WorldWideScience

Sample records for restricted conceptual clustering

  1. Sustainability in Clusters: Proposal of a Conceptual Model

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    Fabiano Larentis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing industrial restructure and movements of cooperation, increase pressures by reducing costs and increasing productivity, thus it has generated the formation of new arrangements between the companies, with focus on clusters. The clusters are formed when the similar areas and geographical aspects are concentrated and where the expertise and innovation are essential for companies to reach markets beyond their borders. On the other hand, one of the challenges in developing a cluster is related to its sustainability, in the economic, social and environmental dimensions. Thus, in this essay, we propose a conceptual model that addresses the relationship between clusters and sustainability, taking into account the perspective of networks. Such a model, spiral shaped, involves basic (actors, governance mechanisms, resources and location, intermediate (cluster strength and openness, integration and adaptation, knowledge creation / inventory and movement, exploitation and exploration actions and resulting aspects (performance and sustainability of the cluster, in a context of life cycle and environmental dynamics.

  2. General purpose computer-assisted clustering and conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Justin; King, Gary

    2011-01-01

    We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an “insightful” or “useful” way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given dataset (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings) and enable a user to explore and interact with it and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although it is uncommon to do so in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods. PMID:21292983

  3. The assessment of disability with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Conceptual framework and psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental

  4. Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation

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    Young-Jong Sohn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  5. A conceptual assessment model to identify phase of industrial cluster life cycle in Indonesia

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    Naniek Utami Handayani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop an assessment model to identify phase of industrial cluster life cycle which comprises definition of the cycle phases, identification of assessment components, and characterization of each phase of cluster life cycle. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses the Delphi method to develop the conceptual model i.e. define phases of cluster life cycle and identify assessment components, and design typology of cluster life cycle. Findings: The proposed indicators used to assess industrial cluster phases are (i concentration of industry, (ii market accessibility, (iii completeness of actors, and (iv collaboration of stakeholders. Research limitations/implications: This study developed a conceptual model based on expert opinion in Indonesia. Given the limitations of experts in this field in Indonesia, it is necessary to develop advanced research involving more experts and if possible, to involve experts outside Indonesia. Practical implications: This paper provides an assessment conceptual model to identify phase of industrial cluster life cycle. The objective of assessing industrial cluster phases is to evaluate and improve the condition of industrial clusters and as basis for formulation policy interventions in accordance with each phase of cluster life cycle. The final results of this study are the position of each cluster on their life cycle, which reflects the condition of each industrial cluster. On a practical level, the assessment result could be used to improve the competitiveness of industrial sectors and help local and central government to formulate appropriate policy interventions. Originality/value: The paper provides an assessment conceptual model to identify phases of industrial cluster life cycle, which include definition phases, assessment components and typology of each phase of cluster life cycle based on assessment criteria. Research in this field was rarely done by the

  6. A Conceptual framework of social entrepreneurship and social innovation cluster : a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimoto, Kanji

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes a conceptual framework for understanding Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation Cluster. First, it presents a structural analysis of the emerging processes of social entrepreneurship in Japan, and then shows how social enterprises establish organizational strategies and promote social innovation. In analyzing the emergence of social entrepreneurship, we have reviewed its relationship with the community, government, civil society organizations and businesses by incor...

  7. A Clustering Analysis for Identifying Areas of Collision Risk in Restricted Waters

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    Zhe Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of areas of collision risk in restricted waters could play an important role in VTS services. Based on the concept of ship domain, this paper introduces a model for identifying collision risk between vessels in restricted waters, then puts forward an improved DBSCAN clustering algorithm for identifying areas of high collision risk, finally, the visualization algorithm is presented. The experimental results in this paper show the algorithm is capable of identifying and rendering areas of collision risk in restricted waters.

  8. Optimization model for UDWDM-PON deployment based on physical restrictions and asymmetric user's clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Germán. V.; Hincapié, Roberto C.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2015-09-01

    UDWDM PON is a leading technology oriented to provide ultra-high bandwidth to final users while profiting the physical channels' capability. One of the main drawbacks of UDWDM technique is the fact that the nonlinear effects, like FWM, become stronger due to the close spectral proximity among channels. This work proposes a model for the optimal deployment of this type of networks taking into account the fiber length limitations imposed by physical restrictions related with the fiber's data transmission as well as the users' asymmetric distribution in a provided region. The proposed model employs the data transmission related effects in UDWDM PON as restrictions in the optimization problem and also considers the user's asymmetric clustering and the subdivision of the users region though a Voronoi geometric partition technique. Here it is considered de Voronoi dual graph, it is the Delaunay Triangulation, as the planar graph for resolving the problem related with the minimum weight of the fiber links.

  9. A web-based restriction endonuclease tool for mycobacteriophage cluster prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissendanner, Chris R; Wiedemeier, Allison M D; Wiedemeier, Paul D; Minton, Russell L; Bhuiyan, Swapan; Harmson, Jeremy S; Findley, Ann M

    2014-10-01

    A recent explosion in the amount of genomic data has revealed a large genetic diversity in the bacteriophages that infect Mycobacterium smegmatis. In an effort to assess the novelty of newly described mycobacteriophage isolates and provide a preliminary determination of their probable cluster assignment prior to full genome sequencing, we have developed a systematic approach that relies on restriction endonuclease analysis. We demonstrate that a web-based tool, the Phage Enzyme Tool (or PET), is capable of rapidly facilitating this analysis and exhibits reliability in the putative placement of mycobacteriophages into specific clusters of previously sequenced phages. We propose that this tool represents a useful analytical step in the initial study of phage genomes and that this tool will increase the efficiency of phage genome characterization and enhance the educational activities involving mycobacteriophage discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Information criterion-based clustering with order-restricted candidate profiles in short time-course microarray experiments

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    Zhang Baoxue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-course microarray experiments produce vector gene expression profiles across a series of time points. Clustering genes based on these profiles is important in discovering functional related and co-regulated genes. Early developed clustering algorithms do not take advantage of the ordering in a time-course study, explicit use of which should allow more sensitive detection of genes that display a consistent pattern over time. Peddada et al. 1 proposed a clustering algorithm that can incorporate the temporal ordering using order-restricted statistical inference. This algorithm is, however, very time-consuming and hence inapplicable to most microarray experiments that contain a large number of genes. Its computational burden also imposes difficulty to assess the clustering reliability, which is a very important measure when clustering noisy microarray data. Results We propose a computationally efficient information criterion-based clustering algorithm, called ORICC, that also takes account of the ordering in time-course microarray experiments by embedding the order-restricted inference into a model selection framework. Genes are assigned to the profile which they best match determined by a newly proposed information criterion for order-restricted inference. In addition, we also developed a bootstrap procedure to assess ORICC's clustering reliability for every gene. Simulation studies show that the ORICC method is robust, always gives better clustering accuracy than Peddada's method and saves hundreds of times computational time. Under some scenarios, its accuracy is also better than some other existing clustering methods for short time-course microarray data, such as STEM 2 and Wang et al. 3. It is also computationally much faster than Wang et al. 3. Conclusion Our ORICC algorithm, which takes advantage of the temporal ordering in time-course microarray experiments, provides good clustering accuracy and is meanwhile much

  11. What Factors Constitute Structures of Clustering Creative Industries? Incorporating New Institutional Economics and New Economic Sociology into A Conceptual Framework

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    Poppy Ismalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries tend to cluster in specific places and the reasons for this phenomenon can be a multiplicity of elements linked mainly to culture, creativity, innovation and local development. In the international literature, it is pretty well recognized that creativity is frequently characterized by the agglomeration of firms so that creative industries are not homogeneously distributed across the territory but they are concentrated in the space. Three theories are becoming the dominant theoretical perspectives in agglomeration economies theory and they are increasingly being applied in industrial clusters analysis to study the effect of clustering industries. The theories are Marshall’s theoretical principles of localization economies, Schmitz’s collective efficiency and Porter’s five-diamond approach. However, those have adequately theorized neither the institutionalization process through which change takes place nor the socio-economic context of the institutional formations of clustering creative industries. This text begins by reviewing three main theories to more fully articulate institutionalization processes of an economic institution. Specifically, this paper incorporates new institutional economics (NIE and new economic sociology (NES to explain the processes associated with creating institutional practices within clustering creative industries. Both streams of institutional theory constitute that economic organizations are socially constructed. Next, this text proposes the framework that depicts the socio-economic context better and more directly addresses the dynamics of enacting, embedding and changing organizational features and processes within clustering creative industries. Some pertinent definitions are offered to be used in a conceptual framework of research about how economic institutions like clustering creative industries constitute their structures.

  12. The Parental Environment Cluster Model of Child Neglect: An Integrative Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Judith; Chandy, Joseph; Dannerbeck, Anne; Watt, J. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Presents Parental Environment Cluster model of child neglect which identifies three clusters of factors involved in parents' neglectful behavior: (1) parenting skills and functions; (2) development and use of positive social support; and (3) resource availability and management skills. Model offers a focal theory for research, structure for…

  13. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF FORMING THE SYSTEM OF FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROVIDING SOCIAL PROTECTION INVOLUNTARILY DISPLACED PERSONS WITH CLUSTER APPROACH

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    Svitlana Kropelnytska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article systematizes approaches to financial support and social adaptation of internally displaced persons (IDPs as well as their social protection, that is based on the analysis of legal framework, situation and sources of financial and social support to the EU member states of the IDPs in Ukraine and their social security. The study of the IDPs situation and the assessment of the required resources are based on a cluster approach, which defines optimal set of problem areas requiring priority social and financial support. This allowed to develop practical recommendations for the development of a comprehensive, transparent and unified policy of social protection through the development of a conceptual framework for the financial and economic provision of social protection IDPs, which will be the basic solution to the problems of social and financial provision forced migrants in Ukraine. Key words: forced migrants, internally displaced persons, cluster, social policy, social protection, social providing, financial providing.

  14. The coupled cluster approach with a hybrid treatment of connected triple excitations based on the restricted Hartree-Fock reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Kou, Zhuangfei; Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua

    2011-01-28

    A generalization of the coupled cluster (CC) singles, doubles, and a hybrid treatment of connected triples [denoted as CCSD(T)-h] [Shen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 114115 (2010)] to the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) reference is presented. In this approach, active (or pseudoactive) RHF orbitals are constructed automatically by performing unitary transformations of canonical RHF orbitals so that they spatially mimic the natural orbitals of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference. The present RHF-based CCSD(T)-h approach has been applied to study the potential energy surfaces in several typical bond breaking processes and the singlet-triplet gaps in a diradical (HFH)(-1). For all systems under study, the overall performance of CCSD(T)-h is very close to that of the corresponding CCSD(T) (CC singles, doubles, and triples), and much better than that of CCSD(T) (CC singles, doubles, and perturbative triples).

  15. Defining a Conceptual Topography of Word Concreteness: Clustering Properties of Emotion, Sensation, and Magnitude among 750 English Words

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    Joshua Troche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive science has a longstanding interest in the ways that people acquire and use abstract vs. concrete words (e.g., truth vs. piano. One dominant theory holds that abstract and concrete words are subserved by two parallel semantic systems. We recently proposed an alternative account of abstract-concrete word representation premised upon a unitary, high dimensional semantic space wherein word meaning is nested. We hypothesize that a range of cognitive and perceptual dimensions (e.g., emotion, time, space, color, size, visual form bound this space, forming a conceptual topography. Here we report a normative study where we examined the clustering properties of a sample of English words (N = 750 spanning a spectrum of concreteness in a continuous manner from highly abstract to highly concrete. Participants (N = 328 rated each target word on a range of 14 cognitive dimensions (e.g., color, emotion, valence, polarity, motion, space. The dimensions reduced to three factors: Endogenous factor, Exogenous factor, and Magnitude factor. Concepts were plotted in a unified, multimodal space with concrete and abstract concepts along a continuous continuum. We discuss theoretical implications and practical applications of this dataset. These word norms are freely available for download and use at http://www.reilly-coglab.com/data/.

  16. ‘Feeling of despair’ as the leading cluster theme of conceptual descriptive analyses in participatory assessment: Russia Oxfam GB case study

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    Venera Zakirova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study on participatory assessment based on experience gained from an EU–Oxfam GB project entitled “Empowering Municipalities to Effectively Address Poverty” conducted in five small towns in Russia. Participatory assessment through focus group discussions (FGDs was the main approach used in the implementation of the project. A participatory assessment was performed through 25 FGDs in five remote areas in central Russia. More than 200 participants representing people living in poverty, such as single mothers, people with disabilities, families with many children, families with disabled children, and pensioners, voluntarily participated in the meetings. Most of the participants were women (75% aged between 25 and 70 years. We consider that the participants’ representation is relevant in accordance with the official poverty studies. Through identification of patterns of recurrent ideas and opinions, a qualitative method helps us understand social phenomena from the views of and on the basis of the opinions of the participants. The FGDs’ narratives underwent pattern analysis, resulting in the framing of the cluster themes and narrative conceptualization. Cluster analysis of the FGDs’ narratives led to the framing of 10 cluster themes of importance, followed by conceptual descriptions and related narratives. The conceptual description of the leading theme, feeling of despair (theme 1, was described by respondents’ expressions/narratives, such as “Nobody needs us and there is no future for us and our children in this town,” the narrative idea that crosscuts the subsequent themes. The following nine themes are of equal importance, are interlinked, and for the major part constitute the leading theme, feeling of despair (theme 1: state social and family support (theme 2; health care (theme 3; who are those living in poverty? (theme 4; housing (theme 5; living costs (theme 6; employment (theme 7; children

  17. Influence of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation of pregnant ewes on maternal and fetal pancreatic digestive enzymes and insulin-containing clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Yunusova, R; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Meyer, A M; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2016-03-01

    Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses

  18. MODEL OF COOPERATION OF THE SYSTEM OF STAFF EDUCATION FOR INDUSTRY – CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATIONAL CLUSTER

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    Agata PRADELA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education of staff for industry in Poland is carried out in vocational education system in schools, responsible for education of qualified workers and in system of technical universities, responsible for engineering education. This article concentrates on aspects of education of qualified workers. There is presented model of cooperation insitution responsible for vocational education for industry on the basis of concept of educational cluster. The first part of the article describes aims and determinants of cluster formulation. The second – model of structure of educational cluster, particularly: stakeholders of cluster (potential participants of cluster, scope of cooperation, information flows and stakeholders’ activities. The last part of article discusses possibilities of implementati on the model: (a by creation educational strategies and (b by caring out projects concentrated on particular problem.

  19. Educational Effects of a Vocabulary Intervention on Preschoolers' Word Knowledge and Conceptual Development: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Newman, Ellen H.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that helping preschoolers learn words through categorization may enhance their ability to retain words and their conceptual properties, acting as a bootstrap for self-learning. We examined this hypothesis by investigating the effects of the World of Words instructional program, a supplemental…

  20. cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron transfer chains involved in a number of biologi- cal systems including respiration and photosynthesis.1. The most common iron–sulphur clusters found as active centres in iron–sulphur proteins are [Fe2S2], [Fe3S4] and [Fe4S4], in which Fe(III) ions are coordinated to cysteines from the peptide and are linked to each ...

  1. Defining Loci in Restriction-Based Reduced Representation Genomic Data from Nonmodel Species: Sources of Bias and Diagnostics for Optimal Clustering

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    Daniel C. Ilut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing holds great promise for applications of phylogeography, landscape genetics, and population genomics in wild populations of nonmodel species, but the robustness of inferences hinges on careful experimental design and effective bioinformatic removal of predictable artifacts. Addressing this issue, we use published genomes from a tunicate, stickleback, and soybean to illustrate the potential for bioinformatic artifacts and introduce a protocol to minimize two sources of error expected from similarity-based de-novo clustering of stacked reads: the splitting of alleles into different clusters, which creates false homozygosity, and the grouping of paralogs into the same cluster, which creates false heterozygosity. We present an empirical application focused on Ciona savignyi, a tunicate with very high SNP heterozygosity (~0.05, because high diversity challenges the computational efficiency of most existing nonmodel pipelines while also potentially exacerbating paralog artifacts. The simulated and empirical data illustrate the advantages of using higher sequence difference clustering thresholds than is typical and demonstrate the utility of our protocol for efficiently identifying an optimum threshold from data without prior knowledge of heterozygosity. The empirical Ciona savignyi data also highlight null alleles as a potentially large source of false homozygosity in restriction-based reduced representation genomic data.

  2. Genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni strains from Danish broiler chickens by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the LPS gene cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K.N.; Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    , the LG genotyping method was used to study the genetic stability of four C. jejuni strains after gastrointestinal passage through experimentally infected chickens. Methods and Results: In the present study, the LG genotyping method was modified with respect to the restriction enzymes used. To validate...... no changes in the LG genotype of the C. jejuni strains obtained after experimental passage through chickens. Concusions: All C. jejuni strains obtained from broiler chickens were typeable by the LG genotyping method. Application of the RsaI restriction enzyme improved the method in terms of ease...

  3. Shared IgG Infection Signatures vs. Hemorrhage-Restricted IgA Clusters in Human Dengue: A Phenotype of Differential Class-Switch via TGFβ1

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    Chung-Hao Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic manifestations of infectious diseases are closely related to individual immune responses. Methods to extract information from patients’ own immune reactions would be of great use for both diagnosis and treatment. Dengue fever is one of the diseases that clinical aggravations could occur paradoxically after humoral immunity appears. This property makes dengue fever an excellent disease model to explore. A principal component analyses (PCAs-based framework derived from a prior vaccination study was developed. The framework was verified by successful demonstrations of known IgG signatures from a Mexico Dengue data set. Afterward the pipeline was tested upon de novo IgG and IgA libraries of Dengue patients from southern Taiwan. We discovered four infection signatures within IgG repertoires, two of which were identical to previous reports. However, it was IgA but not IgG that could differentiate hemorrhagic from non-hemorrhagic patients. IgA repertoires were found more diversified among bleeders, from whom seven signature clusters were characterized. The expressions of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1 and accordingly mediated class-switch activity of IgA were distinct only among the PCA-segregated bleeding group. In sum, intercontinental sharing of IgG signatures in dengue fever was demonstrated via a unified working flow. Differential regulation of IgA class-switch with associated diversity expansion plus existences of hemorrhage-restricted clusters were shown. The ability of the framework to find common IgG signatures would implicate applications to infections even from unknown pathogens. The clusters within IgA repertoires could offer perspectives to other IgA-related bleeding disorders such as Henoch-Schönlein purpura or IgA nephropathy. Substantiated grounds for IgA-specific effector function via TGFβ1-mediated class-switch would be a new factor to consider for infectious diseases.

  4. Conceptual Clustering Using Relational Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-23

    consists of classifying objects based not only on their observable features, but also on features of their descendants and their ancestors. Gregor Mendel ...offspring. Mendel thus hypothesized the class of purebreds, peas which produce offspring with exactly the same features as the parent, and the class of...distinguishing, for example, between pure- breds with hybrids as parents and purebreds with purebreds as parents. Mendel continued his experiments, crossing peas

  5. A response to information criterion-based clustering with order-restricted candidate profiles in short time-course microarray experiments

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    Umbach David M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For gene expression data obtained from a time-course microarray experiment, Liu et al. 1 developed a new algorithm for clustering genes with similar expression profiles over time. Performance of their proposal was compared with three other methods including the order-restricted inference based methodology of Peddada et al. 23. In this note we point out several inaccuracies in Liu et al. 1 and conclude that the order-restricted inference based methodology of Peddada et al. (programmed in the software ORIOGEN indeed operates at the desired nominal Type 1 error level, an important feature of a statistical decision rule, while being computationally substantially faster than indicated by Liu et al. 1. Results Application of ORIOGEN to the well-known breast cancer cell line data of Lobenhofer et al. 4 revealed that ORIOGEN software took only 21 minutes to run (using 100,000 bootstraps with p = 0.0025, substantially faster than the 72 hours found by Liu et al. 1 using Matlab. Also, based on a data simulated according to the model and parameters of simulation 1 (σ2 = 1, M = 5 in 1 we found that ORIOGEN took less than 30 seconds to run in stark contrast to Liu et al. who reported that their implementation of the same algorithm in R took 2979.29 seconds. Furthermore, for the simulation studies reported in 1, unlike the claims made by Liu et al. 1, ORIOGEN always maintained the desired false positive rate. According to Figure three in Liu et al. 1 their algorithm had a false positive rate ranging approximately from 0.20 to 0.70 for the scenarios that they simulated. Conclusions Our comparisons of run times indicate that the implementations of ORIOGEN's algorithm in Matlab and R by Liu et al. 1 is inefficient compared to the publicly available JAVA implementation. Our results on the false positive rate of ORIOGEN suggest some error in Figure three of Liu et al. 1, perhaps due to a programming error.

  6. Conceptual painting

    OpenAIRE

    Bracey, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual Painting is an essay that examines if the notion of conceptual painting is a misnomer or if painting is a conceptual approach to art, akin to other mediums. It looks at this through 3 artists, Ben Cook, Pavel Buchler and Anikam Toren.

  7. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...... more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally...

  8. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Kremer, K.; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Cobelens, F.G.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Haas, P. de; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard

  9. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Kremer, Kristin; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Buu, Tran N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; de Haas, Petra; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of

  10. Effects of realimentation after nutrient restriction during mid- to late gestation on pancreatic digestive enzymes, serum insulin and glucose levels, and insulin-containing cell cluster morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Kuemper, E A; Yunusova, R D; Borowicz, P P; Kirsch, J D; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S; Swanson, K C

    2017-06-01

    This study examined effects of stage of gestation and nutrient restriction with subsequent realimentation on maternal and foetal bovine pancreatic function. Dietary treatments were assigned on day 30 of pregnancy and included: control (CON; 100% requirements; n = 18) and restricted (R; 60% requirements; n = 30). On day 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n = 6; R, n = 6), remained on control (CC; n = 12) and restricted (RR; n = 12), or realimented to control (RC; n = 11). On day 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5), remained on control (CCC, n = 6; RCC, n = 5) or realimented to control (RRC, n = 6). On day 254, the remaining cows were slaughtered and serum samples were collected from the maternal jugular vein and umbilical cord to determine insulin and glucose concentrations. Pancreases from cows and foetuses were removed, weighed, and subsampled for enzyme and histological analysis. As gestation progressed, maternal pancreatic α-amylase activity decreased and serum insulin concentrations increased (p ≤ 0.03). Foetal pancreatic trypsin activity increased (p enzymes are influenced by nutrient restriction and there is a potential for programming of increased foetal digestive enzyme production resulting from previous maternal nutrient restriction. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Pia M; Pekka Marttinen; Jussi Gillberg; A. Inkeri Lokki; Kerttu Majander; Maija-Riitta Ordén; Pekka Taipale; Anukatriina Pesonen; Katri Räikkönen; Esa Hämäläinen; Eero Kajantie; Hannele Laivuori

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate ...

  12. Background, design and conceptual model of the cluster randomized multiple-component workplace study: FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain - "FRIDOM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several RCT studies have aimed to reduce either musculoskeletal disorders, sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism or a combination of these among females with high physical work demands. These studies have provided evidence that workplace health promotion (WHP interventions are effective, but long-term effects are still uncertain. These studies either lack to succeed in maintaining intervention effects or lack to document if effects are maintained past a one-year period. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FRIDOM (FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain WHP program among health care workers. A job group characterized by having high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, high sickness presenteeism - and absenteeism. Methods FRIDOM aimed to reduce neck and shoulder pain. Secondary aims were to decrease sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism and lifestyle-diseases such as other musculoskeletal disorders as well as metabolic-, and cardiovascular disorders – and to maintain participation to regular physical exercise training, after a one year intervention period. The entire concept was tailored to a population of female health care workers. This was done through a multi-component intervention including 1 intelligent physical exercise training (IPET, dietary advice and weight loss (DAW and cognitive behavioural training (CBT. Discussion The FRIDOM program has the potential to provide evidence-based knowledge of the pain reducing effect of a multi component WHP among a female group of employees with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and in a long term perspective evaluate the effects on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism as well as risk of life-style diseases. Trial registration NCT02843269 , 06.27.2016 - retrospectively registered.

  13. Conceptual querying through ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We present here ail approach to conceptual querying where the aim is, given a collection of textual database objects or documents, to target an abstraction of the entire database content in terms of the concepts appearing in documents, rather than the documents in the collection. The approach...... is motivated by an obvious need for users to survey huge volumes of objects in query answers. An ontology formalism and a special notion of-instantiated ontology" are introduced. The latter is a structure reflecting the content in the document collection in that; it is a restriction of a general world...... knowledge ontology to the concepts instantiated in the collection. The notion of ontology-based similarity is briefly described, language constructs for direct navigation and retrieval of concepts in the ontology are discussed and approaches to conceptual summarization are presented....

  14. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia M Villa

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors.We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population.The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138 increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI 5.7-11.2 compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57 in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5. Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21 increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6, intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9 and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4. Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228 as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6. Together with preeclampsia in an earlier

  15. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. Methods We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0–13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. Results The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7–11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1–60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1–60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0–36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1–79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0–52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1–3

  16. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Pia M; Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier

  17. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    matrices—cases in which only pairwise information is known. The list of algorithms covered in this chapter is representative of those most commonly in use, but it is by no means comprehensive. There is an extensive collection of existing books on clustering that provide additional background and depth. Three early books that remain useful today are Anderberg’s Cluster Analysis for Applications [3], Hartigan’s Clustering Algorithms [25], and Gordon’s Classification [22]. The latter covers basics on similarity measures, partitioning and hierarchical algorithms, fuzzy clustering, overlapping clustering, conceptual clustering, validations methods, and visualization or data reduction techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA),multidimensional scaling, and self-organizing maps. More recently, Jain et al. provided a useful and informative survey [27] of a variety of different clustering algorithms, including those mentioned here as well as fuzzy, graph-theoretic, and evolutionary clustering. Everitt’s Cluster Analysis [19] provides a modern overview of algorithms, similarity measures, and evaluation methods.

  18. Conceptualizing Kirchnerismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Peruzzotti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the nature of kirchnerismo? The experience of the period encompassed by the presidencies of Nestor and Cristina Kirchner have generated greater controversy regarding its characterization. The article critically reviews the analysis that Ernesto Laclau and Guillermo O'Donnell made of kirchnerismo through their respective conceptual models of populism and delegative democracy.

  19. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  20. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Matthew R.; Hirata, So

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  1. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree–Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, Matthew R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree–Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard–Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga–Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  2. Conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC.

  3. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  4. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... in the article is that the many mobility systems enable specialization of places that are targeted at a special section of the population. This means that various forms of motilities not only create new opportunities for urban life but it is also one of the most critical components of production of new exclusion...

  5. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Clusters On This Page What is a cancer cluster? ... the number of cancer cases in the suspected cluster Many reported clusters include too few cancer cases ...

  6. Cancer symptom clusters: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Aynur

    2013-03-01

    Cluster research examines complex interrelationships between multiple concurrent symptoms and their mechanisms. An individual's varying understanding of the cluster concept and variations in assessment tools results in discrepancies. This article will focus on the conceptual and methodological issues associated with definitions, symptom interrelationships, and outcomes of cancer symptom clusters. An important issue in symptom cluster research is to clarify the definition of a cluster. Some evidence suggests that 'symptom pairs' should be treated as clusters. There is substantial evidence (both qualitative and quantitative) to support a psychoneurological symptom cluster in cancer patients. It has been proposed that consistent clusters are those that have similar 'core' symptoms over time. Research has also shown that a 'sentinel' symptom can predict the presence of other relevant symptoms within a cluster. Identification of patient subgroups with higher symptom severity may be useful in targeting the most needy individuals for intervention. Symptom clusters are predictors of patient outcomes, including decreased functional performance and shorter cancer survival. Additional efforts should refine the cluster definition and elucidate the cluster stability and sentinel symptom. Both conceptual and empirical contributions should advance symptom cluster research. The qualitative approaches can explore the experience of symptom clusters and provide a conceptual basis for future research.

  7. When is typography conceptual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    2013-01-01

    that makes art” (LeWitt 1967). The conceptual work of art typically speaks primarily to the intellect and not necessarily to an aesthetic/sensual experience. But what about the notion of “conceptual type”? Could this be, in a way that is analogous to “conceptual art”, typefaces that do not necessarily...

  8. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  9. Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) KidsHealth > For Parents > Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) Print ... is called intrauterine growth restriction, or IUGR. About IUGR IUGR is when a baby in the womb ...

  10. Conceptual structures in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Exploring fundamental research questions, Conceptual Structures in Practice takes you through the basic yet nontrivial task of establishing conceptual relations as the foundation for research in knowledge representation and knowledge mining. It includes contributions from leading researchers in both the conceptual graph and formal concept analysis (FCA) communities.This accessible, self-contained book begins by providing the formal background in FCA and conceptual graphs. It then describes various software tools for analysis and computation, including the ToscanaJ suite. Written by the origina

  11. Star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieles, M.

    2006-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of

  12. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  13. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  14. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  15. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might increase your risk. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  16. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseng, Marta Næss

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  17. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  18. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  19. Is neurolaw conceptually confused?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In Minds, Brains, and Law, Michael Pardo and Dennis Patterson argue that current attempts to use neuroscience to inform the theory and practice of law founder because they are built on confused conceptual foundations. Proponents of neurolaw attribute to the brain or to its parts psychological properties that belong only to people; this mistake vitiates many of the claims they make. Once neurolaw is placed on a sounder conceptual footing, Pardo and Patterson claim, we will see that its more dr...

  20. Conceptual Writing: A Worldview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Martin Glaz

    2012-01-01

    A tentative worldview of the the conceptual poetry-movement(s); an opening mapping of the last ten years. Contributors: Kennth Goldsmith, Craig Dworkin, Riccardo Boglione, Nick Thurston, Martin Glaz Serup, Darren Wershler, Christian Bök, Derek Beaulieu......A tentative worldview of the the conceptual poetry-movement(s); an opening mapping of the last ten years. Contributors: Kennth Goldsmith, Craig Dworkin, Riccardo Boglione, Nick Thurston, Martin Glaz Serup, Darren Wershler, Christian Bök, Derek Beaulieu...

  1. About the Clusters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Innovation Clusters Program advises cluster organizations, encourages collaboration between clusters, tracks U.S. environmental technology clusters, and connects EPA programs to cluster needs.

  2. New Conceptual Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... hand, the main software houses are trying to introduce powerful and effective user-friendly applications in the world of building designers, that are more and more able to fit their specific requirements; on the other hand, some groups of expert users with a basic programming knowledge seem to deal...... the most recent studies about digital conceptual design tools. The combined use of Rhinoceros™, a powerful threedimensional modeller diffused among designers, and Rhinoscript™, its implemented programming environment, is here presented as a possible effective way to deal with computer technologies...

  3. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  4. Approximation Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Approximation Clustering. Clustering within (1+ ε) of the optimum cost. ε is user defined tolerance. For metric spaces even approximating is. hard (below, say 30%). Euclidean k-median in fixed dimension can. be approximated in polynomial time.

  5. The conceptual framework of quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The book attempts to provide an introduction to quantum field theory emphasizing conceptual issues frequently neglected in more "utilitarian" treatments of the subject. The book is divided into four parts, entitled respectively "Origins", "Dynamics", "Symmetries", and "Scales". The emphasis is conceptual - the aim is to build the theory up systematically from some clearly stated foundational concepts - and therefore to a large extent anti-historical, but two historical Chapters ("Origins") are included to situate quantum field theory in the larger context of modern physical theories. The three remaining sections of the book follow a step by step reconstruction of this framework beginning with just a few basic assumptions: relativistic invariance, the basic principles of quantum mechanics, and the prohibition of physical action at a distance embodied in the clustering principle. The "Dynamics" section of the book lays out the basic structure of quantum field theory arising from the sequential insertion of quan...

  6. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate corporate social responsibility (CSR) in industrial clusters in the Indian context. We use the definition of CSR as given in the Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs’ National Voluntary Guidelines (NVGs) for Business Responsibility: ‘the commitment of an enterprise...... sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country....... At the same time, several attempts have been made at promoting the adoption of CSR in MSMEs in Indian industrial clusters. In fact, India has proved to be a kind of laboratory for experimenting with different types of cluster-based CSR and is thus an interesting location in relation to the broader aim...

  7. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule......The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...

  8. Conceptualizing Functional Neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafman, Jordan

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for conceptualizing four forms of cognitive neuroplasticity. The concepts include: (1) homologous area adaptivity; (2) cross-modal reassignment; (3) map expansion; and (4) compensatory masquerade. The limitations of each form of plasticity are presented. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Doxing: a conceptual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, David

    2016-01-01

    Doxing is the intentional public release onto the Internet of personal information about an individual by a third party, often with the intent to humiliate, threaten, intimidate, or punish the identified individual. In this paper I present a conceptual analysis of the practice of doxing and how it

  10. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  11. Comprehending Conceptual Anaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines three particular types of pronoun anaphora exhibiting the rule that English pronouns must agree in number with their antecedents. Comprehension data resulting from experimentation underscores the role that pragmatic information plays in on-line interpretation of conceptual anaphors. (26 references) (JL)

  12. Teaching conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first observational study of an ongoing research project. The research focuses on ‘teaching conceptual design’ and on the investigation of new teaching methods and strategies. Presently, in the commonly established educational setting, students practice the role of designing

  13. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  14. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390929395; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  15. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  16. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  17. Is Neurolaw Conceptually Confused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2014-06-01

    In Minds, Brains, and Law, Michael Pardo and Dennis Patterson argue that current attempts to use neuroscience to inform the theory and practice of law founder because they are built on confused conceptual foundations. Proponents of neurolaw attribute to the brain or to its parts psychological properties that belong only to people; this mistake vitiates many of the claims they make. Once neurolaw is placed on a sounder conceptual footing, Pardo and Patterson claim, we will see that its more dramatic claims are false or meaningless, though it might be able to provide inductive evidence for particular less dramatic claims (that a defendant may be lying, or lacks control over their behavior, for instance). In response, I argue that the central conceptual confusions identified by Pardo and Patterson are not confusions at all. Though some of the claims made by its proponents are hasty and sometimes they are confused, there are no conceptual barriers to attributing psychological properties to brain states. Neuroscience can play a role in producing evidence that is more reliable than subjective report or behavior; it therefore holds out the possibility of dramatically altering our self-conception as agents and thereby the law.

  18. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. Individual Differences in Conceptual and Procedural Fraction Understanding: The Role of Abilities and School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Darcy; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Thorpe, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on children's conceptual and procedural knowledge has suggested that there are individual differences in the ways that children combine these two types of knowledge across a number of mathematical topics. Cluster analyses have demonstrated that some children have more conceptual knowledge, some children have more procedural…

  20. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  1. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  2. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  3. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The prob......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side....... The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  4. Interior design conceptual basis

    CERN Document Server

    Sully, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...

  5. Bussines Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are complex economic structures in which similar companies, their up-stream and down-stream business partners, universities, research institutes, educational units, various service providers, diverse private and public institutions concentrate geografically, striving to get economies of agglomeration and scale, to capitalize on the resulting spill over effects, to cut costs, to better harness resources, to exchange information and experience, to improve quality, innovation, skills and productivity. By somehow unexpectedly combining competition and cooperation, they form a new, sophisticated stage in the evolution of production structures in quest of higher efficiency. This paper forays into the world of clusters and clusterization, which seem to increasingly capture the interest of businesses, scholars and policy makers. It looks at what clusters are, how they arise, what are their specific features, what benefits and challenges they can generate for companies and for the regions in which they locate and if and how they should be fostered by industrial policy interventions. The conclusion is that clusters can be very important development triggers and therefore they should be encouraged and nurtured by adequate policy measures. They should not only be used as a regular policy tool, but be placed at the very center of the development strategies of emerging economies.

  6. Formalizing Restriction Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chapman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Restriction categories are an abstract axiomatic framework by Cockett and Lack for reasoning about (generalizations of the idea of partiality of functions. In a restriction category, every map defines an endomap on its domain, the corresponding partial identity map. Restriction categories cover a number of examples of different flavors and are sound and complete with respect to the more synthetic and concrete partial map categories. A partial map category is based on a given category (of total maps and a map in it is a map from a subobject of the domain. In this paper, we report on an Agda formalization of the first chapters of the theory of restriction categories, including the challenging completeness result. We explain the mathematics formalized, comment on the design decisions we made for the formalization, and illustrate them at work.

  7. Using social media to support cluster development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anu Manickam; F.J. de Graaf

    2012-01-01

    Developing European transnational clusters is a cornerstone in current EU-policies towards a sustainable competitive and open European economy. Within this conceptual paper relates these objectives to new developments in the application of network IT or, in popular terms, the rise of social

  8. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  9. Divine proportion shape preservation and the fractal nature of cluster-cluster aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, C. M.; Oh, C.

    1998-12-01

    We present a restricted hierarchial model of cluster-cluster aggregation which allows for an analytical calculation of the fractal dimensions in excellent agreement with those found in Nature and simulations. We argue that this agreement is a consequence of the self-preserving cluster shape common to all models and Nature. This shape determines the fractal dimension and in our model is described by d-dimensional generalizations of the Fibonacci series and the divine proportion.

  10. Toward a richer view of the scientific method. The role of conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Silva, Francisco J

    2007-10-01

    Within the complex set of activities that comprise the scientific method, three clusters of activities can be recognized: experimentation, mathematization, and conceptual analysis. In psychology, the first two of these clusters are well-known and valued, but the third seems less known and valued. The authors show the value of these three clusters of scientific method activities in the works of the quintessential scientist Galileo Galilei. They then illustrate how conceptual analysis can be used in psychology to clarify the grammar and meaning of concepts, expose conceptual problems in models, reveal unacknowledged assumptions and steps in arguments, and evaluate the consistency of theoretical accounts. The article concludes with a discussion of three criticisms of conceptual analysis. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  12. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods...... which presently mainly focus on OS content, as distinct from process issues. DesignImethodology/approach - The methodology combines action research and a longitudinal single site case study of OS processes in practice. Findings - The paper conceptualises an OS process as: events of dialogue and action...

  13. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems, Smart Specialization, Industry Clusters and Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution firstly an overview over contemporary views on conceptualizations of cluster will be given. Secondly aspects which are of relevance for developing the cluster research further are highlighted and discussed based on an illustrative case. Finally an overview over the issues...

  14. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c...

  15. Food web conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rosemary; Brown, Larry R.; Hobbs, Jim

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a general model of food webs within tidal wetlands and represents how physical features of the wetland affect the structure and function of the food web. This conceptual model focuses on how the food web provides support for (or may reduce support for) threatened fish species. This model is part of a suite of conceptual models designed to guide monitoring of restoration sites throughout the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), but particularly within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) and Suisun Marsh. The conceptual models have been developed based on the Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan (DRERIP) models, and are designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of monitoring metrics for tidal wetland restoration projects. Many tidal restoration sites in the Delta are being constructed to comply with environmental regulatory requirements associated with the operation of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project. These include the Biological Opinions for Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) and salmonids (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2008; National Marine Fisheries Service 2009), and the Incidental Take Permit for Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthyes) (California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2009). These regulatory requirements are based on the hypothesis that the decline of listed fish species is due in part to a decline in productivity of the food web (phytoplankton and zooplankton in particular) or alterations in the food web such that production is consumed by other species in the Estuary (Sommer et al. 2007; Baxter et al. 2010; Brown et al. 2016a). Intertidal wetlands and shallow subtidal habitat can be highly productive, so restoring areas of tidal wetlands may result in a net increase in productivity that will provide food web support for these fish species. However, other factors such as invasive bivalves that reduce phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and invasive predatory fishes that may

  16. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  17. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small......- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation......, tensions within SME networks, and negative perceptions of CSR by the cluster-based SMEs themselves. The findings and implications of this analysis can inform both research and policy making in this area...

  18. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  19. What is Conceptualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2017-01-01

    ‘Adventures in Conceptualism’ by Kristoffer Lindhardt Weiss explores the method of concept-based architecture through a series of conversations with some of the world’s leading architects and urbanists. From offices such as Snøhetta, BIG, NL Architects and Danish HLA, the production of formal...... diversity shows an apparent devotion to a free and experimental practice, cutting across regional differences and stylistic modes. Every new project seems to conceptually reinvent the architectural language, responding to specific programmatic and contextual conditions. “The term concep­tualism, as applied...... here, tries to label a modus operandi among a number of archi­tectural practitioners that apparently seem to justify their spatial inventions with direct reference to the complex and often messy context of creative discovery. An emerging tendency to dismiss the cover of applied theory...

  20. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  1. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  2. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Installing and servicing complex electromechanical systems is more tedious than is necessary. By putting the product knowledge into the product itself, which then would allow automation in constructing the product from modules, could solve that. It would support personnel in aftersales installation...... and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  3. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother la...

  4. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2013-01-01

    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations dier according to dierent types of mother langua...

  5. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelcu Serban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS OF CONTROLLING Nedelcu Serban Universitatea ,,Babes-Bolyai`` Facultatea de Stiinte Economice si Gestiunea Afacerilor 'Controlling' represents a new concept in the Romanian economic environement, being implemented successfully in very few companies. Unlike the German space where controlling is very well represented both at a practical level and in the academia, in Romania controlling can only be found at a practical level, and the specialized literature is restraint, almost absent. Since the practicians of controlling in Romania only know the toolkit they use and not the theoretical elements as well, what is needed in this case is a conceptual delimitation so that controlling would be better implemented, and improved with various elements of the economic environment. In practice, inside various linguistic areas different problems of communication may occur very often in regards to the use of different concepts that may be missunderstood. Therefore in the Romanian research area it becomes imperative to try and clarify the existing issues and to intensify the reasearch in this field. Studying the evolution of the concept we observe that the need for its implementation is primarily experienced at the practical level of the companies, to be then followed by a debate in the specialized literature. The internationalization and the fierce competition that the Romanian companies are confronting on the ecenomic market represent the decissive factor in adopting the concept of controlling.This article is part of the research conducted for my doctoral thesis, 'Controlling in hetergenous economic envirnoments', under the coordination and supervision of Prof.Dr.Dumitru Matis. Keywords: Controlling, Management Accounting, Management Control, Accounting, Internal audit JEL Code: M49

  6. Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen

    1999-11-01

    The care of patients with cluster headache has at least two goals: 1) immediately abolishing an ongoing attack and 2) stopping or shortening a bout (a cluster period). The fierceness and the relative brevity of the attacks dictate the use of a fast-acting agent. There are probably three agents fulfilling these criteria: sumatriptan (by subcutaneous injection), oxygen (inhaled through a face mask), and ergotamines (by injection or, perhaps, sublingual tablets). An abundance of data from controlled studies as well as recent clinical experience probably favors sumatriptan as the most effective alternative, the most significant drawback being its high cost. Oxygen inhalation is free of side effects and may be effective but is inconvenient to use. Ergotamines in tablet form act less rapidly, and there are more contraindications to their use. In short-term prophylaxis, however, ergotamine may still be a drug of choice if the timing of the attacks allows planned use of the drug shortly before the attack. If the timing is more irregular, steroids may at least temporarily break a cycle (eg, prednisolone, 60 or 80 mg/d, gradually tapered to zero in 3 to 4 weeks). If more long-lasting prophylaxis is needed or expected, lithium carbonate, 900 mg/d, or verapamil, 360 mg/d, both have reasonable response rates. As for chronic cluster headache, lithium probably will still be the drug of choice. For a very limited group of patients with chronic cluster headache, surgery may be a last resort. The best surgical options are probably radiofrequency rhizotomy or microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve.

  7. Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Bathelt, Harald; Malmberg, Anders

    2004-01-01

    to distant markets and technologies. Third, it compares such temporaryclusters with permanent territorial hubs within their respective sector or industry. If regularparticipation in temporary clusters could satisfy a firm's need to learn through interactionwith suppliers, customers, peers and rivals, why...... or participating in such events are means toidentify the current market frontier, take stock of relative competitive positions and formfuture plans. These events exhibit many of the characteristics ascribed to permanentclusters, albeit in a temporary, periodic and intensified form. The temporary clusters...... is the phenomenon of permanent clusteringso pervasive?The answer, it is claimed, lies in the restrictions imposed on economic activity whenknowledge and ideas are transformed into valuable products and services. The paper shedsnew light on how interaction among firms in current clusters coincides...

  8. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  9. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  10. Finding approximate gene clusters with Gecko 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sascha; Jahn, Katharina; Wehner, Stefanie; Kuchenbecker, Leon; Marz, Manja; Stoye, Jens; Böcker, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Gene-order-based comparison of multiple genomes provides signals for functional analysis of genes and the evolutionary process of genome organization. Gene clusters are regions of co-localized genes on genomes of different species. The rapid increase in sequenced genomes necessitates bioinformatics tools for finding gene clusters in hundreds of genomes. Existing tools are often restricted to few (in many cases, only two) genomes, and often make restrictive assumptions such as short perfect conservation, conserved gene order or monophyletic gene clusters. We present Gecko 3, an open-source software for finding gene clusters in hundreds of bacterial genomes, that comes with an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The underlying gene cluster model is intuitive, can cope with low degrees of conservation as well as misannotations and is complemented by a sound statistical evaluation. To evaluate the biological benefit of Gecko 3 and to exemplify our method, we search for gene clusters in a dataset of 678 bacterial genomes using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a reference. We confirm detected gene clusters reviewing the literature and comparing them to a database of operons; we detect two novel clusters, which were confirmed by publicly available experimental RNA-Seq data. The computational analysis is carried out on a laptop computer in <40 min. PMID:27679480

  11. Students' Conceptual Thinking in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trygestad, JoAnn

    This study explores students' conceptual thinking by examining the extent and complexity of their concept identification and organization in geography. The study investigated students' conceptual thinking through identification of salient geography concepts and construction of individual concept maps at three academic achievement and grade levels.…

  12. Inductive logic on conceptual spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the question of how conceptual frameworks influence inductive reasoning. A conceptual framework is a collection of concepts used for a particular purpose; we can think of it as a semantic environment in which observations, or evidence, are recorded, and beliefs are formed

  13. Democracy, Governance and Citizenship: A Comparative Perspective of Conceptual Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Schoettli, Jivanta

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics is the result of a two-day colloquium that took place in Heidelberg at the Internationales Wissenschafts Haus during October 2009. Thanks to funding through the project, Citizenship as Conceptual Flow : Asia in Comparative Perspective, part of the Heidelberg University, Cluster of Excellence, Asia and Europe in a Global Context, doctoral candidates and post-doctoral scholars were invited from universities across G...

  14. Cluster policy and regional development: scale, scope and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Njøs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with Marshallian/Porterian theories, the Norwegian cluster policy has been linked to the development of specialized regional industry environments. Cluster projects are relatively sector-specific entities often supporting (already strong regional industries and sectors. Following a review of the current literature on clusters and innovation, and informed by evolutionary thought, we argue that such constellations of specialized clusters may hamper the long-term innovation ability of regions. In a conceptual discussion of cluster evolution and its links to innovation and regional path renewal, we argue that special emphasis – both theoretical and political – has been placed on the geographical scale of clusters, but there has been less emphasis on scope. Accordingly, we present three theory-based strategies for cluster evolution and link these to regional development and innovation by assessing their impact on regional path renewal. We illustrate our argument empirically using examples from the Norwegian Centre of Expertise (NCE cluster programme.

  15. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    define conceptual designing as a constructive framing and re-framing activity, which is mediated by and targeted at the creation of new design concepts. Conceptual designing as an approach is valuable for addressing the fuzziness and ambiguity typical of research that explores novel areas with new...... partners, methods and resources. It is by no means a new phenomenon, and the main contribution of the article is the clarification of conceptual designing as a particular approach to designing and researching. The approach embraces openness, resource-construction and collaboration. We conclude...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...

  16. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  17. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  18. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....

  19. License restrictions at Barnwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autry, V.R. [S.C. Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States). Bureau of Radiological Health

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  20. The emergence of logistics cities: Conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sengpiehl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the emergence of logistics cities, which are geographical concentrations of related industries situated around one or more international trade gateways adjacent to a metropolitan area. Broadly, a logistics city comprises logistics activities and related assets combined with an integrated mix of manufacturing and assembly companies, business services, retail outlets, research and education centres, and associated government services and administration sections. This concept is currently being promoted and developed globally by several regions, and examples of these logistics cities are described in this paper. Drawing from these examples and the limited available literature, a preliminary conceptual map of the logistics cities concept has been developed which incorporates a theoretical foundation of economic development and the principles of competitiveness in the notion of trade clusters. This map has provided the basis for our further investigations and the continued development of a more detailed conceptual model that will provide a systematic knowledge base for those engaged in the development of further logistics cities. The beneficiaries of this model will be public authorities, property developers and industrial concerns, and will be used when making decisions for future logistics infrastructure, services, supporting services and related social elements.

  1. Conceptual apraxia from lateralized lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, K M; Maher, L M; Greenwald, M L; Rothi, L J

    1997-08-01

    Models of praxis have posited two major components, production and conceptual. Conceptual praxis disorders may occur in two domains: associative knowledge (tool-action associations such as hammer pound; tool-object associations such as hammer nail) and mechanical knowledge such as knowing the advantage that tools afford. Patients with Alzheimer's disease not only have conceptual apraxia (CA) but can dissociate CA from language deficits and from praxis production deficits (ideomotor apraxia). These findings suggests that knowledge about tools (action semantics) is independent of verbal semantics as well as movement representations. To learn if conceptual praxis knowledge is stored in one hemisphere (right or left) and if associative and mechanical conceptual praxis knowledge can be dissociated, we studied 29 right-handed subjects with unilateral strokes. Ten had left-hemisphere damage with no ideomotor apraxia. Eleven had left-hemisphere damage with ideomotor apraxia. There were eight right-hemisphere-damaged controls and 10 normal controls. These subjects were given tests for conceptual apraxia. There was a significant difference between groups, the left-hemisphere group with ideomotor apraxia being most impaired on both the associative and mechanical CA tests. There was a trend for associative and mechanical knowledge to be dissociated. Although conceptual praxis representations are stored in the left hemisphere, analysis of lesion sites did not reveal where in the left hemisphere they may be stored.

  2. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.; Schaap, H.; Bruijn, E. de

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  4. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.M.; Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  5. Conceptual Integration using Wrapped Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Christian; Österle, Hubert; Hotaka, Ryosuke

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how object-oriented concepts can be used throughout system development for integration purposes. Based on the distinction of physical and conceptual integration the concept of object wrapping is discussed for the integration of non-object-oriented systems. By regarding applications as high-level objects, i.e. wrapped applications, integration is achieved by modelling so-called integration relationships between these wrapped applications. While in conceptual integration re...

  6. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    mercury conceptual model and its four submodels (1. Methylation, 2. Bioaccumulation, 3. Human Health Effects, and 4. Wildlife Heath Effects) can be used to understand the general relationships among drivers and outcomes associated with mercury cycling in the Delta. Several linkages between important drivers and outcomes have been identified as important but highly uncertain (i.e. poorly understood). For example, there may be significant wildlife health effect of mercury on mammals and reptiles in the Delta, but there is currently very little or no information about it. The characteristics of such linkages are important when prioritizing and funding restoration projects and associated monitoring in the Delta and its tributaries.

  7. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  8. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  9. Comparison of restriction enzymes for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sara; Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    NotI, the most prevalent restriction enzyme used for typing Moraxella catarrhalis, failed to digest genomic DNA from respiratory samples. An improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methodology determined SpeI as the best choice for typing this bacterial species, with a good restriction of clinical samples and a good clustering correlation with NotI.

  10. Effects of root restriction on the ultrastructure of phloem in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Also, the average diameters of SE and CC in the branch veins were smaller in leaves subjected to root restriction ... Each vine was thinned to one shoot with one cluster before bloom .... Ultrastructure of transverse sections of the branch vein phloem of leaves subjected or not subjected to root restriction.

  11. Conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices using expert informed concept mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-14

    Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children's participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items) aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US)) sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures) and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert's sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure). The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child's physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices and identified key constructs to include in

  12. Use of models in conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the use of product models by conceptual designers. After a short introduction, abstraction applied in conceptual design is described. A model that places conceptual design in a three-dimensional space is used. Applications of conceptual design from the literature are used

  13. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training re...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....... relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate...

  14. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  15. Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J P; Wood, R J

    2012-09-01

    Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed later in the design process. Non-traditional MAV designs based on birds or insects are less common and without well-established conceptual design methods. This paper presents a conceptual design process for hovering flapping-wing vehicles. An energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics is combined with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include simple analytical expressions for flight endurance and range, predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass, and critical design space restrictions resulting from finite wing inertia. A new figure-of-merit for wing structural-inertial efficiency is proposed and used to quantify the performance of real and artificial insect wings. The impact of these results on future flapping-wing MAV designs is discussed in detail.

  16. Establishing a conceptual framework for handoffs using communication theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohorek, Matthew; Webb, Travis P

    2015-01-01

    A significant consequence of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour restrictions has been the dramatic increase in patient care handoffs. Ineffective handoffs have been identified as the third most common cause of medical error. However, research into health care handoffs lacks a unifying foundational structure. We sought to identify a conceptual framework that could be used to critically analyze handoffs. A scholarly review focusing on communication theory as a possible conceptual framework for handoffs was conducted. A PubMed search of published handoff research was also performed, and the literature was analyzed and matched to the most relevant theory for health care handoff models. The Shannon-Weaver Linear Model of Communication was identified as the most appropriate conceptual framework for health care handoffs. The Linear Model describes communication as a linear process. A source encodes a message into a signal, the signal is sent through a channel, and the signal is decoded back into a message at the destination, all in the presence of internal and external noise. The Linear Model identifies 3 separate instances in handoff communication where error occurs: the transmitter (message encoding), channel, and receiver (signal decoding). The Linear Model of Communication is a suitable conceptual framework for handoff research and provides a structured approach for describing handoff variables. We propose the Linear Model should be used as a foundation for further research into interventions to improve health care handoffs. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixture model modal clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The two most extended density-based approaches to clustering are surely mixture model clustering and modal clustering. In the mixture model approach, the density is represented as a mixture and clusters are associated to the different mixture components. In modal clustering, clusters are understood as regions of high density separated from each other by zones of lower density, so that they are closely related to certain regions around the density modes. If the true density is indeed in the as...

  18. Unsupervised ensemble minority clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzàlez Pellicer, Edgar; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis lies at the core of most unsupervised learning tasks. However, the majority of clustering algorithms depend on the all-in assumption, in which all objects belong to some cluster, and perform poorly on minority clustering tasks, in which a small fraction of signal data stands against a majority of noise. The approaches proposed so far for minority clustering are supervised: they require the number and distribution of the foreground and background clusters. In supervised learni...

  19. Conceptual knowledge of arithmetic for Chinese- and Canadian-educated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated whether Canadian- and Chinese-educated adults differ in their understanding of simple arithmetic concepts. Participants (n = 21 per group) solved 3-term addition and subtraction (e.g., 5 + 22 - 22 and 3 + 24 - 26) and multiplication and division (e.g., 2 × 28 ÷ 28 and 4 × 39 ÷ 13) problems. All problems could be solved more easily if conceptual knowledge of the relationship between the 2 operations in each problem was understood and applied. Accuracy, solution time, and immediately retrospective self-reports of problem-solving strategy data were collected. Participants also completed a timed arithmetic fluency task. Chinese-educated participants demonstrated stronger conceptual understanding of arithmetic on all problems and outperformed Canadian-educated participants on the fluency task. A cluster analysis revealed 4 groups of individuals: weak concept users, who rarely used conceptual knowledge to aid their problem solving; strong concept users, who almost exclusively used their conceptual knowledge to facilitate problem solving; addition and subtraction concept users, who frequently used conceptual knowledge except on difficult multiplication and division problems; and multiplication and division concept users, who frequently used conceptual knowledge except on difficult addition and subtraction problems. Chinese-educated participants were more likely to be in the strong concept clusters, and none were in the weak concept cluster, providing further evidence of stronger conceptual knowledge of arithmetic. These results demonstrate for the 1st time that there are strong cross-cultural differences in conceptual knowledge of simple arithmetic, even in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research Synthesis and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged.…

  1. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  2. Beyond Munchausen by Proxy: A Proposed Conceptualization for Cases of Recurring, Unsubstantiated Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mary W.

    2009-01-01

    In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves…

  3. Conceptualizing Conceptual Teaching: Practical Strategies for Large Instrumental Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Half a century ago, calls had already been made for instrumental ensemble directors to move beyond performance to include the teaching of musical concepts in the rehearsal hall. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that conceptual teaching remains relatively infrequent during rehearsals. Given the importance of teaching for long-term…

  4. Historia conceptual e historia intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanou, Conrad

    2006-01-01

    Después de constatar la importancia del giro lingüístico en el campo de la historiografía, se señalan las dos corrientes más importantes en el ámbito de la historia conceptual: la escuela de Cambridge y la Begriffsgeschichte de Reinhart Koselleck. El artículo se centra en el análisis de esta segunda tendencia de la historia conceptual, vinculada a la tradición filosófica (Heidegger, Gadamer), política (Schmitt) e histórica (Dilthey) del mundo alemán.

  5. PROFESSIONAL SPECIFICITY OF CONCEPTUAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gilmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Most studies of psychologists and teachers in the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and ways of its formation are considered to be rather controversial and questionable. However, the research results were limited to the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and are therefore not representative for its implementation during the process of vocational training at the higher school. There is still considerable uncertainty with regard to the approaches to the problem of conceptual thinking in the humanities, including pedagogics and psychology. Furthermore, previous studies have not dealt with the objectives of conceptual thinking formation.The aims of the article are: to justify the use of the term “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT in theory and practice; to describe the prospects of the development of PCT in the training process.Methodology and research methods. The methodological base of the research involves the Russian psychological and pedagogical science approaches to the consideration of conceptual thinking as a higher mental function, a systematized and summarized form of cognitive reflection of notions and relations of reality. The experimental work was carried out using the method of observation, interviews, and tests. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was conducted. The process of formation of PCT is described through the theory of stage-by-stage systematic development of mental acts.Results and scientific novelty. The concept “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT, a new one for psychological-pedagogical science, is suggested. The PCT levels are identified: ordinary, formal, substantial, system, and holistic. The objectives proposed for the development of the PCT levels in the process of professional education consist in the organization of consecutive transition from conscious mastering of a terminological framework to its use in the performance of educational tasks; from

  6. Hartree-Fock study on the lower excited states of a Cu+ impurity in NaF using large embedded clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linker, G.J.; Broer, R.; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    We report spin-restricted and symmetry-restricted Hartree-Fock cluster calculations on the lower excited states of a Cu+ impurity in NaF in order to investigate their dependence on cluster size. In contrast to previous work on smaller clusters, we found all states arising from the configurations

  7. A Rationale for Restrictive Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Krehbiel, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Congressmen often claim to dislike restrictions on their opportunities to offer amendments to legislation in the Committee of the Whole. Yet restrictive rules of various forms not only are quite common but often are voted into existence explicitly or implicitly. Whenever a modified closed rule from the Rules Committee receives a majority vote, members explicitly accept the restrictions that such rules place on amendments. Whenever a bill is passed under suspension of the rules, the requisite ...

  8. Optimal combinations of specialized conceptual hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Lal Shrestha, Durga; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    In hydrological modelling it is a usual practice to use a single lumped conceptual model for hydrological simulations at all regimes. However often the simplicity of the modelling paradigm leads to errors in represent all the complexity of the physical processes in the catchment. A solution could be to model various hydrological processes separately by differently parameterized models, and to combine them. Different hydrological models have varying performance in reproducing catchment response. Generally it cannot be represented precisely in different segments of the hydrograph: some models performed well in simulating the peak flows, while others do well in capturing the low flows. Better performance can be achieved if a model being applied to the catchment using different model parameters that are calibrated using criteria favoring high or low flows. In this work we use a modular approach to simulate hydrology of a catchment, wherein multiple models are applied to replicate the catchment responses and each "specialist" model is calibrated according to a specific objective function which is chosen in a way that forces the model to capture certain aspects of the hydrograph, and outputs of models are combined using so-called "fuzzy committee". Such multi-model approach has been already previously implemented in the development of data driven and conceptual models (Fenicia et al., 2007), but its perfomance was considered only during the calibration period. In this study we tested an application to conceptual models in both calibration and verification period. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of the result to the use of different weightings used in the objective functions formulations, and memberbship functions used in the committee. The study was carried out for Bagamati catchment in Nepal and Brue catchment in United Kingdoms with the MATLAB-based implementation of HBV model. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization genetic algorithm (Deb, 2001) was used to

  9. Conceptual Dynamics in Clinical Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Bruce; Lee, Victor R.; Krakowski, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    One of the main tools that we have for the study of student science conceptions is the clinical interview. Research on student understanding of natural phenomena has tended to understand interviews as tools for reading out a student's knowledge. In this paper, we argue for a shift in how we think about and analyze interview data. In particular, we argue that we must be aware that the interview itself is a dynamic process during which a sort of conceptual change occurs. We refer to these short time-scale changes that occur over a few minutes in an interview as conceptual dynamics. Our goal is to devise new frameworks and techniques for capturing the conceptual dynamics. To this end, we have devised a simple and neutral cognitive framework. In this paper, we describe this framework, and we show how it can be applied to understand interview data. We hope to show that the conceptual dynamics of interviews are complex, but that it nonetheless feasible to make them a focus of study.

  10. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 3. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought. K. P. MOHANAN. Perspectives Volume 96 Issue 3 July 2017 pp 401-412. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/096/03/0401-0412. Abstract ...

  11. Transformational and transactional leadership conceptualization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study to revalidated and re-examined the factor structure and the conceptualization of the transformational and transactional leadership for a possible application to the study of leadership in Nigerian applied settings. Data were collected from 212 employees (160 males and 52 females) who rated eight CEOs (4 males ...

  12. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  13. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  14. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. P. MOHANAN

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... This article seeks to explore the conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought in the physical, biological, and human sciences. Viewing evolution as symmetry breaking, it explores the concepts of change, history, and evolutionary history, and outlines a concept of biological macroevolution.

  15. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  16. Seismic Conceptual Design of Buildings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Seismic Conceptual Design of Buildings. K R Y Simha. Book Review Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 82-84. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/08/0082-0084 ...

  17. Visitors' conceptualizations of wilderness experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Seekamp; Troy Hall; David Cole

    2012-01-01

    Despite 50 years of wilderness visitor experience research, it is not well understood how visitors conceptualize a wilderness experience. Diverging from etic approaches to wilderness visitor experience research, the research presented in this paper applied an emic approach to identify wilderness experience attributes. Specifically, qualitative data from 173 on-site...

  18. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  19. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  20. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... 2 fm) N–N interaction enhances clustering in the low density surface region of the nuclei. Therefore, to study the clustering aspect of the nuclei, one has to have high projectile energies but has to choose kinematics which probes the low momentum component of the bound clusters. While the cluster pickup ...

  1. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it ...

  2. Applying model analysis to a resource-based analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information regarding the results of investigations using these question clusters than normalized gain graphs. We provide examples from two different institutions to show how the use of model analysis with our redefined clusters can provide previously hidden insight into the effectiveness of instruction.

  3. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  4. Restrictive and dynamic conceptions of the unconscious: perspectives from moral and developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Gordon P D; Prochownik, Karolina

    2014-02-01

    Newell & Shanks' (N&S's) conceptualization of the unconscious is overly restrictive, compared to standard social psychological accounts. The dichotomy between distal and proximal cues is a weak point in their argument and does not circumvent the existence of unconscious influences on decision making. Evidence from moral and developmental psychology indicates that decision making results from a dynamic mixture of conscious and unconscious processes.

  5. Restriction glycosylases: involvement of endonuclease activities in the restriction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingbiao; Matsuzaka, Tomoyuki; Yano, Hirokazu; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Ken; Fukuyo, Masaki; Takahashi, Noriko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Ide, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2017-02-17

    All restriction enzymes examined are phosphodiesterases generating 3΄-OH and 5΄-P ends, but one restriction enzyme (restriction glycosylase) excises unmethylated bases from its recognition sequence. Whether its restriction activity involves endonucleolytic cleavage remains unclear. One report on this enzyme, R.PabI from a hyperthermophile, ascribed the breakage to high temperature while another showed its weak AP lyase activity generates atypical ends. Here, we addressed this issue in mesophiles. We purified R.PabI homologs from Campylobacter coli (R.CcoLI) and Helicobacter pylori (R.HpyAXII) and demonstrated their DNA cleavage, DNA glycosylase and AP lyase activities in vitro at 37°C. The AP lyase activity is more coupled with glycosylase activity in R.CcoLI than in R.PabI. R.CcoLI/R.PabI expression caused restriction of incoming bacteriophage/plasmid DNA and endogenous chromosomal DNA within Escherichia coli at 37°C. The R.PabI-mediated restriction was promoted by AP endonuclease action in vivo or in vitro. These results reveal the role of endonucleolytic DNA cleavage in restriction and yet point to diversity among the endonucleases. The cleaved ends are difficult to repair in vivo, which may indicate their biological significance. These results support generalization of the concept of restriction–modification system to the concept of self-recognizing epigenetic system, which combines any epigenetic labeling and any DNA damaging.

  6. The role of business incubators in the development of sustainable clusters of cultural and creative industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Clusters of cultural and creative industries are rather widespread in and surrounding inner cities. The development and dynamics of these clusters are objects of study of various conceptual approaches: some aim at their role and significance for urban development, others at their development and

  7. Cluster development in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheliazkov Georgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in creating a base-line for development patterns of clusters and clusters' specific characteristics in rural areas is particularly imposed by certain problems, which manifest themselves in similar degrees and provide a generic pattern in different regions and countries, e.g. depopulation and land abandonment, unemployment level and insufficient access to basic services and infrastructure. Certain development patterns and priorities are identified in the regional development in the old EU-members, while the member states from the Eastern parts are still partially restricted by their economic situation and political instability. This puts forth the concept of the 'integration maturity', which refers to the preparedness of each country and its capability to fully exploit the benefits and the advantages of the integration form (Palánkai, 2003, and is still applicable in terms of the economic convergence level of the new-member states in comparison to the EU-15. This statement is especially relevant to the rural business and development that often remains distant and isolated from capital and sources of information and support. With the consequences of the economic crisis and the ongoing economic instability economists, business experts and social scientists have refined a broad range of techniques for making sense of regional economies and analyzing the public policy implications of their workings. Clusters are therefore often perceived not only as patterns for economic transactions and economic outcomes, but also as social systems and multidisciplinary environmental drivers for change.

  8. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    industry as molecular sieves and catalysts. Both the catalytic as well as the sieving applications of the zeolites depend upon the diffusivities of the ... alkyl chains in monolayer-protected metal clusters, which exhibit reverse confine- ment in the sense that the confining media is in motion in contrast to the confined clusters, are ...

  9. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  10. Restricted Versus Unrestricted Search Space: Experience from Mining a Large Japanese Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhoff, Hendrik; Huebner, Ursula; Frey, Andreas; Przysucha, Mareike; Kimura, Michio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether standard Big Data mining methods lead to clinically useful results. An association analysis was performed using the apriori algorithm to discover associations among co-morbidities of diabetes patients. Selected data were further analyzed by using k-means clustering with age, long-term blood sugar and cholesterol values. The association analysis led to a multitude of trivial rules. Cluster analysis detected clusters of well and badly managed diabetes patients both belonging to different age groups. The study suggests the usage of cluster analysis on a restricted space to come to meaningful results.

  11. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  12. Research on conceptual design of mechatronic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/031/06/0661-0669. Keywords. Conceptual design; interface matching; mechatronic system; cyclic feedback mapping. ... Finally, a computer-aided conceptual design automatic software system for mechatronic systems is developed and the conceptual design of a computerised ...

  13. Ontological foundations for structural conceptual models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, G.; Guizzardi, Giancarlo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the theory of Conceptual Modeling by proposing ontological foundations for structural conceptual models. Conceptual Modeling is a discipline of great importance to several areas in Computer Science. Its main objective is concerned with

  14. Integrated Reporting: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Topçu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated reporting, aiming at bringing a systematic approach to reporting and a holistic perspective towards future, is one of the most efficient approaches that provide easy access to all stakeholders. However, there are no standards or any directing document for corporate to prepare the integrated reports. Thus, this study aims at presenting a conceptual discussion on this new topic and offering future recommendations to contribute to literature.

  15. Student Conceptual Difficulties in Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from...

  16. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing ...

  17. An Overview of Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    moving objects, each typically represented by a set of state vectors. The broader definitions reflect an increasing emphasis toward generalising...to be conceptually sound and to function as an interlanguage between a human and an artificial computational entity. The underlying...originate”. … When there are several possible definitions of a word in English, in general the Specification give one of these definitions to the exclusion

  18. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  19. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  20. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  1. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenfen Liu; Mao Ye; Jianghong Wei; Xuexian Hu

    2017-01-01

    Constrained spectral clustering (CSC) method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely...

  2. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, H.A.R.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  3. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster...... groups objects that are similar to one another, whereas dissimilar objects are assigned to different clusters, possibly separating out noise. In this manner, clusters describe the data structure in an unsupervised manner, i.e., without the need for class labels. A number of clustering paradigms exist...

  4. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  5. Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-e...

  6. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  7. Conceptual Design For Interplanetary Spaceship Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    With the recently revived national interest in Lunar and Mars missions, this design study was undertaken by the author in an attempt to satisfy the long-term space exploration vision of human travel ``to the Moon, Mars, and beyond'' with a single design or family of vehicles. This paper describes a conceptual design for an interplanetary spaceship of the not-to-distant future. It is a design that is outwardly similar to the spaceship Discovery depicted in the novel ``2001 - A Space Odyssey'' and film of the same name. Like its namesake, this spaceship could one day transport a human expedition to explore the moons of Jupiter. This spaceship Discovery is a real engineering design that is capable of being implemented using technologies that are currently at or near the state-of-the-art. The ship's main propulsion and electrical power are provided by bi-modal nuclear thermal rocket engines. Configurations are presented to satisfy four basic Design Reference Missions: (1) a high-energy mission to Jupiter's moon Callisto, (2) a high-energy mission to Mars, (3) a low-energy mission to Mars, and (4) a high-energy mission to the Moon. The spaceship design includes dual, strap-on boosters to enable the high-energy Mars and Jupiter missions. Three conceptual lander designs are presented: (1) Two types of Mars landers that utilize atmospheric and propulsive braking, and (2) a lander for Callisto or Earth's Moon that utilizes only propulsive braking. Spaceship Discovery offers many advantages for human exploration of the Solar System: (1) Nuclear propulsion enables propulsive capture and escape maneuvers at Earth and target planets, eliminating risky aero-capture maneuvers. (2) Strap-on boosters provide robust propulsive energy, enabling flexibility in mission planning, shorter transit times, expanded launch windows, and free-return abort trajectories from Mars. (3) A backup abort propulsion system enables crew aborts at multiple points in the mission. (4) Clustered NTR

  8. Clustering of Galaxy Clusters at Intermediate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.; Oegerle, William

    2001-02-01

    We propose to continue a redshift survey of 141 objectively selected galaxy clusters to measure their clustering properties and constrain models of the formation of structure in the universe. This is the first redshift survey to probe cluster correlations on comoving scales of ~ 50h_75^-1 Mpc at z ~ 0.5 and will thus provide an original and important constraint on the evolution of large-scale structure. The cluster sample comes from our deep (I_AB ≤ 24), contiguous 16 deg^2 I-band KPNO 4-m survey. The proposed observations distinguish themselves from other ongoing distant cluster redshift work in that this survey will be able to provide meaningful constraints on the large-scale spatial distribution of moderate redshift clusters owing to the large angular area and contiguous geometry of the parent survey. The availability of the HET/LRS provides a highly efficient solution to the acquisition of redshifts for the 80 cluster candidates with 0.6 ≤ z_est ≤ 0.7. The systems with z_est > 0.6 are needed to assure complete sampling of the cluster population at z_obs ~ 0.5. The survey declination (52+/-2°) and observational strategy are extremely well-suited to the initial capabilities and queue observing mode of the HET. The 4m/RCSP is well suited to completing the survey of the z_est data. This survey began using the KPNO 4m to obtain redshifts for the 0.3 ≤ z_est < 0.6 sample. So far, we have observed 31 clusters and we're presently ~25% complete with the z_est < 0.6 observations (75% complete for z_est < 0.4). We have discovered at least 2 superclusters at z=0.23 and z=0.50.

  9. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  10. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  11. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high ...

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology with cluster surveys. SUBHABRATA MAJUMDAR. CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8, Canada. E-mail: subha@cita.utoronto.ca. Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is.

  13. Formation of stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilgys, Romas; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the triggering of star formation and the formation of stellar clusters in molecular clouds which form as the interstellar medium passes through spiral shocks. The spiral shock compresses gas into an ∼100 pc long main star formation ridge, where clusters form every 5-10 pc along the merger ridge. We use a gravitational potential-based cluster finding algorithm, which extracts individual clusters, calculates their physical properties and traces cluster evolution over multiple time-steps. Final cluster masses at the end of simulation range between 1000 and 30 000 M⊙ with their characteristic half-mass radii between 0.1 and 2 pc. These clusters form by gathering material from 10-20 pc size scales. Clusters also show a mass-specific angular momentum relation, where more massive clusters have larger specific angular momentum due to the larger size scales, and hence angular momentum from which they gather their mass. The evolution shows that more massive clusters experience hierarchical merging process, which increases stellar age spreads up to 2-3 Myr. Less massive clusters appear to grow by gathering nearby recently formed sinks, while more massive clusters with their large global gravitational potentials are increasing their mass growth from gas accretion.

  14. Relational aspects of clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    The present paper is the first preliminary account of a project being planned for 2013, focussing on the development of the biomedico cluster in North Denmark. The project focusses on the relational capabilities of the cluster in terms of a number of organizational roles which are argued...... to be necessary for the development and growth of the upcoming cluster in question....

  15. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  16. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral struc- tures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  17. Capturing and Reuse of Design Knowledge during the Conceptual Design Process: Illustrated with a Snap-Fit Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Aakjær; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a concept for a computer based system, a Designer’s Workbench (DWB), is presented, for supporting a designer during the conceptual design process. The DWB is based on design units, which are a clustering of design knowledge related to the conceptual design phase. It is shown, how th...... these design units can be created by the designer during the conceptual design process, and later reused in another design project. The design of a snap-fit joint, is used to illustrated this approach to design....

  18. Students’ conceptual difficulties in hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Suarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from the students’ inability to establish a link between the kinematics and dynamics of moving fluids, and from a lack of understanding regarding how different regions of a system interact.

  19. A conceptual framework of integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Barnard

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the fndings of a qualitative study in which the construction of integrity of some business leaders was explored. Data were gathered through ten in-depth interviews with six South African business leaders commended to be champions of integrity. A grounded-theory approach to the data analysis elicited fve themes. These themes and their interrelatedness are discussed in this article and a conceptual framework of integrity is proposed. Integrity is conceptualised as a multifaceted and dynamic construct based on a moral foundation and inner drive that is managed by cognitive and affective processes manifesting various integrity-related behaviours.

  20. Students' conceptual difficulties in hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from the students' inability to establish a link between the kinematics and dynamics of moving fluids, and from a lack of understanding regarding how different regions of a system interact.

  1. Advancing health-related cluster analysis methodology: quantification of pairwise activity cluster similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Maher, Carol; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2015-03-01

    To date, most health-related time-use research has investigated behaviors in isolation; more recently, however, researchers have begun to conceptualize behaviors in the form of multidimensional patterns or clusters. The study employed 2 techniques: radar graphs and centroid vector length, angles and distance to quantify pairwise time-use cluster similarities among adolescents living in Australia (N = 1853) and in New Zealand (N = 679). Based on radar graph shape, 2 pairs of clusters were similar for both boys and girls. Using vector angles (VA), vector length (VL) and centroid distances (CD), 1 pair for each sex was considered most similar (boys: VA = 63°, VL = 44 and 50 units, and CD = 48 units; girls: VA = 23°, VL = 65 and 85 units, and CD = 36 units). Both methods employed to determine similarity had strengths and weaknesses. The description and quantification of cluster similarity is an important step in the research process. An ability to track and compare clusters may provide greater understanding of complex multidimensional relationships, and in relation to health behavior clusters, present opportunities to monitor and to intervene.

  2. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted...” published by the Department of Energy. ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: familial restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. For ...

  4. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  5. Emergent and multiplicative effect in a cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Linev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept “Cluster” of domestic and foreign literature traditionally is considered as administrative and organizational education. At the same time he represents the social and economic object created for life support of the person. The cluster is considered as system object. The main signs are defined and his life cycle is considered. Cluster self-organization takes place stages: growth of organizational weight and effects, market threats and restrictions interfering growth of organizational weight. Development of clusters requires the state support in various forms which is offered to be carried out at various stages depending on his type. The cluster is considered as the economic system possessing an emergent which dynamic aspect is the synergy, the receiving multiplicative effect causing an opportunity. The quantitative assessment of size of the listed effects represents rather complex challenge, at the same time there is a number of the factors which are with her in directly proportional dependence. The synergy which is present at a cluster allows to gain social and economic effect of his functioning by means of integration of effects of all structural elements bigger, than their simple sum. The emergent in a cluster causes increase of productivity at the expense of innovations in technological and organizational spheres and stimulations of the birth of new businesses. The multiplicative effect arising in a cluster provides incremental nature of economic results. It is possible to refer the following to the main economic results received from creation and development of clusters: decrease in transactional and transformational expenses and costs of formation and further use of infrastructure, economy of costs of introduction and development of the high and innovative technologies, optimization of logistic and information expenses, increase of business reputation and investment appeal.

  6. Modeling Clustered Data with Very Few Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Stapleton, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Small-sample inference with clustered data has received increased attention recently in the methodological literature, with several simulation studies being presented on the small-sample behavior of many methods. However, nearly all previous studies focus on a single class of methods (e.g., only multilevel models, only corrections to sandwich estimators), and the differential performance of various methods that can be implemented to accommodate clustered data with very few clusters is largely unknown, potentially due to the rigid disciplinary preferences. Furthermore, a majority of these studies focus on scenarios with 15 or more clusters and feature unrealistically simple data-generation models with very few predictors. This article, motivated by an applied educational psychology cluster randomized trial, presents a simulation study that simultaneously addresses the extreme small sample and differential performance (estimation bias, Type I error rates, and relative power) of 12 methods to account for clustered data with a model that features a more realistic number of predictors. The motivating data are then modeled with each method, and results are compared. Results show that generalized estimating equations perform poorly; the choice of Bayesian prior distributions affects performance; and fixed effect models perform quite well. Limitations and implications for applications are also discussed.

  7. Planets, pluralism, and conceptual lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Conceptual change can occur for a variety of reasons; some more scientifically significant than others. The 2006 definition of 'planet', which saw Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet, is an example toward the more mundane end of the scale. I argue however that this case serves as a useful example of a related phenomenon, whereby what appears to be a single kind term conceals two or more distinct concepts with independent scientific utility. I examine the historical background to this case, as a template for developing additional evidence for pluralist approaches to conceptual disputes within science and elsewhere. "I would like to note that the two speakers who have spoken so far have both done the same extremely insulting gaffe," he said. "They have used the expression 'a physical definition of a planet' - by implication, suggesting that a dynamical definition is not physics!" He said he felt he had to teach the panel "something you should know": that dynamics was indeed physics, and in fact was addressed before solid-state physics in every textbook ever written." (Boyle, 2010, p. 126)

  8. ADOxx Modelling Method Conceptualization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesat Efendioglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Modelling Methods Engineering is equally rising with the importance of domain specific languages (DSL and individual modelling approaches. In order to capture the relevant semantic primitives for a particular domain, it is necessary to involve both, (a domain experts, who identify relevant concepts as well as (b method engineers who compose a valid and applicable modelling approach. This process consists of a conceptual design of formal or semi-formal of modelling method as well as a reliable, migratable, maintainable and user friendly software development of the resulting modelling tool. Modelling Method Engineering cycle is often under-estimated as both the conceptual architecture requires formal verification and the tool implementation requires practical usability, hence we propose a guideline and corresponding tools to support actors with different background along this complex engineering process. Based on practical experience in business, more than twenty research projects within the EU frame programmes and a number of bilateral research initiatives, this paper introduces the phases, corresponding a toolbox and lessons learned with the aim to support the engineering of a modelling method. ”The proposed approach is illustrated and validated within use cases from three different EU-funded research projects in the fields of (1 Industry 4.0, (2 e-learning and (3 cloud computing. The paper discusses the approach, the evaluation results and derived outlooks.

  9. Clusters and how to make it work : Cluster strategy toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anu Manickam; Karel van Berkel

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are the magic answer to regional economic development. Firms in clusters are more innovative; cluster policy dominates EU policy; ‘top-sectors’ and excellence are the choice of national policy makers; clusters are ‘in’. But, clusters are complex, clusters are ‘messy’; there is no clear

  10. Finite-Element Software for Conceptual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Sandberg, G.; Damkilde, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Using finite-element analysis in conceptual design and teaching has quite different software requirements to that in engineering and research. In teaching and conceptual design the focus is on speed, interactivity and ease of use, whereas accuracy and precision are needed in engineering...... and research. Forcepad is an effort to provide a conceptual design and teaching tool in a finite-element software package. Forcepad is a two-dimensional finite-element application based on the same conceptual model as image editing applications such as Adobe Photoshop or Microsoft Paint. Instead of using...... success in teaching as well as in conceptual design environments such as architecture, industrial design and engineering. The addition of an optimisation algorithm and tablet PC support makes the software even more interesting as a tool for conceptual design....

  11. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Miao Lin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive cardiomyopathy in young children is rare and carries a poor prognosis. We report an 18-month-old girl with poor feeding and abdominal distension. Except for hepatomegaly, no other gastrointestinal abnormalities were found. She had normalsized ventricles but biatrial enlargement. Echocardiography demonstrated normal systolic but impaired diastolic function. Cardiac catheterization revealed a characteristic dip-and-plateau configuration of the right ventricular pressure tracing. The diagnosis turned out to be typical restrictive cardiomyopathy. The patient was maintained on aspirin while awaiting cardiac transplant.

  12. Regional development based on clusters in agri-food sector. Case of association „Cluster agro-food-ind Napoca”

    OpenAIRE

    Arion, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The paper has as main objective to observe the factors that encourage and/or restrict the development of clusters associative forms, especially on the agrifood sector. The study was focused on investigating the activity sector of an agrifood cluster in Cluj county, created as a complex SWOT analysis based on of relevant local, regional and national databases and official studies. The primary data were correlated focusing on the multifactorial role of associative form, which cluster is, could ...

  13. Open source clustering software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, M J L; Imoto, S; Nolan, J; Miyano, S

    2004-06-12

    We have implemented k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps in a single multipurpose open-source library of C routines, callable from other C and C++ programs. Using this library, we have created an improved version of Michael Eisen's well-known Cluster program for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix. In addition, we generated a Python and a Perl interface to the C Clustering Library, thereby combining the flexibility of a scripting language with the speed of C. The C Clustering Library and the corresponding Python C extension module Pycluster were released under the Python License, while the Perl module Algorithm::Cluster was released under the Artistic License. The GUI code Cluster 3.0 for Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix, as well as the corresponding command-line program, were released under the same license as the original Cluster code. The complete source code is available at http://bonsai.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mdehoon/software/cluster. Alternatively, Algorithm::Cluster can be downloaded from CPAN, while Pycluster is also available as part of the Biopython distribution.

  14. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and

  15. Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CADNexus proposes to develop an Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design tool. The application will enable design and analysis of unconventional and advanced...

  16. Product Conceptual Design Based on Agent Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minghai; Wang, Song; Huang, Jinting

    2017-10-01

    A cooperative Agent Federation was used in the complicated products conceptual design after studying the characteristics of the conceptual design. Each Agent Federation designed products cooperatively under the control of the chief Agent Federation. Thus, the mapping of ‘function-behaviour-structure’ was achieved, and the whole process of the conceptual design was accomplished. The functions, communications, cooperation and the theories about running of the key Agent Federation were discussed, and the frame of the conceptual design based on cooperative Agent Federation and work group was established in this paper.

  17. Wargaming Effectiveness: Its Conceptualization and Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cianciolo, Anna T; Sanders, William R; Black, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    .... Cognitive task analysis was used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the knowledge, skills, and other attributes that comprise the individual and team-related determinants, processes...

  18. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet

    2005-03-01

    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  19. A conceptual analysis of ageism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Thomas Nicolaj; Larsen, Lars; Solem, Per Erik

    2009-01-01

    Presently the research on ageism is marked by numerous more or less diffuse definitions of the concept of ageism. Many studies investigate both the causes and consequences of ageism without a clear definition of the phenomenon. As a consequence the area is characterized by diverging research...... results which are hard to re-test and to compare. It is therefore difficult to obtain a framework on ageism.This article offers a conceptual clarification of ageism. Based on a review of the existing literature, a new definition of ageism is introduced. This definition is more explicit and complex than...... previous definitions. This has two purposes. Firstly, its clarity constitutes the foundation for higher reliability and validity in future research about ageism. Secondly, its complexity offers a new way of systemizing theories on ageism....

  20. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  1. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary phenomenon of industrial clusters based on the work of Michael E. Porter, the central progenitor and promoter of the cluster notion. The dissertation pursues two central questions: 1) What is a cluster? and 2) How could Porter’s seemingly fuzzy...... to his membership on the Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, and that the cluster notion found in his influential book, Nations, represents a significant shift in his conception of cluster compared with his early conceptions. This shift, it is argued, is a deliberate attempt by Porter to create......, contested theory become so widely disseminated and applied as a normative and prescriptive strategy for economic development? The dissertation traces the introduction of the cluster notion into the EU’s Lisbon Strategy and demonstrates how its inclusion originates from Porter’s colleagues: Professor Örjan...

  2. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first......-principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough...... to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  3. Clustering by Local Gravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, C L Philip; You, Jane; Gu, Tianlong; Wong, Hau-San; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-02

    The objective of cluster analysis is to partition a set of data points into several groups based on a suitable distance measure. We first propose a model called local gravitation among data points. In this model, each data point is viewed as an object with mass, and associated with a local resultant force (LRF) generated by its neighbors. The motivation of this paper is that there exist distinct differences between the LRFs (including magnitudes and directions) of the data points close to the cluster centers and at the boundary of the clusters. To capture these differences efficiently, two new local measures named centrality and coordination are further investigated. Based on empirical observations, two new clustering methods called local gravitation clustering and communication with local agents are designed, and several test cases are conducted to verify their effectiveness. The experiments on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicate that both clustering approaches achieve good performance on most of the data sets.

  4. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...

  6. Processing Games with Restricted Capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.; Quant, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes processing problems and related cooperative games.In a processing problem there is a finite set of jobs, each requiring a specific amount of effort to be completed, whose costs depend linearly on their completion times.There are no restrictions whatsoever on the processing

  7. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  8. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  9. Conceptualizing functional cognition in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Neila J; Kendall, Diane L; Heaton, Shelley C; Kwon, Sooyeon; Velozo, Craig A; Duncan, Pamela W

    2008-01-01

    Up to 65% of individuals demonstrate poststroke cognitive impairments, which may increase hospital stay and caregiver burden. Randomized stroke clinical trials have emphasized physical recovery over cognition. Neuropsychological assessments have had limited utility in randomized clinical trials. These issues accentuate the need for a measure of functional cognition (the ability to accomplish everyday activities that rely on cognitive abilities, such as locating keys, conveying information, or planning activities). The aim of the study was to present the process used to establish domains of functional cognition for development of computer adaptive measure of functional cognition for stroke. Functional cognitive domains involved in identifying relevant neuropsychological constructs from the literature were conceptualized and finalized after advisory panel feedback from experts in neurology, neuropsychology, aphasiology, clinical trials, and epidemiology. The following 17 domains were proposed: receptive aphasia, expressive aphasia, agraphia, alexia, calculation, visuospatial, visuoperceptual, visuoconstruction, attention, language usage, executive functions, orientation, processing speed, memory, working memory, mood, awareness and abstract reasoning. The advisory panel recommended retaining the first 12 domains. Recommended changes included: to address only encoding and retrieval of recent information in the memory domain; to add domains for limb apraxia and poststroke depression; and to keep orientation as a separate domain or reclassify it under memory or attention. The final 10 domains included: language, reading and writing, numeric/calculation, limb praxis, visuospatial function, social use of language, emotional function, attention, executive function, and memory. Conceptualizing domains of functional cognition is the first step in developing a computer adaptive measure of functional cognition for stroke. Additional steps include developing, refining, and

  10. Active cluster crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    We study the appearance and properties of cluster crystals (solids in which the unit cell is occupied by a cluster of particles) in a two-dimensional system of self-propelled active Brownian particles with repulsive interactions. Self-propulsion deforms the clusters by depleting particle density inside, and for large speeds it melts the crystal. Continuous field descriptions at several levels of approximation allow us to identify the relevant physical mechanisms.

  11. Percolation in clustered networks

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Joel C

    2009-01-01

    The social networks that infectious diseases spread along are typically clustered. Because of the close relation between percolation and epidemic spread, the behavior of percolation in such networks gives insight into infectious disease dynamics. A number of authors have studied clustered networks, but the networks often contain preferential mixing between high degree nodes. We introduce a class of random clustered networks and another class of random unclustered networks with the same prefer...

  12. Cluster Symmetries and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freer Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many light nuclei display behaviour that indicates that rather than behaving as an A-body systems, the protons and neutrons condense into clusters. The α-particle is the most obvious example of such clustering. This contribution examines the role of such α-clustering on the structure, symmetries and dynamics of the nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, recent experimental measurements and future perspectives.

  13. Data Mining with Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Klímek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    One of the oppotunities in data mining is a use of clustering analysis. Clustering analysis belongs to unsupervised methods of data mining. We put here a focus on this method. Some basic principles are described in the second part of this paper. This method is examined on two examples from the marketing field. In the first example is used software Statgraphics 5.0Plus to solve clustering problem (nearest neighbour algorithm and Eucleidian distance); and in the second example is used Statistic...

  14. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters.

  15. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic...... clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters....

  16. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  17. Metal Cluster Topology. 1. Osmium Carbonyl Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-29

    AD-A164 372 NETAL CLUSTER TOPOLOGY I OSNIUM CARDONYI. CLUSTERS(U) i ’ GEORGIA IiNIY ATHENS DEPT OF CHENISTRY R 8 KING UCr S 29 JAN 86 TR-15 NSSSI4-S5...to distinguish between globally delocalized (D) and edge-localized (L) polyhedra. Treatment of globally delocalized polyhedra leads clearly to the same...of five internal orbitals for two of the six vertex atoms will make the pair of edge-fused tetrahedra unfavorable except for some of the heavy

  18. Students' Conceptual Ecologies and the Process of Conceptual Change in Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demastes, Sherry S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using conceptual change as theoretical lens, describes the structure of (n=4) learners' conceptual ecology within biological evolution and illustrates how this ecology influences the process of conceptual change. Prior conceptions relate to evolutionary theory, scientific and religious orientations, view of biological world, and acceptance of…

  19. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  20. Conceptual chemistry approach towards the support effect in supported vanadium oxides: valence bond calculations on the ionicity of vanadium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fievez, T.; De Proft, F.; Geerlings, P.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Havenith, R.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of bond ionicity, obtained via a valence bond analysis, is invoked in the interpretation of the catalytic activity of supported vanadium oxides, in analogy with previous work conducted within the framework of conceptual DFT. For a set of model clusters representing the vanadium oxide

  1. Conceptual chemistry approach towards the support effect in supported vanadium oxides : Valence bond calculations on the ionicity of vanadium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fievez, Tim; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of bond ionicity, obtained via a valence bond analysis, is invoked in the interpretation of the catalytic activity of supported vanadium oxides, in analogy with previous work conducted within the framework of conceptual DFT. For a set of model clusters representing the vanadium oxide

  2. Super Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    Super star clusters represent an extreme in the star formation process. They are very luminous, compact objects with L_V > 10(6) L_{V,sun} and diameters = 100 times higher than normal OB associations and clusters in ``giant H II regions''. Prior to HST about a dozen such objects had been identified in nearby galaxies, but at ground-based resolution they are nearly point sources. We review recent HST observations of individual super star clusters in NGC 1140, 1569, and 1705. They have half-light radii of only 2--3.5 pc, and some show evidence of substructure which should be resolvable with the repaired HST. After allowing for age differences, the surface brightness of NGC 1569-A is over 65 times higher than the core of 30 Doradus in the LMC and 1200 times higher than the mean rich LMC star cluster. In some cases, the energy released by the clusters into their surroundings is sufficient to drive galaxy-wide winds. Their properties make super star clusters good analogues of young globular clusters. In some, though not all, cases super star clusters appear to form in the aftermath of a merger or accretion event. The most impressive examples are the clusters detected by HST in NGC 1275 and 7252, one of which has the extraordinary luminosity ~ 6 times 10(8) L_{V,sun}. M82 affords a nearby view of a post-interaction system. HST imaging has identified over 80 super star clusters in its central regions with mean luminosities of ~ 3 times 10(6) L_{V,sun}. Their close packing and signs of interaction with the well-known supernova-driven wind suggest that they do not evolve independently. Super cluster evolution in starbursts is probably a collective phenomenon.

  3. Generations, Age Groups and Cohorts: Conceptual Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Victor W.

    1983-01-01

    Calls for a return to the conceptualization of Mannheim about generations and a parallel conceptualization concerning age groups. The usefulness of this approach is discussed in terms of the political sociology of age relations. Recommends precise definition and use of the terms cohort, generation, age grade, age stratum, age group, and generation…

  4. Towards Ontological Foundations for UML Conceptual Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Herre, Heinrich; Wagner, Gerd; Meerman, Robert; Tari, Zahir

    2002-01-01

    UML class diagrams can be used as a language for expressing a conceptual model of a domain. We use the General Ontological Language (GOL) and its underlying upper level ontology, proposed in [1], to evaluate the ontological correctness of a conceptual UML class model and to develop guidelines for

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Service Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Steen, Maarten W.A.; Pokraev, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for service modelling. This framework provides a conceptual basis for the modelling and reasoning about services, and the operations, such as composition and discovery, that are performed on them at design and run-time. In particular, the framework should

  6. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  7. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  8. A Conceptual Data Model of Datum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaleb, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    A new conceptual data model that addresses the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing concepts of datum systems, datums, datum features, datum targets, and the relationships among these concepts, is presented. Additionally, a portion of a related data model, Part 47 of STEP (ISO 10303-47), is reviewed and a comparison is made between it and the new conceptual data model.

  9. Gendered experiences of migration and conceptual knowledge of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Jonathan N; Ross, Norbert; Timura, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Migration is a gendered process which may differentially alter conceptual models of illness as variation and change within specific sub-domains reflect unique experiences and interactions. Forty Mexican migrants completed a questionnaire consisting of 30 true/false questions regarding the symptoms, causes, and treatments of 19 illnesses (570 total questions). Results were analyzed using the Cultural Consensus Model and residual agreement analyses to measure patterns of inter-informant agreement. While men and women share overall agreement, they differ significantly in conceptions of treatment. In general, men over-extend the efficacy of treatment options while women restrict the abilities of folk healers and emphasize dietary changes in treating many illnesses. Variations reflect different social roles and interactions as migration patterns and living conditions reinforce gendered roles in medical decision-making. Women have greater experience with illnesses and interactions with biomedical services, which causes them to approximate biomedical providers' model of treatment.

  10. Statistical properties of convex clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study the statistical properties of convex clustering. We establish that convex clustering is closely related to single linkage hierarchical clustering and $k$-means clustering. In addition, we derive the range of the tuning parameter for convex clustering that yields a non-trivial solution. We also provide an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom, and provide a finite sample bound for the prediction error for convex clustering. We compare convex clustering to so...

  11. Nonlocalized clustering and evolution of cluster structure in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that the THSR (Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Roepke) wave function describe well not only cluster-gas like structures but also ordinary cluster structures with spatial localization of clusters. Based on this fact, the container model has been proposed as a new model of cluster dynamics. For better description of cluster dynamics, extended version of container model has been introduced. The container model of cluster dynamics teaches us how is the evolution of cluster structure which starts from the ground state having shell-model structure to many kinds of cluster states up to the cluster-gas states.

  12. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) for Cluster B Personality Disorders: Creating Meaning, Mattering, and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, Julieann

    2012-01-01

    There are ten identified personality disorders, broken into three clusters: A, B, and C. Individuals with a cluster B diagnosis may demonstrate marked displays of emotional instability, erratic and disruptive patterns around interpersonal relationships, a myopic and restricted range of affect, a pronounced lack of empathy and insight, barriers…

  13. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  14. Government conceptual estimating for contracting and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Aerospace Price Book, a cost index, and conceptual cost estimating for cost-effective design and construction of space facilities is discussed. The price book consists of over 200 commonly used conceptual elements and 100 systems summaries of projects such as launch pads, processing facilities, and air locks. The cost index is composed of three divisions: (1) bid summaries of major Shuttle projects, (2) budget cost data sheets, and (3) cost management summaries; each of these divisions is described. Conceptual estimates of facilities and ground support equipment are required to provide the most probable project cost for budget, funding, and project approval purposes. Similar buildings, systems, and elements already designed are located in the cost index in order to make the best rough order of magnitude conceptual estimates for development of Space Shuttle facilities. An example displaying the applicability of the conceptual cost estimating procedure for the development of the KSC facilities is presented.

  15. Securing Personal Network Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  16. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  17. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test...

  18. Cluster Synchronization Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,

  19. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  20. Reflections on cluster policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for

  1. Calixarene-supported clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M.; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D.; Piligkos, Stergios

    2012-01-01

    A combination of complementary cluster ligands results in the formation of a new calixarene-supported ferromagnetic [Mn(5)] cage that displays the characteristic bonding modes of each support.......A combination of complementary cluster ligands results in the formation of a new calixarene-supported ferromagnetic [Mn(5)] cage that displays the characteristic bonding modes of each support....

  2. Detecting clusters of mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available Positive selection for protein function can lead to multiple mutations within a small stretch of DNA, i.e., to a cluster of mutations. Recently, Wagner proposed a method to detect such mutation clusters. His method, however, did not take into account that residues with high solvent accessibility are inherently more variable than residues with low solvent accessibility. Here, we propose a new algorithm to detect clustered evolution. Our algorithm controls for different substitution probabilities at buried and exposed sites in the tertiary protein structure, and uses random permutations to calculate accurate P values for inferred clusters. We apply the algorithm to genomes of bacteria, fly, and mammals, and find several clusters of mutations in functionally important regions of proteins. Surprisingly, clustered evolution is a relatively rare phenomenon. Only between 2% and 10% of the genes we analyze contain a statistically significant mutation cluster. We also find that not controlling for solvent accessibility leads to an excess of clusters in terminal and solvent-exposed regions of proteins. Our algorithm provides a novel method to identify functionally relevant divergence between groups of species. Moreover, it could also be useful to detect artifacts in automatically assembled genomes.

  3. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  4. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  5. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  6. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varganov, Sergey Aleksandrovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  7. Uncertainty in biodiversity science, policy and management: a conceptual overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Haila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The protection of biodiversity is a complex societal, political and ultimately practical imperative of current global society. The imperative builds upon scientific knowledge on human dependence on the life-support systems of the Earth. This paper aims at introducing main types of uncertainty inherent in biodiversity science, policy and management, as an introduction to a companion paper summarizing practical experiences of scientists and scholars (Haila et al. 2014. Uncertainty is a cluster concept: the actual nature of uncertainty is inherently context-bound. We use semantic space as a conceptual device to identify key dimensions of uncertainty in the context of biodiversity protection; these relate to [i] data; [ii] proxies; [iii] concepts; [iv] policy and management; and [v] normative goals. Semantic space offers an analytic perspective for drawing critical distinctions between types of uncertainty, identifying fruitful resonances that help to cope with the uncertainties, and building up collaboration between different specialists to support mutual social learning.

  8. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  9. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  10. Enhanced peptide quantification using spectral count clustering and cluster abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seungmook

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of protein expression by means of mass spectrometry (MS has been introduced in various proteomics studies. In particular, two label-free quantification methods, such as spectral counting and spectra feature analysis have been extensively investigated in a wide variety of proteomic studies. The cornerstone of both methods is peptide identification based on a proteomic database search and subsequent estimation of peptide retention time. However, they often suffer from restrictive database search and inaccurate estimation of the liquid chromatography (LC retention time. Furthermore, conventional peptide identification methods based on the spectral library search algorithms such as SEQUEST or SpectraST have been found to provide neither the best match nor high-scored matches. Lastly, these methods are limited in the sense that target peptides cannot be identified unless they have been previously generated and stored into the database or spectral libraries. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel method, namely Quantification method based on Finding the Identical Spectral set for a Homogenous peptide (Q-FISH to estimate the peptide's abundance from its tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS spectra through the direct comparison of experimental spectra. Intuitively, our Q-FISH method compares all possible pairs of experimental spectra in order to identify both known and novel proteins, significantly enhancing identification accuracy by grouping replicated spectra from the same peptide targets. Results We applied Q-FISH to Nano-LC-MS/MS data obtained from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and normal liver tissue samples to identify differentially expressed peptides between the normal and disease samples. For a total of 44,318 spectra obtained through MS/MS analysis, Q-FISH yielded 14,747 clusters. Among these, 5,777 clusters were identified only in the HCC sample, 6,648 clusters only in the normal tissue sample

  11. Conceptualizing cancer drugs as classifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Nathan Lawlor

    Full Text Available Cancer and healthy cells have distinct distributions of molecular properties and thus respond differently to drugs. Cancer drugs ideally kill cancer cells while limiting harm to healthy cells. However, the inherent variance among cells in both cancer and healthy cell populations increases the difficulty of selective drug action. Here we formalize a classification framework based on the idea that an ideal cancer drug should maximally discriminate between cancer and healthy cells. More specifically, this discrimination should be performed on the basis of measurable cell markers. We divide the problem into three parts which we explore with examples. First, molecular markers should discriminate cancer cells from healthy cells at the single-cell level. Second, the effects of drugs should be statistically predicted by these molecular markers. Third, drugs should be optimized for classification performance. We find that expression levels of a handful of genes suffice to discriminate well between individual cells in cancer and healthy tissue. We also find that gene expression predicts the efficacy of some cancer drugs, suggesting that these cancer drugs act as suboptimal classifiers using gene profiles. Finally, we formulate a framework that defines an optimal drug, and predicts drug cocktails that may target cancer more accurately than the individual drugs alone. Conceptualizing cancer drugs as solving a discrimination problem in the high-dimensional space of molecular markers promises to inform the design of new cancer drugs and drug cocktails.

  12. Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-11-06

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

  13. Game innovation through conceptual blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

      integration  network  consisting  of  at  least  two  input  spaces,  a  generic  space  and  a  blended  space  as  well  as  its  governing  principles  consisting  of  composition,  completion,  and  elaboration.  With  the  help  of  these  instruments  I  analyze computer  games like  Tuper  Tario  Tros.......,  Hell.  The  purpose  of  my  approach  is  not  so  much  to  validate  the  ideas  of  conceptual  blending  theory  through  another  field  of  examples  (computer  games)  but  to  name  and analyze characteristics of the mentioned games with the  help of a given method....

  14. Paralinguistic correlates of conceptual structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J

    2003-06-01

    How is conceptual knowledge transmitted during conversation? When a speaker refers to an object, the name that the speaker chooses conveys information about category identity. In addition, I propose that a speaker's confidence in a classification can convey information about category structure. Because atypical instances of a category are more difficult to classify than typical instances, when speakers refer to these instances their lack of confidence will manifest itself "paralinguistically"--that is, in the form of hesitations, filled pauses, or rising prosody. These features can help listeners learn by enabling them to differentiate good from bad examples of a category. So that this hypothesis could be evaluated, in a category learning experiment participants learned a set of novel colors from a speaker. When the speaker's paralinguistically expressed confidence was consistent with the underlying category structure, learners acquired the categories more rapidly and showed better category differentiation from the earliest moments of learning. These findings have important implications for theories of conversational coordination and language learning.

  15. On (scientific) integrity: conceptual clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão Neves, Maria do Céu

    2017-09-13

    The notion of "integrity" is currently quite common and broadly recognized as complex, mostly due to its recurring and diverse application in various distinct domains such as the physical, psychic or moral, the personal or professional, that of the human being or of the totality of beings. Nevertheless, its adjectivation imprints a specific meaning, as happens in the case of "scientific integrity". This concept has been defined mostly by via negativa, by pointing out what goes against integrity, that is, through the identification of its infringements, which has also not facilitated the elaboration of an overarching and consensual code of scientific integrity. In this context, it is deemed necessary to clarify the notion of "integrity", first etymologically, recovering the original meaning of the term, and then in a specifically conceptual way, through the identification of the various meanings with which the term can be legitimately used, particularly in the domain of scientific research and innovation. These two steps are fundamental and indispensable for a forthcoming attempt at systematizing the requirements of "scientific integrity".

  16. Misty Mountain clustering: application to fast unsupervised flow cytometry gating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sealfon Stuart C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many important clustering questions in computational biology for which no satisfactory method exists. Automated clustering algorithms, when applied to large, multidimensional datasets, such as flow cytometry data, prove unsatisfactory in terms of speed, problems with local minima or cluster shape bias. Model-based approaches are restricted by the assumptions of the fitting functions. Furthermore, model based clustering requires serial clustering for all cluster numbers within a user defined interval. The final cluster number is then selected by various criteria. These supervised serial clustering methods are time consuming and frequently different criteria result in different optimal cluster numbers. Various unsupervised heuristic approaches that have been developed such as affinity propagation are too expensive to be applied to datasets on the order of 106 points that are often generated by high throughput experiments. Results To circumvent these limitations, we developed a new, unsupervised density contour clustering algorithm, called Misty Mountain, that is based on percolation theory and that efficiently analyzes large data sets. The approach can be envisioned as a progressive top-down removal of clouds covering a data histogram relief map to identify clusters by the appearance of statistically distinct peaks and ridges. This is a parallel clustering method that finds every cluster after analyzing only once the cross sections of the histogram. The overall run time for the composite steps of the algorithm increases linearly by the number of data points. The clustering of 106 data points in 2D data space takes place within about 15 seconds on a standard laptop PC. Comparison of the performance of this algorithm with other state of the art automated flow cytometry gating methods indicate that Misty Mountain provides substantial improvements in both run time and in the accuracy of cluster assignment. Conclusions

  17. What is conceptual research in psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne; Fischmann, Tamara

    2006-10-01

    The development of psychoanalysis as a science and clinical practice has always relied heavily on various forms of conceptual research. Thus, conceptual research has clarified, formulated and reformulated psychoanalytic concepts permitting to better shape the findings emerging in the clinical setting. By enhancing clarity and explicitness in concept usage it has facilitated the integration of existing psychoanalytic thinking as well as the development of new ways of looking at clinical and extraclinical data. Moreover, it has offered conceptual bridges to neighbouring disciplines particularly interested in psychoanalysis, e.g. philosophy, sociology, aesthetics, history of art and literature, and more recently cognitive science/neuroscience. In the present phase of psychoanalytic pluralism, of worldwide scientific communication among psychoanalysts irrespective of language differences and furthermore of an intensifying dialogue with other disciplines, the relevance of conceptual research is steadily increasing. Yet, it still often seems insufficiently clear how conceptual research can be differentiated from clinical and empirical research in psychoanalysis. Therefore, the Subcommittee for Conceptual Research of the IPA presents some of its considerations on the similarities and the differences between various forms of clinical and extraclinical research, their specific aims, quality criteria and thus their specific chances as well as their specific limitations in this paper. Examples taken from six issues of the International Journal of Psychoanalysis in 2002-3 serve as illustrations for seven different subtypes of conceptual research.

  18. Fuzzy tool for conceptual modeling under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walek, Bogdan; Klimes, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of fuzzy tool for creating conceptual model under uncertainty. The paper identifies a problem in current approach of creating conceptual model of information system and suggests new methodics and tool for creating conceptual model, which can processes uncertain user requirements. The proposed tool uses a general model of the decision support system, that works with the vague input values and IF-THEN fuzzy rules, and creates a list of appropriate and acceptable solutions, and then allows to choose the best solution. In the proposed tool entities, attributes and relations between entitites in the resulting conceptual model are selected via a decision support system. In the paper we present six main parts of proposed tool, that generates suitable entities, attributes and relations between entities, then generates them to XML format and finally visualizes the resulting conceptual model. The created conceptual model illustrates the analysis of information system requirements. The proposed tool is shown on creating conceptual model of the hotel information system.

  19. Spatial-temporal clustering of tornadoes

    OpenAIRE

    Malamud, Bruce D.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Brooks, Harold E.

    2016-01-01

    The standard measure of the intensity of a tornado is the Enhanced Fujita scale, which is based qualitatively on the damage caused by a tornado. An alternative measure of tornado intensity is the tornado path length, L. Here we examine the spatial–temporal clustering of severe tornadoes, which we define as having path lengths L ≥  10 km. Of particular concern are tornado outbreaks, when a large number of severe tornadoes occur in a day in a restricted region. We apply a spat...

  20. Studies in clustering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, George

    In recent years the properties of percolation models have been studied intensively. The purpose of our project was to develop a general theory of percolation and clustering between particles of arbitrary size and shape, with arbitrary correlations between them. The goal of such a theory includes the treatment of continuum percolation as well as a novel treatment of lattice percolation. We made substantial progress toward this goal. The quantities basic to a description of clustering, the mean cluster size, mean number of clusters, etc., were developed. Concise formulas were given for the terms in such series, and proved, at least for sufficiently low densities, that the series are absolutely convergent. These series can now be used to construct Pade approximants that will allow one to probe the percolation transition. A scaled-particle theory of percolation was developed which gives analytic approximants for the mean number of clusters in a large class of two and three dimensional percolation models. Although this quantity is essential in many applications, e.g., explaining colligative properties, and interpreting low-angle light-scattering data, no systematic studies of it have been done before this work. Recently carried out detailed computer simulations show that the mean number of clusters is given to high accuracy by several of there approximations. Extensions of this work will allow calculation of the complete cluster size distribution.

  1. Automatic Clustering of e-Commerce Product Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham SALEEM Al-SARRAYRIH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resolving the issue of storing large amounts of digital information is a challenge, searching for a certain object within a tremendous amount of data is like looking for a needle in a haystack. The increase in size and diversity of stored data makes the retrieval of the information needed more and more difficult. This research describes the use of clustering techniques and mathematical models in the field of information retrieval when dealing with text documents. In this study, the traditional clustering and clustering extended by LSA are compared by applying them on the preprocessed text corpus using the weighted centroid clustering algorithm and the cosine similarity to measure the documents' correlation. LSA is assumed to improve the clustering by bringing related words closer in a conceptual space. It is deduced that the clustering depends on the document representation and the similarity measure used. When dealing with short documents, LSA does not bring yield improved results compared to the traditional clustering techniques. The recall value is nevertheless higher because of the increased number of related documents returned. However, the results are less accurate than with traditional techniques.

  2. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  3. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  4. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  5. CLUSTERING SU GRAFO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maravalle

    1992-04-01

    general graphs based on the solution of a sequence of restricted problems where G is replaced by one of its spanning tree ; a complete set of real-life applications and a comparison with a hiernrchical algorithm.

  6. The use of oxygen in cluster headache treatment worldwide - a survey of the International Headache Society (IHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Stefan; Rapoport, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Background Oxygen is recommended for the treatment of acute cluster headache attacks. However, it is not available worldwide. Methods The International Headache Society performed a survey among its national member societies on the availability and the restrictions for oxygen in the treatment of cluster headache. Results Oxygen is reimbursed in 50% of all countries responding ( n = 22). There are additional restrictions in the reimbursement of the facial mask and with respect to age. Conclusion Oxygen for the treatment of cluster headache attack is not reimbursed worldwide. Headache societies should pressure national/public health authorities to reimburse oxygen for cluster headache in all countries.

  7. Personalizing knowledge delivery services: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.

  8. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  9. Conceptual Models Core to Good Design

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    People make use of software applications in their activities, applying them as tools in carrying out tasks. That this use should be good for people--easy, effective, efficient, and enjoyable--is a principal goal of design. In this book, we present the notion of Conceptual Models, and argue that Conceptual Models are core to achieving good design. From years of helping companies create software applications, we have come to believe that building applications without Conceptual Models is just asking for designs that will be confusing and difficult to learn, remember, and use. We show how Concept

  10. Extracting Conceptual Feature Structures from Text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Lassen, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to indexing texts by their conceptual content using ontologies along with lexico-syntactic information and semantic role assignment provided by lexical resources. The conceptual content of meaningful chunks of text is transformed into conceptual feature structures...... and mapped into concepts in a generative ontology. Synonymous but linguistically quite distinct expressions are mapped to the same concept in the ontology. This allows us to perform a content-based search which will retrieve relevant documents independently of the linguistic form of the query as well...

  11. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  12. The concept of cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  13. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  14. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  15. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  16. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  17. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  18. The effect of conceptual metaphors through guided inquiry on student's conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menia, Meli; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Rochintaniawati, Diana

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student's conceptual change of global warming after integrated science learning based guided inquiry through conceptual metaphors. This study used a quasi-experimental with a nonequivalent control group design. The subject was students of two classes of one of MTsN Salido. Data was collected using conceptual change test (pretest and posttest), observation sheet to observe the learning processes, questionnaire sheet to identify students responses, and interview to identifyteacher'srespons of science learning with conceptual metaphors. The results showed that science learning based guided inquiry with conceptual metaphors is better than science learning without conceptual metaphors. The average of posttest experimental class was 79,40 and control class was 66,09. The student's conceptual change for two classes changed significantly byusing mann whitney U testwith P= 0,003(P less than sig. value, Plearning based guided inquiry with conceptual metaphors class and integrated science learning without conceptual metaphors class. The study also showed that teachers and studentsgive positive responsesto implementation of integrated science learning based guided inquiry with conceptual metaphors.

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction - part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major and silent cause of various morbidity and mortality for the fetal and neonatal population. It is defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal for the growth potential of that specific infant. The terms IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are often used interchangeably, although there exists subtle differences between the two. IUGR/SGA is an end result of various etiologies that includes maternal, placental and fetal factors and recently added genetic factors too, also contribute to IUGR. In this review article we will cover the antenatal aspect of IUGR and management with proven preventive intervention.

  20. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S

    1994-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  1. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development....... Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is conducted of both academic and policy-oriented writings that contain the keywords “industrial clusters” and “developing countries” in combination with one or more of the following terms: corporate social responsibility, environmental management, labor...... in this field and their comments incorporated in the final version submitted to Corporate Governance. Findings – The article traces the origins of the debate on industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries back to the early 1990s when clusters began to be seen as an important vehicle for local economic...

  2. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  3. How Clusters Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology innovation clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, universities, and other organizations with a focus on environmental technology. They play a key role in addressing the nation’s pressing environmental problems.

  4. Air void clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been identified as a potential source of : low strengths in concrete mixes by several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research was : carried out to (1) develop a quantitati...

  5. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  6. Eliciting conceptual models to support interdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, P.J.; Bots, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Constructing interdisciplinary knowledge is particularly difficult because scientific knowledge is situated in its discipline. Researchers must find common ground to share, and this causes high transaction costs. This article reports a method of conceptual analysis to elicit, analyse and compare

  7. Conceptual history and History of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad VILANOU I TORRANO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After noting the importance of linguistic turn in the field of historiography, the two leading currents in the field of conceptual history are identi- fied, the Cambridge school and Reinhart Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte. The paper focuses on the analysis of the latter trend in conceptual history, linked to the phi- losophical (Heidegger, Gadamer, political (Schmitt and historical (Dilthey tradi- tion within the German academic community. The paper then reviews the origin and nature of the History of Pedagogy, which arose as part of the classic History of Ideas and later gave rise, after the Second World War, to a Social History of Education. Finally, a conceptual History of Education is proposed that, in addi- tion to addressing the various conceptual strata included in the different terms, also takes into account the intellectual and cultural aspects through a return to discourses and pedadogic narratives.

  8. A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Christopher; Patterson, Malcolm; Wood, Stephen; Booth, Andrew; Rick, Jo; Balain, Shashi

    2007-01-01

    ..., and the extent to which outcomes can be improved. The authors undertook a critical review of existing conceptualisations of implementation fidelity and developed a new conceptual framework for understanding and measuring the process...

  9. Two Ponds Canal Realignment Conceptual Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tetra Tech RMC has preformed storm routing calculations, prepared a conceptual grading plan, and developed a preliminary cost estimate. Additionally, pond sizing and...

  10. Disentangling Crosscutting in AOSD: A Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Conejero, J.M.

    Crosscutting is usually described in terms of scattering and tangling. However, the distinction between these three concepts is vague, sometimes leading to ambiguous statements and confusion. We propose a conceptual framework for crosscutting. Crosscutting is clearly distinguished from scattering

  11. Globular clusters with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Giuffrida, G.; Marinoni, S.

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of crowded fields in Gaia data will only be a reality in a few years from now. In particular, for globular clusters, only the end-of-mission data (public in 2022-2023) will have the necessary full crowding treatment and will reach sufficient quality for the faintest stars. As a consequence, the work on the deblending and decontamination pipelines is still ongoing. We describe the present status of the pipelines for different Gaia instruments, and we model the end-of-mission crowding errors on the basis of available information. We then apply the nominal post-launch Gaia performances, appropriately worsened by the estimated crowding errors, to a set of 18 simulated globular clusters with different concentration, distance and field contamination. We conclude that there will be 103-104 stars with astrometric performances virtually untouched by crowding (contaminated by <1 mmag) in the majority of clusters. The most limiting factor will be field crowding, not cluster crowding: the most contaminated clusters will only contain 10-100 clean stars. We also conclude that (i) the systemic proper motions and parallaxes will be determined to 1 per cent or better up to ≃15 kpc, and the nearby clusters will have radial velocities to a few km s-1; (ii) internal kinematics will be of unprecedented quality, cluster masses will be determined to ≃10 per cent up to 15 kpc and beyond, and it will be possible to identify differences of a few km s-1 or less in the kinematics (if any) of cluster sub-populations up to 10 kpc and beyond; (iii) the brightest stars (V ≃ 17 mag) will have space-quality, wide-field photometry (mmag errors), and all Gaia photometry will have 1-3 per cent errors on the absolute photometric calibration.

  12. Structure of Silicon Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jun; Bahel, Atul; Ramakrishna, Mushti V.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the structures of silicon clusters in the 11-14 atom size range using the tight-binding molecular dynamics method. These calculations reveal that \\Si{11} is an icosahedron with one missing cap, \\Si{12} is a complete icosahedron, \\Si{13} is a surface capped icosahedron, and \\Si{14} is a 4-4-4 layer structure with two caps. The characteristic feature of these clusters is that they are all surface.

  13. Problem-Solving Test: Restriction Endonuclease Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    The term "restriction endonuclease mapping" covers a number of related techniques used to identify specific restriction enzyme recognition sites on small DNA molecules. A method for restriction endonuclease mapping of a 1,000-basepair (bp)-long DNA molecule is described in the fictitious experiment of this test. The most important fact needed to…

  14. Restriction Enzyme Mapping: A Simple Student Practical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An experiment that uses the recombinant plasmid pX1108 to illustrate restriction mapping is described. The experiment involves three restriction enzymes and employs single and double restriction enzyme digestions. A list of needed materials, procedures, safety precautions, results, and discussion are included. (KR)

  15. Restrictive Imputation of Incomplete Survey Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323348793

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on finding plausible imputations when there is some restriction posed on the imputation model. In these restrictive situations, current imputation methodology does not lead to satisfactory imputations. The restrictions, and the resulting missing data problems are real-life

  16. 50 CFR 648.23 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gear, on the top of the regulated portion of a trawl net that results in an effective mesh opening of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.23 Section 648.23... Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.23 Gear restrictions. (a) Mesh restrictions and exemptions...

  17. Restricting Gang Clothing in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, N. Denise

    1993-01-01

    Examines whether schools can or should restrict gang clothing and how to restrict gang clothing without infringing on students' constitutional rights. Concludes that a policy that stresses the importance of reducing distractions that inhibit learning is more likely to be found legal than a policy restricting gang communication via limitations on…

  18. Restrictive management of neonatal polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, Iris; Strauss, Tzipora; Lubin, Daniel; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Kenet, Gili; Kuint, Jacob

    2011-10-01

    Partial exchange transfusion (PET) is traditionally suggested as treatment for neonates diagnosed with polycythemia. Nevertheless, justification of this treatment is controversial. We evaluated the risk for short-term complications associated with a restrictive treatment protocol for neonatal polycythemia. A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. Three treatment groups were defined and managed according to their degree of polycythemia, defined by capillary tube filled with venous blood and manually centrifuged hematocrit: group 1, hematocrit 65 to 69% and no special treatment was recommended; group 2, hematocrit 70 to 75% and intravenous fluids were given and feedings were withheld until hematocrit decreased to polycythemia. The overall rate of short-term complications was 15% (28 neonates). Seizures, proven necrotizing enterocolitis, or thrombosis did not occur in any participating neonates. PET was performed in 31 (16%) neonates. The groups did not differ in their rate of early neonatal morbidities or length of hospitalization. Restrictive treatment for neonatal asymptomatic polycythemia is not associated with an increased risk of short-term complications. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  19. Music-therapy analyzed through conceptual mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rodolfo; de la Fuente, Rebeca

    2002-11-01

    Conceptual maps have been employed lately as a learning tool, as a modern study technique, and as a new way to understand intelligence, which allows for the development of a strong theoretical reference, in order to prove the research hypothesis. This paper presents a music-therapy analysis based on this tool to produce a conceptual mapping network, which ranges from magic through the rigor of the hard sciences.

  20. A conceptual model for vision rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Pamela S.; Rizzo, John-Ross; Hreha, Kimberly; Wertheimer, Jeffrey; Kaldenberg, Jennifer; Hironaka, Dawn; Riggs, Richard; Colenbrander, August

    2017-01-01

    Vision impairments are highly prevalent after acquired brain injury (ABI). Conceptual models that focus on constructing intellectual frameworks greatly facilitate comprehension and implementation of practice guidelines in an interprofessional setting. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the vision literature in ABI, describe a conceptual model for vision rehabilitation, explain its potential clinical inferences, and discuss its translation into rehabilitation across multiple practice settings and disciplines. PMID:27997671

  1. Restriction of Retrotransposon Mobilization in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by Transcriptional Silencing and Higher-Order Chromatin Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murton, Heather E.; Grady, Patrick J. R.; Chan, Tsun Ho; Cam, Hugh P.; Whitehall, Simon K.

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled propagation of retrotransposons is potentially detrimental to host genome integrity. Therefore, cells have evolved surveillance mechanisms to restrict the mobility of these elements. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the Tf2 LTR retrotransposons are transcriptionally silenced and are also clustered in the nucleus into structures termed Tf bodies. Here we describe the impact of silencing and clustering on the mobility of an endogenous Tf2 element. Deletion of genes such as set1+ (histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase) or abp1+ (CENP-B homolog) that both alleviate silencing and clustering, result in a corresponding increase in mobilization. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active Sre1, a transcriptional activator of Tf2 elements, also alleviates clustering and induces mobilization. In contrast, clustering is not disrupted by loss of the HIRA histone chaperone, despite high levels of expression, and in this background, mobilization frequency is only marginally increased. Thus, mutations that compromise transcriptional silencing but not Tf bodies are insufficient to drive mobilization. Furthermore, analyses of mutant alleles that separate the transcriptional repression and clustering functions of Set1 are consistent with control of Tf2 propagation via a combination of silencing and spatial organization. Our results indicate that host surveillance mechanisms operate at multiple levels to restrict Tf2 retrotransposon mobilization. PMID:27343236

  2. Restriction of Retrotransposon Mobilization in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by Transcriptional Silencing and Higher-Order Chromatin Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murton, Heather E; Grady, Patrick J R; Chan, Tsun Ho; Cam, Hugh P; Whitehall, Simon K

    2016-08-01

    Uncontrolled propagation of retrotransposons is potentially detrimental to host genome integrity. Therefore, cells have evolved surveillance mechanisms to restrict the mobility of these elements. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the Tf2 LTR retrotransposons are transcriptionally silenced and are also clustered in the nucleus into structures termed Tf bodies. Here we describe the impact of silencing and clustering on the mobility of an endogenous Tf2 element. Deletion of genes such as set1(+) (histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase) or abp1(+) (CENP-B homolog) that both alleviate silencing and clustering, result in a corresponding increase in mobilization. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active Sre1, a transcriptional activator of Tf2 elements, also alleviates clustering and induces mobilization. In contrast, clustering is not disrupted by loss of the HIRA histone chaperone, despite high levels of expression, and in this background, mobilization frequency is only marginally increased. Thus, mutations that compromise transcriptional silencing but not Tf bodies are insufficient to drive mobilization. Furthermore, analyses of mutant alleles that separate the transcriptional repression and clustering functions of Set1 are consistent with control of Tf2 propagation via a combination of silencing and spatial organization. Our results indicate that host surveillance mechanisms operate at multiple levels to restrict Tf2 retrotransposon mobilization. Copyright © 2016 Murton et al.

  3. Detecting space-time disease clusters with arbitrary shapes and sizes using a co-clustering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sami; Daud, Hanita; Dass, Sarat C; Khan, Habib Nawaz; Khalil, Alamgir

    2017-11-06

    Ability to detect potential space-time clusters in spatio-temporal data on disease occurrences is necessary for conducting surveillance and implementing disease prevention policies. Most existing techniques use geometrically shaped (circular, elliptical or square) scanning windows to discover disease clusters. In certain situations, where the disease occurrences tend to cluster in very irregularly shaped areas, these algorithms are not feasible in practise for the detection of space-time clusters. To address this problem, a new algorithm is proposed, which uses a co-clustering strategy to detect prospective and retrospective space-time disease clusters with no restriction on shape and size. The proposed method detects space-time disease clusters by tracking the changes in space-time occurrence structure instead of an in-depth search over space. This method was utilised to detect potential clusters in the annual and monthly malaria data in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan from 2012 to 2016 visualising the results on a heat map. The results of the annual data analysis showed that the most likely hotspot emerged in three sub-regions in the years 2013-2014. The most likely hotspots in monthly data appeared in the month of July to October in each year and showed a strong periodic trend.

  4. Student initiative: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the description and scientific consideration of the attitude of children and youth towards their education and development, the concept of student initiative has been gaining ground lately, and it is hence the subject of analysis in this paper. The analysis is important because of the discrepancy between the increased efforts of the key educational policy holders to promote the idea about the importance of the development of student initiative and rare acceptance of this idea among theoreticians, researchers and practitioners dealing with the education and development of children and youth. By concretising the features of initiative student behaviour, our aim was, on the one hand, to observe the structural determinants and scientific status of the very concept of an initiative student, and, on the other, to contribute to the understanding of the initiative behaviour in practice. In the first part of the paper we deal with different notions and concretisations of the features of initiative behaviour of children and youth, which includes the consideration of: basic student initiative, academic student initiative, individual student initiative, the capacity for initiative and personal development initiative. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the relations of the concept of student initiative with the similar general concepts (activity/passivity, proactivity, agency and the concepts immediately related to school environment (student involvement, student participation. The results of our analysis indicate that the concept of student initiative has: particular features that differentiate it from similar concepts; the potential to reach the status of a scientific concept, bearing in mind the initial empirical specifications and general empirical verifiability of the yet unverified determinants of the concept. In the concluding part of the paper, we discuss the implications of the conceptual analysis for further research, as well as for

  5. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful.

  7. Clustered tuberculosis in a low-burden country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Z; Andersen, A B; Kok-Jensen, A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has proved to be a powerful tool in tuberculosis surveillance, epidemiology, and control. Based on results obtained through 15 years of nationwide IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping of M. tuberculosis cases in Denmark......, a country on the way toward tuberculosis elimination, we discuss M. tuberculosis transmission dynamics and point to areas for control interventions. Cases with 100% identical genotypes (RFLP patterns) were defined as clustered, and a cluster was defined as cases with an identical genotype. Of 4,601 included...... cases, corresponding to 76% of reported and 97% of culture-verified tuberculosis cases in the country, 56% were clustered, of which 69% were Danes. Generally, Danes were more often in large clusters (= 50 persons), older (mean age, 45 years), and male (male/female ratio, 2.5). Also, Danes had a higher...

  8. Determination of atomic cluster structure with cluster fusion algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters.......We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters....

  9. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  10. Applying a resources framework to analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest one redefinition of common clusters of questions used to analyze student responses on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. Our goal is to propose a methodology that moves beyond an analysis of student learning defined by correct responses, either on the overall test or on clusters of questions defined solely by content. We use the resources framework theory of learning to define clusters within this experimental test that was designed without the resources framework in mind. We take special note of the contextual and representational dependence of questions with seemingly similar physics content. We analyze clusters in ways that allow the most common incorrect answers to give as much, or more, information as the correctness of responses in that cluster. We show that false positives can be found, especially on questions dealing with Newton’s third law. We apply our clustering to a small set of data to illustrate the value of comparing students’ incorrect responses which are otherwise identical on a correct or incorrect analysis. Our work provides a connection between theory and experiment in the area of survey design and the resources framework.

  11. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  12. Subspace K-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the

  13. FINDCLUS : Fuzzy INdividual Differences CLUStering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordani, Paolo; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    ADditive CLUStering (ADCLUS) is a tool for overlapping clustering of two-way proximity matrices (objects x objects). In Simple Additive Fuzzy Clustering (SAFC), a variant of ADCLUS is introduced providing a fuzzy partition of the objects, that is the objects belong to the clusters with the so-called

  14. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos M G A; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees W J; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Discussion Paper. The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010-2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cluster counting in helium based gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, G.; Grancagnolo, F.; Spagnolo, S.

    1997-02-01

    The statistical advantages deriving from counting primary ionization, as opposed to the conventional energy loss measurement, are extensively discussed. A primary ionization counting method is proposed for a "traditional", cylindrical, single sense wire cell drift chamber, which makes use of a helium based gas mixture. Its conceptual feasibility is proven by means of a simple Monte Carlo simulation. A counting algorithm is developed and tested on the simulation output. A definition of the parameters of the read-out and of the digitizing electronics is given, assuming the described counting algorithm applied to a general detector design, in order to have a complete and realistic planning of a cluster counting measurement. Finally, some interesting results from a beam test, performed according to the described parameters, on primary ionization measurements and on {π}/{μ} separation are shown.

  16. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  17. Deep Learning and Developmental Learning: Emergence of Fine-to-Coarse Conceptual Categories at Layers of Deep Belief Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I investigate conceptual categories derived from developmental processing in a deep neural network. The similarity matrices of deep representation at each layer of neural network are computed and compared with their raw representation. While the clusters generated by raw representation stand at the basic level of abstraction, conceptual categories obtained from deep representation shows a bottom-up transition procedure. Results demonstrate a developmental course of learning from specific to general level of abstraction through learned layers of representations in a deep belief network. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  19. Using social media to support cluster development : Working Paper (draft- do not quote)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. de Graaf; Anu Manickam

    2012-01-01

    Developing European transnational clusters is a cornerstone in current EU-policies towards a sustainable competitive and open European economy. Within this conceptual paper relates these objectives to new developments in the application of network IT or, in popular terms, the rise of social

  20. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...

  1. Exotic cluster structures on

    CERN Document Server

    Gekhtman, M; Vainshtein, A

    2017-01-01

    This is the second paper in the series of papers dedicated to the study of natural cluster structures in the rings of regular functions on simple complex Lie groups and Poisson-Lie structures compatible with these cluster structures. According to our main conjecture, each class in the Belavin-Drinfeld classification of Poisson-Lie structures on \\mathcal{G} corresponds to a cluster structure in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathcal{G}). The authors have shown before that this conjecture holds for any \\mathcal{G} in the case of the standard Poisson-Lie structure and for all Belavin-Drinfeld classes in SL_n, n<5. In this paper the authors establish it for the Cremmer-Gervais Poisson-Lie structure on SL_n, which is the least similar to the standard one.

  2. The Peculiarities of Cluster Formation in the Russian Nanotechnology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurchenkov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The innovative development of the Russian economy in modern conditions should be based on the development of advanced nanotechnology. The formation of the nanotechnology industry in Russia requires optimal organization, the development of networking, the search for new forms of integrating the primary and secondary productions. The cluster organization in nanotech industry is based on high-tech production and has a number of advantages: uncertainty elimination, restriction of the competition by monopolization of supply with raw materials and semi-finished products, improvement of quality and decrease in expenses. The main forms of interaction of the enterprises and organizations which are a part of a nanoindustrial cluster are allocated. The article describes the peculiarities of the Russian nanoidustry formation, determines the significance of the cluster policy in this sphere. The author develops the criteria for identifying the nanoclusters on the basis of the basic nanotechnology and the nomenclature of final product. The author also proposes the approach to the analysis of cluster interaction and determines the boundaries of the cluster based on the difference between system and quasisystem cluster interaction. In this regard it is necessary to consider possibilities of the analysis of both system, and quasisystem interaction of the main participants of a nanoindustrial cluster.

  3. [Repetitive and restricted behaviours (RRB) in autism: clinical evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourreau, Y; Roux, S; Gomot, M; Barthélémy, C

    2009-09-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) represent a common problem throughout the autistic spectrum. They comprise a wide range of behavioural manifestations that persist over time and resist therapeutics. Furthermore, degrees of heterogeneity have been reported in the clinical expression of autistic syndrome, particularly in the restricted and repetitive aspects. Advances are needed in the understanding of this complex and heterogeneous clinical dimension of autism to improve efficacy of therapeutics. Most clinical studies have subdivided RRB into "lower-level" sensory-motor behaviours and "higher-level" behaviours, which are more complex and characteristic features of autism. However, none of these studies have taken into account all the forms of RRB. To date, there is no specific and thorough tool to evaluate this dimension of autism. From the analysis of the literature, we proposed a list of 43 behaviours covering the full range of repetitive, restricted and stereotyped activities observed in autism. The aim of the present study was to test the relevance of these 43 RRB in a family context. The participants were 14 children with an autism spectrum disorder, aged from six to 16 years. Circumscribed interests were the most commonly reported RRB, and motor stereotypies, aggressive and body-focused behaviours were the least expressed behaviours. Multivariate statistical analysis identified three groups of children with different behavioural profiles and three clusters of RRB, i.e. repetitive motor behaviours, repetitive sensory-vocal behaviours and restricted ideational behaviours. Although these preliminary results need to be validated in a wider population, the list of 43 RRB allowed us to describe accurately this symptomatology of autism and to confirm the heterogeneity of this dimension of autistic disorders. The identification of clinical subgroups, possibly underlain by different psychopathological or physiopathological factors would help research and

  4. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  5. Clustering via Kernel Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Girolami, Mark A.; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Methods for spectral clustering have been proposed recently which rely on the eigenvalue decomposition of an affinity matrix. In this work it is proposed that the affinity matrix is created based on the elements of a non-parametric density estimator. This matrix is then decomposed to obtain...... posterior probabilities of class membership using an appropriate form of nonnegative matrix factorization. The troublesome selection of hyperparameters such as kernel width and number of clusters can be obtained using standard cross-validation methods as is demonstrated on a number of diverse data sets....

  6. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers......, networks, labour market pooling and specialised suppliers). However, these factors are not sufficient to explain the early formation of clusters. The dominant theories focus more on explaining ex-post dynamics than their early development. This chapter focuses on the early phase and uses an alternative...

  7. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  8. On the Historical and Conceptual Foundations of a Community Psychology of Social Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokani, Ravi; Walsh, Richard T G

    2017-06-01

    We examine historical and conceptual literature in community psychology in order to understand the field's potential to be the socially transformative subdiscipline of psychology to which it aspires. By reviewing papers from two prominent journals and other literature, we conclude that the claim that community psychology is well-suited to social transformation, because it is a product of Sixties' radicalism and is theoretically equipped, is untenable. Systematic accounts of the subdiscipline's origins suggest that the transformative aspirations of current community psychologists do not correspond to the subdiscipline's reformist past. Furthermore, in analyzing three related concepts currently employed in the field-social justice, power, and praxis-we show that each suffers from conceptual ambiguity and a restricted political scope. These conceptual flaws, coupled with community psychology's historical inclination toward social reform, inhibit the possibility of contributing to radical social transformation. We conclude that neither questionable historical claims nor ambiguous and politically dubious concepts support a community psychology of social transformation. We offer solutions for the historical and conceptual problems we identify and, as a broader solution to the problem of engaging in socially transformative work, propose that community psychologists should seek direct political engagement in solidarity with other citizens as fellow citizens not as psychologists. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  9. Thematic, conceptual and iconic metamorphosis: the construction of a morphological history epistemological method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Carvalho Ramos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I propose the construction of an epistemological historical method through a morphological perspective. That involves the elaboration of a genetic rational process of conceptualization in which problems, themes and concepts organize in historical expressions increasingly more objective and determinated. Such expressions should be articulated generating a continuum of metamorphosis of a concept or conceptual core. This continuum should be capable of conferring intelligibility for scientific culture units without restrictions of spatial, temporal and conceptual amplitude. The connection of morphological and historical components that I propose is based on the results as well as the method used by Carlo Ginzburg in Myths, emblems and signs, especially in High and low: the theme of forbidden knowledge in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. After presenting a characterization of the minimal components of the historical epistemological method, I will start to incorporate elements of Ginsburg’s historical morphology through a dialogue in which I’ll try to understand how the author proceeds methodically and conceptually in his investigation. Finally, through a preliminary study of an alchemical emblem in which Hermes is the central figure, I will make a morphological experiment of application of this procedure to the scope of the scientific culture of chemistry

  10. Bootstrapping: Una teoría explicativa del cambio conceptual Bootstrapping: A theory for conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone la teoría explicativa propuesta por Carey para el cambio conceptual. Primeramente, se plantea la cuestión de la reorganización conceptual en la psicología cognitiva y la posición de Carey. En segundo lugar, se ponen de relieve las condiciones epistémica que deben cumplir las "teorías" infantiles para que la reestructuración conceptual sea posible, así como los modos que adopta esta última. En tercer lugar, se muestran los resultados de investigaciones que verifican el cambio conceptual entre teorías infantiles de biología intuitiva. En cuarto lugar, se plantean las dificultades de otras teorías del cambio conceptual, para luego formular los rasgos del mecanismo alternativo de bootstrapping y su pertinencia para interpretrar los datos de las indagaciones mencionadas. Finalmente, se evalúan la originalidad de la teoría del bootstrpping en el escenario de los debates contemporáneos. Muy especialmente, se esboza una posible aproximación con las tesis dialécticas de Piaget.This paper examines the Carey's theory of conceptual change. First, it describes the conceptual reorganization in cognitive psychology and the author position. Second, the epistemic conditions that children "theories" should fulfil to make conceptual restructuring possible, as well as the ways adopted by the latter, are analyzed. In third place, findings of researches testing the conceptual change among biology intuitive children theories are explained. Subsequently, it discusses the difficulties other theories of conceptual change present, in order to state features of bootstrapping as an alternative mechanism and its relevance for the interpretation of abovementioned researches results. Finally, it evaluates the originality of "bootstrapping" theory in the scene of contemporary debates. It particularly outlines a possible approach to Piaget's dialectic theses.

  11. Using resource graphs to represent conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Wittmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce resource graphs, a representation of linked ideas used when reasoning about specific contexts in physics. Our model is consistent with previous descriptions of coordination classes and resources. It represents mesoscopic scales that are neither knowledge-in-pieces nor large-scale concepts. We use resource graphs to describe several forms of conceptual change: incremental, cascade, wholesale, and dual construction. For each, we give evidence from the physics education research literature to show examples of each form of conceptual change. Where possible, we compare our representation to models used by other researchers. Building on our representation, we analyze another form of conceptual change, differentiation, and suggest several experimental studies that would help understand the differences between reform-based curricula.

  12. How Physicists Communicate Conceptual Meaning with Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Physics embeds conceptual meaning within a complex mathematical formalism. In this talk, I present a discourse analysis of faculty teaching with mathematical derivations, rearranging and simplifying equations to illuminate physical principles. Observations are interpreted through the lens of symbolic forms, conceptual and contextual meanings that are embedded in the equation. As an equation is manipulated, different forms are emphasized, subtly changing the physical interpretation. The symbolic forms framework can make explicit the motivations behind the mathematical ``moves'' in a derivation. Some manipulations change the dominant context from physics to mathematics. Other thematic manipulations -- e.g. grouping terms of a common variable -- reveal important conceptual points. While direct observational evidence supports the inference of these motivations, the reasoning is often hidden from the students. The study of mathematical discourse represents a new direction in which physics education researchers can study and inform the classroom.

  13. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Applying Clustering Methods in Drawing Maps of Science: Case Study of the Map For Urban Management Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abuei Ardakan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a basic introduction to data clustering and demonstrates the application of clustering methods in drawing maps of science. All approaches towards classification and clustering of information are briefly discussed. Their application to the process of visualization of conceptual information and drawing of science maps are illustrated by reviewing similar researches in this field. By implementing aggregated hierarchical clustering algorithm, which is an algorithm based on complete-link method, the map for urban management science as an emerging, interdisciplinary scientific field is analyzed and reviewed.

  15. Start and the restriction point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    Commitment to division requires that cells sense, interpret, and respond appropriately to multiple signals. In most eukaryotes, cells commit to division in G1 before DNA replication. Beyond a point, known as Start in yeast and the restriction point in mammals, cells will proceed through the cell cycle despite changes in upstream signals. In metazoans, misregulated G1 control can lead to developmental problems or disease, so it is important to understand how cells decipher the myriad external and internal signals that contribute to the fundamental all-or-none decision to divide. Extensive study of G1 control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian culture systems has revealed highly similar networks regulating commitment. However, protein sequences of functional orthologs often indicate a total lack of conservation suggesting significant evolution of G1 control. Here, we review recent studies defining the conserved and diverged features of G1 control and highlight systems-level aspects that may be common to other biological regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  17. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  18. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  19. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Claire HOLLWEG; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  20. The Interaction of Procedural Skill, Conceptual Understanding and Working Memory in Early Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gilmore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large individual differences in children’s mathematics achievement are observed from the start of schooling. Previous research has identified three cognitive skills that are independent predictors of mathematics achievement: procedural skill, conceptual understanding and working memory. However, most studies have only tested independent effects of these factors and failed to consider moderating effects. We explored the procedural skill, conceptual understanding and working memory capacity of 75 children aged 5 to 6 years as well as their overall mathematical achievement. We found that, not only were all three skills independently associated with mathematics achievement, but there was also a significant interaction between them. We found that levels of conceptual understanding and working memory moderated the relationship between procedural skill and mathematics achievement such that there was a greater benefit of good procedural skill when associated with good conceptual understanding and working memory. Cluster analysis also revealed that children with equivalent levels of overall mathematical achievement had differing strengths and weaknesses across these skills. This highlights the importance of considering children’s skill profile, rather than simply their overall achievement.

  1. Large Crater Clustering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Jason; Skinner, James A.; Hunter, Marc A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the Large Crater Clustering (LCC) tool set, an ArcGIS plugin that supports the quantitative approximation of a primary impact location from user-identified locations of possible secondary impact craters or the long-axes of clustered secondary craters. The identification of primary impact craters directly supports planetary geologic mapping and topical science studies where the chronostratigraphic age of some geologic units may be known, but more distant features have questionable geologic ages. Previous works (e.g., McEwen et al., 2005; Dundas and McEwen, 2007) have shown that the source of secondary impact craters can be estimated from secondary impact craters. This work adapts those methods into a statistically robust tool set. We describe the four individual tools within the LCC tool set to support: (1) processing individually digitized point observations (craters), (2) estimating the directional distribution of a clustered set of craters, back projecting the potential flight paths (crater clusters or linearly approximated catenae or lineaments), (3) intersecting projected paths, and (4) intersecting back-projected trajectories to approximate the local of potential source primary craters. We present two case studies using secondary impact features mapped in two regions of Mars. We demonstrate that the tool is able to quantitatively identify primary impacts and supports the improved qualitative interpretation of potential secondary crater flight trajectories.

  2. doped stable clusters a

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT DUTTA

    2018-01-30

    ., showed that Ru-doped. Rh6 cluster is a better catalyst for the activation of methanol compared to pure Rh6. It may be noted that methanol activation occurs via O–H bond dissociation rather than C–H bond.25 Rhodium nano ...

  3. Greedy subspace clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of subspace clustering: given points that lie on or near the union of many low-dimensional linear subspaces, recover the subspaces. To this end, one first identifies sets of points close to the same subspace and uses the sets ...

  4. Cluster - Smart Specialization Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2016-01-01

    The paper refers to the relationship that is created in the regional economic space, between thecluster phenomenon and that of the strategy of smart specialization; in the process oftransformation of the regional economy, the smart specialization strategies take over clusters’policies and clusters integrate activities specific to areas of technological knowledge.

  5. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  6. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  7. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  8. Clustering: a neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, K-L

    2010-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental data analysis method. It is widely used for pattern recognition, feature extraction, vector quantization (VQ), image segmentation, function approximation, and data mining. As an unsupervised classification technique, clustering identifies some inherent structures present in a set of objects based on a similarity measure. Clustering methods can be based on statistical model identification (McLachlan & Basford, 1988) or competitive learning. In this paper, we give a comprehensive overview of competitive learning based clustering methods. Importance is attached to a number of competitive learning based clustering neural networks such as the self-organizing map (SOM), the learning vector quantization (LVQ), the neural gas, and the ART model, and clustering algorithms such as the C-means, mountain/subtractive clustering, and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithms. Associated topics such as the under-utilization problem, fuzzy clustering, robust clustering, clustering based on non-Euclidean distance measures, supervised clustering, hierarchical clustering as well as cluster validity are also described. Two examples are given to demonstrate the use of the clustering methods.

  9. La estructura conceptual de los miedos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga por los temores que experimentan los habitantes de las ciudades y por la estructura conceptual que comparten sobre las situaciones temidas actualmente. Se analizan los resultados de 130 entrevistas semiestructuradas, orientadas a identificar los temores más comunes de hombres y mujeres asociados a la ciudad y la estructura conceptual que subyace a estos temores. Los resultados obtenidos se analizaron con un Escalamiento Multidimensional, que permitió identificar la estructura del miedo que muestran los participantes a distintas situaciones. Se proponen acciones en procura de la reducción de la percepción de inseguridad en la ciudad.

  10. Conceptual Underpinnings for Innovation Policy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    of innovation policy. This serves two important purposes. Firstly, it allows the identification of problems in an innovation system that require public policy intervention through the choice of appropriate policy instruments. Secondly, it allows a theoretically based identification of input indicators......In cases where innovation indicators and data fail to serve properly as a (necessary) basis for the design of innovation policies, it often has its roots in conceptual unclarities in the underlying concepts. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical and conceptual basis for the design...... as determinants of innovation system performance to be used in cross‐country analysis....

  11. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The philosophical implications of Russian conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualism identifies itself as a predominantly Russian-Soviet mode of thinking. In the West, the correlation between ideological signs and observable reality has been persistently validated through scientific and economic practice; while in Russia, traditionally, reality itself has been constructed from ideological signs generated by its ruling minds as a kind of hyper-reality. Thus, Russian Conceptualism sees itself not as a mere replica of Western postmodernism, but as a reflection of the underlying structures of Russian history, where the signs of reality have always been subject to ideological manipulation.

  13. Optical Conceptual Computing and Associative Memory (OCCAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    systems analysis and fussy theory to problems in conceptual Computing. Research results included both pure theory and optical implementations. OCCAM...neural-network dynamical systems analysis and fuzzy theory to problems in conceptual computing. Research results included both pure theory and optical...components. Rewriting, we have M~W= /10A - V LettingjIiA - D -j’ we have DILo (j + WI)1A) - 1’ (3) J. [’.["where .5 is a cnstant vectorT, he system execuens

  14. A conceptual guide to statistics using SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Berkman, Elliot T

    2011-01-01

    Bridging an understanding of Statistics and SPSS. This unique text helps students develop a conceptual understanding of a variety of statistical tests by linking the ideas learned in a statistics class from a traditional statistics textbook with the computational steps and output from SPSS. Each chapter begins with a student-friendly explanation of the concept behind each statistical test and how the test relates to that concept. The authors then walk through the steps to compute the test in SPSS and the output, clearly linking how the SPSS procedure and output connect back to the conceptual u

  15. Safety review of conceptual fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.G.

    1976-11-01

    The potential public safety impacts from accidents in conceptual fusion power plants were investigated. Fusion was found to have some potential for accidents, as does any energy generating system. Functions of fusion power plants were identified that possess sufficient potential for an accidental release of toxic materials to the environment. An assessment was made of the impact of the potential accidents and recommendations are included for R and D that will allow incorporation of safety concerns in fusion power plant design. This work was based on a review of information available in conceptual design documents of fusion reactor systems.

  16. CONCEPTUAL PRODUCT DESIGN IN VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debeleac Carmen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the industrial design process for isolation against vibrations is proposed and described. This model can be used to design products subject to functional, manufacturing, ergonomic, aesthetic constraints. In this paper, the main stages of the model, such as component organization, conception shape, product detailing and graphical design are discussed. The work has confirmed the validity of proposed model for rapid generation of aesthetic preliminary product designs using the virtual prototyping technique, by one of its main component that is conceptual product design.

  17. Data clustering algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the problem of clustering tends to be fragmented across the pattern recognition, database, data mining, and machine learning communities. Addressing this problem in a unified way, Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications provides complete coverage of the entire area of clustering, from basic methods to more refined and complex data clustering approaches. It pays special attention to recent issues in graphs, social networks, and other domains.The book focuses on three primary aspects of data clustering: Methods, describing key techniques commonly used for clustering, such as fea

  18. Exact and conceptual repetition dissociate conceptual memory tests: problems for transfer appropriate processing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, K B; Roediger, H L

    1996-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a conceptual implicit memory test (specifically, category instance generation) would exhibit repetition effects similar to those found in free recall. The transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations among memory tests led us to predict that the tests would show parallel effects; this prediction was based upon the theory's assumption that conceptual tests will behave similarly as a function of various independent variables. In Experiment 1, conceptual repetition (i.e., following a target word [e.g., puzzles] with an associate [e.g., jigsaw]) did not enhance priming on the instance generation test relative to the condition of simply presenting the target word once, although this manipulation did affect free recall. In Experiment 2, conceptual repetition was achieved by following a picture with its corresponding word (or vice versa). In this case, there was an effect of conceptual repetition on free recall but no reliable effect on category instance generation or category cued recall. In addition, we obtained a picture superiority effect in free recall but not in category instance generation. In the third experiment, when the same study sequence was used as in Experiment 1, but with instructions that encouraged relational processing, priming on the category instance generation task was enhanced by conceptual repetition. Results demonstrate that conceptual memory tests can be dissociated and present problems for Roediger's (1990) transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations between explicit and implicit tests.

  19. Open issues in psychiatric nosology: A conceptual framework of the American classification of mental disorders (DSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New, Fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM -5 , was published In May 2013, by the American Psychiatric Association, which was expected to bring a new paradigm shift in the understanding of mental disorders. This document in its main presumptions did not depart significantly from the Third edition in 1980. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the conceptual framework of this classification, elements of which could be enlisted as following: mental disorders are conceptualized as a diseases by the biomedical model , and as such they are clearly separated from the 'healthy' mental functioning; they are the consequence of a pathological processes in the structure and functioning of the brain, and manifested by clusters of symptoms and signs of disease which are assumed to have a specific etiology. This paper provides an overview of the current discussions and criticism of this paradigm that is currently dominant in academic psychiatry .

  20. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  1. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF DETERMINATION OF BUILD CLUSTER IN THE SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC PROVIDING ENERGY SAVINGS OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Doroshenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, based on the results of the research of the categorical and conceptual apparatus of the cluster approach, taking into account the specifics and problems of implementation of energy saving measures in construction, the author's definition of the cluster is proposed. Existing conditions for the efficient functioning of the cluster by invariance are supplemented. The scheme of determination of the construction cluster in the system of organizational and economic provision of energy saving is presented, where tendencies of incorporation of measures of energy saving in the conditions of the newest technological way are determined. Key words: construction cluster, construction, invariance, energy saving, organizational and economic support.

  2. Examining the influence of formative assessment on conceptual accumulation and conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Miki K.

    This study explored the effect of formative assessment on student achievement in science. Research in science education has shown that students enter science classrooms with previously formed explanatory models of the natural world; these naive "mental models" have a substantial influence on their learning of scientific conceptions. In general, conceptual change describes the pathway from pre-instructional or prior conceptions to a post-instructional or desired conception. Conceptual change involves a fundamental restructuring of a network of concepts rather than fitting new concepts into an existing conceptual network or structure. Research has shown that conceptual change is difficult to promote; for example, students may accumulate multiple conceptions over the course of instruction, including both new misconceptions and more scientifically-sound conceptions. Hellden and Solomon (2004) found that although students tended to evoke the same, less-scientific conceptions over time, they could produce more scientifically-sound conceptions during interviews with appropriate prompting; thus, students undergo conceptual accumulation rather than conceptual change. Students can recall scientifically-sound conceptions they have learned and may use them to reason, but they do so in partnership or hybridization with their less-scientific prior conceptions. Formative assessment, which focuses on providing immediate feedback by acting upon student understanding during the course of instruction, and conceptual change have both been linked to increased student achievement. Formative assessment is an instructional strategy that helps teachers to assess students' current understanding, identify the gap between current understanding and expected understanding, and provide immediate and useful feedback to students on how to close the gap. Formative assessment ranges from formal (e.g. embedded, planned-for interactions between teacher and entire class) to informal (e.g. on

  3. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  4. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  5. Cluster forest based fuzzy logic for massive data clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Ines; Ben Ayed, Abdelkarim; Ben Halima, Mohamed; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    This article is focused in developing an improved cluster ensemble method based cluster forests. Cluster forests (CF) is considered as a version of clustering inspired from Random Forests (RF) in the context of clustering for massive data. It aggregates intermediate Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering results via spectral clustering since pseudo-clustering results are presented in the spectral space in order to classify these data sets in the multidimensional data space. One of the main advantages is the use of FCM, which allows building fuzzy membership to all partitions of the datasets due to the fuzzy logic whereas the classical algorithms as K-means permitted to build just hard partitions. In the first place, we ameliorate the CF clustering algorithm with the integration of fuzzy FCM and we compare it with other existing clustering methods. In the second place, we compare K-means and FCM clustering methods with the agglomerative hierarchical clustering (HAC) and other theory presented methods using data benchmarks from UCI repository.

  6. Learning and Unlearning: A Conceptual Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Max

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational learning and unlearning are often viewed as different and distinct concepts in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unlearning concept and reassess its position vis-à-vis learning, in particular second-order and double-loop learning. Design/methodology/approach The paper entails a conceptual analysis.…

  7. Anhedonia: una revisión conceptual.

    OpenAIRE

    José María Olivares

    1995-01-01

    La incapacidad para experimentar placer se encuentra en pacientes diagnosticados de esquizofrenia, depresión, trastorno obsesivo compulsivo, en algunas enfermedades neurológicas y como efecto secundario de determinados fármacos. La revisión de la literatura demuestra una notable confusión conceptual en la definición de dicho síntoma.

  8. Culturally Conscious Organizations: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses workplace culture in academic libraries as an aspect of organizational success in achieving on-the-job diversity. It introduces a conceptual framework in the form of selected indicators as measurements of cultural integration in the workplace. Characteristics of organizational cultural health are also identified in order to…

  9. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  10. A Methodical Approach on Conceptual Structural Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikx, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this academic research thesis is a methodical approach on the complex problem-solving process of structural conceptual design.
    For this relatively unexplored problem, an exploratory research is conducted by systematically zooming in from the whole to the part and from coarse to

  11. Conceptual Design of a Prototype LSST Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Cook, K H; Abdulla, G; Brase, J

    2004-10-07

    This document describes a preliminary design for Prototype LSST Database (LSST DB). They identify key components and data structures and provide an expandable conceptual schema for the database. The authors discuss the potential user applications and post-processing algorithm to interact with the database, and give a set of example queries.

  12. Conceptual design of MCP based particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bykov, A. V.; Ivanov, V. Ya.; Katcin, A. A.; Mamoshkina, E. V.; Ovtin, I. V.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Prisekin, V. G.; Pyata, E. E.

    2017-08-01

    A time-of-flight detector based on microchannel plates (MCP) is under development. The main goal of this work is the creation of a radiation hard large area detector providing 10 ps time resolution in strong magnetic field. The conceptual detector design is described in details.

  13. Contributions to a Conceptual Ontology for Wittgenstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addis, Mark; Brock, Steen; Pichler, Alois

    2015-01-01

    A conceptual ontology was used to semantically enrich the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen’s taxonomy for Wittgenstein Source to facilitate improved searching in the areas of the philosophies of mathematics and psychology. The classes and sub-classes of the multilingual taxonomy...

  14. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  15. Conceptual design of automated freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual design of automated freight transport systems is a challenging matter. It involves many different parties, types of people and disciplines which all have to work together to develop a system which is often new and complex. Automated freight transport systems typically have a long

  16. Conceptual modelling of human resource evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoiţă Doina Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the highly diverse tasks which employees have to fulfil due to complex requirements of nowadays consumers, the human resource within an enterprise has become a strategic element for developing and exploiting products which meet the market expectations. Therefore, organizations encounter difficulties when approaching the human resource evaluation process. Hence, the aim of the current paper is to design a conceptual model of the aforementioned process, which allows the enterprises to develop a specific methodology. In order to design the conceptual model, Business Process Modelling instruments were employed - Adonis Community Edition Business Process Management Toolkit using the ADONIS BPMS Notation. The conceptual model was developed based on an in-depth secondary research regarding the human resource evaluation process. The proposed conceptual model represents a generic workflow (sequential and/ or simultaneously activities, which can be extended considering the enterprise’s needs regarding their requirements when conducting a human resource evaluation process. Enterprises can benefit from using software instruments for business process modelling as they enable process analysis and evaluation (predefined / specific queries and also model optimization (simulations.

  17. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  19. Un modelo conceptual para juegos educativos digitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Feyh Jappur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It presents the development of a proposed conceptual model for digital educational games in the context of the classroom in which the analysis focused on learning for sustainable habits production and consumption in the residential environment. The existing conceptual models are more linked to the creation and recently with evaluation of the games. In the context of the implementation, most models focus more on the description of the games validation processes than in mediating the pedagogical practice itself. Therefore, the research question is about how to create, implement and evaluate digital educational games for teaching and learning process in the classroom, with the focus on learning the culture of sustainability in the residential environment. Methodology: As far as the methodological characterization is concerned, the investigation was supported by bibliographical and field research for data collection. It was emphasized the use of Design Science Research Methodology as methodological procedure for the development of the conceptual model. Results: The system has been tested in a pilot study in two groups of Young Apprentice Program at SENAC/SC to check its consistency. Conclusions: It was concluded based on the results produced by the application of the pilot that the proposed conceptual model contributes to the process of teaching and learning in the classroom.

  20. Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…

  1. Conceptual Relativity Meets Realism in Metaphysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2016), s. 23-37 E-ISSN 1849-0514 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Hilary Putnam * conceptual relativity * realism * optional languages Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology https://www.ffri.hr/phil/casopis/content/volume_12/12_2_2.pdf

  2. Intercultural Historical Learning: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Kenneth; Johansson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework in order to systematically discuss the meaning of intercultural learning in history education and how it could be advanced. We do so by bringing together theories of historical consciousness, intercultural competence and postcolonial thinking. By combining these theories into one framework, we identify…

  3. Leading Generative Groups: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Sobel-Lojeski, Karen A.; Reilly, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of leadership in generative groups. Generative groups have diverse team members who are expected to develop innovative solutions to complex, unstructured problems. The challenge for leaders of generative groups is to balance (a) establishing shared goals with recognizing members' vested interests, (b)…

  4. Human kinship, from conceptual structure to grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2010-10-01

    Research in anthropology has shown that kin terminologies have a complex combinatorial structure and vary systematically across cultures. This article argues that universals and variation in kin terminology result from the interaction of (1) an innate conceptual structure of kinship, homologous with conceptual structure in other domains, and (2) principles of optimal, "grammatical" communication active in language in general. Kin terms from two languages, English and Seneca, show how terminologies that look very different on the surface may result from variation in the rankings of a universal set of constraints. Constraints on kin terms form a system: some are concerned with absolute features of kin (sex), others with the position (distance and direction) of kin in "kinship space", others with groups and group boundaries (matrilines, patrilines, generations, etc.). Also, kin terms sometimes extend indefinitely via recursion, and recursion in kin terminology has parallels with recursion in other areas of language. Thus the study of kinship sheds light on two areas of cognition, and their phylogeny. The conceptual structure of kinship seems to borrow its organization from the conceptual structure of space, while being specialized for representing genealogy. And the grammar of kinship looks like the product of an evolved grammar faculty, opportunistically active across traditional domains of semantics, syntax, and phonology. Grammar is best understood as an offshoot of a uniquely human capacity for playing coordination games.

  5. Conceptual Art: Perceptions And Appearances | Gushem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Art does not have an agreement on a single definition of good interactivity, rather, it entertains a number of significance disagreements and discorts concerning the type, amount, conceptual models and ethics of interactivity. This can be related to different emphasis on the contextualization of interactive art, which does ...

  6. Conceptual metaphor and comprehension in business writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita C Smit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies in cognitive linguistics (Gibbs, 1999; Kővecses, 2005; Lakoff, 1987; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999 have demonstrated that metaphor is not merely a figure of speech. The findings of these studies have shown that metaphor influences a good deal of how people think as it comprises a specific mental, cross-domain mapping in the conceptual system (Balaban, 1999; Ibarretxe-Antuňanu, 1999; Lakoff, 2006; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980. This article looks at whether employing different conceptual metaphors in different versions of the same business report will have an effect on reader comprehension. A small-scale research study was conducted with a group of second-year university students, in which they were given one of two texts concerning the recovery of the economy. Both texts were adapted from a newspaper report and seeded with metaphors and metaphoric expressions. The multiple-choice questions that followed aimed to determine to what extent the readers’ comprehension and interpretation of the report were influenced by the different conceptual metaphors used. The findings indicate that language that served to introduce the sources or targets directly into the content did not necessarily have an effect on the processing of subsequent metaphors involving these concepts; however, it appeared that the surface patterns of metaphorical discourse did affect the inferences drawn about the different conceptual metaphors. It can thus be concluded that a specific metaphoric framework in written discourse does influence the interpretation of the content.

  7. Conceptual Design Tool for Concrete Shell Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on conceptual tools for concrete shell structures when working within the span of performance-based design and computational morphogenesis. The designer, referred to as the Architect-Engineer, works through several iterations parallel with aesthetic, functional and technical...

  8. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  9. Individual Team Productivity - A Conceptual Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Müller (Julia); T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Prinz (Joachim)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Teams, in both firms and in sports, jointly produce a product. While a fixed task is assigned to each member of a team, the individual team productivity of a worker or player is difficult to conceptualize. This is particularly true, if this concept is aimed to be

  10. Towards a Conceptualization of Dialogic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrós, Maria; Flecha, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    In 1968, Freire included in his work the need of dialogue for those acting as leaders. Since then, leadership has been widely addressed by authors around the world and different conceptual frameworks have been developed. Different social and educational movements have granted dialogue a significant role for leading change. Educational research has…

  11. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to…

  12. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  13. Conceptual Learning: From Mollusks to Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert A.

    A brief analysis of conceptual learning in adult education and some philosophical implications for the practitioner are presented. This review traces the intellectual and political growth in the adult education movement. It lists recent seminal studies in the field and presents a series of relatively non-technical interpretations. The analysis of…

  14. Source code retrieval using conceptual similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method for retrieving segments of source code from a large repository. The method is based on conceptual modeling of the code, combining information extracted from the structure of the code and standard informationdistance measures. Our results show an improvement over traditional

  15. Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

  16. Phonological and conceptual activation in speech comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.; Cutler, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Butterfield, S.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments,

  17. Historical and Conceptual Foundation of Diagrammatical Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Uckelman, Sara L.; Schärfe, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    During the Renaissance there was a growing interest for the use of diagrams within conceptual studies. This paper investigates the historical and philosophical foundation of this renewed use of diagrams in ontology as well as the modern relevance of this foundation. We discuss the historical...

  18. A conceptual toolbox for designing CSCW applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual toolbox, developed to support the design of CSCW applications in a large Esprit project, EuroCODE. Here, several groups of designers work to investigate computer support for cooperative work in large use organizations, at the same time as they work to develop...

  19. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, S.; Nixon, J.; Keen, J.; Wilson, L.; McGinnis, E.; Dealey, C.; Stubbs, N.; Farrin, A.; Dowding, D.; Schols, J.M.; Cuddigan, J.; Berlowitz, D.; Jude, E.; Vowden, P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Bader, D.L.; Gefen, A.; Oomens, C.W.; Nelson, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. BACKGROUND: Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR

  20. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  1. Late entrants into the academic profession: Conceptual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conceptual framework emerged which reflects the context, process and outcomes of programme participation in formal higher education qualifications. The framework could be the basis for developmental strategies of academic staff – particularly in researchoriented universities with late entrants from a variety of ...

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Primary Source Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, David C.; Fry, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a descriptive conceptual framework to provide teachers with a means of recognizing and describing instructional activities that use primary sources. The framework provides structure for professional development programs that have been established to train teachers to access and integrate primary sources into lessons. The…

  4. Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...

  5. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward Geaney

    2013-01-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around…

  6. A Conceptual Perspective of Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Robert

    This model for a conceptual structure of teacher education programs is intended to codify and accumulate aspects of knowledge related to teacher education programs, and to identify available studies on the topic as well as to note problems that need further investigation. It seeks to provide an understanding of the dynamics and interactions of…

  7. Mathematical Justification as Non-Conceptualized Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Close analysis of Old Babylonian texts shows that they are not deprived of mathematical argument, but that this argument aims at creating understanding and conceptual coherence rather than being deductive in nature; however, the exts also reveal the presence of second-level "crituque" of techniques...... and concepts, though not in the central role it occupies in Greek mathematics...

  8. 'Towards a Conceptual Framework for Innate Immunity'

    OpenAIRE

    Twycross, Jamie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Innate immunity now occupies a central role in immunology. However, artificial immune system models have largely been inspired by adaptive not innate immunity. This paper reviews the biological principles and properties of innate immunity and, adopting a conceptual framework, asks how these can be incorporated into artificial models. The aim is to outline a meta-framework for models of innate immunity.

  9. A Conceptual Formalization of Crosscutting in AOSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Conejero, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a formalization of crosscutting based on a conceptual framework for AOSD. Crosscutting is clearly distinguished from the related concepts scattering and tangling. The definitions of these concepts are formalized and visualized with matrices and matrix operations. This allows more precise

  10. Ghanaian Teacher Trainees' Conceptual Understanding of Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is a conceptual framework that encompasses other concepts such as the mole, writing of chemical equations in word and representative form, balancing of equations and the equilibrium concept. The underlying concepts enable students to understand relationships among entities of matter and required amounts for use when…

  11. Conceptual Variation and Coordination in Probability Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates students' conceptual variation and coordination among theoretical and experimental interpretations of probability. In the analysis we follow how Swedish students (12-13 years old) interact with a dice game, specifically designed to offer the students opportunities to elaborate on the logic of sample space,…

  12. Based Instructional Model on Students' Conceptual Change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Students' Conceptual Change and Retention on Some. Difficult Concepts in Chemistry (Pp. 219-229) ... social psychology indicated new insight into and understanding about the learning process, and acquisition of .... These misconception are held tenaciously and resistance to change. -. Traditional method of teaching ...

  13. A Presuppositional Approach to Conceptual Schemes | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; for they have been focused too much on the truth-conditional notions of meaning/concepts and translation/interpretation in Tarski's style. It is exactly due to such a Quinean interpretation of the notion of conceptual schemes that the very notion ...

  14. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  15. Research on conceptual design of mechatronic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phase of mechatronic systems, a conceptual design cyclic feedback solving model of a mechatronic ... Thus, research on matching of component interfaces is an indispensable base for mechatronic ..... 661). References. Bracewell R H, Sharpe J E E 1996 Functional descriptions used in computer support for qualitative.

  16. Self-Presentation: A Conceptualization and Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Barry R.

    This paper provides a conceptual definition and model of self-presentational behavior. Self-presentation is defined as the attempt to control self-relevant images before real or imagined others. Several aspects of the definition are discussed along with the notion that people's self-presentations represent the choice of the most desirable images…

  17. The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

  18. Background, design and conceptual model of the cluster randomized multiple-component workplace study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Hadrévi, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Occupational Muscle pain) WHP program among health care workers. A job group characterized by having high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, high sickness presenteeism - and absenteeism. METHODS: FRIDOM aimed to reduce neck and shoulder pain. Secondary aims were to decrease sickness presenteeism...... of the pain reducing effect of a multi component WHP among a female group of employees with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and in a long term perspective evaluate the effects on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism as well as risk of life-style diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02843269 , 06...

  19. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  20. 45 CFR 3.42 - Restricted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted activities. 3.42 Section 3.42 Public... THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.42 Restricted activities... by appropriate signs. Photographs and similar activities for advertising or commercial purposes may...

  1. 50 CFR 24.11 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General restrictions. 24.11 Section 24.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... § 24.11 General restrictions. No person shall import, export, or reexport plants at any place other...

  2. 50 CFR 14.11 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General restrictions. 14.11 Section 14.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING....11 General restrictions. Except as otherwise provided in this part, no person may import or export...

  3. [Anesthesia and restrictive and obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremerich, Dorothee H; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Restrictive and obstructive pulmonary diseases are major risk factors of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The incidence of pulmonary complications may be in the range of 3 and 40% (3), depending on the underlying disease and the type of surgery. In this review the specific pathophysiology, preoperative evaluation and suitable anesthesia procedures are discussed for patients with restrictive and obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  4. 50 CFR 648.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., lines, or chafing gear, on the top of the regulated portion of a trawl net; except that, one splitting... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.104 Section 648.104... Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Gear restrictions. (a) General. (1) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a...

  5. 50 CFR 648.123 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limited to, nets, net strengtheners, ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the top of the regulated portion of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.123 Section 648.123... § 648.123 Gear restrictions. (a) Trawl vessel gear restrictions—(1) Minimum mesh size. No owner or...

  6. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions. 184.202 Section 184.202 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of... in § 184.240 of this part. The use of these fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting on ferry vessels...

  7. Isothermal detection of RNA with restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Nakayama, Shizuka; Yitbarek, Saron; Greenfield, Isabel; Sintim, Herman O

    2011-01-07

    Herein, we demonstrate how to detect nucleic acids that do not contain restriction endonuclease recognition sites with restriction endonucleases. We show that the topology of DNA probes used in this detection strategy remarkably affects the efficiency of RNA/DNA detection.

  8. Massively parallel characterization of restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps-Hughes, Nick; Quimby, Aine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Johnson, Eric A

    2013-06-01

    Restriction endonucleases are highly specific in recognizing the particular DNA sequence they act on. However, their activity is affected by sequence context, enzyme concentration and buffer composition. Changes in these factors may lead to either ineffective cleavage at the cognate restriction site or relaxed specificity allowing cleavage of degenerate 'star' sites. Additionally, uncharacterized restriction endonucleases and engineered variants present novel activities. Traditionally, restriction endonuclease activity is assayed on simple substrates such as plasmids and synthesized oligonucleotides. We present and use high-throughput Illumina sequencing-based strategies to assay the sequence specificity and flanking sequence preference of restriction endonucleases. The techniques use fragmented DNA from sequenced genomes to quantify restriction endonuclease cleavage on a complex genomic DNA substrate in a single reaction. By mapping millions of restriction site-flanking reads back to the Escherichia coli and Drosophila melanogaster genomes we were able to quantitatively characterize the cognate and star site activity of EcoRI and MfeI and demonstrate genome-wide decreases in star activity with engineered high-fidelity variants EcoRI-HF and MfeI-HF, as well as quantify the influence on MfeI cleavage conferred by flanking nucleotides. The methods presented are readily applicable to all type II restriction endonucleases that cleave both strands of double-stranded DNA.

  9. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  10. Galaxy clusters: Falling into line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifón, Cristóbal

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations shows that the well-known alignment between the central galaxy of a galaxy cluster and its host cluster has been in place for at least ten billion years.

  11. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  12. Dynamical Cluster Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, H.; Yang, S.; Chen, K.; Pathak, S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.; Mikelsons, K.; Khatami, E.; Galanakis, D.

    The dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) is a method which systematically incorporates nonlocal corrections to the dynamical mean-field approximation. Here we present a pedagogical discussion of the DCA by describing it as a Φ-derivable coarse-graining approximation in k-space, which maps an infinite lattice problem onto a periodic finite-sized cluster embedded in a self-consistently determined effective medium. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the two-dimensional Hubbard model. From this application, we show evidences of the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) at a finite doping underneath the superconducting dome. The QCP is associated with the second-order terminus of a line of first order phase separation transitions. This critical point is driven to zero temperature by varying the band parameters, generating the QCP. The effect of the proximity of the QCP to the superconducting dome is also discussed.

  13. A parallel sampling based clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Sastry, Aditya AV; Netti, Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    The problem of automatically clustering data is an age old problem. People have created numerous algorithms to tackle this problem. The execution time of any of this algorithm grows with the number of input points and the number of cluster centers required. To reduce the number of input points we could average the points locally and use the means or the local centers as the input for clustering. However since the required number of local centers is very high, running the clustering algorithm ...

  14. Massive star clusters in galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William E

    2010-02-28

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  15. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research.

  16. Clustering signatures classify directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-09-01

    We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.

  17. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  18. Clusters and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. We focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in these new firms in a given region-industry. While reversion to the mean and diminishing returns to entrepreneurship at the region-industry level can result in a convergence effect, the presence of complementary economic activity creates externalities that enhance incentives and...

  19. South Asian Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed th...

  20. Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2005-01-01

    I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.

  1. On clusters and clustering from atoms to fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PJ

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to answer why there is so much interest in clusters. Clusters occur on all length scales, and as a result occur in a variety of fields. Clusters are interesting scientifically, but they also have important consequences technologically. The division of the book into three parts roughly separates the field into small, intermediate, and large-scale clusters. Small clusters are the regime of atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. The intermediate regime is the transitional regime, with its characteristics including the onset of bulk-like behavior, growth and aggregation, a

  2. A case of choking phobia: towards a conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rui; Melo, Raquel; Curral, Rosário; Coelho, Rui; Roma-Torres, António

    2014-03-01

    Choking phobia, also known as phagophobia or swallowing phobia is an uncommon clinical entity that has been underappreciated and is included in the new DSM-5 and upcoming ICD-11 diagnostic category of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Phenomenologically distinct from other eating disorders, it is characterized by the phobic stimulus of swallowing that results in the avoidance of food or drinks, and ultimately to low weight, social withdrawal, anxiety and depression states. Its prevalence and long-term course on the general population still needs to be determined, probably reflecting years of indefiniteness regarding its nosology and by the absence of a clear set of diagnostic criteria. We present a clinical case of choking phobia in a 32-year-old male patient after an episode of choke when eating chicken. An early diagnosis and distinction from other eating disorders is important for proper treatment and fundamental for prognosis. We also make a thorough revision on literature in clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment approaches, suggesting a conceptual approach for choking phobia as a clinical spectrum settled by different degrees of phobic subtypes, which may depend on a varied number of clinical variables.

  3. Climate Change Conceptual Change: Scientific Information Can Transform Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav

    2016-01-01

    Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Treatment decisions in advanced disease: A conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Broeckaert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This English translation, made by a professional translator in close cooperation with the author and kindly proofread by Dr. Phil Larkin, follows the original text as closely as possible. However, though we thought it was wise to maintain the official (but not unproblematic Dutch/Belgian definition of euthanasia in the original text (written for Belgian readers, the English texts offers a new and clearer definition of euthanasia. From the very beginning of the Belgian euthanasia debate in 1999, the Flemish Palliative Care Federation has chosen not to stay on the sideline, but to take an active part in the discussion and formulate recommendations based on our expertise and experience. Time and again we have pointed out that the ethical issues at the end of life are not just restricted to those of euthanasia. We have found that there is still much confusion about, for example, the difference or the boundary between pain control and euthanasia or between euthanasia and withholding life-sustaining treatment. Therefore, we thought it appropriate to put the following conceptual framework with regard to treatment decisions in advanced illness forward.

  5. Conceptual Design of a Nano-Networking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Canovas-Carrasco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific area whose advances, among many others, have a positive direct impact on the miniaturization of electronics. This unique technology enables the possibility to design and build electronic components as well as complete devices (called nanomachines or nanodevices at the nano scale. A nanodevice is expected to be an essential element able to operate in a nanonetwork, where a huge number of them would coordinate to acquire data, process the information gathered, and wirelessly transmit those data to end-points providing innovative services in many key scenarios, such as the human body or the environment. This paper is aimed at studying the feasibility of this type of device by carefully examining their main component parts, namely the nanoprocessor, nanomemory, nanoantenna, and nanogenerator. To this end, a thorough state-of-the-art review is conveyed to discuss, substantiate, and select the most suitable current technology (commercial or pre-commercial for each component. Then, we further contribute by developing a complete conceptual nanodevice layout taking into consideration its ultra-small size (similar to a blood cell and its very restricted capabilities (e.g., processing, memory storage, telecommunication, and energy management. The required resources as well as the power consumption are realistically estimated.

  6. Polarizability effect in metallic clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallic clusters are one such cluster type, investigations of which go back to Knight et al's experiments [1]. After observing .... Accounting for theoretical studies [16–19] where the dynamical effect of the ... The essential question to investigate now is: how does the fragmentation take place and how does it depend on cluster ...

  7. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  8. Clustering objects from multiple collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; van Someren, M.; de Boer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering methods cluster objects on the basis of a similarity measure between the objects. In clustering tasks where the objects come from more than one collection often part of the similarity results from features that are related to the collections rather than features that are relevant for the

  9. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  10. Subspace K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-12-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the existing related clustering methods, including deterministic, stochastic, and unsupervised learning approaches. To evaluate subspace K-means, we performed a comparative simulation study, in which we manipulated the overlap of subspaces, the between-cluster variance, and the error variance. The study shows that the subspace K-means algorithm is sensitive to local minima but that the problem can be reasonably dealt with by using partitions of various cluster procedures as a starting point for the algorithm. Subspace K-means performs very well in recovering the true clustering across all conditions considered and appears to be superior to its competitor methods: K-means, reduced K-means, factorial K-means, mixtures of factor analyzers (MFA), and MCLUST. The best competitor method, MFA, showed a performance similar to that of subspace K-means in easy conditions but deteriorated in more difficult ones. Using data from a study on parental behavior, we show that subspace K-means analysis provides a rich insight into the cluster characteristics, in terms of both the relative positions of the clusters (via the centroids) and the shape of the clusters (via the within-cluster residuals).

  11. Star Formation in Merging Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansheim, Alison Seiler

    This thesis straddles two areas of cosmology, each of which are active, rich and plagued by controversy in their own right: merging clusters and the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution. While the greater context of this thesis is major cluster mergers, our individual subjects are galaxies, and we apply techniques traditionally used to study the differential evolution of galaxies with environment. The body of this thesis is drawn from two papers: Mansheim et al. 2016a and Mansheim et al. 2016b, one on each system. Both projects benefited from exquisite data sets assembled as part of the Merging Cluster Collaboration (MC2), and Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey, allowing us to scrutinize the evolutionary states of galaxy populations in multiple lights. Multi-band optical and near-infrared imaging was available for both systems, allowing us to calculate photometric redshifts for completeness corrections, colors (red vs. blue) and stellar masses to view the ensemble properties of the populations in and around each merger. High-resolution spectroscopy was also available for both systems, allowing us to confirm cluster members by measuring spectroscopic redshifts, which are unparalleled in accuracy, and gauge star formation rates and histories by measuring the strengths of certain spectral features. We had the luxury of HST imaging for Musket Ball, allowing us to use galaxy morphology as an additional diagnostic. For Cl J0910, 24 mum imaging allowed us to defeat a most pernicious source of uncertainty. Details on the acquisition and reduction of multi-wavelength data for each system are found within each respective chapter. It is important to note that the research presented in Chapter 3 is based on a letter which had significant space restrictions, so much of the observational details are outsourced to papers written by ORELSE collaboration members. Below is a free-standing summary of each project, drawn from the

  12. Low-resolution remeshing using the localized restricted voronoi diagram

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2014-10-01

    A big problem in triangular remeshing is to generate meshes when the triangle size approaches the feature size in the mesh. The main obstacle for Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT)-based remeshing is to compute a suitable Voronoi diagram. In this paper, we introduce the localized restricted Voronoi diagram (LRVD) on mesh surfaces. The LRVD is an extension of the restricted Voronoi diagram (RVD), but it addresses the problem that the RVD can contain Voronoi regions that consist of multiple disjoint surface patches. Our definition ensures that each Voronoi cell in the LRVD is a single connected region. We show that the LRVD is a useful extension to improve several existing mesh-processing techniques, most importantly surface remeshing with a low number of vertices. While the LRVD and RVD are identical in most simple configurations, the LRVD is essential when sampling a mesh with a small number of points and for sampling surface areas that are in close proximity to other surface areas, e.g., nearby sheets. To compute the LRVD, we combine local discrete clustering with a global exact computation. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  13. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  14. Structure of conceptual models in the senior operating staff of nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboznov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationships between conceptual model structures and an operator’s professional efficiency are of direct practical importance, particularly in the case of large-scale industrial complexes combining several human-machine systems. A typical example is the power unit of a nuclear power plant (NPP. Objective and methods. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual models of senior reactor operators (SROs of NPPs. The study involved 64 men working as SRO at five NPPs in Russia. The methods included: structured interviews, expert estimations, multidimensional scaling (ALSCAL, the K-means clustering algorithm, and frequency analysis. The procedure was as follows: 32 key characteristics of the power unit were defined, including shift operators’ jobs and duties, technical subsystems, types of equipment, and the crucial power unit parameters. The participants were offered a 32×32 matrix for pair-wise estimation of the strength of the links between these key characteristics on a seven-point scale (496 links in total. Results. A general scheme of key characteristics in the conceptual models was defined. is scheme was displayed in the operators regardless of their employment history. Within the scheme, however, two types of conceptual models were identified, which could be distinguished by the relative number of strong links between the key characteristics. With respect to intersystem links including key characteristics of the reactor and turbine NPP departments, this number was significantly higher in models of Type 1 than in those of Type 2. A positive correlation between the number of these links and the professional efficiency indicators was also established. Operators with Type 1 models were able to more predictably represent the power unit operation. Conclusion. The main role in creating predictable and efficient conceptual models was played by strong intersystem links in mental representations of workflow.

  15. Attenuated coupled cluster: a heuristic polynomial similarity transformation incorporating spin symmetry projection into traditional coupled cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2017-11-01

    In electronic structure theory, restricted single-reference coupled cluster (CC) captures weak correlation but fails catastrophically under strong correlation. Spin-projected unrestricted Hartree-Fock (SUHF), on the other hand, misses weak correlation but captures a large portion of strong correlation. The theoretical description of many important processes, e.g. molecular dissociation, requires a method capable of accurately capturing both weak- and strong correlation simultaneously, and would likely benefit from a combined CC-SUHF approach. Based on what we have recently learned about SUHF written as particle-hole excitations out of a symmetry-adapted reference determinant, we here propose a heuristic coupled cluster doubles model to attenuate the dominant spin collective channel of the quadratic terms in the coupled cluster equations. Proof of principle results presented here are encouraging and point to several paths forward for improving the method further.

  16. Document Clustering Approach for Meta Search Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    The size of WWW is growing exponentially with ever change in technology. This results in huge amount of information with long list of URLs. Manually it is not possible to visit each page individually. So, if the page ranking algorithms are used properly then user search space can be restricted up to some pages of searched results. But available literatures show that no single search system can provide qualitative results from all the domains. This paper provides solution to this problem by introducing a new meta search engine that determine the relevancy of query corresponding to web page and cluster the results accordingly. The proposed approach reduces the user efforts, improves the quality of results and performance of the meta search engine.

  17. Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between a parent and a target CC model is expanded in orders of the M{\\o}ller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet methylene, distorted HF, and the fluoride anion) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of target state, and not the choice of parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series that target the full configuration interaction (FCI) limit, such as th...

  18. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer of Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    łaganowska, Marzena; Kaznowski, Adam

    2004-09-01

    We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) of Aeromonas species. A total of 69 isolates belonging to 18 DNA hybridization groups (HG; equivalent of genomic species) were used in this study. ISRs were amplified by PCR and the products were digested with four restriction endonucleases: Hin6I, Csp6I, TaqI, and TasI. The RFLP patterns obtained after digesting by particular enzymes revealed ISR polymorphism of isolates allocated to individual genomic species. The combined Hin6I, Csp6I, TaqI, and TasI restriction profiles were examined by Dice coefficient (SD) and unweighted pair group method of clustering (UPGMA). The isolates were allocated into 15 groups, three strains were unclustered. The strains belonging to the following genomic species: A. hydrophila, A. bestiarum, A. salmonicida, A. caviae, A. media, A. schubertii, A. allosaccharophila, A. popoffii, and A. culicicola formed distinct clusters. Strains belonging to HG 6, HG 7, HG 11, and HG 16 revealed similar combined RFLP patterns and constituted one group. Similarly, the strains of A. jandaei (HG 9) and the type strain of A. trota were allocated into one cluster. Two isolates of HG 14 formed distinct cluster. We noticed a genetic diversity among A. veronii isolates, the strains were clustered in two groups. Our study showed that combined ISR-RFLP analysis may be used for identification of some species of Aeromonas.

  19. The conceptual framework for financial reporting as a domain ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, MC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available -first Americas Conference on Information Systems, Puerto Rico, 2015 The Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting as a Domain Ontology Marthinus C. Gerber, Aurona J. Gerber, Alta van der Merwe Abstract The Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting (CFf...

  20. Linking neural and symbolic representation and processing of conceptual structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; Forth, Jamie; Nazareth, Deniece S.; Wiggins, Geraint A.

    2017-01-01

    We compare and discuss representations in two cognitive architectures aimed at representing and processing complex conceptual (sentence-like) structures. First is the Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA), which aims to account for representation and processing of complex and combinatorial conceptual

  1. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  2. Statistics of sunspot group clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getko Ryszarda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Zubrzycki method is utilized to find all sunspot groups which are close to each other during each Carrington rotation. The sunspot group areas and their positions for the years 1874–2008 are used. The descending, the ascending and the maximum phases of solar cycles for each solar hemisphere are considered separately. To establish the size of the region D where the clusters are searched, the correlation function dependent on the distance between two groups is applied. The method estimates the weighted area of each cluster. The weights dependent on the correlation function of distances between sunspot groups created each cluster. For each cluster the weighted position is also evaluated. The weights dependent on the areas of sunspot groups created a given cluster. The number distribution of the sunspot groups created each cluster and the cluster statistics within different phases of the 11-year cycle and within all considered solar cycles are also presented.

  3. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  4. Alternative concept for tidal power plant with reservoir restrictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael M.; Estefen, Segen F. [Department of Ocean Engineering, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68508, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The Brazilian North and Northeast regions have possibilities on harnessing tidal power, where the greatest tidal amplitudes are to be found. In the 1970s, a barrage constructed in the Bacanga estuary, a civil construction project for reducing the distance between the city of Sao Luis do Maranhao and the port of Itaqui, was planned to be the first Brazilian tidal power plant. The favorable conditions associated with the considerable tidal heights, which can be as much as 6.5 m, made this an ideal place for building a pilot plant. Although, a scheme had been proposed to harness tidal energy in a conventional way with the use of the reservoir, the tidal plant in its original form was not implemented due economic and technical restrictions originated from the turbo generators chosen at that time. This paper presents an alternative concept for tidal power plant when the reservoir presents limitations caused by urban occupation, silting up and deterioration of the original structures. These limitations have been verified following the construction of the Bacanga barrage which led to an alternative proposal for the future installation of a pilot tidal power plant. The power generation possible to be harnessed was simulated through a model for each hour from the water head data, outflow, levels, areas and volumes of the reservoir and estuary. The development of the conceptual project, with the utilization of low-head turbines, a floating platform for the turbines and, particularly, taking into consideration those restrictions to be found at the present time, it can be concluded that Bacanga tidal power plant of is technically viable. (author)

  5. Cluster formation restricts dynamic nuclear polarization of xenon in solid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzma, N. N.; Pourfathi, M.; Kara, H.

    2012-01-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 1.5 K and 5 T, Xe-129 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a homogeneous xenon/1-propanol/trityl-radical solid mixture exhibit a single peak, broadened by H-1 neighbors. A second peak appears upon annealing for several hours at 125 K. Its...

  6. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constrained spectral clustering (CSC method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely. In this paper, we propose a fast CSC algorithm via encoding landmark-based graph construction into a new CSC model and applying random sampling to decrease the data size after spectral embedding. Compared with the original model, the new algorithm has the similar results with the increase of its model size asymptotically; compared with the most efficient CSC algorithm known, the new algorithm runs faster and has a wider range of suitable data sets. Meanwhile, a scalable semisupervised cluster ensemble algorithm is also proposed via the combination of our fast CSC algorithm and dimensionality reduction with random projection in the process of spectral ensemble clustering. We demonstrate by presenting theoretical analysis and empirical results that the new cluster ensemble algorithm has advantages in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Furthermore, the approximate preservation of random projection in clustering accuracy proved in the stage of consensus clustering is also suitable for the weighted k-means clustering and thus gives the theoretical guarantee to this special kind of k-means clustering where each point has its corresponding weight.

  7. Convex Clustering: An Attractive Alternative to Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K.; Chi, Eric C.; Ranola, John Michael O.; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs) for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/ PMID:25965340

  8. Convex clustering: an attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/.

  9. Convex clustering: an attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K; Chi, Eric C; Ranola, John Michael O; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs) for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/.

  10. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  11. Conceptual History, Cultural History, Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zhivov (†

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available V. M. Zhivov’s introduction to Studies in Historical Semantics of the Russian Language in the Early Modern Period (2009, translated here for the first time, offers a critical survey of the historiography on Begriffsgeschichte, the German school of conceptual history associated with the work of Reinhart Koselleck, as well as of its application to the study of Russian culture.  By situating Begriffsgeschichte in the context of late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century European philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and phenomenology, the author points out the important, and as yet unacknowledged, role that Russian linguists have played in the development of a native school of conceptual history.  In the process of outlining this alternative history of the discipline, Zhivov provides some specific examples of the way in which the study of “historical semantics” can be used to analyze the development of Russian modernity.

  12. Conceptualizing the metaphors of drug abusers

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    Gyuró Monika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to demonstrate, within the framework of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, how slang words associated with substance abuse are conceptualized via metaphors. This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users’ language. The results of the data analysis effectively reveal that, within a thematic approach, classes of metaphor are coded to enable connections between metaphorical concepts and drug addicts’ physiological experiences in order to present their personal meanings and cognitive processes. The study also involves drug addicts’ narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences. Notably, it is argued within this research that figurative language use is also connected to the cultural background of users to a great extent.

  13. THE INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY: CONCEPTUALIZATION AND MANIFESTATION

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    Nikola Lj. Ilievski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is qualitative and theoretical research of the concept of sovereignty and the libertarian theory, particularly the concept of individual liberty. It represents a concept developing study, with a specific accent laid on the individual liberty, and the theoretically established concept of sovereignty. The research focus could be identified with the conceptualization and manifestation of the individual sovereignty, as a theoretical phenomenon that is not fully conceptualized and strictly defined. In the scope of this paper, content analysis method and comparative method are used. The analysis, comparison and synthesis refer to the theories of sovereignty and the theory of libertarianism, resulting in developing the concept of individual sovereignty and its socio-political manifestation.

  14. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

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    Barbara F. M. Marino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view.

  15. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees

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    Aurore eAvargues-Weber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities.

  16. Conceptualization, Cognitive Process between Image and Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the process of constituting and organizing the system of concepts. After a comparative analysis of image and concept, conceptualization is reconsidered through raising for discussion the relations of concept with image in general and with self-image mirrored in body schema in particular. Taking into consideration the notion of mental space, there is developed an articulated perspective on conceptualization which has the images of mental space at one pole and the categories of language and operations of thinking at the other pole. There are explored the explicative possibilities of the notion of Tversky’s diagrammatic space as an element which is necessary to understand the genesis of graphic behaviour and to define a new construct, graphic intelligence.

  17. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper is a contribution to the field of architectural design theory in the area of tectonics. From the designer’s point of view, it will develop an overarching conceptual framework for tectonic thinking (FTT), which will serve as a tool for the comparative analysis and interpretation...... of a wide range of tectonic motifs and design positions. The understanding of tectonics will be broadened and differentiated. The conceptual framework will be developed in writing and in hand-drawn mappings. This comparative method assumes not one single, supposedly right, meaning of tectonics, but several...... a value judgement beforehand about any of these positions. Also a-tectonic design positions will be regarded as valid positions within this framework....

  18. Conceptual Model of User Adaptive Enterprise Application

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    Inese Šūpulniece

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The user adaptive enterprise application is a software system, which adapts its behavior to an individual user on the basis of nontrivial inferences from information about the user. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a conceptual model of the user adaptive enterprise applications. In order to conceptualize the user adaptive enterprise applications, their main characteristics are analyzed, the meta-model defining the key concepts relevant to these applications is developed, and the user adaptive enterprise application and its components are defined in terms of the meta-model. Modeling of the user adaptive enterprise application incorporates aspects of enterprise modeling, application modeling, and design of adaptive characteristics of the application. The end-user and her expectations are identified as two concepts of major importance not sufficiently explored in the existing research. Understanding these roles improves the adaptation result in the user adaptive applications.

  19. Conceptual Design of an APT Reusable Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    This paper concerns the conceptual design of an Aerial Propellant Transfer reusable spaceplane carried out during our PhD course under the supervision of prof. Chiesa. The new conceptual design methodology employed in order to develop the APT concept and the main characteristics of the spaceplane itself will be presented and discussed. The methodology for conceptual design has been worked out during the last three years. It was originally thought for atmospheric vehicle design but, thanks to its modular structure which makes it very flexible, it has been possible to convert it to space transportation systems design by adding and/or modifying a few modules. One of the major improvements has been for example the conception and development of the mission simulation and trajectory optimisation module. The methodology includes as main characteristics and innovations the latest techniques of geometric modelling and logistic, operational and cost aspects since the first stages of the project. Computer aided design techniques are used to obtain a better definition of the product at the end of the conceptual design phase and virtual reality concepts are employed to visualise three-dimensional installation and operational aspects, at least in part replacing full-scale mock- ups. The introduction of parametric three-dimensional CAD software integrated into the conceptual design methodology represents a great improvement because it allows to carry out different layouts and to assess them immediately. It is also possible to link the CAD system to a digital prototyping software which combines 3D visualisation and assembly analysis, useful to define the so-called Digital Mock-Up at Conceptual Level (DMUCL) which studies the integration between the on board systems, sized with simulation algorithms, and the airframe. DMUCL represents a very good means to integrate the conceptual design with a methodology turned towards dealing with Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and

  20. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…