had the lowest dry matter loss, while the logging residues harvested and piled in the autumn had the highest loss

  6. Energy losses in mixed matrix superconducting wires under fast pulsed conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1976-08-17

    Energy losses have been measured on a set of mixed matrix (CuNi, Cu, NbTi) superconducting wires at B's up to 1.5 x 10/sup 7/ G/s. The losses have been measured as a function of wire diameter, twist pitch, maximum applied field, and B. Both static and dynamic losses were measured for a field applied perpendicularly to the wire axis. The dynamic losses were measured by slowly applying an external field to a sample and then causing the field to decay exponentially in roughly 1 ms to 10 ms. Under low B (9 kG) and B (10/sup 6/ G/s) conditions the hysteretic loss dominated. At high B (21 kG) and B (1.5 x 10/sup 7/ G/s) the matrix losses became dominant. The systematic variation of the losses with the mentioned parameters will be presented and will be compared to theoretical predictions.

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yashiro, Seiji [Interferometrics Inc., Herndon, VA 20171 (United States); Gopalswamy, Nat, E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  8. Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Dolores Parra, M; Alfredo Martínez, J

    2006-11-01

    Weight-loss maintenance after following an energy-restricted diet is a major problem that a number of studies are trying to characterise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IL-6 -174G>C and PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala variants on weight regulation in obese subjects receiving a low-energy diet and at 1 year after the acute slimming period. Sixty-seven volunteers (age 34.7 (SD 7.0) years; BMI 35.8 (SD 4.8) kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-week dietary intervention and were contacted again 1 year after the end of this period. Body composition was measured at three times during the study. Also, PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala and IL-6 -174G>C polymorphisms were analysed in the participants. No statistical differences were observed depending on the genetic variants at baseline for anthropometric variables, or after the intervention. However, the C allele of the -174G>C IL-6 gene polymorphism was more frequently observed (P=0.032) in subjects with successful weight maintenance (C polymorphism gives protection against regain of weight lost. Moreover, the presence of the Ala allele of the PPARgamma-2 together with the C allele strengthens this protection. These findings support a role for these polymorphisms on weight regulation and suggest a synergetic effect of both variants on weight maintenance after following a diet to lose weight.

  9. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kosek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than 
expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different 
flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of 
the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. Jets containing heavy quarks may lose less energy as the large quark mass suppresses the amount of medium-induced 
radiation. This would lead to different relative contributions of inelastic and elastic energy loss. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will 
be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstr...

  10. Jet energy loss and bulk parton collectivity in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huan-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits paxtonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The dense QCD medium responds to energy loss of high momentum patrons in a pattern consistent with that expected from a hydrodynamic fluid. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity with effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescence or recombinations.

  11. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    to ACMV in the "warm countries" contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for energy renovation, it is important to have measures of the heat losses on a building façade, for optimizing the energy renovation. This paper will present...... penetration through facades with the aim to reduce the costs to AC. The paper will introduce a common project between NUS (National University of Singapore), AAU (Aalborg University) and HT-Meter, the latter as the U-value Meter developer company. In the project we will measure the heat transfer in the unit W...... of the project. Furthermore this paper present results from already conducted heat loss measurements in the temperate regions....

  12. Response to dietary-induced energy restriction in dairy sheep divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Muller, J; Allain, C; Enjalbert, F; Tabouret, G; Portes, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Foucras, G; Rupp, R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy ruminants experiencing a severe postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) are considered to be more susceptible to mastitis. Although the genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established, the biological basis of the link between energy metabolism and resistance is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NEB on metabolism and immune response according to the genetic background for mastitis resistance or susceptibility. Forty-eight ewes from high and low somatic cell score (SCS) genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups 2 wk after lambing: one group (NEB) received an energy-restricted diet to cover 60% of their energy requirements, and the other group received a control (positive energy balance: PEB) diet. Both diets met the protein requirements. After 10 d on either the NEB or PEB diet, all ewes were injected with a Pam3CSK4/MDP solution in one half-udder to induce an inflammatory response. The ewes were monitored for milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and blood metabolites. Differential milk cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and triiodothyronine were determined. Energy restriction resulted in an increased fat:protein ratio in milk and decreased milk yield, BW, and BCS. The NEB ewes had significantly higher NEFA and BHB and lower plasma glucose concentrations than PEB ewes, reflecting a mobilization of body reserves and ketone body synthesis. High-SCS ewes had a higher SCS than low-SCS throughout the experiment, except after the inflammatory challenge, which resulted in similar SCS in all 4 groups. A noteworthy interaction between genetic background and diet was evidenced on metabolic parameters and BW. Indeed, high-SCS ewes subjected to NEB showed greater decrease in BW and increased NEFA and BHB concentrations compared with low

  13. Tunable negligible-loss energy transfer between dipolar-coupled magnetic disks by stimulated vortex gyration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Choi, Youn-Seok; Yu, Young-Sang; Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Bocklage, Lars; Meier, Guido; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of coupled harmonic oscillators exist in nature. Coupling between different oscillators allows for the possibility of mutual energy transfer between them and the information-signal propagation. Low-energy input signals and their transport with negligible energy loss are the key technological factors in the design of information-signal processing devices. Here, utilizing the concept of coupled oscillators, we experimentally demonstrated a robust new mechanism for energy transfer between spatially separated dipolar-coupled magnetic disks - stimulated vortex gyration. Direct experimental evidence was obtained by a state-of-the-art experimental time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy probe. The rate of energy transfer from one disk to the other was deduced from the two normal modes' frequency splitting caused by dipolar interaction. This mechanism provides the advantages of tunable energy transfer rates, low-power input signals and negligible energy loss in the case of negligible intrinsic damping. Coupled vortex-state disks might be implemented in applications for information-signal processing.

  14. A low-loss hybrid rectification technique for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, A. D.; Fink, E.; Garcia, E.

    2013-09-01

    Embedded systems have decreased in size and increased in capability; however, small-scale energy storage technologies still significantly limit these advances. Energy neutral operation using small-scale energy harvesting technologies would allow for longer device operation times and smaller energy storage masses. Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive method due to the prevalence of energy sources in many environments. Losses in efficiency due to AC-DC rectification and conditioning circuits limit its application. This work presents a low-loss hybrid rectification technique for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting using magnetically actuated reed switches and a passive semiconductor full-bridge rectifier. This method shows the capability to have higher efficiency levels and the rectification of low-voltage harvesters without the need for active electrical components. A theoretical model shows that the hybrid rectification technique performance is highly dependent on the proximity delay and the hysteresis behavior of the reed switches. Experimental results validate the model and support the hypothesis of increased performance using the hybrid rectification technique.

  15. Quantitative nanoscale water mapping in frozen-hydrated skin by low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Sergey [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Misra, Manoj; Shi, Shanling [Unilever Research and Development, Trumbull, CT 06611 (United States); Firlar, Emre [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Libera, Matthew, E-mail: mlibera@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a powerful method to quantitatively determine the water distribution in frozen-hydrated biological materials at high spatial resolution. However, hydrated tissue, particularly its hydrophilic protein-rich component, is very sensitive to electron radiation. This sensitivity has traditionally limited the achievable spatial resolution because of the relatively high noise associated with low-dose data acquisition. We show that the damage caused by high-dose data acquisition affects the accuracy of a multiple-least-squares (MLS) compositional analysis because of inaccuracies in the reference spectrum used to represent the protein. Higher spatial resolution combined with more accurate compositional analysis can be achieved if a reference spectrum is used that better represents the electron-beam-damaged protein component under frozen-hydrated conditions rather than one separately collected from dry protein under low-dose conditions. We thus introduce a method to extract the best-fitting protein reference spectrum from an experimental spectrum dataset. This method can be used when the MLS-fitting problem is sufficiently constrained so that the only unknown is the reference spectrum for the protein component. We apply this approach to map the distribution of water in cryo-sections obtained from frozen-hydrated tissue of porcine skin. The raw spectral data were collected at doses up to 10{sup 5} e/nm{sup 2} despite the fact that observable damage begins at doses as low as 10{sup 3} e/nm{sup 2}. The resulting spatial resolution of 10 nm is 5-10 times better than that in previous studies of frozen-hydrated tissue and is sufficient to resolve sub-cellular water fluctuations as well as the inter-cellular lipid-rich regions of skin where water-mediated processes are believed to play a significant role in the phenotype of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum.

  16. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  17. Updated analytical solutions of continuity equation for electron beams precipitation - II. Mixed energy losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Dobranskis, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider simultaneous analytical solutions of continuity equations for electron beam precipitation (a) in collisional losses and (b) in ohmic losses, or mixed energy losses (MEL) by applying the iterative method to calculate the resulting differential densities at given precipitation depth. The differential densities of precipitating electrons derived from the analytical solutions for MELs reveal increased flattening at energies below 10-30 keV compared to a pure collisional case. This flattening becomes stronger with an increasing precipitation depth turning into a positive slope at greater precipitation depths in the chromosphere resulting in a differential density distribution with maximum that shifts towards higher energies with increase in column depth, while the differential densities combining precipitating and returning electrons are higher at lower energies than those for a pure collisional case. The resulting hard X-ray (HXR) emission produced by the beams with different initial energy fluxes and spectral indices is calculated using the MEL approach for different ratios between the differential densities of precipitating and returning electrons. The number of returning electrons can be even further enhanced by a magnetic mirroring, not considered in the present model, while dominating at lower atmospheric depths where the magnetic convergence and magnitude are the highest. The proposed MEL approach provides an opportunity to account simultaneously for both collisional and ohmic losses in flaring events, which can be used for a quick spectral fitting of HXR spectra and evaluation of a fraction of returning electrons versus precipitating ones. The semi-analytical MEL approach is used for spectral fitting to Reuven High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observations of nine C, M and X class flares revealing a close fit to the observations and good resemblance to numerical FP solutions.

  18. Prenatal programming in an obese swine model: sex-related effects of maternal energy restriction on morphology, metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvilo, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Benítez, Rita; Ayuso, Miriam; Barbero, Alicia; Pérez-Solana, Maria L; Barragán, Carmen; Astiz, Susana; Fernández, Almudena; López-Bote, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    Maternal energy restriction during pregnancy predisposes to metabolic alterations in the offspring. The present study was designed to evaluate phenotypic and metabolic consequences following maternal undernutrition in an obese pig model and to define the potential role of hypothalamic gene expression in programming effects. Iberian sows were fed a control or a 50 % restricted diet for the last two-thirds of gestation. Newborns were assessed for body and organ weights, hormonal and metabolic status, and hypothalamic expression of genes implicated in energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid function and methylation. Weight and adiposity were measured in adult littermates. Newborns of the restricted sows were lighter (P gene was down-regulated in the restricted animals (P gene expression at birth and higher growth and adiposity in adulthood suggest a female-specific programming effect for a positive energy balance, possibly due to overexposure to endogenous stress-induced glucocorticoids.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  20. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xin-Hu; YE Yun-Xiu; CHEN Jian-Ping; LU Hai-Jiang; ZHU Peng-Jia; JIANG Feng-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at the Jefferson Lab.Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for 12C elastic scattering simulation.The relative momentum ratio-Ap and 12C elastic cross section are compared without and with radiative energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation.The total energy loss distribution is obtained,showing a Landau shape for 12C elastic scattering.This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.

  1. Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-02-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body composition compared with standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults were compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5-month study of 8-week controlled food intake followed by 12-weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat), mixed protein (40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate/15% mixed protein/15% whey protein/30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments; however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (P = .08) and total fat loss (P = .09) was observed in the WP group compared with the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (P loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy Level Tuning of Poly(phenylene-alt-dithienobenzothiadiazole)s for Low Photon Energy Loss Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvel, Ruurd; van Franeker, Jacobus J; Janssen, René A J

    2017-03-01

    Six poly(phenylene-alt-dithienobenzothiadiazole)-based polymers have been synthesized for application in polymer-fullerene solar cells. Hydrogen, fluorine, or nitrile substitution on benzo-thiadiazole and alkoxy or ester substitution on the phenylene moiety are investigated to reduce the energy loss per converted photon. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 6.6% have been obtained. The best performance is found for the polymer-fullerene combination with distinct phase separation and crystalline domains. This improves the maximum external quantum efficiency for charge formation and collection to 66%. The resulting higher photocurrent compensates for the relatively large energy loss per photon (Eloss = 0.97 eV) in achieving a high PCE. By contrast, the poly-mer that provides a reduced energy loss (Eloss = 0.49 eV) gives a lower photocurrent and a reduced PCE of 1.8% because the external quantum efficiency of 17% is limited by a suboptimal morphology and a reduced driving force for charge transfer.

  3. A simple formula for insertion loss prediction of large acoustical enclosures using statistical energy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyun-Sil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insertion loss prediction of large acoustical enclosures using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA method is presented. The SEA model consists of three elements: sound field inside the enclosure, vibration energy of the enclosure panel, and sound field outside the enclosure. It is assumed that the space surrounding the enclosure is sufficiently large so that there is no energy flow from the outside to the wall panel or to air cavity inside the enclosure. The comparison of the predicted insertion loss to the measured data for typical large acoustical enclosures shows good agreements. It is found that if the critical frequency of the wall panel falls above the frequency region of interest, insertion loss is dominated by the sound transmission loss of the wall panel and averaged sound absorption coefficient inside the enclosure. However, if the critical frequency of the wall panel falls into the frequency region of interest, acoustic power from the sound radiation by the wall panel must be added to the acoustic power from transmission through the panel.

  4. Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Garan, Steven A; Freitag, Warren; Timiras, Paola S; Sternberg, Hal

    2005-06-01

    Life-long calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reliable means of extending life span in mammals. Among the several theories to explain CR actions, one variant of the neuroendocrine theories of aging postulates that changing hypothalamic sensitivity to endocrine feedback is the clock that times phenotypic change over the life span. If the feedback sensitivity hypothesis is correct, CR animals should display a significantly different pattern of hormone-sensitive cell density and distribution in the hypothalamus. Of the many endocrine signal receptors that may be involved in maintaining hypothalamic feedback sensitivity, our study has selected to begin mapping those for estrogen (E). Altered hypothalamic sensitivity to E is known to schedule reproductive maturation and influence reproductive senescence. Taking estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to E, we counted ERalpha immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the pre-optic hypothalamus of young (6 weeks), ad-libitum (Old-AL) fed old (22 months), and calorie restricted (Old-CR) old (22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each sampled section of pre-optic hypothalamus. Results show a 38% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and an 18% reduction in total cell numbers in AL-old mice in comparison to young mice. However, CR mice only show a 19% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and a 13% reduction in total cell numbers in comparison to young mice. This indicates CR prevents age-related cell loss and maintains estrogen sensitivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of old female B6D2F1 mice.

  5. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. I. Experimental results on the transmission of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Gruber, Elisabeth; Smejkal, Valerie; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    We report on energy loss measurements of slow (v ≪v0 ), highly charged (Q >10 ) ions upon transmission through a 1-nm-thick carbon nanomembrane. We emphasize here the scaling of the energy loss with the velocity and charge exchange or loss. We show that a weak linear velocity dependence exists, whereas charge exchange dominates the kinetic energy loss, especially in the case of a large charge capture. A universal scaling of the energy loss with the charge exchange and velocity is found and discussed in this paper. A model for charge-state-dependent energy loss for slow ions is presented in paper II in this series [R. A. Wilhelm and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 052709 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052709].

  6. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  7. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  8. Dynamical energy loss as a novel Quark-Gluon Plasma tomographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    High momentum suppression of light and heavy flavor observables is considered to be an excellent probe of jet-medium interactions in QCD matter created at RHIC and LHC. Utilizing this tool requires accurate suppression predictions for different experiments, probes and experimental conditions, and their unbiased comparison with experimental data. With this goal, we developed the dynamical energy loss formalism towards generating predictions for non-central collisions; the formalism takes into account both radiative and collisional energy loss computed within the same theoretical framework, dynamical (as opposed to static) scattering centers, finite magnetic mass, running coupling and uses no free parameters in comparison with experimental data. Within this formalism, we provided predictions, and a systematic comparison with experimental data, for a diverse set of suppression data: all available light and heavy flavor probes, lower and high momentum ranges, various centrality ranges and various collision energies at RHIC and LHC. We here also provide clear qualitative and quantitative predictions for soon to become available LHC experimental data. Comprehensive agreement between our predictions and experimental results provides a good deal of confidence that our dynamical energy loss formalism can well explain the jet-medium interactions in QGP, which will be further tested by the obtained predictions for the upcoming data. Application of this model, as a novel high-precision tomographic tool of QGP medium, are also discussed.

  9. Design and Optimization of the Slide Guide System of Hydraulic Press Based on Energy Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdi Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The clearances in the slide guide system of a hydraulic press are one of the significant factors affecting its accuracy. These clearances also affect the energy consumption of the press. An energy loss model that considers the oil leaks and friction associated with these clearances was proposed, and the size of clearances was optimized based on the model. The maximum allowable eccentric load and the energy loss on the wedge clearance condition were calculated to ensure the slide and guide pillars function properly. The stiffness of pillars and wear of guide rails were checked under an eccentric load condition. A case for rapid sheet metal forming with a 20 MN hydraulic press was examined. For this case, the optimum fit clearances were found to be approximately 0.4 mm. The energy loss under an eccentric load condition was increased by approximately 83% compared to a non-eccentric load condition. The pillars were optimized by reducing excessive stiffness, which served to decrease the pillar weight by nearly 20%.

  10. Implications of mass and energy loss due to coronal mass ejections on magnetically-active stars

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Jeremy J; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power law relationships between the 1-8 AA flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE=kE^-alpha. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of alpha and are very large: M_dot ~ 5x10^-10 M_sun/yr and E_dot ~ 0.1L_sun. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence >~ 10^31 erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energ...

  11. A hypomorphic Cbx3 allele causes prenatal growth restriction and perinatal energy homeostasis defects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ebru Aydin; Dick-Paul Kloos; Emmanuel Gay; Willem Jonker; Lijuan Hu; Jörn Bullwinkel; Jeremy P Brown; Maria Manukyan; Martin Giera; Prim B Singh; Reinald Fundele

    2015-06-01

    Mammals have three HP1 protein isotypes HP1 (CBX1), HP1 (CBX3) and HP1 (CBX5) that are encoded by the corresponding genes Cbx1, Cbx3 and Cbx5. Recent work has shown that reduction of CBX3 protein in homozygotes for a hypomorphic allele (Cbx3hypo) causes a severe postnatal mortality with around 99% of the homozygotes dying before weaning. It is not known what the causes of the postnatal mortality are. Here we show that Cbx3hypo/hypo conceptuses are significantly reduced in size and the placentas exhibit a haplo-insufficiency. Late gestation Cbx3hypo/hypo placentas have reduced mRNA transcripts for genes involved in growth regulation, amino acid and glucose transport. Blood vessels within the Cbx3hypo/hypo placental labyrinth are narrower than wild-type. Newborn Cbx3hypo/hypo pups are hypoglycemic, the livers are depleted of glycogen reserves and there is almost complete loss of stored lipid in brown adipose tissue (BAT). There is a 10-fold reduction in expression of the BAT-specific Ucp1 gene, whose product is responsible for non-shivering themogenesis. We suggest that it is the small size of the Cbx3hypo/hypo neonates, a likely consequence of placental growth and transport defects, combined with a possible inability to thermoregulate that causes the severe postnatal mortality.

  12. Sensitivity of the total heat loss coefficient determined by the energy signature approach to different time periods and gained energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, J.-U.; Andersson, S.; Olofsson, T. [Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    In order to identify buildings that have energy saving potential there is a need for further development of robust methods for evaluation of energy performance as well as reliable key energy indicators. To be able to evaluate a large database of buildings, the evaluation has to be founded on available data, since an in-depth analysis of each building would require large measurement efforts in terms of both parameters and time. In practice, data are usually available for consumed energy, water, and so on, namely consumption that the tenants or property holder has to pay for. In order to evaluate the energy saving potential and energy management, interesting key energy indicators are the total heat loss coefficient K{sub tot} (W/K), the indoor temperature (T{sub i}), and the utilisation of the available heat (solar radiation and electricity primarily used for purposes other than heating). The total heat loss coefficient, K{sub tot}, is a measure of the heat lost through the building's envelope, whereas T{sub i} and the gained energy reflect the user's behaviour and efficiency of the control system. In this study, a linear regression approach (energy signature) has been used to analyse data for 2003-2006 for nine fairly new multifamily buildings located in the Stockholm area, Sweden. The buildings are heated by district heating and the electricity used is for household equipment and the buildings' technical systems. The data consist of monthly energy used for heating and outdoor temperature together with annual water use, and for some buildings data for household electricity are also available. For domestic hot water and electricity, monthly distributions have been assumed based on data from previous studies and energy companies. The impact on K{sub tot} and T{sub i} of the time period and assumed values for the utilised energy are investigated. The results show that the obtained value of K{sub tot} is rather insensitive to the time period and utilised

  13. Temperature Dependence of the Kinetic Energy of the Correlated Electron Plasma by Restricted Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Keith; Deymier, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in orbital-free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT), particularly with regard to temperature dependent functionals, has promise for the simulation of warm dense matter (WDM) systems. WDM includes systems with densities of an order of magnitude beyond ambient or more and temperatures measured in kilokelvin. A challenge for the development of temperature dependent OF-DFT functionals is the lack of benchmark information with temperature and pressure dependence on simple models under WDM conditions. We present an approach to fill this critical gap using the restricted path-integral molecular dynamics (rPIMD) method. Electrons are described as harmonic necklaces within the discrete path integral representation while quantum exchange takes the form of cross linking between electron necklaces. A molecular dynamics algorithm is used to sample phase space and the fermion sign problem is addressed by restricting the density matrix to positive values. The temperature dependence of kinetic energies for the strongly coupled electron plasma is presented for a number of Wigner-Seitz radii in terms of a fourth order Sommerfeld expansion. Supported by US DoE Grant DE-SC0002139

  14. Muscle fibre size optimisation provides flexibility for energy budgeting in calorie-restricted coho salmon transgenic for growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ian A; de la Serrana, Daniel Garcia; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) transgenic for growth hormone (GH) show substantially faster growth than wild-type (WT) fish. We fed GH-transgenic salmon either to satiation (1 year; TF) or the same smaller ration of wild-type fish (2 years; TR), resulting in groups matched for body size to WT salmon. The myotomes of TF and WT fish had the same number and size distribution of muscle fibres, indicating a twofold higher rate of fibre recruitment in the GH transgenics. Unexpectedly, calorie restriction was found to decrease the rate of fibre production in transgenics, resulting in a 20% increase in average fibre size and reduced costs of ionic homeostasis. Genes for myotube formation were downregulated in TR relative to TF and WT fish. We suggest that muscle fibre size optimisation allows the reallocation of energy from maintenance to locomotion, explaining the observation that calorie-restricted transgenics grow at the same rate as WT fish whilst exhibiting markedly higher foraging activity.

  15. Measurement of the energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch-Maas, Renate

    2009-11-25

    The interaction of ions with plasma is not yet fully understood today, although it is important for inertial fusion technology. During recent years, the energy loss of heavy ions in plasma has therefore been a subject of research in the Laser and Plasma Physics group of Darmstadt University of Technology. Several experiments were carried out at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt using laser-created plasma, thereby taking advantage of the unique combination of GSI's accelerator facility and the laser system nhelix, which is also described in this work. The experiments focus on the measurement of the energy loss of medium heavy ions in a plasma created by directly heating a thin carbon foil with the nhelix laser, at an energy of about 50 J. In order to measure the energy loss using a time-of-flight method, a stop detector is used to register the arrival of the ion pulses after passing the plasma and a 12 m drift space. At the beginning of the work on this thesis, the ion detector types formerly used were found to be inadequately suited to the difficult task; this was changed during this thesis. The ion detector has to be able to temporarily resolve ion pulses with a frequency of 108 MHz and a width (FWHM) of 3 ns at a very low current. It also has to withstand the X-ray burst from the plasma with a dead time shorter than the difference between the X-ray and the ion time of flight between the plasma and the detector. In order to satisfy these and other demands, a new diamond detector was designed and has now been used for several measurements. In addition to the new detector, other improvements were made concerning the diagnostics and the laser. The laser-created plasma now reaches a maximum temperature exceeding 200 eV and a free electron density of up to 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. With this greatly improved setup, energy loss data could be obtained with a temporal resolution several times better than before, using an ion beam with a

  16. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of mechanical energy loss and wall resistance of steady open channel flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士和; 薛娇

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy loss and the wall resistance are very important in practical engineering. These problems are investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation in this paper. The results are as follows. (1) A new mechanical energy equation for the total flow is obtained, and a general formula for the calculation of the mechanical energy loss is proposed. (2) The general relationship between the wall resistance and the mechanical energy loss for the steady channel flow is obtained, the simplified form of which for the steady uniform channel flow is in consistent with the formula used in Hydraulics deduced byπ theorem and dimensional analysis. (3) The steady channel flow over a backward facing step with a small expansion ratio is numerica- lly simulated, and the mechanical energy loss, the wall resistance as well as the relationship between the wall resistance and the mechanical energy loss are calculated and analyzed.

  17. N-losses and energy use in a scenario for conversion to organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Kjeldsen, Chris; Hutchings, Nick;

    2002-01-01

    is not straightforward, and different scenarios for conversion to organic farming might lead to reduced or increased N-losses and E-use. This paper presents a scenario tool that uses a Geographical Information System in association with models for crop rotations, fertilisation practices, N-losses, and E...... reduction at the 95% level. We therefore recommend further research in how conversion to organic farming or other changes in the agricultural practice might help to reduce N-surpluses and E-uses. In that context, the presented scenario tool would be useful......The aims of organic farming include the recycling of nutrients and organic matter and the minimisation of the environmental impact of agriculture. Reduced nitrogen (N)-losses and energy (E)-use are therefore fundamental objectives of conversion to organic farming. However, the case...

  18. Investigation of energy losses in low-coercivity resin-bonded magnets in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milov, E. V.; Sipin, I. A.; Milov, V. N.; Andreenko, A. S.; Balan, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Energy losses during alternating remagnetization of low-coercitivity resin-bonded magnets and commercially produced electrical steels were studied experimentally. The studies were conducted on several samples of resin-bonded magnets with different manufacturing technologies and samples of electrical steel sheets of various thicknesses. The static and dynamic magnetic properties of the samples were measured on a vibration magnetometer and a specially designed apparatus, respectively. It was found that the studied samples of bonded magnets have a relatively high level of hysteresis losses associated with high coercivity, which reaches a value of 4-5 Oe. At the same time, the remagnetization losses due to the Foucault currents in the bonded magnets are considerably lower than in electrical steels. The measurement results show that bonded magnets at high frequencies of remagnetization, especially in high-rpm motors, can be competitive in comparison with electrical steels.

  19. The Equipartition Magnetic Field Formula in Starburst Galaxies: Accounting for Pionic Secondaries and Strong Energy Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    Equipartition arguments provide an easy way to find a characteristic scale for the magnetic field from radio emission, by assuming the energy densities in cosmic rays and magnetic fields are the same. Yet most of the cosmic ray content in star-forming galaxies is in protons, which are invisible in radio emission. Therefore, the argument needs assumptions about the proton spectrum, typically that of a constant proton/electron ratio. In some environments, particularly starburst galaxies, the reasoning behind these assumptions does not necessarily hold: secondary pionic positrons and electrons may be responsible for most of the radio emission, and strong energy losses can alter the proton/electron ratio. We derive an equipartition expression that should work in a hadronic loss-dominated environment like starburst galaxies. Surprisingly, despite the radically different assumptions from the classical equipartition formula, numerically the results for starburst magnetic fields are similar. We explain this fortuitou...

  20. Enhanced relativistic-electron-beam energy loss in warm dense aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisseau, X; Debayle, A; Honrubia, J J; Hulin, S; Morace, A; Nicolaï, Ph; Sawada, H; Vauzour, B; Batani, D; Beg, F N; Davies, J R; Fedosejevs, R; Gray, R J; Kemp, G E; Kerr, S; Li, K; Link, A; McKenna, P; McLean, H S; Mo, M; Patel, P K; Park, J; Peebles, J; Rhee, Y J; Sorokovikova, A; Tikhonchuk, V T; Volpe, L; Wei, M; Santos, J J

    2015-03-01

    Energy loss in the transport of a beam of relativistic electrons in warm dense aluminum is measured in the regime of ultrahigh electron beam current density over 2×10^{11}  A/cm^{2} (time averaged). The samples are heated by shock compression. Comparing to undriven cold solid targets, the roles of the different initial resistivity and of the transient resistivity (upon target heating during electron transport) are directly observable in the experimental data, and are reproduced by a comprehensive set of simulations describing the hydrodynamics of the shock compression and electron beam generation and transport. We measured a 19% increase in electron resistive energy loss in warm dense compared to cold solid samples of identical areal mass.

  1. Point-source idealization in classical field theories. II. Mechanical energy losses from electromagnetic radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Ronald E.; Rosenblum, Arnold

    1982-05-01

    This paper compares the mechanical energy losses due to electromagnetic radiation reaction on a two-particle, slow-motion system, as calculated from (1) the method of matched asymptotic expansions and (2) the Lorentz-Dirac equation, which assumes point sources. The matching derivation of the preceding paper avoided the assumption of a δ-function source by using Reissner-Nordström matching zones. Despite the differing mathematical assumptions of the two methods, their results are in agreement with each other and with the electromagnetic-field energy losses calculated by the evaluation of flux integrals. Our purpose is eventually to analyze Rosenblum's use of point sources as a possible cause of disagreement between the analogous calculations of gravitational radiation on a slow-motion system of two bodies. We begin with the simpler electromagnetic problem.

  2. Heavy Quark Tomography of A+A Including Elastic and Inelastic Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, S; Gyulassy, M; Horowitz, W; Djordjevic, Magdalena; Gyulassy, Miklos; Horowitz, William; Wicks, Simon

    2005-01-01

    We propose a possible perturbative QCD solution to the heavy quark tomography problem posed by recent non-photonic single electron data from central Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ AGeV. Jet quenching theory is extended to include (1) elastic as well as (2) inelastic parton energy losses and (3) jet path length fluctuations. The three effects combine to reduce the discrepancy between theory and the data without violating the global entropy bounds from multiplicity and elliptic flow data. We also check for consistency with the pion suppression data out to 20 GeV. Fluctuations of the geometric jet path lengths and the difference between the widths of fluctuations of elastic and inelastic energy loss play essential roles in the proposed solution.

  3. A simple model for predicting sprint-race times accounting for energy loss on the curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.

    1997-11-01

    The mathematical model of J. Keller for predicting World Record race times, based on a simple differential equation of motion, predicted quite well the records of the day. One of its shortcoming is that it neglects to account for a sprinter's energy loss around a curve, a most important consideration particularly in the 200m--400m. An extension to Keller's work is considered, modeling the aforementioned energy loss as a simple function of the centrifugal force acting on the runner around the curve. Theoretical World Record performances for indoor and outdoor 200m are discussed, and the use of the model at 300m is investigated. Some predictions are made for possible 200m outdoor and indoor times as run by Canadian 100m WR holder Donovan Bailey, based on his 100m final performance at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta.

  4. A Simple Model for Predicting Sprint Race Times Accounting for Energy Loss on the Curve

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, J R

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model of J. Keller for predicting World Record race times, based on a simple differential equation of motion, predicted quite well the records of the day. One of its shortcoming is that it neglects to account for a sprinter's energy loss around a curve, a most important consideration particularly in the 200m--400m. An extension to Keller's work is considered, modeling the aforementioned energy loss as a simple function of the centrifugal force acting on the runner around the curve. Theoretical World Record performances for indoor and outdoor 200m are discussed, and the use of the model at 300m is investigated. Some predictions are made for possible 200m outdoor and indoor times as run by Canadian 100m WR holder Donovan Bailey, based on his 100m final performance at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta.

  5. Measurements of energy loss in the scrape-off layer of C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; the TAE Team Team

    2016-10-01

    We report on measurements of energy transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma that surrounds the advanced beam-driven field reversed configuration (FRC) of the C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy. The SOL plasma is trapped on mirror-like open field lines outside of the FRC separatrix that connect to material surfaces at both ends of the vacuum vessel. Heat transport in this region is expected to be convective, like in mirror machines, and can be characterized by the amount of energy lost per electron-ion pair. We measured this value with an end loss analyzer system that consists of gridded ion energy analyzers that measure ion current density and pyroelectric crystal bolometers that measure total particle power flux.

  6. Channeling energy loss of O ions in Si The Bark as effect

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, L L; Behar, M; Dias, J F; Santos, J H; Schiwietz, G

    2002-01-01

    In this work we report on measurements of channeling stopping powers of sup 1 sup 6 O ions along Si axial direction for the energy range between 250 keV/u and 1 MeV/u by using the Rutherford backscattering technique with separated by implanted oxygen targets. In connection with the recent developed unitary convolution approximation, we are able to extract the Barkas contribution to the energy loss with high precision. This effect is clearly separated from other processes and amounts to about 15%. The observed Barkas contribution from the valence-electron gas is in agreement with the Lindhard model for higher energies. However, in contrast to recent investigations for Li ions, the Barkas effect at the lowest energies seems to saturate, indicating other non-perturbative terms in the polarization field induced by the O ions in Si.

  7. Novel Molecules Regulating Energy Homeostasis: Physiology and Regulation by Macronutrient Intake and Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gavrieli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Excess energy intake, without a compensatory increase of energy expenditure, leads to obesity. Several molecules are involved in energy homeostasis regulation and new ones are being discovered constantly. Appetite regulating hormones such as ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and amylin or incretins such as the gastric inhibitory polypeptide have been studied extensively while other molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 21, chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein-4, total bile acids, and heme oxygenase-1 have been linked to energy homeostasis regulation more recently and the specific role of each one of them has not been fully elucidated. This mini review focuses on the above mentioned molecules and discusses them in relation to their regulation by the macronutrient composition of the diet as well as diet-induced weight loss.

  8. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of excited states of the pyridine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linert, Ireneusz; Zubek, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Electron energy-loss spectra of the pyridine, C5H5N, molecules in the gas phase have been measured to investigate electronic excitation in the energy range 3.5-10 eV. The applied wide range of residual electron energy and the scattering angle range from 10° to 180° enabled to differentiate between optically-allowed and -forbidden transitions. These measurements have allowed vertical excitation energies of the triplet excited states of pyridine to be determined and tentative assignments of these states to be proposed. Some of these states have not been identified in the previous works. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  9. Skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics before and after energy restriction in human obesity: fibre type, enzymatic beta-oxidative capacity and fatty acid-binding protein content.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kuipers, H.; Glatz, J.F.; van der Vusse, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle has the ability to adapt as result of dietary, hormonal or pharmacological interventions affecting energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of energy restriction on skeletal muscl

  10. Coherent Radiative Parton Energy Loss beyond the BDMPS-Z Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Zapp, Korinna C

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a phenomenologically viable theory of jet quenching for heavy ion collisions requires the understanding of medium-induced parton energy loss beyond the limit of eikonal kinematics formulated by Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov (BDMPS-Z). Here, we supplement a recently developed exact Monte Carlo implementation of the BDMPS-Z formalism with elementary physical requirements including exact energy-momentum conservation, a refined formulation of jet-medium interactions and a treatment of all parton branchings on the same footing. We document the changes induced by these physical requirements and we describe their kinematic origin.

  11. Coherent radiative parton energy loss beyond the BDMPS-Z limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, Korinna Christine [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Wiedemann, Urs Achim [CERN, Theory Unit, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    It is widely accepted that a phenomenologically viable theory of jet quenching for heavy ion collisions requires the understanding of medium-induced parton energy loss beyond the limit of eikonal kinematics formulated by Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov (BDMPS-Z). Here, we supplement a recently developed exact Monte Carlo implementation of the BDMPS-Z formalism with elementary physical requirements including exact energy-momentum conservation, a refined formulation of jet-medium interactions and a treatment of all parton branchings on the same footing. We document the changes induced by these physical requirements and we describe their kinematic origin. (orig.)

  12. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  13. CMOS circuits for piezoelectric energy harvesters efficient power extraction, interface modeling and loss analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hehn, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the challenge of exploiting ambient vibrational energy which can be used to power small and low-power electronic devices, e.g. wireless sensor nodes. Generally, particularly for low voltage amplitudes, low-loss rectification is required to achieve high conversion efficiency. In the special case of piezoelectric energy harvesting, pulsed charge extraction has the potential to extract more power compared to a single rectifier. For this purpose, a fully autonomous CMOS integrated interface circuit for piezoelectric generators which fulfills these requirements is presented.Due

  14. Time-dependent density functional calculation of the energy loss of antiprotons colliding with metallic nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijada, M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Borisov, A.G. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (France); CNRS, UMR 8625, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, LCAM, Batiment 351, UPS-11, Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Muino, R.D. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Centro de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Edificio Korta, Avenida de Tolosa 72, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Time-dependent density functional theory is used to study the interaction between antiprotons and metallic nanoshells. The ground state electronic properties of the nanoshell are obtained in the jellium approximation. The energy lost by the antiproton during the collision is calculated and compared to that suffered by antiprotons traveling in metal clusters. The resulting energy loss per unit path length of material in thin nanoshells is larger than the corresponding quantity for clusters. It is shown that the collision process can be interpreted as the antiproton crossing of two nearly bi-dimensional independent metallic systems. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Edmondson, Dr. Philip [University of Oxford; Xue, Haizhou [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Peng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Hardiman, Chris [North Carolina State University; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is

  16. Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: An electron energy loss study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Olivia; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2011-01-01

    We present an electron energy loss study using energy filtered TEM of spatially resolved surface plasmon excitations on a silver nanorod of aspect ratio 14.2 resting on a 30 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Our results show that the excitation is quantized as resonant modes whose intensity maxima...... vary along the nanorod's length and whose wavelength becomes compressed towards the ends of the nanorod. Theoretical calculations modelling the surface plasmon response of the silver nanorodsilicon nitride system show the importance of including retardation and substrate effects in order to describe...

  17. Testing AdS/CFT drag and pQCD heavy quark energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, W. A.; Gyulassy, M.

    2008-10-01

    We present charm and bottom nuclear modification factors for RHIC and LHC using standard model perturbative QCD and recent AdS/CFT string drag energy loss models. We find that extreme extrapolations to LHC mask potential experimentally determinable differences in the individual RAAs but that their ratio, RcAA/RbAA, as a function of transverse momentum is a remarkably robust observable for finding deviations from either theoretical framework.

  18. Comments on gravitational radiation damping and energy loss in binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, J.; Rosenblum, A.; Goldberg, J.N.; Havas, P.

    1976-09-01

    It is argued that a formula for the energy loss due to gravitaional radiation of bound systems such as binaries has not yet been derived either exactly or by means of a consistent approximation method within general relativity, a view which contradicts some widely accepted claims in the literature. The main aproaches used to obtain such a formula are critically reviewed, and it is pointed out that the derivations presented so far either contain inconsistencies or are incomplete. (AIP)

  19. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  20. Energy-momentum restrictions on the creation of gott time machines

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, S M; Guth, A H; Olum, K D; Sean M Carroll; Edward Farhi; Alan H Guth; Ken D Olum

    1994-01-01

    The discovery by Gott of a remarkably simple spacetime with closed timelike curves (CTC's) provides a tool for investigating how the creation of time machines is prevented in classical general relativity. The Gott spacetime contains two infinitely long, parallel cosmic strings, which can equivalently be viewed as point masses in (2+1)-dimensional gravity. We examine the possibility of building such a time machine in an open universe. Specifically, we consider initial data specified on an edgeless, noncompact, spacelike hypersurface, for which the total momentum is timelike (i.e., not the momentum of a Gott spacetime). In contrast to the case of a closed universe (in which Gott pairs, although not CTC's, can be produced from the decay of stationary particles), we find that there is never enough energy for a Gott-like time machine to evolve from the specified data; it is impossible to accelerate two particles to sufficiently high velocity. Thus, the no-CTC theorems of Tipler and Hawking are enforced in an open ...

  1. Gene Loss and Lineage-Specific Restriction-Modification Systems Associated with Niche Differentiation in the Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 403 Clonal Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Laura; McNally, Alan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Corander, Jukka; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Blom, Jochen; Manning, Georgina

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse species of bacteria commonly associated with infectious intestinal disease of humans and zoonotic carriage in poultry, cattle, pigs, and other animals. The species contains a large number of distinct clonal complexes that vary from host generalist lineages commonly found in poultry, livestock, and human disease cases to host-adapted specialized lineages primarily associated with livestock or poultry. Here, we present novel data on the ST403 clonal complex of C. jejuni, a lineage that has not been reported in avian hosts. Our data show that the lineage exhibits a distinctive pattern of intralineage recombination that is accompanied by the presence of lineage-specific restriction-modification systems. Furthermore, we show that the ST403 complex has undergone gene decay at a number of loci. Our data provide a putative link between the lack of association with avian hosts of C. jejuni ST403 and both gene gain and gene loss through nonsense mutations in coding sequences of genes, resulting in pseudogene formation.

  2. Evolution, insular restriction, and extinction of oceanic land crabs, exemplified by the loss of an endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems.

  3. Energy loss process analysis for radiation degradation and immediate recovery of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Beernink, Kevin; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Performance degradation of a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells due to irradiation of silicon ions, electrons, and protons are investigated using an in-situ current-voltage measurement system. The performance recovery immediately after irradiation is also investigated. Significant recovery is always observed independent of radiation species and temperature. It is shown that the characteristic time, which is obtained by analyzing the short-circuit current annealing behavior, is an important parameter for practical applications in space. In addition, the radiation degradation mechanism is discussed by analyzing the energy loss process of incident particles (ionizing energy loss: IEL, and non-ionizing energy loss: NIEL) and their relative damage factors. It is determined that ionizing dose is the primarily parameter for electron degradation whereas displacement damage dose is the primarily parameter for proton degradation. This is because the ratio of NIEL to IEL in the case of electrons is small enough to be ignored the damage due to NIEL although the defect creation ratio of NIEL is much larger than that of IEL in the cases of both protons and electrons. The impact of “radiation quality effect” has to be considered to understand the degradation due to Si ion irradiation.

  4. A measurement of the energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Dawson, J; Fuess, T A; Guarino, V; Hill, N; Magill, S; May, E; Nodulman, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R; Underwood, D G; Wagner, R; Wicklund, B; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Casado, M P; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Juste, A; Miralles, L; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Ronceux, B; Teubert, F; Anderson, K J; Blucher, E; Evans, H; Merritt, F S; Pilcher, J E; Sanders, H; Shochet, M J; Tang, F; Turcot, A S; Wagner, D; Arsenescu, R; Constantinescu, S; Blaj, C; Boldea, V; Dita, S; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Brossard, M; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; Dugne, J J; Michel, B; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Pallin, D; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poirot, S; Reinmuth, G; Says, L P; Vazeille, F; Cobal, M; Gildemeister, O; Nessi, Marzio; Henriques, A; Poggioli, Luc; Sonderegger, P; Karapetian, G V; Astvatsaturov, A R; Borisov, O N; Budagov, Yu A; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Glagolev, V V; Kakurin, S; Kolomoets, V; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Lebedev, A; Liba, I; Lomakina, O V; Lomakin, Yu F; Malyukov, S N; Minashvili, I A; Pantea, D; Pukhov, O; Romanov, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Senchyshyn, V G; Semenov, V; Sissakian, A N; Shchelchkov, V; Shevtsov, A; Studenov, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Yarygin, G; Cogswell, F; Downing, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Haney, M; Simaitis, V J; Thaler, J J; Amaral, P; Amorim, A; Carvalho, J; David, M; Gómez, A; Maio, A; Martins, J P; Onofre, A; Wolters, H; Bromberg, C; Huston, J; Miller, R; Richards, R; Yosef, C; Alifanov, A; Bogush, A A; Golubev, V B; Rumyantsev, V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Angelini, C; Autiero, D; Cavasinni, V; Costanzo, D; De Santo, A; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Lami, S; Lazzeroni, C; Mazzoni, E; Renzoni, G; Davidek, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Leitner, R; Soustruznik, K; Suk, M; Tas, P; Trka, Z; Valkár, S; Zdrazil, M; Lokajícek, M; Némécek, S; Karyukhin, A N; Klioukhine, V I; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kulagin, M; Lapin, V; Protopopov, Yu; Sidorov, V; Solodkov, A A; Starchenko, E A; Surkov, A; Zaitsev, A; Calôba, L P; Gaspar, M; Marroquin, F; Pereira, A; Seixas, J M; Berglund, S R; Bohm, C; Johansson, E K; Hellman, S; Holmgren, S O; Jon-And, K; Selldén, B; Tardell, S; Yamdagni, N; Ferrer, A; Honoré, P F; Albiol, F; De, K; Gallas, E J; Li, J; Sawyer, L; Stephens, R; Turcotte, M; White, A; Hakopian, H H; Grabskii, V; Mnatzakanian, E A; Vartapetian, A H

    1997-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons has been measured with a prototype of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter in the H8 beam of the CERN SPS.\\\\ The differential probability $dP/dv$ per radiation length of a fractional energy loss $v = \\Delta E_{\\mu} / E_{\\mu}$ has been measured in the range $v = 0.01 \\div 0.95 $; it is then compared with the theoretical predictions for energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and production of electron-positron pairs or of energetic knock-on electrons.\\\\ The integrated probability $\\int_{0.01}^{0.95} (dP/dv) dv$ is $(1.610\\pm0.015_{stat.}\\pm0.105_{syst.})\\cdot10^{-3}$ in agreement with the theoretical predictions of $1.556\\cdot10^{-3}$ and $1.619\\cdot10^{-3}$. %7.8.96 - start Agreement with theory is also found in two intervals of $v$ where production of electron-positron pairs and knock-on electrons dominates. In the region of bremsstrahlung dominance ($v = 0.12\\div0.95$) the measured integrated probability $(1.160\\pm0.040_{stat}\\pm0.075_{syst})\\cdot 10^{-4}$ is in agreement with ...

  5. The equipartition magnetic field formula in starburst galaxies: accounting for pionic secondaries and strong energy losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacki, Brian C.; Beck, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Equipartition arguments provide an easy way to find a characteristic scale for the magnetic field from radio emission by assuming that the energy densities in cosmic rays and magnetic fields are the same. Yet most of the cosmic ray content in star-forming galaxies is in protons, which are invisible in radio emission. Therefore, the argument needs assumptions about the proton spectrum, typically that of a constant proton/electron ratio. In some environments, particularly starburst galaxies, the reasoning behind these assumptions does not necessarily hold: secondary pionic positrons and electrons may be responsible for most of the radio emission, and strong energy losses can alter the proton/electron ratio. We derive an equipartition expression that should work in a hadronic loss-dominated environment like starburst galaxies. Surprisingly, despite the radically different assumptions from the classical equipartition formula, numerically the results for starburst magnetic fields are similar. We explain this fortuitous coincidence using the energetics of secondary production and energy loss times. We show that these processes cause the proton/electron ratio to be ˜100 for GHz-emitting electrons in starbursts.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radiative recombination electron energy loss data (Mao+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Badnell, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    The weighted electron energy loss factors (dimensionless) are defined by weighting the electron energy loss rate coefficients (per ion) with respect to the total radiative recombination rates. Both the unparameterized and parameterized weighted electron energy-loss factors for H-like to Ne-like ions from H (z=1) up to and including Zn (z=30), in a wide temperature range, are available here. For the unparameterized data set, the temperatures are set to the conventional ADAS temperature grid, i.e. c2*(10,20,50,100,200,...,2*106,5*106,107)K, where c is the ionic charge of the recombined ion. For the fitting parameters, the temperature should be in units of eV. We refer to the recombined ion when we speak of the radiative recombination of a certain ion, for example, for a bare oxygen ion capturing a free electron via radiative recombination to form H-like oxygen (O VIII, s=1, z=8). The fitting accuracies are better than 4%. (2 data files).

  7. Energy loss of a high charge bunched electron beam in plasma: Simulations, scaling, and accelerating wakefields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss and gain of a beam in the nonlinear, “blowout” regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator, which features ultrahigh accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion, has been asserted, through previous observations in simulations, to scale linearly with beam charge. Additionally, from a recent analysis by Barov et al., it has been concluded that for an infinitesimally short beam, the energy loss is indeed predicted to scale linearly with beam charge for arbitrarily large beam charge. This scaling is predicted to hold despite the onset of a relativistic, nonlinear response by the plasma, when the number of beam particles occupying a cubic plasma skin depth exceeds that of plasma electrons within the same volume. This paper is intended to explore the deviations from linear energy loss using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that arise in the case of experimentally relevant finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind the finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude into the nonlinear regime. At large enough normalized charge, the linear scaling of both decelerating and accelerating fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. Using the results of parametric particle-in-cell studies, the implications of these results for observing severe deviations from linear scaling in present and planned experiments are discussed.

  8. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, P; Anderson, K; Artikov, A; Benetta, R; Berglund, S R; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Bravo, S; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Carvalho, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Cowan, Brian; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delfino, M C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Downing, R; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fassi, F; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Flix, J; Garabik, R; Gil, I; Gildemeister, O; Glagoley, V; Gómez, A; González de la Hoz, S; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hébrard, C; Higón, E; Holik, P; Holmgren, S O; Hruska, I; Huston, J; Jon-And, K; Kakurin, S; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J I; Kopikov, S V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; López-Amengual, J M; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Marroquin, F; Mataix, L; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Onofre, A; Ostankov, A P; Pacheco, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Ruiz, H; Rusakovitch, N A; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santo, J; Says, L P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Shcelchkov, A; Shochet, M J; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, O P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Thaler, J J; Thome-Filho, Z D; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Valklar, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A

    2001-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 180 GeV muons has been measured with the 5.6 m long finely segmented Module 0 of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter at the CERN SPS. The differential probability dP/d nu per radiation length of a fractional energy loss nu = Delta E/sub mu //E /sub mu / has been measured in the range 0.025energy losses due to bremsstrahlung, production of electron-positron pairs, and energetic knock-on electrons. The iron elastic form factor correction Delta /sub Fe//sup el/=1.63+or-0.17/sub stat/+or-023/sub syst$/ -/sub 0.14 //sup +0.20//sub theor/ to muon bremsstrahlung in the region of no screening of the nucleus by atomic electrons has been measured for the first time, and is compared with different theoretical predictions. (31 refs).

  9. New glass coatings for high insulating greenhouses without light losses - energy saving, crop production and economic potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    More than 90% of Dutch greenhouse area is covered with single glass. Energy losses through the covering are high during heating period (winter) but energy requirements are also high during cooling period (summer) in the case of semiclosed greenhouses. Until now, light losses of insulating coverings

  10. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn O Walsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss. AIM: We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein, low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%-40%-20%, and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%-60%-30% diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA during weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10-15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level × relative energy content of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min and late (180 to 300 min postprandial periods. RESULTS: EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99. However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001 and VLC (p<0.0001 test meals. Metabolic rate also differed in the late postprandial period (p = 0.0074, with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064 and LGI (p = 0.0066 diets. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain

  11. Cluster model calculation of N near K-edge energy-loss fine structures in hexagonal GaN crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A cluster model is used to calculate electron energy-loss fine structures in crystal. The multiple-scattering self-consistent-field method is employed in the calculation. Our theoretical results of N near K-edge energy loss fine structures in hexagonal GaN crystal are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Future possible experiments in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) are discussed and proposed because our theoretical work can provide clear assignments for transmitted electrons with different energy losses.

  12. From electron energy-loss spectroscopy to multi-dimensional and multi-signal electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliex, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This review intends to illustrate how electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques in the electron microscope column have evolved over the past 60 years. Beginning as a physicist tool to measure basic excitations in solid thin foils, EELS techniques have gradually become essential for analytical purposes, nowadays pushed to the identification of individual atoms and their bonding states. The intimate combination of highly performing techniques with quite efficient computational tools for data processing and ab initio modeling has opened the way to a broad range of novel imaging modes with potential impact on many different fields. The combination of Angström-level spatial resolution with an energy resolution down to a few tenths of an electron volt in the core-loss spectral domain has paved the way to atomic-resolved elemental and bonding maps across interfaces and nanostructures. In the low-energy range, improved energy resolution has been quite efficient in recording surface plasmon maps and from them electromagnetic maps across the visible electron microscopy (EM) domain, thus bringing a new view to nanophotonics studies. Recently, spectrum imaging of the emitted photons under the primary electron beam and the spectacular introduction of time-resolved techniques down to the femtosecond time domain, have become innovative keys for the development and use of a brand new multi-dimensional and multi-signal electron microscopy.

  13. Methane output of tortoises: its contribution to energy loss related to herbivore body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragna Franz

    Full Text Available An increase in body mass (M is traditionally considered advantageous for herbivores in terms of digestive efficiency. However, recently increasing methane losses with increasing M were described in mammals. To test this pattern in non-mammal herbivores, we conducted feeding trails with 24 tortoises of various species (M range 0.52-180 kg fed a diet of grass hay ad libitum and salad. Mean daily dry matter and gross energy intake measured over 30 consecutive days scaled to M(0.75 (95%CI 0.64-0.87 and M(0.77 (95%CI 0.66-0.88, respectively. Methane production was measured over two consecutive days in respiration chambers and scaled to M(1.03 (95%CI 0.84-1.22. When expressed as energy loss per gross energy intake, methane losses scaled to 0.70 (95%CI 0.47-1.05 M(0.29 (95%CI 0.14-0.45. This scaling overlaps in its confidence intervals to that calculated for nonruminant mammals 0.79 (95%CI 0.63-0.99 M(0.15 (95%CI 0.09-0.20, but is lower than that for ruminants. The similarity between nonruminant mammals and tortoises suggest a common evolution of the gut fauna in ectotherms and endotherms, and that the increase in energetic losses due to methane production with increasing body mass is a general allometric principle in herbivores. These findings add evidence to the view that large body size itself does not necessarily convey a digestive advantage.

  14. Dietary starch type affects body weight and glycemic control in freely fed but not energy-restricted obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Alfred A; Kenney, Laura S; Goulet, Benoit; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed

    2009-10-01

    This study comprised 2 experiments that tested the hypothesis that a high-amylose starch diet (AMO) would improve body weight and glycemic control relative to a high-amylopectin starch diet (AMN) in rats with diet-induced obesity. After inducing obesity with a high-fat and -energy diet (Expt. 1), male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 46) were divided into 4 groups and given free or restricted access to either an AMN or an AMO diet for 4 wk (Expt. 2). After 3 wk, rats from each group underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. At the end of the experiment, food-deprived rats were killed by decapitation and blood and tissues were collected for analyses. AMO led to lower total energy intake, weight gain, fat pad mass, and glycemic response but higher insulin sensitivity index than AMN, only when consumed ad libitum (AL) (P resistant starch content rather than its glycemic index. We conclude that starches high in AMO can be effective in weight and glycemic control in obesity.

  15. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Herreman, L.; Palm, I.F.; Hegeman, M.A.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions ha

  16. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Herreman, L.; Palm, I.F.; Hegeman, M.A.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions ha

  17. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of narrow gap III-V semiconductor surfaces and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Veal, T D

    2002-01-01

    The electronic properties of n-type narrow gap III-V semiconductor surfaces and interfaces are investigated using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Changing the incident electron energy, alters the wave-vector transfer parallel to the surface, allowing the probing depth to be varied over typical space-charge layer widths (100 - 2000 A). Semi-classical dielectric theory simulations of the HREEL spectra are performed to extract quantitative information from the probing energy-dependence of the surface plasmon and phonon peaks. The plasma frequency used in the simulations is related to the electron concentration and effective mass using the Kane model of the non-parabolic conduction band. Space-charge layer parameters are obtained by comparing calculated smooth charge profiles with the histogram profiles that are used in the simulations. Complementary experimental techniques are employed to correlate the reconstruction, chemical composition and morphology of the surface with the electro...

  18. The effect of electronic energy loss on irradiation-induced grain growth in nanocrystalline oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N; Weber, William J

    2014-05-07

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  19. The Effect Of Electronic Energy Loss On Irradiation-induced Grain Growth In Nanocrystalline Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-03-03

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiationinduced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  20. Optimal Energy Management for a Complex Hybrid Electric Vehicle:Tolerating Power-loss of Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pei-zhi; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Yong; WU Zhi-wei

    2009-01-01

    The energy management may perform well under normal conditions, but may lead to poor behavior under abnormal situations. To tackle this problem, an optimal control strategy called rule-based equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (RECMS) is developed for a new complex hybrid electric vehicle (CHEV).It optimizes the energy efficiency and drive performance to cater for normal and power-loss operations of the tractive motor. Firstly, the strategy formulates a novel objective function based on the equivalent fuel concept.By accounting for the actual fuel cost, the equivalent fuel cost for the electric machines and virtual fuel cost for the drivability, the cost function is obtained. Furthermore, some penalty factors are presented to optimize the performance target. Finally, experiments for a practical CHEV are performed to validate a simulation model.Then simulations are carried out for both rule-based and RECMS. The results show that the optimal energy management is working well.

  1. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  2. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adiposity and serum parameters in hamsters fed energy restricted diets supplemented or not with trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, A; Simón, E; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates body composition, reducing body fat accumulation in various mammalian species. However, very few studies have been carried out to assess the effect of CLA on previously stored body fat. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effectiveness of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in improving alterations produced by high-fat feeding in body fat and serum parameters when it was included in an energy-restricted diet. For this purpose male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed on high-fat diet for 7 weeks in order to increase their body fat content, and a further 25% energy-restricted diet supplemented or not with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA for 3 weeks. Adipose tissues, liver and gastrocnemious muscles were dissected and weighed. Adipocyte diameter and number were assessed in epididymal adipose tissue. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose were measured in serum. Three weeks of energy restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue size in all anatomical locations, without changes in liver and gastrocnemious muscle weights. Epididymal adipocyte size was reduced, but total adipocyte number remained unchanged. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols and glucose were significantly reduced. No differences were observed between the restricted groups (control and CLA supplemented). In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the addition of trans-10,cis-12 CLA to the diet does not increase the benefits produced by energy restriction.

  4. Steady-state energy balance in animal models of obesity and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Johannessen, Helene; Cassie, Nikki; Barrett, Perry; Takeuchi, Koji; Kulseng, Bård; Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2017-04-01

    We wanted to exam the steady-state energy balance by using high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice as models for positive energy balance, and gastric bypassed (GB) rats and gene knockout of muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor (M3KO) mice as models for negative energy balance. One hundred and thirty-two rats and mice were used. Energy balance was measured by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Gene expression was analysed by in situ hybridisation in M3KO mice. DIO rats reached the plateau of body weight 28 weeks after starting high-fat diet (25% heavier than controls), whereas DIO mice reached the plateau after 6 weeks (23% heavier than controls). At the plateau, DIO rats had higher calorie intake during the light phase but not during the dark phase, while mice had the same calorie intake per day as controls. DIO rats and mice had lower energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than controls. GB-rats reached the plateau (15% weight loss) 2 weeks after surgery and had the same calorie intake as sham-operated controls. EE, but not RER, was higher in GB rats than controls during the dark phase. The lean M3KO mice (25% lighter than wild-type (WT) mice at the plateau between 6 and 15 months of age) had the same calorie intake but higher EE, RER and hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY, AgRP and leptin receptor than WT mice. When body weight gain or loss reached a plateau, the steady-state energy balance was mainly maintained by EE and/or RER rather than calorie intake.

  5. Differential oscillator strengths for chlorine dioxide, OClO, produced by electron impact energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.A.; Mason, N.J. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Marston, G.; Wayne, R.P. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Physical Chemistry Lab.

    1995-09-28

    Electron impact spectroscopy has been used for the first time to obtain energy-loss spectra for chlorine dioxide, OC10, over an energy range 2.5 {yields} 12.5 eV. The differential oscillator strength (DOS) obtained from the energy-loss spectrum is compared with the DOS obtained from optical measurements. Oscillator strengths for several transitions have been calculated from a summation of the DOS and comparisons are also made with previous optical data. (author).

  6. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  7. Quenching of high-pT hadrons: a non-energy-loss scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B. Z.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A parton produced with a high transverse momentum in a hard collision is regenerating its color field, intensively radiating gluons and losing energy. This process cannot last long, if it ends up with production of a leading hadron carrying the main fraction zh of the initial parton momentum. So energy conservation imposes severe constraints on the length scale of production of a single hadron with high pT . As a result, the main reason for hadron quenching observed in heavy ion collision is not energy loss, but attenuation of the produced colorless dipole in the created dense medium. The latter mechanism, calculated with the path-integral methods, explains well the observed suppression of light hadrons and elliptic flow in a wide range of energies, from the lowest energy of RHIC up to LHC, and in a wide range of transverse momenta. The values of the transport coefficient extracted from data range within 1-2 GeV2/fm, dependent on energy, so agree well with the theoretical expectations.

  8. The applications of in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy to the study of electron beam nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiahn J; Howitt, David G; Gierhart, Brian C; Smith, Rosemary L; Collins, Scott D

    2009-06-01

    An in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique has been developed to investigate the dynamic processes associated with electron-beam nanofabrication on thin membranes. In this article, practical applications germane to e-beam nanofabrication are illustrated with a case study of the drilling of nanometer-sized pores in silicon nitride membranes. This technique involves successive acquisitions of the plasmon-loss and the core-level ionization-loss spectra in real time, both of which provide the information regarding the hole-drilling kinetics, including two respective rates for total mass loss, individual nitrogen and silicon element depletion, and the change of the atomic bonding environment. In addition, the in situ EELS also provides an alternative method for endpoint detection with a potentially higher time resolution than by imaging. On the basis of the time evolution of in situ EELS spectra, a qualitative working model combining knock-on sputtering, irradiation-induced mass transport, and phase separation can be proposed.

  9. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Theory and Simulation Applied to Nanoparticle Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Nicholas Walker

    In this dissertation, the capacity of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to probe plasmons is examined in detail. EELS is shown to be able to detect both electric hot spots and Fano resonances in contrast to the prevailing knowledge prior to this work. The most detailed examination of magnetoplasmonic resonances in multi-ring structures to date and the utility of electron tomography to computational plasmonics is explored, and a new tomographic method for the reconstruction of a target is introduced. Since the observation of single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS) in 1997, questions regarding the nature of the electromagnetic hot spots responsible for such observations still persist. A computational analysis of the electron- and photon-driven surface-plasmon resonances of monomer and dimer metal nanorods is presented to elucidate the differences and similarities between the two excitation mechanisms in a system with well understood optical properties. By correlating the nanostructure's simulated electron energy loss spectrum and loss-probability maps with its induced polarization and scattered electric field we discern how certain plasmon modes are selectively excited and how they funnel energy from the excitation source into the near- and far-field. Using a fully retarded electron-scattering theory capable of describing arbitrary three-dimensional nanoparticle geometries, aggregation schemes, and material compositions, we find that electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is able to indirectly probe the same electromagnetic hot spots that are generated by an optical excitation source. EELS is then employed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to obtain maps of the localized surface plasmon modes of SMSERS-active nanostructures, which are resolved in both space and energy. Single-molecule character is confirmed by the bianalyte approach using two isotopologues of Rhodamine 6G. The origins of this observation are explored

  10. High-energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of interband transitions characteristic to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami

    2014-06-01

    An electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) study using a monochromator transmission electron microscope was conducted for investigating the dielectric response of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) owing to interband transitions characteristic to chiral structures. Individual chiral structures of the SWCNTs were determined by electron diffraction patterns. EELS spectra obtained from isolated SWCNTs showed sharp peaks below π plasmon energy of 5 eV, which were attributed to the characteristic interband transitions of SWCNTs. In addition, unexpected shoulder structures were observed at the higher energy side of each sharp peak. Simulations of EELS spectra by using the continuum dielectric theory showed that an origin of the shoulder structures was because of the surface dipole mode along the circumference direction of the SWCNT. It was noticed that the electron excitation energies obtained by EELS were slightly higher than those of optical studies, which might be because of the inelastic scattering process with the momentum transfers. To interpret the discrepancy between the EELS and optical experiments, it is necessary to conduct more accurate simulation including the first principle calculation for the band structure of SWCNTs.

  11. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss.

  12. Surface effects in the energy loss of ions passing through a thin foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osma, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Apartado 1072, 20080, San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Apartado 649, 20080, San Sebastian (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    The role of surface plasmon excitation in the interaction of ions passing through thin films has been studied in both the Bloch hydrodynamic approximation and the local response approach for projectile velocities above the maximum of the stopping power curve. The effect of the surface is found to be much weaker when the dispersion of the modes is taken into consideration than in the case of nondispersive media, though qualitatively the main features of the hydrodynamic approach resemble those of the local one. A generalization of the Bothe-Landau convolution formula for the loss probability distribution is derived to take into account the scattering due to the surface. The effects of the surface in the energy-loss spectra are discussed. A comparison with experiment is given. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of coupled plasmonic systems: beyond the standard electron perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, G. D.; Flauraud, V.; Alexander, D. T. L.; Brugger, J.; Martin, O. J. F.; Butet, J.

    2016-09-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has become an experimental method of choice for the investigation of localized surface plasmon resonances, allowing the simultaneous mapping of the associated field distributions and their resonant energies with a nanoscale spatial resolution. The experimental observations have been well-supported by numerical models based on the computation of the Lorentz force acting on the impinging electrons by the scattered field. However, in this framework, the influence of the intrinsic properties of the plasmonic nanostructures studied with the electron energy-loss (EEL) measurements is somehow hidden in the global response. To overcome this limitation, we propose to go beyond this standard, and well-established, electron perspective and instead to interpret the EELS data using directly the intrinsic properties of the nanostructures, without regard to the force acting on the electron. The proposed method is particularly well-suited for the description of coupled plasmonic systems, because the role played by each individual nanoparticle in the observed EEL spectrum can be clearly disentangled, enabling a more subtle understanding of the underlying physical processes. As examples, we consider different plasmonic geometries in order to emphasize the benefits of this new conceptual approach for interpreting experimental EELS data. In particular, we use it to describe results from samples made by traditional thin film patterning and by arranging colloidal nanostructures.

  14. Strong-coupling Jet Energy Loss from AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Morad, R

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel definition of a holographic light hadron jet and consider the phenomenological consequences, including the very first fully self-consistent, completely strong-coupling calculation of the jet nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$, which we find compares surprisingly well with recent preliminary data from LHC. We show that the thermalization distance for light parton jets is an extremely sensitive function of the \\emph{a priori} unspecified string initial conditions and that worldsheets corresponding to non-asymptotic energy jets are not well approximated by a collection of null geodesics. Our new string jet prescription, which is defined by a separation of scales from plasma to jet, leads to the re-emergence of the late-time Bragg peak in the instantaneous jet energy loss rate; unlike heavy quarks, the energy loss rate is unusually sensitive to the very definition of the string theory object itself. A straightforward application of the new jet definition leads to significant jet quenching, ev...

  15. Short path length pQCD corrections to energy loss in the quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Recent surprising discoveries of collective behaviour of low-$p_T$ particles in $pA$ collisions at LHC hint at the creation of a hot, fluid-like QGP medium. The seemingly conflicting measurements of non-zero particle correlations and $R_{pA}$ that appears to be consistent with unity demand a more careful analysis of the mechanisms at work in such ostensibly minuscule systems. We study the way in which energy is dissipated in the QGP created in $pA$ collisions by calculating, in pQCD, the short separation distance corrections to the well-known DGLV energy loss formulae that have produced excellent predictions for $AA$ collisions. We find that, shockingly, due to the large formation time (compared to the $1/\\mu$ Debye screening length) assumption that was used in the original DGLV calculation, a highly non-trivial cancellation of correction terms results in a null short path length correction to the DGLV energy loss formula. We investigate the effect of relaxing the large formation time assumption in the final ...

  16. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy on group-III nitrides and transition- metal oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Niessner, W

    2000-01-01

    A main topic represent electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies of the group-III nitrides AlN, GaN, InN, as well as their mixing systems Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N, In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N. In EELS measurements with excitation energies above 1 keV clear collective excitations in AlN at 21 eV and in GaN at 15 eV were observed. In the mixing system Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x M a 2-mode behaviour is observed. Up to x=0.2 a GaN-like excitation remains preserved, while from x=0.44 the eigenfrequency of a AlN-like resonance shifts continuously. With vanadium dioxide a d sup 1 transition metal oxide was studied, which passes at 68 C a semiconductor-metal transition. In the EELS valence band spectra beside band transitions from the O2p subsigma and O2p subpi band an intense signal with a loss energy of 1 eV occurs. EELS studies on W- and F-doped VO sub 2 show, that it deals with a band transition from the V3d into the pd subpi band. EELS studies were for the first time also performed at lead t...

  17. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NEL). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a(+), an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that were

  18. Reflection electron energy-loss spectra of the fullerenes C[sub 60] and C[sub 70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, Yu.M. (Institute of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)); Rubtsov, V.I. (Institute of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)); Lobach, A.S. (Institute of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation))

    1994-02-01

    High purity polycrystalline samples of C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] were obtained and studied by the electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the reflection mode. The spectra were used for determination of the loss functions of fullerenes. Loss functions of the fullerenes were compared with those of graphite. It was established that the relative intensities of the peaks corresponding to ([sigma]+[pi])- and [pi]-plasmons depended on the primary electron energy, while the ([sigma]+[pi])-plasmon energies did not depend on the primary electron energy and were equal to 25.0 eV for C[sub 60] and 24.8 eV for C[sub 70]. The conclusion on the space localization for plasma occilations in fullerenes was made on the base of the study of the energy dependent loss functions. (orig.)

  19. The adaptive metabolic response to exercise-induced weight loss influences both energy expenditure and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; King, N A; Finlayson, G; Blundell, J E

    2014-05-01

    A decline in resting energy expenditure (REE) beyond that predicted from changes in body composition has been noted following dietary-induced weight loss. However, it is unknown whether a compensatory downregulation in REE also accompanies exercise (EX)-induced weight loss, or whether this adaptive metabolic response influences energy intake (EI). Thirty overweight and obese women (body mass index (BMI)=30.6±3.6 kg/m(2)) completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic EX. Body composition, metabolism, EI and metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week 6 and post intervention. The metabolic adaptation (MA), that is, difference between predicted and measured REE was also calculated post intervention (MApost), with REE predicted using a regression equation generated in an independent sample of 66 overweight and obese women (BMI=31.0±3.9 kg/m(2)). Although mean predicted and measured REE did not differ post intervention, 43% of participants experienced a greater-than-expected decline in REE (-102.9±77.5 kcal per day). MApost was associated with the change in leptin (r=0.47; P=0.04), and the change in resting fat (r=0.52; P=0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (r=-0.44; P=0.02). Furthermore, MApost was also associated with the change in EI following EX (r=-0.44; P=0.01). Marked variability existed in the adaptive metabolic response to EX. Importantly, those who experienced a downregulation in REE also experienced an upregulation in EI, indicating that the adaptive metabolic response to EX influences both physiological and behavioural components of energy balance.

  20. Study of the Dielectric Function of Graphene from Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Florence

    For more than 60 years, semiconductor research has been advancing up the periodic table. The first transistor was made from germanium. This later gave way to silicon-based devices due to the latter's ability to form an excellent interface with thermally-grown oxide. Now for the last ˜8 years, the focus has moved up one more row to carbon for post-CMOS devices in order to comply with the scaling limitations of Moore's law. However, for each of these, the measurements of film properties and dimensions have always been required for technological applications. These measurement methods often incorporate the use of light or electrons in order to take advantage of a wavelength that is on the order of, or smaller than, the feature sizes of interest. This thesis compares the dielectric function of graphene measured by an optical method to that obtained from an electron energy loss method in order to observe the effect of contamination and substrate on the optical properties of graphene exposed to the environment. Whether viewed in terms of how light affects a material (dielectric function) or how a material affects light (refractive index), the optical response is a quantity that may be used to obtain information about a film's thickness, energy structure, and the types of excitations that are responsible for energy loss. The three main experimental methods used in this thesis work are spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). SE is commonly used in clean-room environments for optical measurement over the energy range of ˜0-5 eV. This method is used to study graphene's dielectric function from the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) regions through use of an oscillator dispersion model. A nearly constant absorbance over the IR and into the visible region is observed due to vertical transitions between graphene's linearly dispersed pi-bands at the Dirac points. An exciton

  1. Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J B

    2016-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasi-static frequency and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation.

  2. Multiple scattering and energy loss in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic eA scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the multiple scattering effect on single hadron production in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleus deeply inelastic scattering. We show that the quantum interference of multiple scattering amplitudes leads to suppression in hadron productions. At the leading power in medium length, the suppression can be approximately expressed in terms of a shift in $z$ of the fragmentation function $D(z)$, and could be therefore interpreted as the collisional energy loss. We compare our calculation with existing experimental data. We also discuss the effect of quark mass on the suppression. Our approach can be extended to other observables in hadronic collisions.

  3. A survey of energy loss calculations for heavy ions between 1 and 100 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Mangiarotti, A; Benabderrahmane, M L; Chepel, V Yu; Lindote, A; Cunha, J P; Sona, P

    2007-01-01

    The original Lindhard-Scharff-Schi{\\o}tt (LSS) theory and the more recent Tilinin theory for calculating the nuclear and electronic stopping powers of slow heavy ions are compared with predictions from the SRIM code by Ziegler. While little discrepancies are present for the nuclear contribution to the energy loss, large differences are found in the electronic one. When full ion recoil cascade simulations are tested against the elastic neutron scattering data available in the literature, it can be concluded that the LSS theory is the more accurate.

  4. Quantification of the boron speciation in alkali borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shaodong; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Yanqi;

    2015-01-01

    developed a method based on electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data acquisition and analyses, which enables determination of the boron speciation in a series of ternary alkali borosilicate glasses with constant molar ratios. A script for the fast acquisition of EELS has been designed, from which...... fraction in glasses. In addition, the boron speciation of a CeO2 doped potassium borosilicate glass has been analyzed by using the time-resolved EELS spectra. The results clearly demonstrate that the BO4 to BO3 transformation induced by the electron beamirradiation can be efficiently suppressed by doping...

  5. Loss of the liver X receptor LXRα/β in peripheral sensory neurons modifies energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy-Aubert, Virginie; Gautron, Laurent; Lee, Syann; Bookout, Angie L; Kusminski, Christine; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Yuan; Scherer, Philipp E; Mangelsdorf, David J; Elmquist, Joel K

    2015-06-15

    Peripheral neural sensory mechanisms play a crucial role in metabolic regulation but less is known about the mechanisms underlying vagal sensing itself. Recently, we identified an enrichment of liver X receptor alpha and beta (LXRα/β) in the nodose ganglia of the vagus nerve. In this study, we show mice lacking LXRα/β in peripheral sensory neurons have increased energy expenditure and weight loss when fed a Western diet (WD). Our findings suggest that the ability to metabolize and sense cholesterol and/or fatty acids in peripheral neurons is an important requirement for physiological adaptations to WDs.

  6. The relation between the electron energy loss spectra of hafnia and its dielectric function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Maarten; Grande, Pedro Luis

    2014-12-01

    Recently two papers have been published deriving the dielectric function from hafnia from electron energy loss data (Jin et al. Applied Physics Letters 100 083713 (2006), Behar et al. Phys. Rev A. 80 062901 (2009)). The obtained dielectric functions are compared in their optical limit and differ considerably. Here we try to clarify the situation by presenting new experimental data and review the analysis procedure used in the earlier work. We conclude that the discrepancy is most likely caused by a shortcoming in the way that the momentum-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled.

  7. Dielectric properties of WS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes studied by energy-loss spectroscopic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolojan, Vlad; Silva, S. R. P.; Goringe, Michael J.; Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, Wang K.; Walton, D. R. M.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the electronic properties of the coating for multiwalled carbon nanotubes covered in tungsten disulfide (WS2) of various thicknesses. Coatings of thicknesses between 2 and 8 monolayers (ML) are analyzed using energy-loss spectroscopic profiling (ELSP), by studying the variations in the plasmon excitations across the coated nanotube, as a function of the coating thickness. We find a change in the ELSP for coatings above 5 ML thickness, which we interpret in terms of a change in its dielectric properties.

  8. Application of Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, N.; Jain, S.; Mittal, J.

    2015-03-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is among the few techniques that are available for the characterization of modified single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) having nanometer dimensions (~1-3 nm). CNTs can be modified either by surface functionalization or coating, between bundles of nanotubes by doping, intercalation and fully or partially filling the central core. EELS is an exclusive technique for the identification, composition analysis, and crystallization studies of the chemicals and materials used for the modification of SWCNTs. The present paper serves as a compendium of research work on the application of EELS for the characterization of modified SWCNTs.

  9. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...... process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged...

  10. A survey of energy loss calculations for heavy ions between 1 and 100 kev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiarotti, A. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Dept. de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: alessio@lipc.fis.uc.pt; Lopes, M.I. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Dept. de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Benabderrahmane, M.L. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chepel, V.; Lindote, A.; Pinto da Cunha, J. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Dept. de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Sona, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN Sez. Florence (Italy)

    2007-09-21

    The original Lindhard-Scharff-Schiott (LSS) theory and the more recent Tilinin theory for calculating the nuclear and electronic stopping powers of slow heavy ions are compared with predictions from the SRIM code by Ziegler. While little discrepancies are present for the nuclear contribution to the energy loss, large differences are found in the electronic one. When full ion recoil cascade simulations are tested against the elastic neutron scattering data available in the literature, it can be concluded that the LSS theory is the more accurate.

  11. Study of Energy Losses in High-Voltage Induction Motor Electric Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilen Rachev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior during operation of the high-voltage induction motor electric drive has been studied by means of mathematical model developed. The purpose is to draw out more clearly picture of operation of high-voltage induction motor drives. The system of differential equations has been transformed and solved using suitable software. As a result the values of the energy losses components in the induction motor have been obtained according to different values of supply voltage and factor of inertia. Some of the study results have been presented graphically. An analysis has been made and conclusions from the results obtained have been done.

  12. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of excitons in two-dimensional-semiconductors as a function of temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2016-04-21

    We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy(EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELSspectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.

  13. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  14. Prediction of sound transmission loss through multilayered panels by using Gaussian distribution of directional incident energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang; Ih; Kim; Kim

    2000-03-01

    In this study, a new prediction method is suggested for sound transmission loss (STL) of multilayered panels of infinite extent. Conventional methods such as random or field incidence approach often given significant discrepancies in predicting STL of multilayered panels when compared with the experiments. In this paper, appropriate directional distributions of incident energy to predict the STL of multilayered panels are proposed. In order to find a weighting function to represent the directional distribution of incident energy on the wall in a reverberation chamber, numerical simulations by using a ray-tracing technique are carried out. Simulation results reveal that the directional distribution can be approximately expressed by the Gaussian distribution function in terms of the angle of incidence. The Gaussian function is applied to predict the STL of various multilayered panel configurations as well as single panels. The compared results between the measurement and the prediction show good agreements, which validate the proposed Gaussian function approach.

  15. Communication: Investigation of the electron momentum density distribution of nanodiamonds by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng, E-mail: dssu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-12-07

    The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials.

  16. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  17. The energy loss effect of incoming gluon from $J/\\psi$ production in p-A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Li-Hua; Duan, Chun-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss effect of incoming gluon from $J/\\psi$ production in p-A (or d-A) collisions is investigated by means of the E866, RHIC and LHC experimental data. The gluon mean energy loss per unit path length $dE/dL = 2.18\\pm0.14$ GeV/fm is extracted by fitting the E866 experimental data for $J/\\psi$ production cross section ratios $R_{W(Fe)/Be}(x_{F})$. The obtained result indicates that the incoming gluons lose more energy than the incident quarks. By comparing the theoretical results with E866, RHIC, and LHC experimental data, it is found that the nuclear suppression due to the incident gluon (quark) energy loss reduces (increases) with the increase of the kinematic variable $x_{F}$ (or $y$). The energy loss effect of incoming gluon plays an important role on the suppression of $J/\\psi$ production in a wide energy range from $\\sqrt{s}=38.7$ GeV to $\\sqrt{s}=5.0$ TeV, and the influence of incident quark energy loss can be ignored for high energy(such as at RHIC and LHC energy).

  18. Evaluation of Beam Losses and Energy Depositions for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Doyle, E; Ferrari, A; Keller, L; Lundgren, S; Keller, L; Mauri, M; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Smith, J; Vlachoudis, V; Weiler, T

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can ...

  19. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  20. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO2 assimilation is restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Baker, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water–water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO2 assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution together with CO2 uptake in leaves

  1. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  2. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not

  3. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  4. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO2 assimilation is restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Baker, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water–water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO2 assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution together with CO2 uptake in leaves

  5. Oswald-Kasper-Gaukler model for reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat-Pujol, F.; Werner, W. S. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Oswald-Kasper-Gaukler (OKG) model for elastic electron backscattering [J. Electr. Spectrosc. Rel. Phen.JESRAW0368-204810.1016/0368-2048(93)80019-I 61(1993)251] has been extended within the partial-intensity approach to take inelastic collisions into account. Analytical expressions have been derived for the path-length distribution and the partial intensities, achieving good agreement with results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of these quantities. A criterion is given to predict the validity of the model for a given material, geometry, and kinetic energy. Experimental reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra have been compared with REELS spectra calculated using the modified OKG model, obtaining good agreement between them. The proposed model is also applied in a quantitative analysis of experimental REELS. In all investigated cases, the single-scattering loss distributions retrieved from this analysis agree with results from previous analyses—based on MC calculations—within 5%. The presented model can therefore be employed in quantitative analyses of REELS of semi-infinite solids, while it is both numerically simpler and conceptually clearer than related approaches.

  6. The effects of high electronic energy loss on the chemical modification of polyimide

    CERN Document Server

    SunYouMei; Jin Yun Fan; Liu Chang Long; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhu Zhi Yong

    2002-01-01

    In order to observe the role of electronic energy loss (dE/dX) sub e on chemical modification of polyimide (PI), the multi-layer stacks (corresponding to different dE/dX) were irradiated by different swift heavy ions (1.37 GeV Ar sup 4 sup 0 , 1.98 GeV Kr sup 8 sup 4 , 1.755 GeV Xe sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 and 2.636 GeV U sup 2 sup 3 sup 8) under vacuum and room temperature. The chemical changes of modified PI films were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The degradation of PI was investigated in the fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5.5x10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 and different electronic energy loss from 0.77 to 11.5 keV/nm. The FTIR results show the absorbance of the typical function group decrease exponentially as a function of fluence. The alkyne end group was found after irradiation and its formation radii were 5.6 and 5.9 nm corresponding to 8.8 and 11.5 keV/nm Xe irradiation respectively. UV/Vis analysis indicates the radiation induced...

  7. On the diversity of compact objects within supernova remnants - II. Energy-loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2017-02-01

    Energy losses from isolated neutron stars are commonly attributed to the emission of electromagnetic radiation from a rotating point-like magnetic dipole in vacuum. This emission mechanism predicts a braking index n = 3, which is not observed in highly magnetized neutron stars. Despite this fact, the assumptions of a dipole field and rapid early rotation are often assumed a priori, typically causing a discrepancy between the characteristic age and the associated supernova remnant (SNR) age. We focus on neutron stars with `anomalous' magnetic fields that have established SNR associations and known ages. Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are usually described in terms of the magnetar model that posits a large magnetic field established by dynamo action. The high magnetic field pulsars (HBPs) have extremely large magnetic fields just above quantum electrodynamics scale (but below that of the AXPs and SGRs), and central compact objects (CCOs) may have buried fields that will emerge in the future as nascent magnetars. In the first part of this series, we examined magnetic field growth as a method of uniting the CCOs with HBPs and X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) through evolution. In this work, we constrain the characteristic age of these neutron stars using the related SNR age for a variety of energy-loss mechanisms and allowing for arbitrary initial spin periods. In addition to the SNR age, we also use the observed braking indices and X-ray luminosities to constrain the models.

  8. Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Rougemont, Romulo; Finazzo, Stefano; Noronha, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and {\\it baryon rich} strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, $\\mu_B$, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for $\\mu_B \\leq 400$ MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and $\\mu_B$ dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy ...

  9. Impact of temperature dependence of the energy loss on jet quenching observables

    CERN Document Server

    Scardina, F; Greco, V

    2011-01-01

    The quenching of jets (particles with $p_T>>T, \\Lambda_{QCD}$) in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions has been one of the main prediction and discovery at RHIC. We have studied, by a simple jet quenching modeling, the correlation between different observables like the nuclear modification factor $\\Rapt$, the elliptic flow $v_2$ and the ratio of quark to gluon suppression $R_{AA}(quark)/R_{AA}(gluon)$. We show that the relation among these observables is strongly affected by the temperature dependence of the energy loss. In particular the large $v_2$ and and the nearly equal $\\Rapt$ of quarks and gluons can be accounted for only if the energy loss occurs mainly around the temperature $T_c$ and the flavour conversion is significant.Finally we point out that the efficency in the conversion of the space eccentricity into the momentum one ($v_2$) results to be quite smaller respect to the one coming from elastic scatterings in a fluid with a viscosity to entropy density ratio $4\\pi\\eta/s=1$.

  10. Practical spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A B; Ramasse, Q M; Wen, J G; Bhattacharya, A; Zuo, J M

    2011-08-01

    The resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is limited by delocalization of inelastic electron scattering rather than probe size in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). In this study, we present an experimental quantification of EELS spatial resolution using chemically modulated 2×(LaMnO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) and 2×(SrVO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) superlattices by measuring the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of integrated Ti M(2,3), Ti L(2,3), V L(2,3), Mn L(2,3), La N(4,5), La N(2,3) La M(4,5) and Sr L(3) edges over the superlattices. The EELS signals recorded using large collection angles are peaked at atomic columns. The FWHM of the EELS profile, obtained by curve-fitting, reveals a systematic trend with the energy loss for the Ti, V, and Mn edges. However, the experimental FWHM of the Sr and La edges deviates significantly from the observed experimental tendency.

  11. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark–Gluon Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark–Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive dataset.

  12. Energy loss optimization of run-off-road wheels applying imperialist competitive algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Taghavifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA has presented outstanding fitness on various optimization problems. Application of meta-heuristics has been a dynamic studying interest of the reliability optimization to determine idleness and reliability constituents. The application of a meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method, imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA, for minimization of energy loss due to wheel rolling resistance in a soil bin facility equipped with single-wheel tester is discussed. The required data were collected thorough various designed experiments in the controlled soil bin environment. Local and global searching of the search space proposed that the energy loss could be reduced to the minimum amount of 15.46 J at the optimized input variable configuration of wheel load at 1.2 kN, tire inflation pressure of 296 kPa and velocity of 2 m/s. Meanwhile, genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and hybridized GA–PSO approaches were benchmarked among the broad spectrum of meta-heuristics to find the outperforming approach. It was deduced that, on account of the obtained results, ICA can achieve optimum configuration with superior accuracy in less required computational time.

  13. Energy loss, hadronization and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A

    2015-01-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasi-elastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball is described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk QGP are fed into the hadron cascade UrQMD model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high $p_\\mathrm{T}$; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate $p_\\mathrm{T}$; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the $D$ meson $R_\\mathrm{AA}$ at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and e...

  14. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  15. Time-of-flight electron energy loss spectroscopy using TM110 deflection cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Verhoeven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of two TM110 resonant cavities to generate ultrashort electron pulses and subsequently measure electron energy losses in a time-of-flight type of setup. The method utilizes two synchronized microwave cavities separated by a drift space of 1.45 m. The setup has an energy resolution of 12 ± 2 eV FWHM at 30 keV, with an upper limit for the temporal resolution of 2.7 ± 0.4 ps. Both the time and energy resolution are currently limited by the brightness of the tungsten filament electron gun used. Through simulations, it is shown that an energy resolution of 0.95 eV and a temporal resolution of 110 fs can be achieved using an electron gun with a higher brightness. With this, a new method is provided for time-resolved electron spectroscopy without the need for elaborate laser setups or expensive magnetic spectrometers.

  16. Time-of-flight electron energy loss spectroscopy using TM110 deflection cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W; van Rens, J F M; van Ninhuijs, M A W; Toonen, W F; Kieft, E R; Mutsaers, P H A; Luiten, O J

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of two TM110 resonant cavities to generate ultrashort electron pulses and subsequently measure electron energy losses in a time-of-flight type of setup. The method utilizes two synchronized microwave cavities separated by a drift space of 1.45 m. The setup has an energy resolution of 12 ± 2 eV FWHM at 30 keV, with an upper limit for the temporal resolution of 2.7 ± 0.4 ps. Both the time and energy resolution are currently limited by the brightness of the tungsten filament electron gun used. Through simulations, it is shown that an energy resolution of 0.95 eV and a temporal resolution of 110 fs can be achieved using an electron gun with a higher brightness. With this, a new method is provided for time-resolved electron spectroscopy without the need for elaborate laser setups or expensive magnetic spectrometers.

  17. Detailed Monte Carlo Simulation of electron transport and electron energy loss spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarian Shandiz, M; Salvat, F; Gauvin, R

    2016-11-01

    A computer program for detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons with kinetic energies in the range between about 0.1 and about 500 keV in bulk materials and in thin solid films is presented. Elastic scattering is described from differential cross sections calculated by the relativistic (Dirac) partial-wave expansion method with different models of the scattering potential. Inelastic interactions are simulated from an optical-data model based on an empirical optical oscillator strength that combines optical functions of the solid with atomic photoelectric data. The generalized oscillator strength is built from the adopted optical oscillator strength by using an extension algorithm derived from Lindhard's dielectric function for a free-electron gas. It is shown that simulated backscattering fractions of electron beams from bulk (semi-infinite) specimens are in good agreement with experimental data for beam energies from 0.1 keV up to about 100 keV. Simulations also yield transmitted and backscattered fractions of electron beams on thin solid films that agree closely with measurements for different film thicknesses and incidence angles. Simulated most probable deflection angles and depth-dose distributions also agree satisfactorily with measurements. Finally, electron energy loss spectra of several elemental solids are simulated and the effects of the beam energy and the foil thickness on the signal to background and signal to noise ratios are investigated. SCANNING 38:475-491, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Time-of-flight electron energy loss spectroscopy using TM110 deflection cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W.; van Rens, J. F. M.; van Ninhuijs, M. A. W.; Toonen, W. F.; Kieft, E. R.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Luiten, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of two TM110 resonant cavities to generate ultrashort electron pulses and subsequently measure electron energy losses in a time-of-flight type of setup. The method utilizes two synchronized microwave cavities separated by a drift space of 1.45 m. The setup has an energy resolution of 12 ± 2 eV FWHM at 30 keV, with an upper limit for the temporal resolution of 2.7 ± 0.4 ps. Both the time and energy resolution are currently limited by the brightness of the tungsten filament electron gun used. Through simulations, it is shown that an energy resolution of 0.95 eV and a temporal resolution of 110 fs can be achieved using an electron gun with a higher brightness. With this, a new method is provided for time-resolved electron spectroscopy without the need for elaborate laser setups or expensive magnetic spectrometers. PMID:27704035

  19. Effect of chronic caloric restriction on physiological variables related to energy metabolism in the male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P H; Feuers, R J; Leakey, J A; Nakamura, K; Turturro, A; Hart, R W

    1989-05-01

    In the present study, a number of physiological and behavioral measures that are related to metabolism were continuously monitored in 19-month-old male Fischer 344 rats that were fed ad libitum or fed a caloric restricted diet. Caloric restricted rats ate fewer meals but consumed more food during each meal and spent more time eating per meal than did rats fed ad libitum. Therefore, the timing and duration of meals as well as the total number of calories consumed may be associated with life extension. Average body temperature per day was significantly lower in restricted rats but body temperature range per day and motor activity were higher in restricted rats. Dramatic changes in respiratory quotient, indicating rapid changes in metabolic pathway and lower temperature, occurred in caloric restricted rats when carbohydrate reserves were depleted. Lower body temperature and metabolism during this time interval may result in less DNA damage, thereby increasing the survival potential of restricted rats. Nighttime feeding was found to synchronize physiological performance between ad libitum and caloric restricted rats better than daytime feeding, thereby allowing investigators to distinguish the effects of caloric restriction from those related solely to the time-of-day of feeding.

  20. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy-efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy-saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Network transmission and distribution heat loss is one of the key...... factors in the optimal design of low-energy DH systems. Various pipe configurations are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, and triple pipes. These technologies represent potential energy-efficient and cost...... showed the influence of the soil temperature throughout the year. Finally, the article describes proposals for the optimal design of pipes for low-energy applications and presents methods for decreasing heat losses....