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Sample records for restores heart function

  1. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

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    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  2. Chronic Cardiac-Targeted RNA Interference for the Treatment of Heart Failure Restores Cardiac Function and Reduces Pathological Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckau, Lennart; Fechner, Henry; Chemaly, Elie; Krohn, Stefanie; Hadri, Lahouaria; Kockskämper, Jens; Westermann, Dirk; Bisping, Egbert; Ly, Hung; Wang, Xiaomin; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jiqiu; Liang, Lifan; Sipo, Isaac; Vetter, Roland; Weger, Stefan; Kurreck, Jens; Erdmann, Volker; Tschope, Carsten; Pieske, Burkert; Lebeche, Djamel; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Hajjar, Roger J.; Poller, Wolfgang Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy in diverse areas of medicine. We report on targeted RNAi for the treatment of heart failure (HF), an important disorder in humans resulting from multiple etiologies. Successful treatment of HF is demonstrated in a rat model of transaortic banding by RNAi targeting of phospholamban (PLB), a key regulator of cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis. Whereas gene therapy rests on recombinant protein expression as its basic principle, RNAi therapy employs regulatory RNAs to achieve its effect. Methods and Results We describe structural requirements to obtain high RNAi activity from adenoviral (AdV) and adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vectors and show that an AdV short hairpin RNA vector (AdV-shRNA) silenced PLB in cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and improved hemodynamics in HF rats 1 month after aortic root injection. For simplified long-term therapy we developed a dimeric cardiotropic AAV vector (rAAV9-shPLB) delivering RNAi activity to the heart via intravenous injection. Cardiac PLB protein was reduced to 25% and SERCA2a suppression in the HF groups was rescued. In contrast to traditional vectors rAAV9 shows high affinity for myocardium, but low affinity for liver and other organs. rAAV9-shPLB therapy restored diastolic (LVEDP, dp/dtmin, Tau) and systolic (fractional shortening) functional parameters to normal range. The massive cardiac dilation was normalized and the cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis significantly reduced. Importantly, there was no evidence of microRNA deregulation or hepatotoxicity during these RNAi therapies. Conclusion Our data show, for the first time, high efficacy of an RNAi therapeutic strategy in a cardiac disease. PMID:19237664

  3. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  4. Exercise training preserves vagal preganglionic neurones and restores parasympathetic tonus in heart failure.

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    Ichige, Marcelo H A; Santos, Carla R; Jordão, Camila P; Ceroni, Alexandre; Negrão, Carlos E; Michelini, Lisete C

    2016-11-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is accompanied by reduced ventricular function, activation of compensatory neurohormonal mechanisms and marked autonomic dysfunction characterized by exaggerated sympathoexcitation and reduced parasympathetic activity. With 6 weeks of exercise training, HF-related loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive vagal preganglionic neurones is avoided, restoring the parasympathetic tonus to the heart, and the immunoreactivity of dopamine β-hydroxylase-positive premotor neurones that drive sympathetic outflow to the heart is reduced. Training-induced correction of autonomic dysfunction occurs even with the persistence of abnormal ventricular function. Strong positive correlation between improved parasympathetic tonus to the heart and increased ChAT immunoreactivity in vagal preganglionic neurones after training indicates this is a crucial mechanism to restore autonomic function in heart failure. Exercise training is an efficient tool to attenuate sympathoexcitation, a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Although sympathetic modulation in HF is widely studied, information regarding parasympathetic control is lacking. We examined the combined effects of sympathetic and vagal tonus to the heart in sedentary (Sed) and exercise trained (ET) HF rats and the contribution of respective premotor and preganglionic neurones. Wistar rats submitted to coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned to training or sedentary protocols for 6 weeks. After haemodynamic, autonomic tonus (atropine and atenolol i.v.) and ventricular function determinations, brains were collected for immunoreactivity assays (choline acetyltransferase, ChATir; dopamine β-hydroxylase, DBHir) and neuronal counting in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV), nucleus ambiguus (NA) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). HF-Sed vs. SHAM-Sed exhibited decreased exercise capacity, reduced ejection fraction, increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure, smaller positive and negative

  5. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  6. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  7. Functional radioanatomy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive data on radioanatomy of the heart and main vessels as applied to standard projections are presented. Anatomic structure evolution during heart cycle is described. A current trend towards complex examination of the heart and minor circulation vessels is illustrated, including digital roentgenography, digital subtraction angiography, nmr imaging, computerized tomography, radioisotope examination of the heart and positron emission tomography. Data testifying to essential effect of resperation phase and patient's placement on X-ray picture of the heart and blood flow in the lungs. 291 refs.; 131 figs

  8. [The exercise training restores the heart rate variability in heart failure patients. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Victoria; Manterola, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván

    Cardiovascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this sense, the autonomic imbalance is the cornerstone of the pathophysiology underlying the development of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in adult patients with chronic heart failure. A systematic literature review was conducted in electronic databases. The considered studies were randomised clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies with non-randomised control group, quasi-experimental studies with analysis of pre- and post- intervention, and crossover studies with randomly assigned training and non-training periods. The standardised mean differences were calculated between pre- and post-intervention in both the control and experimental group. Within-subject analysis of the control group showed no statistical significance in the standardised mean differences of HRV. In the experimental group, the standardised mean differences were positive for the root mean square of successive difference (+0.468±0.215; P=.032), high frequency band (HF) (0.934±0.256; P < .001) and low frequency band (LF) (< 0.415±0.096; P=.001). Moreover, the standardised mean difference was negative for LF/HF (-0.747±0.369, P=<.044). On the other hand, only 3 studies entered the comparative meta-analysis. The effect of exercise training was favourable for the experimental group in LF/HF (-2.21±95% CI: -3.83 to -0.60), HF, and LF. The exercise training was effective in increasing HRV and restoring the autonomic balance in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Anterior provisional restorations used to determine form, function, and esthetics for complex restorative situations, using all-ceramic restorative systems.

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    Reshad, Mamaly; Cascione, Domenico; Kim, Tae

    2010-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the restoration of a large and visible maxillary anterior defect. The importance of proper diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication is emphasized. Irreversible treatment should only be rendered once patient approval has been obtained through objective evaluation with provisional restorations. The techniques presented in this article use a combination of ceramic systems currently available to satisfy functional demands while achieving acceptable esthetics. A controlled series of steps, where the provisional restorative components are being replaced by the definitive ones is planned. The only difference between the provisional and definitive restorative components is the material used. The definitive restorations consisted of an implant-supported zirconium oxide framework. Individual pressed porcelain restorations were luted to the framework and a natural tooth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Provisional restorations allow an objective form of communication. Vertical and horizontal transitional lines can be effectively masked with appropriate treatment planning and a skilled ceramist. Many traditional dental laboratory steps may be eliminated or simplified without compromising the definitive restorations.

  10. Renal function assessment in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Calvo, J I; Josa Laorden, C; Giménez López, I

    Renal function is one of the most consistent prognostic determinants in heart failure. The prognostic information it provides is independent of the ejection fraction and functional status. This article reviews the various renal function assessment measures, with special emphasis on the fact that the patient's clinical situation and response to the heart failure treatment should be considered for the correct interpretation of the results. Finally, we review the literature on the performance of tubular damage biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. A Function-Based Framework for Stream Assessment & Restoration Projects

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    This report lays out a framework for approaching stream assessment and restoration projects that focuses on understanding the suite of stream functions at a site in the context of what is happening in the watershed.

  12. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  13. Function of mechanically lengthened jejunum after restoration into continuity.

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    Sullins, Veronica F; Wagner, Justin P; Walthers, Christopher M; Chiang, Elvin K; Lee, Steven L; Wu, Benjamin M; Dunn, James C Y

    2014-06-01

    Distraction enterogenesis is a potential treatment for patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated successful lengthening of jejunum using a degradable spring device in rats. Absorptive function of the lengthened jejunum after restoration into intestinal continuity needs to be determined. Encapsulated polycaprolactone springs were placed into isolated jejunal segments in rats for four weeks. Lengthened segments of jejunum were subsequently restored into intestinal continuity. Absorption studies were performed by placing a mixture of a non-absorbable substrate and glucose into the lumen of the restored jejunum. Restored jejunal segments demonstrated visible peristalsis at specimen retrieval. Compared to normal jejunal controls, restored segments demonstrated equal water absorption and greater glucose absorption. Restored segments had thicker smooth muscle, increased villus height, increased crypt depth, and decreased sucrase activity compared to normal jejunum. The density of enteric ganglia increased after restoration to near normal levels in the submucosa and to normal levels in the myenteric plexus. Jejunum lengthened with a degradable device demonstrates peristaltic and enzymatic activity as well as glucose and water absorption after restoration into intestinal continuity. Our findings further demonstrate the therapeutic potential of a degradable device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shedding light on restoring respiratory function after spinal cord injury

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    Warren J Alilain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of respiratory function is one of the leading causes of death following spinal cord injury. Because of this, much work has been done in studying ways to restore respiratory function following SCI - including pharmacological and regeneration strategies. With the emergence of new and powerful tools from molecular neuroscience, new therapeutically relevant alternatives to these approaches have become available, including expression of light sensitive proteins called channelrhodopsins. In this article we briefly review the history of various attempts to restore breathing after C2 hemisection, and focus on our recent work using the activation of light sensitive channels to restore respiratory function after experimental spinal cord injury. We also discuss how such light induced activity can help shed light on the inner workings of the central nervous system respiratory circuitry that controls diaphragmatic function.

  15. Cardiorespiratory functional assessment after pediatric heart transplantation.

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    Pastore, E; Turchetta, A; Attias, L; Calzolari, A; Giordano, U; Squitieri, C; Parisi, F

    2001-12-01

    Limited data are available on the exercise capacity of young heart transplant recipients. The aim of this study was therefore to assess cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in this group of patients. Fourteen consecutive heart transplant recipients (six girls and eight boys, age-range 5-15 yr) and 14 healthy matched controls underwent a Bruce treadmill test to determine: duration of test; resting and maximum heart rates; maximum systolic blood pressure; peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak); and cardiac output. Duration of test and heart rate increase were then compared with: time since transplantation, rejections per year, and immunosuppressive drugs received. The recipients also underwent the following lung function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). When compared with healthy controls, transplant recipients had tachycardia at rest (126 +/- 3.7 beats/min; p physical activity, possibly owing to over-protective parents and teachers and to a lack of suitable supervised facilities. The authors stress the importance of a cardiorespiratory functional evaluation for assessment of health status and to encourage recipients, if possible, to undertake regular physical activity.

  16. Neuroprosthetics and Solutions for Restoring Sensorimotor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    prosthetic feet. 15. SUBJECT TERMS neural interface, neural prosthesis , biocompatibility, virtual reality, amputee, sensory feedback 16. SECURITY...limbs. By providing a communication link between the prosthesis and the user’s nervous system, our goal is to integrate the prosthetic limb as a...neuroprosthetic control. This new class of prosthetic devices will literally look, feel , and function like natural limbs, but their internal

  17. Restoration and functional analysis of nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, R.E. III.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear medicine physician uses visual interpretation of a movie-like display of the beating human heart to detect wall motion abnormalities which might be related to impaired cardiac function. The present work is directed toward extracting more information from the heart motion study, and presenting it in a useful manner. A spatially adaptive smoothing routine using a quadtree image representation gives an improvement in mean squared error compared to the S9 smoother commonly used for nuclear medicine studies. Functional images show the two-dimensional distribution of parameters of the heart motion. The most popular, the first harmonic phase functional image, formed from the first Fourier harmonic fit to each pixel time-activity curve, is subject to significant artifacts which make a simple interpretation of it difficult. A multi-harmonic approximation is more accurate and offers a wealth of unique parameters with which to construct more directly meaningful functional images

  18. MR imaging of the heart: functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croisille, P.; Revel, D.

    2000-01-01

    To date, most applications of cardiovascular MRI relate to the evaluation of major vessels rather than the heart itself. However, MRI plays a major role in the evaluation of specific types of cardiovascular pathology, namely intracardiac and paracardiac masses, pericardial disease, and congenital heart disease. In addition, because the visualization of cardiovascular anatomy with MR is non-invasive and permits three-dimensional analysis but also allows functional assessment of the cardiac pump, it is clear that MRI will have a growing and significant impact over the next years. We review some of the technical aspect of cardiac MRI and describe the current and potential clinical and investigative applications of this new methodology. (orig.)

  19. Renal function and acute heart failure outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauger, Lluís; Jacob, Javier; Miró, Òscar

    2018-06-05

    The interaction between acute heart failure (AHF) and renal dysfunction is complex. Several studies have evaluated the prognostic value of this syndrome. The aim of this systematic review, which includes non-selected samples, was to investigate the impact of different renal function variables on the AHF prognosis. The categories included in the studies reviewed included: creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the BUN/creatinine quotient, chronic kidney disease, the formula to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, criteria of acute renal injury and new biomarkers of renal damage such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and cystatin c). The basal alterations of the renal function, as well as the acute alterations, transient or not, are related to a worse prognosis in AHF, it is therefore necessary to always have baseline, acute and evolutive renal function parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Restoring a smooth function from its noisy integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulko, Olga; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Numerical (and experimental) data analysis often requires the restoration of a smooth function from a set of sampled integrals over finite bins. We present the bin hierarchy method that efficiently computes the maximally smooth function from the sampled integrals using essentially all the information contained in the data. We perform extensive tests with different classes of functions and levels of data quality, including Monte Carlo data suffering from a severe sign problem and physical data for the Green's function of the Fröhlich polaron.

  1. Functional and structural regeneration in the axolotl heart (Ambystoma mexicanum) after partial ventricular amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Martínez, Agustina; Vargas-González, Alvaro; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Prado-Zayago, Esteban; León-Oleda, Martha; Nieto-Lima, Betzabé

    2010-01-01

    "In the present study we evaluated the effect of partial ventricular amputation (PVA) in the heart of the adult urodele amphibian (Ambystoma mexicanum) in vivo on spontaneous heart contractile activity recorded in vitro in association to the structural recovery at one, five, 30 and 90 days after injury. One day after PVA, ventricular-tension (VT) (16 ± 3%), atrium-tension (AT) (46 ± 4%) and heart rate (HR) (58+10%) resulted lower in comparison to control hearts. On days five, 30 and 90 after damage, values achieved a 61 ± 5, 93 ± 3, and 98 ± 5% (VT), 60 ± 4, 96 ± 3 and 99 ± 5% (AT) and 74 ± 5, 84 ± 10 and 95 ± 10% (HR) of the control values, respectively. Associated to contractile activity recovery we corroborated a gradual tissue restoration by cardiomyocyte proliferation. Our results represent the first quantitative evidence about the recovery of heart of A. mexicanum restores its functional capacity concomitantly to the structural recovery of the myocardium by proliferation of cardiomyocytes after PVA. These properties make the heart of A. mexicanum a potential model to study the mechanisms underlying heart regeneration in adult vertebrates in vivo.

  2. Functional significance of cardiac reinnervation in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiblmair, M; von Scheidt, W; Uberfuhr, P; Ziegler, S; Schwaiger, M; Reichart, B; Vogelmeier, C

    1999-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence of structural sympathetic reinnervation after human cardiac transplantation. However, the functional significance of reinnervation in terms of exercise capacity has not been established as yet; we therefore investigated the influence of reinnervation on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. After orthotopic heart transplantation 35 patients (mean age, 49.1 +/- 8.4 years) underwent positron emission tomography with scintigraphically measured uptake of C11-hydroxyephedrine (HED), lung function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Two groups were defined based on scintigraphic findings, indicating a denervated group (n = 15) with a HED uptake of 5.45%/min and a reinnervated group (n = 20) with a HED uptake of 10.59%/min. The two study groups did not show significant differences with regard to anthropometric data, number of rejection episodes, preoperative hemodynamics, and postoperative lung function data. The reinnervated group had a significant longer time interval from transplantation (1625 +/- 1069 versus 800 +/- 1316 days, p exercise (137 +/- 15 versus 120 +/- 20 beats/min, p = .012), peak oxygen uptake (21.0 +/- 4 versus 16.1 +/- 5 mL/min/kg, p = .006), peak oxygen pulse (12.4 +/- 2.9 versus 10.2 +/- 2.7 mL/min/beat, p = .031), and anaerobic threshold (11.2 +/- 1.8 versus 9.5 +/- 2.1 mL/min, p = .046) were significantly increased in comparison to denervated transplant recipients. Additionally, a decreased functional dead space ventilation (0.24 +/- 0.05 versus 0.30 +/- 0.05, p = .004) was observed in the reinnervated group. Our study results support the hypothesis that partial sympathetic reinnervation after cardiac transplantation is of functional significance. Sympathetic reinnervation enables an increased peak oxygen uptake. This is most probably due to partial restoration of the chronotropic and inotropic competence of the heart as well as an improved oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and a reduced ventilation

  3. Chamber identity programs drive early functional partitioning of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, Christian; Panáková, Daniela; Werdich, Andreas A; Musso, Gabriel; Burger, Alexa; Lawson, Katy L; Carr, Logan A; Nevis, Kathleen R; Sabeh, M Khaled; Zhou, Yi; Davidson, Alan J; DiBiase, Anthony; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A; Zon, Leonard I

    2015-08-26

    The vertebrate heart muscle (myocardium) develops from the first heart field (FHF) and expands by adding second heart field (SHF) cells. While both lineages exist already in teleosts, the primordial contributions of FHF and SHF to heart structure and function remain incompletely understood. Here we delineate the functional contribution of the FHF and SHF to the zebrafish heart using the cis-regulatory elements of the draculin (drl) gene. The drl reporters initially delineate the lateral plate mesoderm, including heart progenitors. Subsequent myocardial drl reporter expression restricts to FHF descendants. We harnessed this unique feature to uncover that loss of tbx5a and pitx2 affect relative FHF versus SHF contributions to the heart. High-resolution physiology reveals distinctive electrical properties of each heart field territory that define a functional boundary within the single zebrafish ventricle. Our data establish that the transcriptional program driving cardiac septation regulates physiologic ventricle partitioning, which successively provides mechanical advantages of sequential contraction.

  4. Amelogenesis imperfecta: A challenge to restoring esthetics and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of complicated cases poses difficulty in clinical practice, both with respect to restoring function and with esthetics. One such clinical condition where the dentist has to give importance to proper planning of the treatment and execution of the plan is amelogenesis imperfecta (AI, a condition where both function and esthetics are accommodated. This article discusses both the functional and esthetic rehabilitation of a patient with AI. Both the esthetics and function were hampered in this patient due to the condition. As a result, the treatment was properly planned and executed. A number of treatment options are available for us today to treat such a case. There is no one technique to be followed as such. However, the aim was to properly diagnose the case and provide good function and esthetics to the patient.

  5. Predicting restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure is common in critically ill patients and frequently requires continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. CRRT is discontinued at regular intervals for routine changes of the disposable equipment or for replacing clogged filter membrane assemblies. The present study was conducted to determine if the necessity to continue CRRT could be predicted during the CRRT-free period. Materials and methods In the period from 2003 to 2006, 605 patients were treated with CRRT in our ICU. A total of 222 patients with 448 CRRT-free intervals had complete data sets and were used for analysis. Of the total CRRT-free periods, 225 served as an evaluation group. Twenty-nine parameters with an assumed influence on kidney function were analyzed with regard to their potential to predict the restoration of kidney function during the CRRT-free interval. Using univariate analysis and logistic regression, a prospective index was developed and validated in the remaining 223 CRRT-free periods to establish its prognostic strength. Results Only three parameters showed an independent influence on the restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals: the number of previous CRRT cycles (medians in the two outcome groups: 1 vs. 2, the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment"-score (means in the two outcome groups: 8.3 vs. 9.2 and urinary output after the cessation of CRRT (medians in two outcome groups: 66 ml/h vs. 10 ml/h. The prognostic index, which was calculated from these three variables, showed a satisfactory potential to predict the kidney function during the CRRT-free intervals; Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.798. Conclusion Restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free periods can be predicted with an index calculated from three variables. Prospective trials in other hospitals must clarify whether our results are generally transferable to other patient populations.

  6. Determination of global heart function parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Hoffmann, H.; Sigel, H.; Bitter, F.; Nechwatal, W.; Stauch, M.; Ulm Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    1. ECG-triggered scintigraphy of the interior of the heart (radioactive ventriculography) is a reliable non-invasive technique for the acquisition of the global and regional function of the left ventricle. 2. The most important global parameter is the output function (OF) of the left ventricle. It can be measured exactly. The decrease of the OF under load is typical for coronary insufficience under load, but is not specifically. 3. A movement disturbance on the ground of a KHK is recognized with highest sensitivity at the decrease of the maximum relaxation velocity of the global left-ventricular time-activity characteristic (fast phase of filling). 4. Regional wall movement disturbances can be measured quantitatively by means of viewing the radioactive nucleid ventriculogramm at the display. 5. The quantitative measurement of the regional function needs an extensive analysis of the local time-activity characteristics of a representative coronary cycle. For this the amplitude and phase and the contraction and relaxation velocity of all time-activity characteristics is determined by Fourier analysis and their spatial distribution is drawn (parametric scan). 6. The parametric scans (distribution of amplitude, phase, contraction and relaxation velocities) describe the regional wall movement in detail, the reliability of its quantitative acquisition has to be approved by further investigations. (orig.) [de

  7. Counteracting loneliness: on the restorative function of nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Gao, Ding-Guo

    2008-10-01

    Four studies tested whether nostalgia can counteract reductions in perceived social support caused by loneliness. Loneliness reduced perceptions of social support but increased nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, increased perceptions of social support. Thus, loneliness affected perceived social support in two distinct ways. Whereas the direct effect of loneliness was to reduce perceived social support, the indirect effect of loneliness was to increase perceived social support via nostalgia. This restorative function of nostalgia was particularly apparent among resilient persons. Nostalgia is a psychological resource that protects and fosters mental health.

  8. Neurotechnology for monitoring and restoring sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pae C.; Knaack, Gretchen; Weber, Douglas J.

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and exponential advances in micro- and nanotechnologies over the last decade have enabled devices that communicate directly with the nervous system to measure and influence neural activity. Many of the earliest implementations focused on restoration of sensory and motor function, but as knowledge of physiology advances and technology continues to improve in accuracy, precision, and safety, new modes of engaging with the autonomic system herald an era of health restoration that may augment or replace many conventional pharmacotherapies. DARPA's Biological Technologies Office is continuing to advance neurotechnology by investing in neural interface technologies that are effective, reliable, and safe for long-term use in humans. DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program is creating a fully implantable system that interfaces with peripheral nerves in amputees to enable natural control and sensation for prosthetic limbs. Beyond standard electrode implementations, the Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) program is investing in innovative approaches to minimally or non-invasively interface with the peripheral nervous system using novel magnetic, optogenetic, and ultrasound-based technologies. These new mechanisms of interrogating and stimulating the peripheral nervous system are driving towards unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, specificity and targeting, and noninvasiveness to enable chronic, human-use applications in closed-loop neuromodulation for the treatment of disease.

  9. Using plant functional traits to restore Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ostertag; Laura Warman; Susan Cordell; Peter M. Vitousek

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration efforts are carried out by a variety of individuals and organizations with an equally varied set of goals, priorities, resources and time-scales. Once restoration of a degraded landscape or community is recognized as necessary, choosing which species to include in a restoration programme can be a difficult and value-laden process (Fry, Power &...

  10. Cardiac telomere length in heart development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, S A; Charchar, F J

    2017-07-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends, and a decrease in the number of these repeats, known as a reduction in telomere length (TL), triggers cellular senescence and apoptosis. Heart disease, the worldwide leading cause of death, often results from the loss of cardiac cells, which could be explained by decreases in TL. Due to the cell-specific regulation of TL, this review focuses on studies that have measured telomeres in heart cells and critically assesses the relationship between cardiac TL and heart function. There are several lines of evidence that have identified rapid changes in cardiac TL during the onset and progression of heart disease as well as at critical stages of development. There are also many factors, such as the loss of telomeric proteins, oxidative stress, and hypoxia, that decrease cardiac TL and heart function. In contrast, antioxidants, calorie restriction, and exercise can prevent both cardiac telomere attrition and the progression of heart disease. TL in the heart is also indicative of proliferative potential and could facilitate the identification of cells suitable for cardiac rejuvenation. Although these findings highlight the involvement of TL in heart function, there are important questions regarding the validity of animal models, as well as several confounding factors, that need to be considered when interpreting results and planning future research. With these in mind, elucidating the telomeric mechanisms involved in heart development and the transition to disease holds promise to prevent cardiac dysfunction and potentiate regeneration after injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Variation of left heart function and thyroid hormone in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junchi; Du Sujun; Mao Shaorong; Lu Jun; Tang Xiaoling

    1996-01-01

    The observation of 52 cases of cirrhosis left heart function indices traced with 113 In m in quiet and motion, and the combining determination of thyroid hormone serum levels with RIA are described. The cirrhosis to the function of liver damage increased, the indices of left heart function has great change. Moreover, the serum levels of T 3 , FT 3 in thyroid hormone are decreased obviously and the serum level of rT 3 is also increased significantly

  12. Diuretic response and renal function in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, Jozine Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    In patients with heart failure fluid overload is a frequently occurring problem, which is among others caused by an impaired function of the heart. This fluid overload may lead to severe dyspnea warranting an acute hospitalization. The first choice treatment of this fluid overload is administration

  13. Restoring canonical partition functions from imaginary chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornyakov, V. G.; Boyda, D.; Goy, V.; Molochkov, A.; Nakamura, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Using GPGPU techniques and multi-precision calculation we developed the code to study QCD phase transition line in the canonical approach. The canonical approach is a powerful tool to investigate sign problem in Lattice QCD. The central part of the canonical approach is the fugacity expansion of the grand canonical partition functions. Canonical partition functions Zn(T) are coefficients of this expansion. Using various methods we study properties of Zn(T). At the last step we perform cubic spline for temperature dependence of Zn(T) at fixed n and compute baryon number susceptibility χB/T2 as function of temperature. After that we compute numerically ∂χ/∂T and restore crossover line in QCD phase diagram. We use improved Wilson fermions and Iwasaki gauge action on the 163 × 4 lattice with mπ/mρ = 0.8 as a sandbox to check the canonical approach. In this framework we obtain coefficient in parametrization of crossover line Tc(µ2B) = Tc(C-ĸµ2B/T2c) with ĸ = -0.0453 ± 0.0099.

  14. Partial LVAD restores ventricular outputs and normalizes LV but not RV stress distributions in the acutely failing heart in silico

    OpenAIRE

    Sack, Kevin L.; Baillargeon, Brian; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Genet, Martin; Rebelo, Nuno; Kuhl, Ellen; Klein, Liviu; Weiselthaler, Georg M.; Burkhoff, Daniel; Franz, Thomas; Guccione, Julius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Heart failure is a worldwide epidemic that is unlikely to change as the population ages and life expectancy increases. We sought to detail significant recent improvements to the Dassault Systèmes Living Heart Model (LHM) and use the LHM to compute left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myofiber stress distributions under the following 4 conditions: (1) normal cardiac function; (2) acute left heart failure (ALHF); (3) ALHF treated using an LV assist device (LVAD) flow rate o...

  15. Functional requirements of a mathematical model of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Joseph L; Noordergraaf, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Functional descriptions of the heart, especially the left ventricle, are often based on the measured variables pressure and ventricular outflow, embodied as a time-varying elastance. The fundamental difficulty of describing the mechanical properties of the heart with a time-varying elastance function that is set a priori is described. As an alternative, a new functional model of the heart is presented, which characterizes the ventricle's contractile state with parameters, rather than variables. Each chamber is treated as a pressure generator that is time and volume dependent. The heart's complex dynamics develop from a single equation based on the formation and relaxation of crossbridge bonds. This equation permits the calculation of ventricular elastance via E(v) = partial differentialp(v)/ partial differentialV(v). This heart model is defined independently from load properties, and ventricular elastance is dynamic and reflects changing numbers of crossbridge bonds. In this paper, the functionality of this new heart model is presented via computed work loops that demonstrate the Frank-Starling mechanism and the effects of preload, the effects of afterload, inotropic changes, and varied heart rate, as well as the interdependence of these effects. Results suggest the origin of the equivalent of Hill's force-velocity relation in the ventricle.

  16. The Ecosystem Functions Model: A Tool for Restoration Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickey, John T; Dunn, Chris N

    2004-01-01

    .... Project teams can use the EFM to visualize existing ecologic conditions, highlight promising restoration sites, and assess and rank alternatives according to the relative enhancement (or decline...

  17. Neural substrate expansion for the restoration of brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chiao Isaac Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring neurological and cognitive function in individuals who have suffered brain damage is one of the principal objectives of modern translational neuroscience. Electrical stimulation approaches, such as deep-brain stimulation, have achieved the most clinical success, but they ultimately may be limited by the computational capacity of the residual cerebral circuitry. An alternative strategy is brain substrate expansion, in which the computational capacity of the brain is augmented through the addition of new processing units and the reconstitution of network connectivity. This latter approach has been explored to some degree using both biological and electronic means but thus far has not demonstrated the ability to reestablish the function of large-scale neuronal networks. In this review, we contend that fulfilling the potential of brain substrate expansion will require a significant shift from current methods that emphasize direct manipulations of the brain (e.g., injections of cellular suspensions and the implantation of multi-electrode arrays to the generation of more sophisticated neural tissues and neural-electric hybrids in vitro that are subsequently transplanted into the brain. Drawing from neural tissue engineering, stem cell biology, and neural interface technologies, this strategy makes greater use of the manifold techniques available in the laboratory to create biocompatible constructs that recapitulate brain architecture and thus are more easily recognized and utilized by brain networks.

  18. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  19. FUNCTIONALLY UNIVENTRICULAR HEARTS: IMPACT OF PRE-NATAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few decades the pre-natal echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital heart defects has made substantial progresses, particularly for the identification of complex malformation. Functionally univentricular hearts categorize a huge variety of heart malformations. Since no one of the patients with these congenital heart defects can ever undergo a bi-ventricular type of repair, early recognition and decision-making from the neonatal period are required in order to allow for appropriate multiple-step diagnostic and treatment procedures, either of interventional cardiology and/or surgery, on the pathway of univentricular heart. In the literature strong disagreements exist about the potential impact of the pre-natal diagnosis on the early and late outcomes of complex congenital heart defects. This review of the recent reports has been undertaken to better understand the impact of pre-natal diagnosis in functionally univentricular hearts taking into consideration the following topics:•pre-natal screening•outcomes and survival•general morbidity•neurologic and developmental consequences•pregnancy management and delivery planning•resources utilization and costs/benefits issues•ethical implications, parents counseling, interruption of pregnancy versus treatment

  20. Impaired mitochondrial function in chronically ischemic human heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis Ottesen; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    , and finally to assess myocardial antioxidant levels. Mitochondrial respiration in biopsies from ischemic and nonischemic regions from the left ventricle of the same heart was compared in nine human subjects. Maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity in fresh muscle fibers was lower in ischemic compared.......05), and the levels of antioxidant protein expression was lower. Diminished mitochondrial respiration capacity and excessive ROS production demonstrate an impaired mitochondrial function in ischemic human heart muscle. No chronic ischemic preconditioning effect was found....

  1. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  2. Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Aaron R; Shah, Amil M; Lutsey, Pamela L; Roetker, Nicholas S; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L; Miedema, Michael D; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P; Solomon, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 guidelines—on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose—is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults ages 45-64 years in 1987-1989. From the 1987-1989 risk factor measurements, we created a Life's Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-2013, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85 years. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life's Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life's Simple 7 score, compared with an inadequate score. Greater achievement of American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sildenafil restores endothelial function in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balarini Camille M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the arterial walls and is initiated by endothelial dysfunction accompanied by an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5 inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction, exerts its cardiovascular effects by enhancing the effects of NO. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sildenafil on endothelial function and atherosclerosis progression in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE−/− mice. Methods ApoE−/− mice treated with sildenafil (Viagra®, 40 mg/kg/day, for 3 weeks, by oral gavage were compared to the untreated apoE−/− and the wild-type (WT mice. Aortic rings were used to evaluate the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh in all of the groups. In a separate set of experiments, the roles of NO and ROS in the relaxation response to ACh were evaluated by incubating the aortic rings with L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor or apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor. In addition, the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified and superoxide production was assessed. Results Sildenafil restored the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh in the aortic rings of the apoE−/− mice. Treatment with L-NAME abolished the vasodilator responses to ACh in all three groups of mice and revealed an augmented participation of NO in the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the sildenafil-treated animals. The normalized endothelial function in sildenafil-treated apoE−/− mice was unaffected by apocynin highlighting the low levels of ROS production in these animals. Moreover, morphological analysis showed that sildenafil treatment caused approximately a 40% decrease in plaque deposition in the aorta. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating the beneficial effects of chronic treatment with sildenafil on endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in a model of spontaneous

  5. Psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Rea, Kelly E; Eder, Sally; Zamberlan, Mary; Jordan, Jessica; Fredericks, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Across pediatric organ transplant populations, patient and family psychosocial functioning is associated with important health-related outcomes. Research has suggested that pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, recent investigation of psychosocial functioning in this population is lacking. This study aimed to provide a contemporary characterization of psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families. Associations between psychosocial function, demographic variables, and transplant-related variables were investigated. Fifty-six parents/guardians of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed a comprehensive psychosocial screening measure during transplant follow-up clinic visits. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and independent samples t tests were performed. Forty percent of pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families endorsed clinically meaningful levels of total psychosocial risk. One-third of patients presented with clinically significant psychological problems per parent report. Psychosocial risk was unassociated with demographic or transplant-related factors. Despite notable improvements in the survival of pediatric heart transplant recipients over the past decade, patients and families present with sustained psychosocial risks well beyond the immediate post-transplant period, necessitating mental health intervention to mitigate adverse impact on health-related outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Heart failure: when form fails to follow function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Arnold M; Rolett, Ellis L

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac performance is normally determined by architectural, cellular, and molecular structures that determine the heart's form, and by physiological and biochemical mechanisms that regulate the function of these structures. Impaired adaptation of form to function in failing hearts contributes to two syndromes initially called systolic heart failure (SHF) and diastolic heart failure (DHF). In SHF, characterized by high end-diastolic volume (EDV), the left ventricle (LV) cannot eject a normal stroke volume (SV); in DHF, with normal or low EDV, the LV cannot accept a normal venous return. These syndromes are now generally defined in terms of ejection fraction (EF): SHF became 'heart failure with reduced ejection fraction' (HFrEF) while DHF became 'heart failure with normal or preserved ejection fraction' (HFnEF or HFpEF). However, EF is a chimeric index because it is the ratio between SV--which measures function, and EDV--which measures form. In SHF the LV dilates when sarcomere addition in series increases cardiac myocyte length, whereas sarcomere addition in parallel can cause concentric hypertrophy in DHF by increasing myocyte thickness. Although dilatation in SHF allows the LV to accept a greater venous return, it increases the energy cost of ejection and initiates a vicious cycle that contributes to progressive dilatation. In contrast, concentric hypertrophy in DHF facilitates ejection but impairs filling and can cause heart muscle to deteriorate. Differences in the molecular signals that initiate dilatation and concentric hypertrophy can explain why many drugs that improve prognosis in SHF have little if any benefit in DHF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Functional response of white rats isolated heart to the stimulation of adrenergic receptors after gamma-irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenko, A.N.; Lobanok, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    It was investigated the effects of acute gamma-irradiation on bio mechanical activity of rats heart isolated by Langendorf's method in early and delayed terms after exposure to gamma-rays. Intra ventricle pressure and the rate of its growth, volumetric rate of coronal flow, frequency of heart contraction were registered. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors was conducted by means of specific agonist mesatone and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors was made by means of isoprenaline. The study has shown that acute irradiation of rats caused the decrease of both contractile ability and relaxation of myocardium in a 10 days after exposure. In delayed period bio mechanical activity of isolated heart was restored. Functional response of heart to the stimulation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors was decreased in all terms of investigation

  8. Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function during Human Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.H.; Kuo, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is

  9. Fourier analysis of heart SPECT slices: from remodelation to function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, M.; Prpic, H.; Lokner, V.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine character of the spatial distribution of marked erythrocytes in heart chambers, lungs and great blood vessels in relation to function of the left and right heart. Investigation included total of 142 subjects, 28 of which were without subjective and clinical signs of heart disease as well as 56 after myocardial infarction (30 of anterior localization, 26 of inferior infarction), 35 with predominant left heart disease (aortic valve disease, dilatative myocardiopathy, etc.) and 23 with predominant right heart disease (atrial septal defect, mitral valve disease). Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) at rest, and thorax SPECT were performed in all subjects with 740 MBq Tc-99m after in vivo erythrocyte labelling with pyrophosphate. Ultrasound investigation was performed on all the subjects with heart disease and 87 of them underwent invasive cardiac investigation. RNV analysis revealed scintigraphic data on left and right ventricle: global ejection fraction (GEF), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), fast tilling rate (FFR), fast emptying rate (FER) as well as regional wall motion shortening. Reconstruction of 64x64x8 SPECT images resulted in 3x64 slices (transversal, coronal and sagittal slices). Fourier analysis of 20-32 reconstructed slices in all three dimensions gave amplitude image of the intensity distribution of marked erythrocytes in heart chambers lungs and great blood vessels as well as phase display of spatial localization of regional amplitude values. Results of joint ROC curves constructed for detection, localization and character of heart disease in all subjects revealed significant clinical information content of SPECT data. Evaluation of RI retention using amplitude images in 3D provides insight in regional changes of volume, particular for atrial and lung involvement. (author)

  10. 2-Deoxyadenosine triphosphate restores the contractile function of cardiac myofibril from adult dogs with naturally occurring dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanhua; Hogarth, Kaley A; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Regnier, Michael; Pyle, W Glen

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major type of heart failure resulting from loss of systolic function. Naturally occurring canine DCM is a widely accepted experimental paradigm for studying human DCM. 2-Deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) can be used by myosin and is a superior energy substrate over ATP for cross-bridge formation and increased systolic function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of dATP on contractile function of cardiac myofibrils from dogs with naturally occurring DCM. We measured actomyosin NTPase activity and contraction/relaxation properties of isolated myofibrils from nonfailing (NF) and DCM canine hearts. NTPase assays indicated replacement of ATP with dATP significantly increased myofilament activity in both NF and DCM samples. dATP significantly improved maximal tension of DCM myofibrils to the NF sample level. dATP also restored Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension that was reduced in DCM samples. Similarly, dATP increased the kinetics of contractile activation (kACT), with no impact on the rate of cross-bridge tension redevelopment (kTR). Thus, the activation kinetics (kACT/kTR) that were reduced in DCM samples were restored for dATP to NF sample levels. dATP had little effect on relaxation. The rate of early slow-phase relaxation was slightly reduced with dATP, but its duration was not, nor was the fast-phase relaxation or times to 50 and 90% relaxation. Our findings suggest that myosin utilization of dATP improves cardiac myofibril contractile properties of naturally occurring DCM canine samples, restoring them to NF levels, without compromising relaxation. This suggests elevation of cardiac dATP is a promising approach for the treatment of DCM. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Sexual functioning is impaired in adults with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Opic (Petra); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); J.A.A.E. Cuypers (Judith); M. Witsenburg (Maarten); A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To investigate the overall sexual functioning and disease specific sexual problems in congenital heart disease (ConHD) patients, for both genders and different cardiac diagnostic groups, and compare these with Dutch normative data. Also disease specific sexual problems were

  12. Sexual functioning is impaired in adults with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opić, Petra; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Cuypers, Judith A. A. C.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien; van Domburg, Ron T.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the overall sexual functioning and disease specific sexual problems in congenital heart disease (ConHD) patients, for both genders and different cardiac diagnostic groups, and compare these with Dutch normative data. Also disease specific sexual problems were investigated. From a

  13. Renal Function Recovery with Total Artificial Heart Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Mohammed A; Goodreau, Adam M; Shah, Keyur B; Katlaps, Gundars; Cooke, Richard; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna F; Wolfe, Luke G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients requiring total artificial heart (TAH) support often have concomitant renal insufficiency (RI). We sought to quantify renal function recovery in patients supported with TAH at our institution. Renal function data at 30, 90, and 180 days after TAH implantation were analyzed for patients with RI, defined as hemodialysis supported or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Between January 2008 and December 2013, 20 of the 46 (43.5%) TAH recipients (age 51 ± 9 years, 85% men) had RI, mean preoperative eGFR of 48 ± 7 ml/min/1.73 m. Renal function recovery was noted at each follow-up interval: increment in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m) at 30, 90, and 180 days was 21 ± 35 (p = 0.1), 16.5 ± 18 (p = 0.05), and 10 ± 9 (p = 0.1), respectively. Six patients (30%) required preoperative dialysis. Of these, four recovered renal function, one remained on dialysis, and one died. Six patients (30%) required new-onset dialysis. Of these, three recovered renal function and three died. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of patients' renal function improved with TAH support. Total artificial heart support improved renal function in 75% of patients with pre-existing significant RI, including those who required preoperative dialysis.

  14. [Contractile function of the heart and myocardium antioxidant system in rats of August and Wistar strains during ischemia and reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazontova, T G; Belkina, L M; Zhukova, A G; Kirillina, T N; Arkhipenko, Iu V

    2004-01-01

    In August rats, local myocardial ischemia caused by 30-min occlusion of the coronary artery induced a slight depression of the contractile function of the heart; the latter was restored after 15-min reperfusion more rapidly than in Wistar rats. In August rats, the activities of antioxidant protection enzymes were lower than in Wistar rats. In comparison with Wistar rats, these enzyme activities were decreased in a lesser degree under ischemia and were restored in a greater degree under reperfusion. It may thus be concluded that the higher stability of antiradical protection parameters in August rats is one of the mechanisms responsible for the enhanced resistance of the heart to ischemia- and reperfusion-induced injuries.

  15. The effects of heart failure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L

    2010-08-01

    Heart-kidney interactions have been increasingly recognized by clinicians and researchers who study and treat heart failure and kidney disease. A classification system has been developed to categorize the different manifestations of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Work has highlighted the significant negative prognostic effect of worsening renal function on outcomes for individuals with heart failure. The etiology of concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction remains unclear; however, evidence supports alternatives to the established theory of underfilling, including effects of venous congestion and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. Conventional therapy focuses on blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with expanding use of direct renin and aldosterone antagonists. Novel therapeutic interventions using extracorporeal therapy and antagonists of the adenosine pathway show promise and require further investigation. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  17. Reactivating Neural Circuits with Clinically Accessible Stimulation to Restore Hand Function in Persons with Tetraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0395 TITLE: Reactivating Neural Circuits with Clinically Accessible Stimulation to Restore Hand Function in...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data...Clinically Accessible Stimulation to Restore Hand Function in Persons with Tetraplegia 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  18. Targeted Gene-Silencing Reveals the Functional Significance of Myocardin Signaling in the Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Mario; Iglesias, Raquel; Centeno, Alberto; López, Eduardo; Mikhailov, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Myocardin (MYOCD), a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM) and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF). However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox)-induced diastolic HF (DHF) model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV) myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1) a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2) amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3) higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery) led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. Conclusions/Significance These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization) of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view. PMID:22028870

  19. Targeted gene-silencing reveals the functional significance of myocardin signaling in the failing heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardin (MYOCD, a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF. However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox-induced diastolic HF (DHF model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1 a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2 amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3 higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view.

  20. Development of Multi-Functional Voltage Restore System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Koganezawa, Takehisa; Ogihara, Yoshinori; Mori, Kenjiro; Fukazu, Naoaki

    Recently, with the dawn of the electric deregulation, the installation of distributed generation with power electronics device has grown. This current causes a greater concern of power quality, primarily voltage disturbance for power companies, and their interest in power quality is peaking. Utilities are also interested in keeping their customers satisfied, as well as keeping them on-line and creating more revenue for the utility. As a countermeasure against the above surroundings, a variety type of devices based on power electronics has been developed to protect customers' load from power line voltage disturbance. One of them is the series type voltage restore. The series device is an active device, designed to provide a pure sinusoidal load voltage at all times, correcting voltage disturbance. Series type device compensates for voltage anomalies by inserting the ‘missing’ voltage onto the line through insertion transformer and inverter. This paper shows the setting guideline of target level to compensate voltage disturbance, that is, voltage dip, voltage harmonics, voltage imbalance and voltage flicker, and the design approach of the prototype of series voltage restores to accomplish the required compensation level. The prototype system gives satisfactory compensation performance through evaluation tests, which confirm the validity and effectiveness of the system.

  1. Recycling energy to restore impaired ankle function during human walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external dissipation is negligible, and no net work is performed over a stride. However, dissipation and replacement by muscles might not be necessary if energy were instead captured and reused by an assistive device. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a microprocessor-controlled artificial foot that captures some of the energy that is normally dissipated by the leg and "recycles" it as positive ankle work. In tests on subjects walking with an artificially-impaired ankle, a conventional prosthesis reduced ankle push-off work and increased net metabolic energy expenditure by 23% compared to normal walking. Energy recycling restored ankle push-off to normal and reduced the net metabolic energy penalty to 14%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reduced ankle push-off contributes to the increased metabolic energy expenditure accompanying ankle impairments, and demonstrate that energy recycling can be used to reduce such cost.

  2. Geomorphic Function and Restoration Potential of Spring Creeks in Southeastern Idaho: Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Hill, Z.; Levell, A.; Maguire, T.; Risso, D.

    2014-12-01

    A large wetland and floodplain complex adjacent to the Snake River in southeastern Idaho, USA, encompasses numerous spring-fed creeks that originate on the floodplain and discharge at their confluence with the Snake River and American Falls Reservoir. Resource managers are implementing a program to restore these spring creeks for the recovery of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and ecosystem health. Our objectives were to evaluate the physical characteristics of these spring creeks, develop a conceptual model of their geomorphic function, compare the restoration potential of individual reaches, and communicate our findings to a broad audience of resource managers and regional stakeholders in order to foster restoration planning. A geomorphic assessment along 38 km of three spring creeks was completed by collecting data at several transects within distinct geomorphic reaches, and by collecting data continuously throughout all reaches. These data were summarized in a GIS database and used to quantify the overall geomorphic functioning of each reach. The geomorphic functional scores were scaled from 0% (non-functional) to 100% (fully functional). Among all three spring creeks, geomorphic function ranged from 29% to 63%, with bank conditions and riparian vegetation being the primary causes of overall channel degradation. Results from the geomorphic assessment fostered the development of a conceptual model for spring creek function, whereby degraded bank conditions represent the primary controlling factor of decreased geomorphic function and fish habitat quality. The reach-based geomorphic functional scoring provides an indicator of relative restoration potential for each reach, and is one of the factors used in determining site-specific priorities for protecting, enhancing, and restoring spring creeks on the Fort Hall Bottoms. The study results, conceptual model and restoration strategy were communicated to resource managers and regional stakeholders through a graphically

  3. Blurred image restoration using knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shudao; Yan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Motion blur in images is usually modeled as the convolution of a point spread function (PSF) and the original image represented as pixel intensities. The knife-edge function can be used to model various types of motion-blurs, and hence it allows for the construction of a PSF and accurate estimation of the degradation function without knowledge of the specific degradation model. This paper addresses the problem of image restoration using a knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering. In the proposed method, we first calculate the motion-blur parameters and construct the optimal window. Then, we use the detected knife-edge function to obtain the system degradation function. Finally, we perform Wiener filtering to obtain the restored image. Experiments show that the restored image has improved resolution and contrast parameters with clear details and no discernible ringing effects. PMID:29377950

  4. Effect of biological factors during functional scintigraphy of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuel, H P; Emrich, D; Luig, H [Goettingen Univ. (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1976-07-01

    The parameters relating to functional scintigraphy of the heart (average circulation time, peak time) depend not only on the method (injection technique, radiopharmaceutical), but also on biological factors. Failure to take these into consideration may result in an erroneous interpretation of the findings. Circulation time in normal children aged 6 to 14 years, as determined by isotope methods is significantly shorter than in normal adults. Patients with compensated heart disease, as well trained athletes, show significant increase in all portions of the circulation time, when compared with normals of similar ages. This indicates that deviation in the haemodynamics of the circulation as shown by functional scintigraphy, can only be interpreted in the light of clinical findings.

  5. Effects of functional restoration versus 3 hours per week physical therapy: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Nathalie; Fanello, Serge; Bontoux, Luc; Dubus, Valérie; Billabert, Colette; Vielle, Bruno; Roquelaure, Yves; Penneau-Fontbonne, Dominique; Richard, Isabelle

    2004-03-01

    Randomized parallel-group comparative trial with a 6-month follow-up period. To compare, in chronic low back pain patients, the effectiveness of a functional restoration program, including intensive physical training, occupational therapy, and psychological support to an active individual therapy consisting of 3 hours physical therapy per week during 5 weeks. Controlled studies conducted in the United States showed a benefit of functional restoration in patients with low back pain, especially on return to work. Randomized Canadian and European trials had less favorable results. In France, there has been up to now no randomized study. Controlled studies suggested a positive effect of functional restoration programs. Eighty-six patients with low back pain were randomized to either the functional restoration (44 patients) or the active individual therapy (42 patients) program. One person in each group never started the program. Two patients did not complete the functional restoration program, and one was lost to follow-up at 6 months. The mean number of sick-leave days in the 2 previous years was 6 months. After adjustment on the variable "workplace enrolled in an ergonomic program", the mean number of sick-leave days was significantly lower in the functional restoration group. Physical criteria and treatment appreciation were also better. There was no significant difference in the intensity of pain, the quality of life and functional indexes, the psychological characteristics, the number of contacts with the medical system, and the drug intake. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a functional restoration program on important outcome measures, such as sick leave, in a country that has a social system that protects people facing difficulties at work.

  6. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F A; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Heemstra, Karen A; Smit, Johannes W A; Schoemaker, Rik C; Romijn, Johannes A; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the long-term effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system and the potential effects of restoration of euthyroidism. This was a prospective single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The study was performed at a university hospital. A total of 25 patients who were on more than 10-yr TSH suppressive therapy after thyroidectomy was examined. Patients were studied at baseline and subsequently randomized to a 6-month thyroid hormone substitution regimen to obtain either euthyroidism or maintenance of the subclinical hyperthyroid state. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and heart rate variability were measured. Baseline data of the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients were compared with data obtained in patients with hyperthyroidism and controls. Urinary excretion of norepinephrine and vanillylmandelic acid was higher in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared with controls and lower compared with patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Heart rate variability was lower in patients with hyperthyroidism, intermediate in subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, and highest in the healthy controls. No differences were observed after restoration of euthyroidism. Long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has effects on the autonomic nervous system measured by heart rate variability and urinary catecholamine excretion. No differences were observed after restoration to euthyroidism. This may indicate the occurrence of irreversible changes or adaptation during long-term exposure to excess thyroid hormone that is not remedied by 6-month euthyroidism.

  7. Optimization of hybrid imaging systems based on maximization of kurtosis of the restored point spread function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demenikov, Mads

    2011-01-01

    to optimization results based on full-reference image measures of restored images. In comparison with full-reference measures, the kurtosis measure is fast to compute and requires no images, noise distributions, or alignment of restored images, but only the signal-to-noise-ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America.......I propose a novel, but yet simple, no-reference, objective image quality measure based on the kurtosis of the restored point spread function. Using this measure, I optimize several phase masks for extended-depth-of-field in hybrid imaging systems and obtain results that are identical...

  8. Restoring function in major depressive disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, David V; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Asami, Yuko; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth A; Boucher, Matthieu

    2017-06-01

    Functional impairment contributes to significant disability and economic burden in major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment response is measured by improvement in depressive symptoms, but functional improvement often lags behind symptomatic improvement. Residual deficits are associated with relapse of depressive symptoms. A literature search was conducted using the following terms: "major depressive disorder," "functional impairment," "functional outcomes," "recovery of function," "treatment outcome," "outcome assessment," "social functioning," "presenteeism," "absenteeism," "psychiatric status rating scales," and "quality of life." Search limits included publication date (January 1, 1995 to August 31, 2016), English language, and human clinical trials. Controlled, acute-phase, nonrecurrent MDD treatment studies in adults were included if a functional outcome was measured at baseline and endpoint. The qualitative analysis included 35 controlled studies. The Sheehan Disability Scale was the most commonly used functional assessment. Antidepressant treatments significantly improved functional outcomes. Early treatment response predicted functional improvement, while baseline disease severity did not. Clinical studies utilized various methodologies and assessments for functional impairment, and were not standardized or adequately powered. The lack of synchronicity between symptomatic and functional improvement highlights an unmet need for MDD. Treatment guided by routine monitoring of symptoms and functionality may minimize residual functional impairments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibits postmyocardial infarct remodeling and restores ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Pachori, Alok S; Ward, Christopher A; Davis, J Paul; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Kong, Deling; Zhang, Lunan; Murduck, Jared; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Perrella, Mark A; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J; Melo, Luis G

    2006-02-01

    We reported previously that predelivery of the anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to the heart by adeno associated virus (AAV) markedly reduces injury after acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on postinfarction recovery has not been investigated. In the current study, we assessed the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on post-MI left ventricle (LV) remodeling and function using echocardiographic imaging and histomorphometric approaches. Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 4 x 10(11) particles of AAV-LacZ (control) or AAV-hHO-1 in the LV wall. Eight wk after gene transfer, the animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by ligation of left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by reperfusion. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained in a blinded fashion prior and at 1.5 and 3 months after I/R. Ejection fraction (EF) was reduced by 13% and 40% in the HO-1 and LacZ groups, respectively at 1.5 months after MI. Three months after MI, EF recovered fully in the HO-1, but only partially in the LacZ-treated animals. Post-MI LV dimensions were markedly increased and the anterior wall was markedly thinned in the LacZ-treated animals compared with the HO-1-treated animals. Significant myocardial scarring and fibrosis were observed in the LacZ-group in association with elevated levels of interstitial collagen I and III and MMP-2 activity. Post-MI myofibroblast accumulation was reduced in the HO-1-treated animals, and retroviral overexpression of HO-1 reduced proliferation of isolated cardiac fibroblasts. Our data indicate that rAAV-HO-1 gene transfer markedly reduces fibrosis and ventricular remodeling and restores LV function and chamber dimensions after myocardial infarction.

  10. Randomized Crossover Study of the Natural Restorative Environment Intervention to Improve Attention and Mood in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miyeon; Jonides, John; Northouse, Laurel; Berman, Marc G; Koelling, Todd M; Pressler, Susan J

    In heart failure (HF), attention may be decreased because of lowered cerebral blood flow and increased attentional demands needed for self-care. Guided by the Attention Restoration Theory, the objective was to test the efficacy of the natural restorative environment (NRE) intervention on improving attention and mood among HF patients and healthy adults. A randomized crossover pilot study was conducted among 20 HF patients and an age- and education-matched comparison group of 20 healthy adults to test the efficacy of the NRE intervention compared with an active control intervention. Neuropsychological tests were administered to examine attention, particularly attention span, sustained attention, directed attention, and attention switching, at before and after the intervention. Mood was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. No significant differences were found in attention and mood after the NRE intervention compared with the control intervention among the HF patients and the healthy adults. In analyses with HF patients and healthy adults combined (n = 40), significant differences were found. Compared with the control intervention, sustained attention improved after the NRE intervention (P = .001) regardless of the presence of HF. Compared with the healthy adults, HF patients performed significantly worse on attention switching after the control intervention (P = .045). The NRE intervention may be efficacious in improving sustained attention in HF patients. Future studies are needed to enhance the NRE intervention to be more efficacious and tailored for HF patients and test the efficacy in a larger sample of HF patients.

  11. EFFECT OF MITRAL REGURGITATION ON CHRONIC HEART FAILURE COURSE AND STRUCTURE-FUNCTIONAL HEART STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Larina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate chronic heart failure (CHF course, functional and structural heart changes in patients with functional mitral regurgitation (MR of various degrees.Material and methods. A total of 104 outpatients (60-85 y. o. with CHF of functional class II-IV by NYHA and functional MR of I-II degrees and MR of III-IV degrees were included into the study groups.Results: Patients in both groups were comparable in sex, age, CHF duration, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, clinical state by the clinical state scale, quality of life, anxious and depressive status. The majority of patients with MR III had significant left ventricle (LV systolic dysfunction (p=0,029, severe CHF course (p=0,034, received furosemide (p=0.004 and digoxin (p=0,004. They had significant increase in end-diastolic dimension (p<0,001, end-systolic dimension (p<0,001, left atrium (p=0,004, end-diastolic volume (p<0,001, end-systolic volume (p<0,001, pulmonary artery pressure (p<0,001, decrease in LV relative wall thickness (p=0,021 and LV ejection fraction (p<0,001. Patients of this group were hospitalized because of CHF decompensation and ischemic heart disease exacerbation more often (p=0,045.Conclusion. MR can be considered as one of sensitive predictors of LV geometry and function alteration in CHF patients and play an important role in symptoms development.

  12. EFFECT OF MITRAL REGURGITATION ON CHRONIC HEART FAILURE COURSE AND STRUCTURE-FUNCTIONAL HEART STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Larina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate chronic heart failure (CHF course, functional and structural heart changes in patients with functional mitral regurgitation (MR of various degrees.Material and methods. A total of 104 outpatients (60-85 y. o. with CHF of functional class II-IV by NYHA and functional MR of I-II degrees and MR of III-IV degrees were included into the study groups.Results: Patients in both groups were comparable in sex, age, CHF duration, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, clinical state by the clinical state scale, quality of life, anxious and depressive status. The majority of patients with MR III had significant left ventricle (LV systolic dysfunction (p=0,029, severe CHF course (p=0,034, received furosemide (p=0.004 and digoxin (p=0,004. They had significant increase in end-diastolic dimension (p<0,001, end-systolic dimension (p<0,001, left atrium (p=0,004, end-diastolic volume (p<0,001, end-systolic volume (p<0,001, pulmonary artery pressure (p<0,001, decrease in LV relative wall thickness (p=0,021 and LV ejection fraction (p<0,001. Patients of this group were hospitalized because of CHF decompensation and ischemic heart disease exacerbation more often (p=0,045.Conclusion. MR can be considered as one of sensitive predictors of LV geometry and function alteration in CHF patients and play an important role in symptoms development.

  13. Right ventricular systolic function in hypertensive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oketona OA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available OA Oketona,1 MO Balogun,2 AO Akintomide,2 OE Ajayi,2 RA Adebayo,2 TO Mene-Afejuku,3 OT Oketona,1 OJ Bamikole2 1Fort Nelson General Hospital, Fort Nelson, BC, Canada; 2Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA Background: Heart failure (HF is a major cause of cardiovascular admissions and hypertensive heart failure (HHF is the most common cause of HF admissions in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Right ventricular (RV dysfunction is being increasingly recognized in HF and found to be an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in HF. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in HHF by several echocardiographic parameters.Methodology: One hundred subjects with HHF were recruited consecutively into the study along with 50 age and sex-matched controls. All study participants gave written informed consent, and had a full physical examination, blood investigations, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography. RV systolic function was assessed in all subjects using different methods based on the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines for echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults. This included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, RV myocardial performance index (MPI, and RV systolic excursion velocity by tissue Doppler (S′.Results: RV systolic dysfunction was found in 53% of subjects with HHF by TAPSE, 56% by RV MPI, and 48% by tissue Doppler systolic excursion S′. RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in subjects with HHF.Conclusion: A high proportion of subjects with HHF were found to have RV systolic functional abnormalities using TAPSE, RV MPI, and RV S′. Prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing LVEF. Keywords: right ventricle

  14. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  15. Functional Outcomes for Clinical Evaluation of Implant Restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The functional outcomes related to treating patients afflicted with tooth loss are an important hallmark in substantiating prosthodontic intervention. The Oral Rehabilitation Outcomes Network (ORONet) conducted two international workshops to develop a core set of outcome measures, including a

  16. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2∙- production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined.

  17. Restoring Bladder Function by Spinal Cord Neuromodulation in SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical Company Cooperative Group (e.g., Children’s Oncology Group, AIDS Clinical Trial Group) Other If other, specify. 4.0 Review For and...proximal to the injury level [39] and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord [40, 41]. In human subjects, functional MRI evidence

  18. Sildenafil Improves Erectile Function in Men with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Samiei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF have been shown to have enhanced risk of Erectile Dysfunction (ED due to low cardiac output, endothelial dysfunction, medications, co-morbid conditions, and psychogenic factors. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sildenafil on erectile function of patients with stable CHF using the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. Patients and Methods: Using convenience sampling, 222 sexually-active adult males with NYHA class I-III stable CHF were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients filled out the IIEF-5 questionnaire, in which they were required to score the five domains of male sexual function, including erectile function, orgasm function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. All the analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software (v. 19 and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In our sample, the patients’ mean age was 47.14 ± 11.86 years, their mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 20% (15% - 25%, and the prevalence of ED was 70.3%. In addition, severe, moderate, mild to moderate, and mild ED were seen in 57%, 17%, 7%, and 19% of the patients with ED, respectively. ED was significantly more prevalent in the patients with ischemic heart failure compared to those with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (84.68% vs. 55.85%, P < 0.001. Moreover, the prevalence of ED was significantly lower in the patients taking sildenafil compared to the other group (42.85% vs. 82.89%, P < 0.001. Conclusions: Sildenafil appears to provide satisfactory results toward improving sexual function in patients with CHF.

  19. Correlations between respiratory and functional variables in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Cangeri Di Naso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory alterations can impact on the functional performance of patients with heart failure. Aim: To correlate maximum inspiratory muscular force and lung function variables with functional capacity in heart failure patients. Methods: A transversal study January-July 2007 with 42 chronic heart disease patients (28 males with no prior pulmonary illness. The patients were in New York Heart Association Functional Class I, II and III. The variables used were maximum inspiratory pressure, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second. Respiratory variables measured were distance covered in the six-minute walk test, NYHA functional class and the physical functioning domain of the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: Maximum inspiratory pressure correlated with the six-minute walk test (r = 0.543 and p < 0.001, functional capacity (r = −0.566 and p < 0.001 and the physical functioning domain score of the Short Form-36 (r = 0.459 and p = 0.002. The same was true of forced vital capacity and the six-minute walk test (r = 0.501 and p = 0.001, functional capacity (r = −0.477 and p = 0.001 and Short Form-36 (r = 0.314 and p = 0.043 variables. Forced expiratory volume correlated with the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (r = 0.514 and p < 0.001 and functional capacity (r = −0.383 and p = 0.012. Conclusion: Lung function and inspiratory muscular force respiratory variables correlated with functional variables in patients with heart failure. Resumo: Fundamento: Alterações respiratórias podem influenciar o desempenho funcional em doentes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. Objectivo: Correlacionar a força muscular inspiratória máxima (PImax e as variáveis da função pulmonar com a capacidade funcional em doentes com IC. Métodos: Estudo transversal

  20. Massage Therapy Restores Peripheral Vascular Function following Exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Nina C.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Robinson, Austin T.; Norkeviciute, Edita; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if lower extremity exercise-induced muscle injury (EMI) reduces vascular endothelial function of the upper extremity and if massage therapy (MT) improves peripheral vascular function after EMI. Design Randomized, blinded trial with evaluations at 90 minutes, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. Setting Clinical research center at an academic medical center and laboratory Participants Thirty-six sedentary young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) EMI + MT (n=15; mean age ± standard error (SE): 26.6±0.3), 2) EMI only (n=10; mean age ± SE: 23.6±0.4), and 3) MT only (n=11; mean age ± SE: 25.5 ± 0.4). Intervention Participants were assigned to either EMI only (a single bout of bilateral, eccentric leg-press exercise), MT only (30-minute lower extremity massage using Swedish technique), or EMI + MT. Main outcome measures Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was determined by ultrasound at each time point. Nitroglycerin-induced dilation was also assessed (NTG; 0.4 mg). Results Brachial FMD increased from baseline in the EMI + MT group and the MT only group (7.38±0.18 to 9.02±0.28%, p<0.05 and 7.77±0.25 to 10.20±0.22%, p < 0.05, respectively) at 90 minutes remaining elevated until 72 hrs. In the EMI only group FMD was reduced from baseline at 24 and 48 hrs (7.78±0.14 to 6.75±0.11%, p<0.05 and 6.53±0.11, p<0.05, respectively) returning to baseline after 72 hrs. Dilations to NTG were similar over time. Conclusions Our results suggest that MT attenuates impairment of upper extremity endothelial function resulting from lower extremity EMI in sedentary young adults. PMID:24583315

  1. MR-evaluation of left myocardial function in transplanted hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienmuller, R.K.; Lioret, J.; Kemkes, B.; Erdmann, E.; Gartner, C.; Hacker, H.; Tilling, R.

    1988-01-01

    Of 60 heart transplant recipients, 25 were restudied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after 1 year to evaluate the left ventricular myocardial (LVM) function, Seven healthy subjects and 15 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) served as controls. EDV, ejection fraction (EF), LVMM, wall stress (T-diastolic, T-systolic), and LVM contraction and relaxation (LVMC, LVMR) were measured over a cardiac cycle and compared with angiocardiographic and clinical data. The results showed that EDV and EF were normal in heart transplant recipients both initially and at follow-up, and in healthy subjects. LVMM was significantly increased in patients with DCM and less so in transplant recipients. T-diastolic wall stress was increased in transplant recipients and patients with DCM. The isovolumetric part of LVMC and the LVMR were reduced in these groups, corresponding to restrictive hemodynamics. In transplant recipients at follow-up, a progressive reduction in LVMR was found. In transplant recipients with global myocardial ischemia, LVMM,LVMC,LVMR, and EF are continuously decreasing, in contrast to acute or subacute rejection, where LVMM was found unchanged or increased. In conclusion, LVMM, LVMR, and LVMC as determined by MR imaging are sensitive quantitative indexes of various causes of altered LVM function that result from (sub) acute, chronic rejection or graft atherosclerosis

  2. Recruiting specialized macrophages across the borders to restore brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraliza, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Although is well accepted that the central nervous system has an immune privilege protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and maintained by the glia, it is also known that in homeostatic conditions, peripheral immune cells are able to penetrate to the deepest regions of brain without altering the structural integrity of the BBB. Nearly all neurological diseases, including degenerative, autoimmune or infectious ones, compromising brain functions, develop with a common pattern of inflammation in which macrophages and microglia activation have been regarded often as the "bad guys." However, recognizing the huge heterogeneity of macrophage populations and also the different expression properties of microglia, there is increasing evidence of alternative conditions in which these cells, if primed and addressed in the correct direction, could be essential for reparative and regenerative functions. The main proposal of this review is to integrate studies about macrophage's biology at the brain borders where the ultimate challenge is to penetrate through the BBB and contribute to change or even stop the course of disease. Thanks to the efforts made in the last century, this special wall is currently recognized as a highly regulated cooperative structure, in which their components form neurovascular units. This new scenario prompted us to review the precise cross-talk between the mind and body modes of immune response.

  3. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function during the restoration of a tropical forest in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hai; LI ZhiAn; SHEN WeiJun; YU ZuoYue; PENG ShaoLin; LIAO ChongHui; DING MingMao; WU JianGuo

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests continue to vanish rapidly, but few long-term studies have ever examined if and how the lost forests can be restored. Based on a 45-year restoration study in south China, we found that a tropical rain forest, once completely destroyed, could not recover naturally without deliberate restoration efforts. We identified two kinds of thresholds that must be overcome with human ameliorative measures before the ecosystem was able to recover. The first threshold was imposed primarily by extreme physical conditions such as exceedingly high surface temperature and impoverished soil, while the second was characterized by a critical level of biodiversity and a landscape context that accommodates dispersal and colonization processes. Our three treatment catchments (un-restored barren land, single-species plantation, and mixed-forest stand) exhibited dramatically different changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over 4 decades. The mixed forest, having the highest level of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, possesses several major properties of tropical rain forest.These findings may have important implications for the restoration of many severely degraded or lost tropical forest ecosystems.

  4. Right ventricular function in patients with ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Haruo; Hisano, Ryuichi; Nagata, Yoshiyuki; Caglar, N.; Nakamura, Motoomi

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 normal subjects were studied. Right and left ventricular ejecction fractions (EF) were determined using equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography with technetium-99m. Furthermore, abnormal motion of the right ventricular septal wall was obtained by cardiac cathetelization, and its relation to the right ventricular EF was examined. In IHD patients with anterior myocardial infarction, left ventricular EF decreased, but right ventricular EF was normal. This suggested that left ventricular dysfunction does not always have an effect on right ventricular function. Right ventricular EF was normal even when akinesis or dyskinesis was present in the ventricular septul, suggesting that abnormal motion of the ventricular septal wall has no significantly stimulant effect on right ventricular function. A decreased right ventricular EF was likely to occur only when the right ventricular free wall became ischemic or necrotic simultaneously with occurrence of posterior myocardial infarction. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Resting Heart Rate Is Not Associated with Cognitive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wod, M; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In order to examine the hypothesis that elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with impaired cognitive score, we investigated the relationship between RHR and cognitive score in middle-aged, elderly and old Danish subjects from the general population. Methods: Composite cognitive s...... cognitive score (1,049 pairs of 2,049 pairs [51% (95% CI 49–53), p relation to cognitive function in the general population....... and hypertension, RHR was not associated with cognitive function. Furthermore, the intrapair analyses showed that RHR was not associated with cognitive score testing within twin pairs, as measured by the proportion of twin pairs in which the twin with higher RHR also was the twin with the lowest composite...

  6. Chitosan tubes can restore the function of resected phrenic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Suzuki, Mitsutaka; Kaneko, Mami; Nitta, Kanae; Seguchi, Ryuta; Ooi, Akishi; Takemura, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported that the phrenic nerve could be morphologically repaired by implantation of a chitosan nanofibre tube (C-tube). In the current study, we investigated whether implantation of C-tubes could improve the function of an injured phrenic nerve using a beagle dog model. Seven beagle dogs underwent right thoracotomy under general anaesthesia. An approximately 5 mm length of the right phrenic nerve was resected. Five dogs had a C-tube implantation (C-tube group) and other two dogs did not have the C-tube implantation (control group). Diaphragm movements were longitudinally measured by X-ray fluoroscopy before surgery, immediately after the surgery, and 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery. The diaphragm movement was determined by diaphragm levels at inspiration and expiration phases, and the excursion difference between them was calculated. At 12 months after the surgery, rethoracotomy was performed to examine electrical phrenic nerve conduction. The C-tube and phrenic nerve were then excised for histological assessment of nerve regeneration. Three of the five animals of the C-tube group showed improvement of diaphragm movement with time. In these three animals, slow phrenic nerve conduction was observed. Histological assessment showed that the injured nerve was connected by newly regenerating nerve fibres surrounded by granulation tissue within the C-tube. On the other hand, the animals in the control group and two animals of the C-tube group showed neither improved diaphragm movement, nor electrical conduction to the diaphragm. No nerve fibre regeneration was found by histology. Our results suggest that, in addition to morphological improvement, C-tube implantation can functionally improve the injured phrenic nerve by promoting phrenic nerve regeneration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. High immunosuppressive burden in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients: Can effector functions be restored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugade, Amit A; Kalathil, Suresh; Miller, Austin; Iyer, Renuka; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2013-07-01

    The accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and exhausted effector T cells highlight an important immune dysfunction in advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. These cells significantly hamper the efficacy immunotherapies and facilitate HCC progression. We have recently demonstrated that the multipronged depletion of immunosuppressive cells potentially restores effector T-cell function in HCC.

  8. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Chamuleau, R. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schipper, H. G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; van der Heyde, M. N.

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single-photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99mTc-colloid as tracer. The method was

  9. Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeffrey; Krupa, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Restoration ecology can benefit greatly from developments in trait-based ecology that enable improved predictions of how the composition of plant communities will respond to changes in environmental conditions. Plant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats...... generally from the treatments. Carbon addition led to large intraspecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition plots having smaller, denser leaves and shorter stature. Species' trait plasticity, however, was not related to the community composition response to C addition.   Our study indicates...

  10. NS5806 partially restores action potential duration but fails to ameliorate calcium transient dysfunction in a computational model of canine heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maleckar, Mary M; Lines, Glenn T; Koivumäki, Jussi T

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The study investigates how increased Ito, as mediated by the activator NS5806, affects excitation-contraction coupling in chronic heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that restoring spike-and-dome morphology of the action potential (AP) to a healthy phenotype would be insufficient to restore...... the intracellular Ca(2) (+) transient (CaT), due to HF-induced remodelling of Ca(2+) handling. METHODS AND RESULTS: An existing mathematical model of the canine ventricular myocyte was modified to incorporate recent experimental data from healthy and failing myocytes, resulting in models of both healthy and HF...... ionic processes with a focus on calcium transients (CaT), how these were altered in HF across the ventricular wall, and the subsequent effects of varying compound concentration in HF. Heart failure model variants recapitulated a characteristic increase in AP duration (APD) in the disease...

  11. The Interplay of Orthodontics, Periodontics, and Restorative Dentistry to Achieve Aesthetic and Functional Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkowsky, Richard D; Alsadah, Zainab; Brea, Luis M; Oquendo, Anabella

    2015-07-01

    Previously dentists focused on repair and maintenance of function. However, the emphasis of many patients and dentists is now on esthetics. Often there is a need for the disciplines of orthodontics, periodontics, restorative dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery to work together in order to achieve optimum results. Currently the sequencing planning process begins with esthetics and then function, structure, and ultimately biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Gary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with heart failure (HF are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions.

  13. Theory of heart biomechanics, biophysics, and nonlinear dynamics of cardiac function

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Peter; McCulloch, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who shared an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function.

  14. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura A Struzyna; James P Harris; Kritika S Katiyar; H Isaac Chen; D KacyCullen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following ner-vous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways – the long-distance ifbers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals – is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regenera-tion rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engi-neered “living scaffolds”, which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a deifned, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration – mimicking key developmental mechanisms– or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  15. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Struzyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following nervous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways - the long-distance fibers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals - is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regeneration rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engineered "living scaffolds", which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a defined, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration - mimicking key developmental mechanisms- or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  16. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  17. Predicting the establishment success of introduced target species in grassland restoration by functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engst, Karina; Baasch, Annett; Bruelheide, Helge

    2017-09-01

    potential of functional trait analysis to predict success in restoration projects.

  18. The use of soil quality indicators to assess soil functionality in restored semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, 1-day CO2 test, microbial activity, mine restoration, soil health, ecosystem services. Introduction Semi-arid and arid environments are highly vulnerable to land degradation and their restoration has commonly showed low rates of success (James et al., 2013). A systematic knowledge of soil functionality is critical to successful restoration of degraded ecosystems since approximately 80% of ecosystem services can be connected to soil functions. The assessment of soil functionality generally involves the evaluation of soil properties and processes as they relate to the ability of soil to function effectively as a component of a healthy ecosystem (Costantini et al., 2015) Using soil quality indicators may be a valuable approach to assess functionality of topsoil and novel substrates used in restoration (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014; 2015). A key soil chemical indicator is soil organic C, that has been widely used as an attribute of soil quality because of the many functions that it provides and supports (Willaarts et al., 2015). However, microbial indicators can be more sensitive to disturbances and could be a valuable addition in soil assessment studies in restoration programs. Here, we propose a set of soil quality indicators to assess the soil status in restored soils (topsoil and waste material) of semi-arid environments. The study was conducted during March 2015 in the Pilbara biogeographical region (northwestern Australia) at an iron ore mine site rehabilitated in 2011. Methods Soil samples were collected from two sub-areas with different soil materials used as growth media: topsoil retrieved from nearby stockpiles and a lateritic waste material utilised for its erosive stability and physical competence. An undisturbed natural shrub-grassland ecosystem dominated by Triodia spp. and Acacia spp. representative of the restored area was selected as the analogue reference site. Soil physicochemical analysis were undertaken according to standard methods

  19. Combined heart-kidney transplantation after total artificial heart insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, A; Czer, L S C; Ihnken, K A; Sasevich, M; Trento, A; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Moriguchi, J; Kobashigawa, J; Arabia, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first single-center report of 2 consecutive cases of combined heart and kidney transplantation after insertion of a total artificial heart (TAH). Both patients had advanced heart failure and developed dialysis-dependent renal failure after implantation of the TAH. The 2 patients underwent successful heart and kidney transplantation, with restoration of normal heart and kidney function. On the basis of this limited experience, we consider TAH a safe and feasible option for bridging carefully selected patients with heart and kidney failure to combined heart and kidney transplantation. Recent FDA approval of the Freedom driver may allow outpatient management at substantial cost savings. The TAH, by virtue of its capability of providing pulsatile flow at 6 to 10 L/min, may be the mechanical circulatory support device most likely to recover patients with marginal renal function and advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of left ventricular function of the mouse heart during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Neele Saskia; Merkle, Annette; Jung, Bernd; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Harsan, Laura-Adela

    2015-01-01

    Many of the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism are due to the ability of thyroid hormones to alter myocardial contractility and cardiovascular hemodynamics, leading to cardiovascular impairment. In contrast, recent studies highlight also the potential beneficial effects of thyroid hormone administration for clinical or preclinical treatment of different diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes or as a new therapeutic approach in demyelinating disorders. In these contexts and in the view of developing thyroid hormone-based therapeutic strategies, it is, however, important to analyze undesirable secondary effects on the heart. Animal models of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism therefore represent important tools for investigating and monitoring changes of cardiac function. In our present study we use high-field cardiac MRI to monitor and follow-up longitudinally the effects of prolonged thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) administration focusing on murine left ventricular function. Using a 9.4 T small horizontal bore animal scanner, cinematographic MRI was used to analyze changes in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening. Cardiac MRI investigations were performed after sustained cycles of triiodothyronine administration and treatment arrest in adolescent (8 week old) and adult (24 week old) female C57Bl/6 N mice. Triiodothyronine supplementation of 3 weeks led to an impairment of cardiac performance with a decline in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening in both age groups but with a higher extent in the group of adolescent mice. However, after a hormonal treatment cessation of 3 weeks, only young mice are able to partly restore cardiac performance in contrast to adult mice lacking this recovery potential and therefore indicating a presence of chronically developed heart pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Functions and requirements for tank farm restoration and safe operations, Project W-314. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Functions and Requirements document (FRD) establishes the basic performance criteria for Project W-314, in accordance with the guidance outlined in the letter from R.W. Brown, RL, to President, WHC, ''Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Documentation Methodology,'' 94-PRJ-018, dated 3/18/94. The FRD replaces the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) as the project technical baseline documentation. Project W-314 will improve the reliability of safety related systems, minimize onsite health and safety hazards, and support waste retrieval and disposal activities by restoring and/or upgrading existing Tank Farm facilities and systems. The scope of Project W-314 encompasses the necessary restoration upgrades of the Tank Farms' instrumentation, ventilation, electrical distribution, and waste transfer systems

  2. Towards new understanding of the heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio F; Komeda, Masashi; Carreras-Costa, Francesc; Flotats, A; Cosin-Aguillar, Juan; Wen, Han

    2005-02-01

    Structure and function in any organ are inseparable categories, both in health and disease. Whether we are ready to accept, or not, many questions in cardiovascular medicine are still pending, due to our insufficient insight in the basic science. Even so, any new concept encounters difficulties, mainly arising from our inert attitude, which may result either in unjustified acceptance or denial. The ventricular myocardial band concept, developed over the last 50 years, has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium. After more than five centuries long debate on macroscopic structure of the ventricular myocardium, this concept has provided a promising ground for its final understanding. Recent validations of the ventricular myocardial band, reviewed here, as well as future research directions that are pointed out, should initiate much wider scientific interest, which would, in turn, lead to reconciliation of some exceeded concepts about developmental, electrical, mechanical and energetical events in human heart. The benefit of this, of course, would be the most evident in the clinical arena.

  3. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. EFFECTS OF ENALAPRIL ON ENDOTHELIUM FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Katelnizkaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study endothelium vasomotor function (EF in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD and the influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (Enam, Dr .Reddy’s, India on it. Material and methods. 87 patients were examined totally. 49 patients were suffering from IHD: 18 patients were younger than 60 years old and 31 patients were older . The combination of arterial hypertension (HT and IHD were registered in 38 patients: 18 patients were below and 20 patients were above 60 years old. All patients additionally to basic IHD therapy took enalapril in dose 2,5-30 mg/daily during 12 weeks. Before the beginning and in the end of treatment cuff test, test with nitroglycerine, bicycle exercise test and Holter monitoring were made, the thickness of intima-media complex of carotid artery and the level of endothelin-1 in blood plasma were defined. Results. EF disorders were shown in IHD, maximal disorders were determined in patients with combination of IHD and HT. EF disorders were also more expressive in patients of elder group. Enalapril restored of cuff tests results, nitroglycerine tests results, reduced a number of myocardial ischemia episodes and provided target blood pressure in 60, 5% patients with HT. Conclusion. Enalapril improves endothelium vasomotor function, endothelium reaction on nitroglycerine and clinical course of IHD and HT.

  5. Point spread function modeling and image restoration for cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Shi Yikai; Huang Kuidong; Xu Zhe

    2015-01-01

    X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CT) has such notable features as high efficiency and precision, and is widely used in the fields of medical imaging and industrial non-destructive testing, but the inherent imaging degradation reduces the quality of CT images. Aimed at the problems of projection image degradation and restoration in cone-beam CT, a point spread function (PSF) modeling method is proposed first. The general PSF model of cone-beam CT is established, and based on it, the PSF under arbitrary scanning conditions can be calculated directly for projection image restoration without the additional measurement, which greatly improved the application convenience of cone-beam CT. Secondly, a projection image restoration algorithm based on pre-filtering and pre-segmentation is proposed, which can make the edge contours in projection images and slice images clearer after restoration, and control the noise in the equivalent level to the original images. Finally, the experiments verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. (authors)

  6. American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Aaron R.; Shah, Amil M.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L.; Miedema, Michael D.; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 guidelines -- on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose -- is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. METHODS We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults aged 45-64 years in 1987-89. From the 1987-89 risk factor measurements, we created a Life’s Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2,218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4,855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-13, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life’s Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life’s Simple 7 score compared with an inadequate score. CONCLUSIONS Greater achievement of American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 in middle-age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. PMID:25908393

  7. Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability as a function of age in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2017-01-01

    We investigated changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability as a function of age in newborn foals to old Thoroughbred horses. Experiments were performed on a total of 83 healthy and clinically normal Thoroughbred horses. Resting HR decreased with age from birth. The relationship between age and HR fit the equation Y=48.2X -0.129 (R 2 =0.705); the relationship between age and HR for horses 0-7 years old fit the equation Y=44.1X -0.179 (R 2 =0.882). Seven-day-old horses had the highest HR values (106 ± 10.3 beat/min). The low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) powers increased with age in newborn to old horses. These changes in HR and HR variability appear to result from the effects of ageing. Three- to seven-year-old race horses had the lowest HR values (32.9 ± 3.5 beat/min) and the highest LF and HF powers except for the HF powers in the oldest horses. Race training may have contributed to these changes. Horses of ages greater than 25 years old had the highest HF powers and the lowest LF/HF ratios. In individual horses, 8 of the 15 horses over 25 years old had LF/HF ratios of less than 1.0; their HR variability appears to be unique, and they may have a different autonomic balance than horses of younger age.

  8. Hemodynamics of a functional centrifugal-flow total artificial heart with functional atrial contraction in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Sano, Kyosuke; Taira, Yasunori; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Yamada, Akihiro; Miura, Hidekazu; Katahira, Shintaro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) is one of the therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure. There is no report on the hemodynamics of the functional centrifugal-flow TAH with functional atrial contraction (fCFTAH). We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow by atrial contraction in acute animal models. The goats received fCFTAH that we created from two centrifugal-flow ventricular assist devices. Some hemodynamic parameters maintained acceptable levels: heart rate 115.5 ± 26.3 bpm, aortic pressure 83.5 ± 10.1 mmHg, left atrial pressure 18.0 ± 5.9 mmHg, pulmonary pressure 28.5 ± 9.7 mmHg, right atrial pressure 13.6 ± 5.2 mmHg, pump flow 4.0 ± 1.1 L/min (left) 3.9 ± 1.1 L/min (right), and cardiac index 2.13 ± 0.14 L/min/m(2). fCFTAH with atrial contraction was able to maintain the TAH circulation by forming a pulsatile flow in acute animal experiments. Taking the left and right flow rate balance using the low internal pressure loss of the VAD pumps may be easier than by other pumps having considerable internal pressure loss. We showed that the remnant atrial contraction effected the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump, and the atrial contraction waves reflected the heart rate. These results indicate that remnant atria had the possibility to preserve autonomic function in fCFTAH. We may control fCFTAH by reflecting the autonomic function, which is estimated with the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump.

  9. Rapidly restoring biological soil crusts and ecosystem functions in a severely disturbed desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Abella, Scott R; Bowker, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Restoring biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in degraded drylands can contribute to recovery of ecosystem functions that have global implications, including erosion resistance and nutrient cycling. To examine techniques for restoring biocrusts, we conducted a replicated, factorial experiment on recently abandoned road surfaces by applying biocrust inoculation (salvaged and stored dry for two years), salvaged topsoil, an abiotic soil amendment (wood shavings), and planting of a dominant perennial shrub (Ambrosia dumosa). Eighteen months after treatments, we measured biocrust abundance and species composition, soil chlorophyll a content and fertility, and soil resistance to erosion. Biocrust addition significantly accelerated biocrust recovery on disturbed soils, including increasing lichen and moss cover and cyanobacteria colonization. Compared to undisturbed controls, inoculated plots had similar lichen and moss composition, recovered 43% of total cyanobacteria density, had similar soil chlorophyll content, and exhibited recovery of soil fertility and soil stability. Inoculation was the only treatment that generated lichen and moss cover. Topsoil application resulted in partial recovery of the cyanobacteria community and soil properties. Compared to untreated disturbed plots, topsoil application without inoculum increased cyanobacteria density by 186% and moderately improved soil chlorophyll and ammonium content and soil stability. Topsoil application produced 22% and 51% of the cyanobacteria density g⁻¹ soil compared to undisturbed and inoculated plots, respectively. Plots not treated with either topsoil or inoculum had significantly lower cyanobacteria density, soil chlorophyll and ammonium concentrations, and significantly higher soil nitrate concentration. Wood shavings and Ambrosia had no influence on biocrust lichen and moss species recovery but did affect cyanobacteria composition and soil fertility. Inoculation of severely disturbed soil with native

  10. The Use of Nerve Transfers to Restore Upper Extremity Function in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K; Novak, Christine B; Krauss, Emily M; Hoben, Gwendolyn M; Zaidman, Craig; Ruvinskaya, Rimma; Juknis, Neringa; Winter, Anke C; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-03-15

    Nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity function in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is novel and may transform treatment. Determining candidacy even years post-SCI is ill defined and deserves investigation. To develop a diagnostic algorithm, focusing on electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies, to determine eligibility for nerve transfer surgery. Retrospective descriptive case series. Tertiary university-based institution. Individuals with cervical SCI (n = 45). The electronic medical records of people referred to the Plastic Surgery Multidisciplinary Upper Extremity Surgery unit in the SCI clinic from 2010-2015 were reviewed. People were considered for nerve transfers to restore elbow extension or finger flexion and/or extension. Data including demographic, clinical evaluation, EDX results, surgery, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. EDX data, including nerve conduction studies and electromyography, for bilateral upper extremities of each patient examined was used to assess for the presence of lower motor neuron injury, which would preclude late nerve transfer. Based on our criteria and the results of EDX testing, a substantial number of patients presenting even years post-SCI were candidates for nerve transfers. Clinical outcome results are heterogeneous but promising and suggest that further refinement of eligibility, long-term follow-up, and standardized assessment will improve our understanding of the role of nerve transfer surgery to restore function in people with midcervical SCI. Many patients living with SCI are candidates for nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity function. Although the ultimate efficacy of these surgeries is not yet determined, this study attempts to report the criteria we are using and may ultimately determine the timing for intervention and which transfers are most useful for this heterogeneous population. IV. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Cardiac resynchronization induces major structural and functional reverse remodeling in patients with New York Heart Association class I/II heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St John Sutton, Martin; Ghio, Stefano; Plappert, Ted

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves LV structure, function, and clinical outcomes in New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure with prolonged QRS. It is not known whether patients with New York Heart Association class I/II systolic heart failure exhibit left...... ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling with CRT or whether reverse remodeling is modified by the cause of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six hundred ten patients with New York Heart Association class I/II heart failure, QRS duration > or =120 ms, LV end-diastolic dimension > or =55 mm, and LV ejection...... reduction in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes and a 3-fold greater increase in LV ejection fraction in patients with nonischemic causes of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: CRT in patients with New York Heart Association I/II resulted in major structural and functional reverse remodeling at 1 year...

  12. Restoration of Oral Function for Adult Edentulous Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Prospective Preliminary Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Xu Dong; Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Kaigler, Darnell; Zou, Duohong

    2015-10-01

    Therapy with zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) has proven to be an effective method to restore oral function for systemically healthy patients. However, it is still a major challenge to fully restore oral function to edentulous adult patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED). The aim of this study was to determine an effective treatment protocol for restoring oral function using ZIs and CIs to edentulous adult ED patients. Ten edentulous adult ED patients were treated in this study. The treatment protocol involved the following: (1) bone augmentation in the region of the anterior teeth; (2) placement of two ZIs and four CIs in the maxilla, and four CIs in the mandible; (3) fabrication of dental prosthesis; and (4) psychological and oral education. Following treatment of these patients, implant success rates, biological complications, patient satisfaction, and psychological changes were recorded. Although there was evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, bone augmentation of the mandible was successful in all patients. Nine CIs in the maxilla failed and were removed. All ZIs were successful, and the CIs success rates were 77.50% in the maxilla and 100% in the mandible, with a mean of 88.75%. The mean peri-implant bone resorption for the CIs ranged from 1.3 ± 0.4 mm to 1.8 ± 0.6 mm, and four cases exhibited gingival hyperplasia in the maxilla and mandible. One hundred percent of the patients were satisfied with the restoration of their oral function, and >50% of the patients exhibited enhanced self-confidence and self-esteem. This study demonstrates that oral function can be restored in edentulous adult ED patients using a comprehensive and systematic treatment protocol involving psychological and oral education, bone augmentation, implant placement, and denture fabrication. Despite these positive outcomes, bone augmentation remains challenging in the anterior region of the maxilla for edentulous adult ED patients. © 2015

  13. Rescue of heart lipoprotein lipase-knockout mice confirms a role for triglyceride in optimal heart metabolism and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raffay S; Lin, Yan; Hu, Yunying; Son, Ni-Huiping; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G; Palacios, Carla; Chokshi, Aalap; Ji, Ruiping; Yu, Shuiqing; Homma, Sunichi; Schulze, P Christian; Tian, Rong; Goldberg, Ira J

    2013-12-01

    Hearts utilize fatty acids as a primary source of energy. The sources of those lipids include free fatty acids and lipoprotein triglycerides. Deletion of the primary triglyceride-hydrolyzing enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) leads to cardiac dysfunction. Whether heart LPL-knockout (hLPL0) mice are compromised due a deficiency in energetic substrates is unknown. To test whether alternative sources of energy will prevent cardiac dysfunction in hLPL0 mice, two different models were used to supply nonlipid energy. 1) hLPL0 mice were crossed with mice transgenically expressing GLUT1 in cardiomyocytes to increase glucose uptake into the heart; this cross-corrected cardiac dysfunction, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and increased myocardial ATP. 2) Mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary or training group (swimming) at 3 mo of age, which leads to increased skeletal muscle production of lactate. hLPL0 mice had greater expression of the lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) and increased cardiac lactate uptake. Compared with hearts from sedentary hLPL0 mice, hearts from trained hLPL0 mice had adaptive hypertrophy and improved cardiac function. We conclude that defective energy intake and not the reduced uptake of fat-soluble vitamins or cholesterol is responsible for cardiac dysfunction in hLPL0 mice. In addition, our studies suggest that adaptations in cardiac metabolism contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on the myocardium of patients with heart failure.

  14. EEG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Restoring Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke with Severe Hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Marquez-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly. Stimulation for each of the movement phases (e.g., extending and retrieving the arm was triggered when the power in the 18 Hz–28 Hz range (beta frequency range of the participant’s EEG activity, recorded with a single electrode, decreased below a predefined threshold. The function of the participant’s arm showed a clinically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE subscore (6 points as well as moderate improvement in Functional Independence Measure Self-Care subscore (7 points. The changes in arm’s function suggest that the combination of BCI technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary motor function in individuals with chronic hemiplegia which results in severe upper limb deficit (FMA-UE ≤ 15, a population that does not benefit from current best-practice rehabilitation interventions.

  15. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine restores systemic nitric oxide availability and corrects depressions in arterial blood pressure and heart rate in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengyuan; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R; Guo, Zhixin; Zhang, Wei; McNeill, John H

    2006-02-01

    Increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity are key features of diabetes mellitus that eventually result in cardiovascular abnormalities. We assessed whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, could prevent the hyperglycaemia induced increase in oxidative stress, restore NO availability and prevent depression of arterial blood pressure and heart rate in vivo in experimental diabetes. Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated or not treated with NAC in drinking water for 8 weeks, initiated 1 week after induction of diabetes. At termination, plasma levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane, a specific marker of oxygen free radical induced lipid peroxidation, was increased while the plasma total antioxidant concentration was decreased in untreated diabetic rats as compared to control rats (P<0.05). This was accompanied by a significant reduction of plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite, stable metabolites of NO, (P<0.05, D vs. C) and a reduced endothelial NO synthase protein expression in the heart and in aortic and mesenteric artery tissues. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures (SBP, DBP and MAP) and heart rate (HR) were reduced in diabetic rats (P<0.05 vs. C) and NAC normalised the changes that occurred in the diabetic rats. The protective effects may be attributable to restoration of NO bioavailability in the circulation.

  16. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  17. Visual Restoration after Cataract Surgery Promotes Functional and Structural Brain Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haotian Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual function and brain function decline concurrently with aging. Notably, cataract patients often present with accelerated age-related decreases in brain function, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Optical structures of the anterior segment of the eyes, such as the lens and cornea, can be readily reconstructed to improve refraction and vision quality. However, the effects of visual restoration on human brain function and structure remain largely unexplored. Methods: A prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Twenty-six patients with bilateral age-related cataracts (ARCs who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation and 26 healthy controls without ARC, matched for age, sex, and education, were recruited. Visual functions (including visual acuity, visual evoke potential, and contrast sensitivity, the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional magnetic resonance imaging (including the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and grey matter volume variation were assessed for all the participants and reexamined for ARC patients after cataract surgery. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02644720. Findings: Compared with the healthy controls, the ARC patients presented decreased brain functionality as well as structural alterations in visual and cognitive-related brain areas preoperatively. Three months postoperatively, significant functional improvements were observed in the visual and cognitive-related brain areas of the patients. Six months postoperatively, the patients' grey matter volumes in these areas were significantly increased. Notably, both the function and structure in the visual and cognitive-related brain areas of the patients improved significantly and became comparable to those of the healthy controls 6 months postoperatively. Interpretation: We demonstrated that ocular reconstruction can functionally and structurally reverse cataract

  18. Glycerol restores the p53 function in human lingual cancer cells bearing mutant p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Ichiro; Yane, Katsunari; Yuki, Kazue; Kanata, Hirokazu; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in p53, tumor suppressor gene, have recently been shown to have an impact on the clinical course of several human tumors, including head and neck cancers. The genetic status of the p53 gene has been focused on as the most important candidate among various cancer-related genes for prognosis-predictive assays of cancer therapy. We examined the restoration of radiation- or cisplatin (CDDP)-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in human lingual cancer cells. The results suggest that glycerol is effective in inducing a conformational change of p53 and restoring normal function of mutant p53, leading to enhanced radiosensitivity or chemosensitivity through the induction of apoptosis. We have also represented the same results in vivo as in vitro. Thus, this novel tool for enhancement of radiosensitivity or chemosensitivity in cancer cells bearing m p53 may be applicable for p53-targeted cancer therapy. (author)

  19. Left atrial function in heart failure with impaired and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2014-09-01

    Left atrial structural and functional changes in heart failure are relatively ignored parts of cardiac assessment. This review illustrates the pathophysiological and functional changes in left atrium in heart failure as well as their prognostic value. Heart failure can be divided into those with systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Left atrial enlargement and dysfunction commonly occur in systolic heart failure, in particular, in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Atrial enlargement and dysfunction also carry important prognostic value in systolic heart failure, independently of known parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction. In HFPEF, there is evidence of left atrial enlargement, impaired atrial compliance, and reduction of atrial pump function. This occurs not only at rest but also during exercise, indicating significant impairment of atrial contractile reserve. Furthermore, atrial dyssynchrony is common in HFPEF. These factors further contribute to the development of new onset or progression of atrial arrhythmias, in particular, atrial fibrillation. Left atrial function is an integral part of cardiac function and its structural and functional changes in heart failure are common. As changes of left atrial structure and function have different clinical implications in systolic heart failure and HFPEF, routine assessment is warranted.

  20. Association between Functional Variables and Heart Failure after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polegato, Bertha F.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Gonçalves, Andréa F.; Lima, Aline F.; Martinez, Paula F.; Okoshi, Marina P.; Okoshi, Katashi; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de mesquita Filho' - UNESP Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Heart failure prediction after acute myocardial infarction may have important clinical implications. To analyze the functional echocardiographic variables associated with heart failure in an infarction model in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: control and infarction. Subsequently, the infarcted animals were divided into groups: with and without heart failure. The predictive values were assessed by logistic regression. The cutoff values predictive of heart failure were determined using ROC curves. Six months after surgery, 88 infarcted animals and 43 control animals were included in the study. Myocardial infarction increased left cavity diameters and the mass and wall thickness of the left ventricle. Additionally, myocardial infarction resulted in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, characterized by lower area variation fraction values, posterior wall shortening velocity, E-wave deceleration time, associated with higher values of E / A ratio and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate. Among the infarcted animals, 54 (61%) developed heart failure. Rats with heart failure have higher left cavity mass index and diameter, associated with worsening of functional variables. The area variation fraction, the E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate were functional variables predictors of heart failure. The cutoff values of functional variables associated with heart failure were: area variation fraction < 31.18%; E / A > 3.077; E-wave deceleration time < 42.11 and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate < 69.08. In rats followed for 6 months after myocardial infarction, the area variation fraction, E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate are predictors of heart failure onset.

  1. Association between Functional Variables and Heart Failure after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polegato, Bertha F.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Gonçalves, Andréa F.; Lima, Aline F.; Martinez, Paula F.; Okoshi, Marina P.; Okoshi, Katashi; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure prediction after acute myocardial infarction may have important clinical implications. To analyze the functional echocardiographic variables associated with heart failure in an infarction model in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: control and infarction. Subsequently, the infarcted animals were divided into groups: with and without heart failure. The predictive values were assessed by logistic regression. The cutoff values predictive of heart failure were determined using ROC curves. Six months after surgery, 88 infarcted animals and 43 control animals were included in the study. Myocardial infarction increased left cavity diameters and the mass and wall thickness of the left ventricle. Additionally, myocardial infarction resulted in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, characterized by lower area variation fraction values, posterior wall shortening velocity, E-wave deceleration time, associated with higher values of E / A ratio and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate. Among the infarcted animals, 54 (61%) developed heart failure. Rats with heart failure have higher left cavity mass index and diameter, associated with worsening of functional variables. The area variation fraction, the E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate were functional variables predictors of heart failure. The cutoff values of functional variables associated with heart failure were: area variation fraction < 31.18%; E / A > 3.077; E-wave deceleration time < 42.11 and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate < 69.08. In rats followed for 6 months after myocardial infarction, the area variation fraction, E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate are predictors of heart failure onset

  2. Impact of ventricular assist device placement on longitudinal renal function in children with end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Lindsay J; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Yeh, Justin; Axelrod, David M; Chen, Sharon; Maeda, Katsuhide; Almond, Christopher S D; Rosenthal, David N; Hollander, Seth A; Sutherland, Scott M

    2016-04-01

    Although ventricular assist devices (VADs) restore hemodynamics in those with heart failure, reversibility of end-organ dysfunction with VAD support is not well characterized. Renal function often improves in adults after VAD placement, but this has not been comprehensively explored in children. Sixty-three children on VAD support were studied. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by the Schwartz method. Generalized linear mixed-effects models compared the pre-VAD and post-VAD eGFR for the cohort and sub-groups with and without pre-VAD renal dysfunction (pre-VAD eGFR renal dysfunction. AKI affected 60.3% (38 of 63), with similar rates in those with and without pre-existing renal dysfunction. Within the cohort, the nadir eGFR occurred 1 day post-operatively (62.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 51.2-88.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p renal dysfunction experienced the greatest improvement in the eGFR (β = 0.0051 vs β = 0.0013, p Renal dysfunction is prevalent in children with heart failure undergoing VAD placement. Although peri-operative AKI is common, renal function improves substantially in the first post-operative week and for months thereafter. This is particularly pronounced in those with pre-VAD renal impairment, suggesting that VADs may facilitate recovery and maintenance of kidney function in children with advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  4. Improved functional capacity evaluation performance predicts successful return to work one year after completing a functional restoration rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Lisa; Perez, Yoheli; Neblett, Randy; Asih, Sali; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether functional capacity evaluation (FCE) scores are responsive to functional restoration treatment, and to assess the ability of FCEs at program discharge to predict work outcomes. An interdisciplinary cohort study of prospectively collected data. A functional restoration center. A consecutive sample of 354 patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs) completed a functional restoration program consisting of quantitatively directed exercise progression and multi-modal disability management with interdisciplinary medical supervision. Each patient participated in an FCE at admission and discharge from treatment. The results of each FCE yielded the physical demand level (PDL) at which patients were functioning. Patients were initially divided into 5 PDL groups, based on job-of-injury lifting, carrying, and pushing/pulling requirements, for the pre- to posttreatment responsiveness analyses. Patients were subsequently divided into 5 PDL groups, based on their performance on the FCE upon program completion. Outcome measures included admission-to-discharge changes in PDLs and 2 specific FCE lifting tasks: isokinetic lifting; and the Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE). Socioeconomic outcomes were also evaluated, including post-discharge work return and work retention 1-year after treatment completion. Overall, 96% of the patients demonstrated improvement in their PDLs from admission to discharge. A majority of patients (56%) were able to achieve a discharge PDL that was comparable to their estimated job-of-injury lifting requirement or higher (P work return (P work retention (P work return after treatment completion and work retention 1 year later. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Executive dysfunction is independently associated with reduced functional independence in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; van Dulmen, Manfred; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2014-03-01

    To examine the independent association between executive function with instrumental activities of daily living and health behaviours in older adults with heart failure. Executive function is an important contributor to functional independence as it consists of cognitive processes needed for decision-making, planning, organising and behavioural monitoring. Impairment in this domain is common in heart failure patients and associated with reduced performance of instrumental activities of daily living in many medical and neurological populations. However, the contribution of executive functions to functional independence and healthy lifestyle choices in heart failure patients has not been fully examined. Cross-sectional analyses. One hundred and seventy-five heart failure patients completed a neuropsychological battery and echocardiogram. Participants also completed the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and reported current cigarette use. Hierarchical regressions revealed that reduced executive function was independently associated with worse instrumental activity of daily living performance with a specific association for decreased ability to manage medications. Partial correlations showed that executive dysfunction was associated with current cigarette use. Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction is associated with poorer functional independence and contributes to unhealthy behaviours in heart failure. Future studies should examine whether heart failure patients benefit from formal organisation schema (i.e. pill organisers) to maintain independence. Screening of executive function in heart failure patients may provide key insight into their ability to perform daily tasks, including the management of treatment recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  7. Evaluation of Restoration and Flow Interactions on River Structure and Function: Channel Widening of the Thur River, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Martín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Removal of lateral constraints to restore rivers has become increasingly common in river resource management, but little is known how the interaction of de-channelization with flow influences ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the ecosystem effects of river widening to improve sediment relations in the Thur River, Switzerland, 12 years after implementation. We tested if restored and non-restored reaches differed in water physico-chemistry, hyporheic function, primary production, and macroinvertebrate density and composition in relation to the flow regime. Our results showed that (i spatio-temporal variation in sediment respiration and macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness were driven by interactions between restoration and flow; (ii riverbed conditions including substrate size, organic matter content, and groundwater–surface water exchange changed due to restoration, but (iii physico-chemistry, hydraulic conditions, and primary production were not altered by restoration. Importantly, our study revealed that abiotic conditions, except channel morphology, changed only marginally, whereas other ecosystem attributes responded markedly to changes in flow-restoration interactions. These results highlight integrating a more holistic ecosystem perspective in the design and monitoring of restoration projects such as river widening in resource management, preferably in relation to flow-sediment regimes and interactions with the biotic components of the ecosystem.

  8. Restoring Ovarian Endocrine Function with Encapsulated Ovarian Allograft in Immune Competent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella

    2017-07-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems. These long-lasting effects are particularly significant for young girls reaching puberty. As such, restoring ovarian endocrine function is paramount in this population. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of restoring ovarian endocrine function in ovariectomized mice by transplanting syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in alginate capsules or TheraCyte ® . Histological analysis of the implants retrieved after 7 and 30 days' post implantation showed follicular development up to the secondary and antral stages in both syngeneic and allogeneic implants. Implantation of syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian grafts encapsulated in TheraCyte devices restored ovarian endocrine function, which was confirmed by decreased serum FSH levels from 60 to 70 ng/mL in ovariectomized mice to 30-40 ng/mL 30 days after implantation. Absence of allo-MHC-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of implanted mice with allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in TheraCyte indicate that the implants did not evoke an allo-immune response, while the allogeneic controls were rejected 21 days after implantation. Our results show that TheraCyte effectively isolates the graft from immune recognition but also supports follicular growth.

  9. Importance of orthodontic movement in interdisciplinary treatment for restoring esthetics and functional occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes interdisciplinary treatment conducted in adult patients, 49-year-old, with periodontal problems, losses and dental inclination, occlusal trauma, localized bone loss, and necessity of rehabilitation with dental implants. Alignment and leveling of the teeth, the molars uprighting with cantilever, and space closure were performed the treatment was facilitated by periodic periodontal control. The resultant occlusion was stable throughout a 5-year retention period. In conclusion, interdisciplinary treatment combined with periodontics, orthodontics, implantodontist, and restorative dentistry was useful for improving the patient′s oral health, function, and esthetics.

  10. Osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma: embolization and surgery for restoration of function. Work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.M.; Becker, G.J.; Rabe, F.E.; Holden, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.; Wass, J.L.; Sequeira, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Five patients underwent preoperative embolization of osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma. The group consisted of four men and one woman who ranged in age from 46 to 79 years. The lesions were located in the pubic ramus and acetabulum, proximal femur, femoral midshaft, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. All embolizations were performed within 24 hours of surgery. The internal fixation and tumor curettage was accomplished with estimated perioperative blood loss ranging from 10 ml to 1,250 ml. All patients had significant restoration of function following surgery. The authors suggest that preoperative embolization is an important and efficacious adjunct in the management of hypervascular renal cell osseous metastases

  11. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.L.M.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.; Leeuwen, D.J. van; Schippor, H.G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; Heyde, M.N. van der

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99m Tc-colloid as tracer. The method was assessed in 11 patients by comparing the pre- and post-operative volume measurement with the volume of the resected liver mass. Liver function was determined by measuring the galactose elimination capacity and the caffeine clearance. After a postoperative follow-up period of 50 days, the liver had regenerated maximally to a volume of 75 ± 2% of the preoperative liver mass. Maximal restoration of liver function was achieved 120 days after operation and amounted to 75 ± 10% for the caffeine clearance and to 100 ± 25% for the galactose elimination capacity. This study shows that SPECT is a useful method for assessing liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy. The study furthermore shows that caffeine clearance correlates well with total liver volume, whereas the galactose elimination capacity overestimates total liver volume after partial hepatectomy. 22 refs

  12. Laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel restores salivary gland function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihoon Nam

    Full Text Available Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization. However, laminin-111 protein as a whole is not suitable for clinical applications as some protein domains may contribute to unwanted side effects such as degradation, tumorigenesis and immune responses. Conversely, the use of synthetic laminin-111 peptides makes it possible to minimize the immune reactivity or pathogen transfer. In addition, it is relatively simple and inexpensive as compared to animal-derived proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether a 20 day treatment with laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in submandibular glands of a wound healing mouse model. In this study, laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel significantly accelerated formation of salivary gland tissue. The regenerated gland tissues displayed not only structural but also functional restoration.

  13. Closed-loop control of spinal cord stimulation to restore hand function after paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas B Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As yet, no cure exists for upper-limb paralysis resulting from the damage to motor pathways after spinal cord injury or stroke. Recently, neural activity from the motor cortex of paralyzed individuals has been used to control the movements of a robot arm but restoring function to patients’ actual limbs remains a considerable challenge. Previously we have shown that electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized monkeys can elicit functional upper-limb movements like reaching and grasping. Here we show that stimulation can be controlled using cortical activity in awake animals to bypass disruption of the corticospinal system, restoring their ability to perform a simple upper-limb task. Monkeys were trained to grasp and pull a spring-loaded handle. After temporary paralysis of the hand was induced by reversible inactivation of primary motor cortex using muscimol, grasp-related single-unit activity from the ventral premotor cortex was converted into stimulation patterns delivered in real-time to the cervical spinal grey matter. During periods of closed-loop stimulation, task-modulated electromyogram, movement amplitude and task success rate were improved relative to interleaved control periods without stimulation. In some sessions, single motor unit activity from weakly active muscles was also used successfully to control stimulation. These results are the first use of a neural prosthesis to improve the hand function of primates after motor cortex disruption, and demonstrate the potential for closed-loop cortical control of spinal cord stimulation to reanimate paralyzed limbs.

  14. Effects of vildagliptin versus sitagliptin, on cardiac function, heart rate variability and mitochondrial function in obese insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pintana, Hiranya; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to cause insulin resistance, which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia with metabolic inflexibility. Insulin resistance is associated with cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, are oral anti-diabetic drugs often prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a murine model of insulin resistance. Experimental Approach Male Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g, were fed either a normal diet (20% energy from fat) or a HFD (59% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. These rats were then divided into three subgroups to receive vildagliptin (3 mg·kg−1·day−1), sitagliptin (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or vehicle for another 21 days. Metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Key Results Rats that received HFD developed insulin resistance characterized by increased body weight, plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels along with a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial morphology changes were observed in HFD rats. Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin decreased plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress as well as increased HDL level. Furthermore, vildagliptin and sitagliptin attenuated cardiac dysfunction, prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and completely restored HRV. Conclusions and Implications Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin share similar efficacy in cardioprotection in obese insulin-resistant rats. PMID:23488656

  15. Loop diuretics, renal function and clinical outcome in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Kevin; Kjekshus, John; Wikstrand, John; Cleland, John G. F.; Komajda, Michel; Wedel, Hans; Waagstein, Finn; McMurray, John J. V.

    AimWe aimed to study the relationships of loop diuretic dose with renal function and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Methods and resultsLoop diuretic dose at baseline was recorded in patients included in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure

  16. Predictors of right ventricular function as measured by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Akkan, Dilek

    2009-01-01

    in heart failure patients, in particular with reduced septal longitudinal motion. TAPSE is decreased in patients with heart failure of ischemic etiology. However, the absolute reduction in TAPSE is small and seems to be of minor importance in the clinical utilization of TAPSE whether applied as a measure...... of right ventricular systolic function or as a prognostic factor....

  17. Functionality of the baroreceptor nerves in heart rate regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    are a consequence of the memory encapsulated by the models, and the nonlinearity gives rise to sigmoidal response curves. The nonlinear afferent baroreceptor models are coupled with an effector model, and the coupled model has been used to predict baroreceptor feedback regulation of heart rate during postural...... change from sitting to standing and during head-up tilt. The efferent model couples the afferent nerve paths to the sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow, and subsequently predicts the build up of an action potential at the sinus knot of the heart. In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear afferent model...... and show that the coupled model is able to predict heart rate regulation using blood pressure data as an input...

  18. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  19. Effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on sympathetic neuronal function and {beta}-adrenergic desensitization in heart failure after myocardial infarction in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igawa, Akihiko; Nozawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naohiro [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    2002-11-01

    One of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure may derive from sympathoinhibition and the prevention of {beta}-adrenergic desensitization. However, the roles of these properties in the overall effects of ACE inhibitor are not clear. We studied the effects of chronic enalapril treatment (20 mg/L in drinking water for 12 weeks) on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac norepinephrine (NE), sympathetic neuronal function assessed by {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {beta}-receptors, and isometric contraction of papillary muscle in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) induced by coronary artery ligation. Decreased LV function in the MI rats was associated with reduced cardiac NE content and MIBG uptake, and severely blunted responses of non-infarcted papillary muscle to isoproterenol, forskolin, and calcium. Enalapril attenuated LV remodeling in association with a reduction of the ventricular loading condition and restored baseline developed tension of non-infarcted papillary muscle to the level of sham-operated rats. However, enalapril did not improve cardiac NE content, MIBG uptake, or inotropic responsiveness to {beta}-agonists. These results suggest that the major effect of the ACE inhibitor enalapril in the treatment of heart failure is not due to sympathoinhibition or restoration of {beta}-adrenergic pathway in this model of heart failure. (author)

  20. Effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on sympathetic neuronal function and β-adrenergic desensitization in heart failure after myocardial infarction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, Akihiko; Nozawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2002-01-01

    One of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure may derive from sympathoinhibition and the prevention of β-adrenergic desensitization. However, the roles of these properties in the overall effects of ACE inhibitor are not clear. We studied the effects of chronic enalapril treatment (20 mg/L in drinking water for 12 weeks) on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac norepinephrine (NE), sympathetic neuronal function assessed by 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), β-receptors, and isometric contraction of papillary muscle in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) induced by coronary artery ligation. Decreased LV function in the MI rats was associated with reduced cardiac NE content and MIBG uptake, and severely blunted responses of non-infarcted papillary muscle to isoproterenol, forskolin, and calcium. Enalapril attenuated LV remodeling in association with a reduction of the ventricular loading condition and restored baseline developed tension of non-infarcted papillary muscle to the level of sham-operated rats. However, enalapril did not improve cardiac NE content, MIBG uptake, or inotropic responsiveness to β-agonists. These results suggest that the major effect of the ACE inhibitor enalapril in the treatment of heart failure is not due to sympathoinhibition or restoration of β-adrenergic pathway in this model of heart failure. (author)

  1. Rate and Time of Ovarian Function Restoration in Menopausal Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Letrozole Following Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Omidvari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to investigate the rate and time of ovarian function restoration in breast cancer patients between 40 and 60 years of age who were in menopause (biochemically documented and received letrozole after chemotherapy. We intended to further clarify the management strategy for breast cancer patients with different menopausal status. Methods: We prospectively measured the effects of replacing tamoxifen with letrozole on ovarian function recovery in 90 women from two age groups (40-50 and 51-60 years. All had breast cancer and were treated by chemotherapy. Patients had laboratory documentation of menopause (FSH >40 mIU/ml and estradiol <20 pg/mL. Patients did not have menstruation for at least one year. Study patients received letrozole. At three month intervals, we checked their FSH and estradiol levels. Results:At three months after beginning letrozole, 12 patients in the younger age group had laboratory ovarian function restoration, among which three had vaginal bleeding. In the older group, 8 patients had increased estradiol levels; however, there was no evidence of vaginal bleeding in this group. At 6, 9 and 12 months, no ovarian function restoration was seen in the older group. However in younger patients, 4 had laboratory evidence of ovarian function restoration at 6 months, 2 at 9 months and 1 patient showed laboratory ovarian function restoration at 12 months of follow-up. Totally, there was a significant difference in the occurrence of ovarian function restoration between the two groups (P=0.03. Conclusion: A remarkable portion of women with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea may develop ovarian function restoration. Therefore, endocrine therapy using aromatase inhibitors in patients with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea should be followed by a regular hormonal study.

  2. Functional approach for pairing in finite systems: How to define restoration of broken symmetries in Energy Density Functional theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupin, G; Lacroix, D; Bender, M

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-Reference Energy Density Functional (MR-EDF) approach (also called configuration mixing or Generator Coordinate Method), that is commonly used to treat pairing in finite nuclei and project onto particle number, is re-analyzed. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the MR-EDF energy can be interpreted as a functional of the one-body density matrix of the projected state with good particle number. Based on this observation, we propose a new approach, called Symmetry-Conserving EDF (SC-EDF), where the breaking and restoration of symmetry are accounted for simultaneously. We show, that such an approach is free from pathologies recently observed in MR-EDF and can be used with a large flexibility on the density dependence of the functional.

  3. Schwann cell seeded guidance tubes restore erectile function after ablation of cavernous nerves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, F; Weidner, N; Matiasek, K; Caspers, C; Mrva, T; Vroemen, M; Henke, J; Lehmer, A; Schwaibold, H; Erhardt, W; Gänsbacher, B; Hartung, R

    2004-07-01

    Dissection of the cavernous nerves eliminates spontaneous erections. We evaluated the ability of Schwann cell seeded nerve guidance tubes to restore erections after bilateral cavernous nerve resection in rats. Sections (5 mm) of the cavernous nerve were excised bilaterally, followed by immediate bilateral microsurgical reconstruction. In 10 animals per group (20 study nerves) reconstruction was performed by genitofemoral nerve interposition, interposition of silicone tubes or interposition of silicone tubes seeded with homologous Schwann cells. As the control 10 animals (20 study nerves) underwent sham operation (positive control) and bilateral nerve ablation (without reconstruction) was performed in a further 10 (negative control). Erectile function was evaluated 3 months postoperatively by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording. After 3 months neurostimulation resulted in an intact erectile response in 90% (18 of 20) of Schwann cell grafts, while treatment with autologous nerves (30% or 6 of 20) or tubes only (50% or 10 of 20) was less successful (p Schwann cell grafts compared to results in the other treatment groups (p Schwann cell grafts. Schwann cell seeded guidance tubes restore erectile function after the ablation of cavernous nerves in rats and they are superior to autologous nerve grafts.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Factors Restore Function to Human Frataxin-Deficient Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kevin; Dey, Rimi; Cook, Amelia; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2017-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited neurological disorder characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. At present, no therapy has been shown to reduce disease progression. Strategies being trialled to treat Friedreich's ataxia include drugs that improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative injury. In addition, stem cells have been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach. We have used siRNA-induced knockdown of frataxin in SH-SY5Y cells as an in vitro cellular model for Friedreich's ataxia. Knockdown of frataxin protein expression to levels detected in patients with the disorder was achieved, leading to decreased cellular viability, increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, dysregulation of key anti-oxidant molecules and deficiencies in both cell proliferation and differentiation. Bone marrow stem cells are being investigated extensively as potential treatments for a wide range of neurological disorders, including Friedreich's ataxia. The potential neuroprotective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were therefore studied using our frataxin-deficient cell model. Soluble factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells protected against cellular changes induced by frataxin deficiency, leading to restoration in frataxin levels and anti-oxidant defences, improved survival against oxidative stress and stimulated both cell proliferation and differentiation down the Schwann cell lineage. The demonstration that mesenchymal stem cell-derived factors can restore cellular homeostasis and function to frataxin-deficient cells further suggests that they may have potential therapeutic benefits for patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

  5. Functional restoration of diaphragmatic paralysis: an evaluation of phrenic nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Matthew R; Elkwood, Andrew I; Colicchio, Alan R; CeCe, John; Jarrahy, Reza; Willekes, Lourens J; Rose, Michael I; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis causes respiratory deficits and can occur after iatrogenic or traumatic phrenic nerve injury in the neck or chest. Patients are evaluated using spirometry and imaging studies; however, phrenic nerve conduction studies and electromyography are not widely available or considered; thus, the degree of dysfunction is often unknown. Treatment has been limited to diaphragmatic plication. Phrenic nerve operations to restore diaphragmatic function may broaden therapeutic options. An interventional study of 92 patients with symptomatic diaphragmatic paralysis assigned 68 (based on their clinical condition) to phrenic nerve surgical intervention (PS), 24 to nonsurgical (NS) care, and evaluated a third group of 68 patients (derived from literature review) treated with diaphragmatic plication (DP). Variables for assessment included spirometry, the Short-Form 36-Item survey, electrodiagnostics, and complications. In the PS group, there was an average 13% improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p Phrenic nerve operations for functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm should be part of the standard treatment algorithm in the management of symptomatic patients with this condition. Assessment of neuromuscular dysfunction can aid in determining the most effective therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of atorvastatin combined with trimetazidine on heart function, oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Mao Yi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of atorvastatin combined with trimetazidine on heart function, oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in patients with coronary heart disease, Methods: 110 patients with coronary heart disease from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital were selected as the research objects, randomly divided into observation group 55 cases and control group 55 cases, The patients in both groups received conventional treatment of coronary heart disease, and the control group was given orally atorvastatin calcium capsules at the same time. The observation group was added with trimetazidine hydrochloride tablets on the basis of the control group. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVESD, C reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD and MDA levels of two groups were compared respectively before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the LVESD, LVEDD and LVEF levels between observation group and the control group had no significant difference (P>0.05; Compared with before treatment, LVESD and LVEDD levels in the observation group and control group after treatment were significantly decreased, LVEF increased significantly, and there were significant differences (P0.05; After treatment, SOD in the observation group and the control group were significantly increased, MDA decreased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant (P0.05; compared with before treatment, the CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 of observation group and control group after treatment were significantly decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05; After treatment, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 of the observation group were lower than the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: Atorvastatin combined with trimetazidine can

  7. Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Heart Rate and Functional Capacity in Patients After Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Parvand

    2016-09-01

    Discussion: Cardiac rehabilitation can increase the performance of blood circulation and uptake of oxygen in body. Due to these changes, there was a significant increase in the functional capacity and an insignificant reduction in the heart rate.

  8. Interdisciplinary management for restoration of function and esthetics in a patient with hereditary amelogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Dhiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is a type of the hereditary disorder which is expressed as a group of conditions causing developmental alterations in the structure of enamel. It is associated with a reduction of oral health-related quality-of-life, has an impact on psychological well-being, and leads to various physiological problems. Children or adults with AI express varying degree of malocclusions either in the form of crowding, impacted teeth, spacing, retained teeth, reduced vertical height due to abnormal tooth structure or undue tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment should precede esthetic rehabilitation. Proper diagnosis of the case is quintessential to provide durable functional and esthetic result to these patients, improving the quality of their lives. We present a case of interdisciplinary management for restoring function and esthetics in a patient with hereditary AI of the hypoplastic type accompanied with tooth impaction and some other dental anomalies.

  9. Posterior composite restoration update: focus on factors influencing form and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, Brenda S; Ye, Qiang; Misra, Anil; Sene, Fabio; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    Restoring posterior teeth with resin-based composite materials continues to gain popularity among clinicians, and the demand for such aesthetic restorations is increasing. Indeed, the most common aesthetic alternative to dental amalgam is resin composite. Moderate to large posterior composite restorations, however, have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement. Investigators across the globe are researching new materials and techniques that will improve the clinical performance, handling characteristics, and mechanical and physical properties of composite resin restorative materials. Despite such attention, large to moderate posterior composite restorations continue to have a clinical lifetime that is approximately one-half that of the dental amalgam. While there are numerous recommendations regarding preparation design, restoration placement, and polymerization technique, current research indicates that restoration longevity depends on several variables that may be difficult for the dentist to control. These variables include the patient’s caries risk, tooth position, patient habits, number of restored surfaces, the quality of the tooth–restoration bond, and the ability of the restorative material to produce a sealed tooth–restoration interface. Although clinicians tend to focus on tooth form when evaluating the success and failure of posterior composite restorations, the emphasis must remain on advancing our understanding of the clinical variables that impact the formation of a durable seal at the restoration–tooth interface. This paper presents an update of existing technology and underscores the mechanisms that negatively impact the durability of posterior composite restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:23750102

  10. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF).......The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF)....

  11. Radionuclide kineventriculographic evaluation of the heart pump function in valvular prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Zh; Shejretova, E; Trindev, P; Topalov, V; Denchev, S; Khadzhikostova, Kh

    1986-01-01

    The heart pump function was investigated by the methods of radionuclide kineventriculography, standart opaque ventryculography and echocardiography. The statistical analysis revealed lack of correlation for the ejection fraction, determined by the three methods. The methodological advantages of radionuclide kineventriculography are pointed out for exact and objective evaluation of the ejection fraction of the left cardiac ventricle, as well as some limitations in the application of this index in the clinical assessment of the heart pump function in patients, indicated for valvular prosthesis.

  12. Developing Student Social Skills Using Restorative Practices: A New Framework Called H.E.A.R.T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Michelle; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Broderick, David

    2018-01-01

    Students attending schools today not only learn about formal academic subjects, they also learn social and emotional skills. Whole-school restorative practices (RP) is an approach which can be used to address student misbehaviour when it occurs, and as a holistic method to increase social and emotional learning in students. The aim of this study…

  13. The heart of date palm: its nutritional and functional constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the three important fruit crops in the palm family. Kabkub is the main cultivated species in southern part of Iran, Bushehr. Every part of this tree has its own uses. The tree's terminal buds (heart of palm or palmitos are believed to have many nutritional values. As a folk medicine, it has been used for the improvement of stamina and treatment of sexual weakness. In order to evaluate the nutritional values of this product of date palm, we analyzed the total carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and fats in the sample. Methods: The palm hearts were obtained from local trees, minced, dried, and ground to powder. Fats were extracted and analyzed using Bligh-Dyer method and gas chromatography. Total proteins and carbohydrates were determined by Kjeldahl and Lane-Eynon methods, respectively. The minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The total fat content of the sample was 0.27g/28g. The unsaturated fatty acids present in the sample were mainly linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids, all together comprised 27.2% of the fats. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fat. The total protein estimated was 0.3g/28g. The carbohydrate content of the palm heart was 2.29 g and the minerals present in the sample were mainly Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Mn, Ca, Cu, Na, K, and Se. Conclusion: Date palm contains many essential fatty acids and known anti-inflammatory nutrients including zinc. The amount of crude fiber present in the heart of palm makes it as a valuable dietary product to be used as a tasty fat-cholesterol free nutrient.

  14. Acute temperature effects on function of the chick embryonic heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vostárek, František; Svatůňková, Jarmila; Sedmera, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 4 (2016), s. 276-286 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : arrhythmias * calcium imaging * chick embryo * conduction block * heart development * optical mapping Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  15. Structural and functional changes of the heart in patients with chronic ischemic heart failure, associated with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lashkul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is a frequent complication of congestive heart failure (CHF and may contribute to the progression of ventricular dysfunction. Regardless of the degree of heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD increases the risk of death and cardiac decompensation. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is a known parameter of cardiac remodelling and has a higher prevalence and incidence among people with impaired kidney function. LVH is an early subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease and heart failure risk, and is probably an intermediary step in the pathway leading from kidney dysfunction to heart failure and its complications. The effects of CKD on other left ventricular and myocardial parameters, however, have been less characterized. The aim of the study was to examine the structural and functional changes, geometric remodeling of the heart in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure, being hospitalized, according to the presence of renal dysfunction. Materials and methods. The study involved 333 patients with ischemic CHF (277 men and 56 women, mean age 59,3±9,4 years. The functional class of heart failure was assessed on the recommendations of the New York Heart Association (NYHA. The etiology of heart failure in 288 (86.5% patients had a combination of coronary artery disease and essential hypertension, in 45 (13.5% – only CAD. 1 FC of heart failure was diagnosed in 9 (2.7% patients, 2 FC - in 106 (31.8%, 3 FC - in 199 (59.8% and 4 FC - 19 (5.7% patients. Diabetes was in 61 (18.3%, myocardial infarction history was in 240 (72.1% patients. Depending on the glomerular filtration rate, patients were divided into 3 groups: 72 with normal GFR (>90 ml/min/1.73m2, 218 with a slight decrease in GFR (60-90 ml/min/1.73m2 and 43 with moderate reduced GFR (<60 ml/min/1.73m2. Echocardiography was performed using the General Electric VIVID 3 system (General Electric Healthcare, USA with the 2.5–3.5 MHz transducer and Doppler technique

  16. Early Response of Soil Properties and Function to Riparian Rainforest Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P.

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2–20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates), only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives. PMID:25117589

  17. Functional restoration of the esophagus after peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Cheal Wung; Youn, Young Hoon; Chung, Hyunsoo; Lee, Yong Chan; Park, Hyojin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new efficacious treatment option for achalasia. We propose to define “esophageal remodeling” as the functional restoration of the esophagus that involves decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, recovery of esophageal body peristalsis, and reduction of luminal diameter. The aim of this study was to investigate “esophageal remodeling” after POEM for achalasia. Materials and methods We analyzed data from a prospectively collected database of POEM subjects, which included preoperative and 2-month postoperative Eckardt symptom scores, and results from esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM) and barium esophagogram (BE). We recruited 23 patients (13 male; mean age: 53.9 years) whose preoperative and postoperative HRM and BE results were available, from among 30 patients with achalasia who underwent POEM at two institutions between July 2013 and December 2015. Results All patients achieved clinical treatment success (Eckardt score≤3). Partial recovery of esophageal body peristalsis was noted in 1/5 patients with type I (20%), 6/11 with type II (54.5%), and 7/7 with type III (100%) achalasia after POEM. Pan-esophageal pressurization disappeared after POEM in 10/11 type II achalasia patients. The average diameter of the esophageal body after POEM was significantly decreased in all types of achalasia. Conclusion POEM provided excellent clinical symptomatic relief and esophageal remodeling in terms of restoration of peristalsis and reduction in diameter of the esophageal body, especially in patients with type III achalasia. PMID:28542509

  18. Functional restoration of the esophagus after peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Cheal Wung; Youn, Young Hoon; Chung, Hyunsoo; Lee, Yong Chan; Park, Hyojin

    2017-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new efficacious treatment option for achalasia. We propose to define "esophageal remodeling" as the functional restoration of the esophagus that involves decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, recovery of esophageal body peristalsis, and reduction of luminal diameter. The aim of this study was to investigate "esophageal remodeling" after POEM for achalasia. We analyzed data from a prospectively collected database of POEM subjects, which included preoperative and 2-month postoperative Eckardt symptom scores, and results from esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM) and barium esophagogram (BE). We recruited 23 patients (13 male; mean age: 53.9 years) whose preoperative and postoperative HRM and BE results were available, from among 30 patients with achalasia who underwent POEM at two institutions between July 2013 and December 2015. All patients achieved clinical treatment success (Eckardt score≤3). Partial recovery of esophageal body peristalsis was noted in 1/5 patients with type I (20%), 6/11 with type II (54.5%), and 7/7 with type III (100%) achalasia after POEM. Pan-esophageal pressurization disappeared after POEM in 10/11 type II achalasia patients. The average diameter of the esophageal body after POEM was significantly decreased in all types of achalasia. POEM provided excellent clinical symptomatic relief and esophageal remodeling in terms of restoration of peristalsis and reduction in diameter of the esophageal body, especially in patients with type III achalasia.

  19. Early response of soil properties and function to riparian rainforest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gageler

    Full Text Available Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2-20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates, only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives.

  20. Introduction to proceedings of a workshop on science considerations in functional restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Franco

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the scientific literature and in traditional forest management literature about forest restoration, ecological restoration, adaptive and active management for restoring forest ecosystems, and a variety of linked topics. The USDA Forest Service manages 193 million acres of forest and grasslands for a variety of uses, and...

  1. Functional role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Nicolas; Hirshman, Michael F; Arad, Michael; Xing, Yanqiu; Fujii, Nobuharu; Pomerleau, Jason; Ahmad, Ferhaan; Berul, Charles I; Seidman, Jon G; Tian, Rong; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2005-04-11

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cardiac function during ischemia in the heart. However, the functional role of AMPK in the heart during exercise is unknown. We examined whether acute exercise increases AMPK activity in mouse hearts and determined the significance of these increases by studying transgenic (TG) mice expressing a cardiac-specific dominant-negative (inactivating) AMPKalpha2 subunit. Exercise increased cardiac AMPKalpha2 activity in the wild type mice but not in TG. We found that inactivation of AMPK did not result in abnormal ATP and glycogen consumption during exercise, cardiac function assessed by heart rhythm telemetry and stress echocardiography, or in maximal exercise capacity.

  2. Structural and Functional Phenotyping of the Failing Heart: Is the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Michael R; Kao, David P; Breathett, Khadijah K; Altman, Natasha L; Gorcsan, John; Gill, Edward A; Lowes, Brian D; Gilbert, Edward M; Quaife, Robert A; Mann, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and development of new therapies for diseases or syndromes depend on a reliable means of identifying phenotypes associated with distinct predictive probabilities for these various objectives. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) provides the current basis for combined functional and structural phenotyping in heart failure by classifying patients as those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Recently the utility of LVEF as the major phenotypic determinant of heart failure has been challenged based on its load dependency and measurement variability. We review the history of the development and adoption of LVEF as a critical measurement of LV function and structure and demonstrate that, in chronic heart failure, load dependency is not an important practical issue, and we provide hemodynamic and molecular biomarker evidence that LVEF is superior or equal to more unwieldy methods of identifying phenotypes of ventricular remodeling. We conclude that, because it reliably measures both left ventricular function and structure, LVEF remains the best current method of assessing pathologic remodeling in heart failure in both individual clinical and multicenter group settings. Because of the present and future importance of left ventricular phenotyping in heart failure, LVEF should be measured by using the most accurate technology and methodologic refinements available, and improved characterization methods should continue to be sought. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Functional characteristics of flexible supporting structures for heart valve bioprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova, N B; Agafonov, A V; Barbarash, L S; Zavalishin, N N; Neniukov, A K

    1984-01-01

    Hydraulic characteristics of heart valve bioprostheses mounted on supporting structures of various rigidity have been studied under physiologic conditions. An actual mobility of the supporting structures made of different polymers is determined. Static and dynamic components of the support displacements have been shown to develop as the bioprosthesis is under the load, the dynamic component being strongly dependent upon the rigidity of fastening the bioprosthesis on the axis. It is noted that considerable improvements in hydraulic characteristics of bioprostheses are achieved through the use of flexible supporting structures.

  4. Gene Therapy Restores Balance and Auditory Functions in a Mouse Model of Usher Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgrig, Kevin; Shteamer, Jack W; Belyantseva, Inna A; Drummond, Meghan C; Fitzgerald, Tracy S; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Jones, Sherri M; Griffith, Andrew J; Friedman, Thomas B; Cunningham, Lisa L; Chien, Wade W

    2017-03-01

    Dizziness and hearing loss are among the most common disabilities. Many forms of hereditary balance and hearing disorders are caused by abnormal development of stereocilia, mechanosensory organelles on the apical surface of hair cells in the inner ear. The deaf whirler mouse, a model of human Usher syndrome (manifested by hearing loss, dizziness, and blindness), has a recessive mutation in the whirlin gene, which renders hair cell stereocilia short and dysfunctional. In this study, wild-type whirlin cDNA was delivered to the inner ears of neonatal whirler mice using adeno-associated virus serotype 2/8 (AAV8-whirlin) by injection into the posterior semicircular canal. Unilateral whirlin gene therapy injection was able to restore balance function as well as improve hearing in whirler mice for at least 4 months. Our data indicate that gene therapy is likely to become a treatment option for hereditary disorders of balance and hearing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. "In Situ Vascular Nerve Graft" for Restoration of Intrinsic Hand Function: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Zemoodeh, Hamid Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Owji, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles. Twenty fresh male cadavers were dissected in order to evaluate the feasibility of this modification of technique. The size of nerve branches, the number of axons and the tension at repair site were evaluated. This nerve transfer was technically feasible in all specimens. There was no significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient nerves Conclusions: The possible advantages of this modification include innervation of both median and ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic muscles, preservation of vascularity of the nerve graft which might accelerate the nerve regeneration, avoidance of leg incision and therefore the possibility of performing surgery under regional instead of general anesthesia. Briefly, this novel technique is a viable option which can be used instead of conventional nerve graft in some brachial plexus or combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries when restoration of intrinsic hand function by transfer of posterior interosseous nerve branches is attempted.

  7. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands: drivers, modeling, storage functions, and restoration implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Wu, C. L.; Shrestha, N.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of wetland and watershed water budgets. The effect of wetland drainage on ET is not well understood. We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on ET in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the sub-tropics. Eddy covariance (EC) based ET measurements were made for two years at two previously drained and geographically close wetlands in the Everglades region of Florida. One wetland was significantly drained with 97% of its storage capacity lost. The other was a more functional wetland with 42% of storage capacity lost. Annual average ET at the significantly drained wetland was 836 mm, 34% less than the function wetland (1271 mm) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Such differences in wetland ET in the same climatic region have not been observed. The difference in ET was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two daily ET models, a regression (r2 = 0.80) and a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (r2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. These models, when used in conjunction with hydrologic models, improved ET predictions for drained wetlands. Predictions from an integrated model showed that more intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration of downstream flows (flooding) because they have the ability to loose higher water volume through ET which increases available water storage capacity of wetlands. Daily ET models can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  8. Restoring cortical control of functional movement in a human with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Chad E; Shaikhouni, Ammar; Annetta, Nicholas V; Bockbrader, Marcia A; Friedenberg, David A; Nielson, Dylan M; Sharma, Gaurav; Sederberg, Per B; Glenn, Bradley C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Morgan, Austin G; Deogaonkar, Milind; Rezai, Ali R

    2016-05-12

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from diseases that lead to paralysis through disruption of signal pathways between the brain and the muscles. Neuroprosthetic devices are designed to restore lost function and could be used to form an electronic 'neural bypass' to circumvent disconnected pathways in the nervous system. It has previously been shown that intracortically recorded signals can be decoded to extract information related to motion, allowing non-human primates and paralysed humans to control computers and robotic arms through imagined movements. In non-human primates, these types of signal have also been used to drive activation of chemically paralysed arm muscles. Here we show that intracortically recorded signals can be linked in real-time to muscle activation to restore movement in a paralysed human. We used a chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode array to record multiunit activity from the motor cortex in a study participant with quadriplegia from cervical spinal cord injury. We applied machine-learning algorithms to decode the neuronal activity and control activation of the participant's forearm muscles through a custom-built high-resolution neuromuscular electrical stimulation system. The system provided isolated finger movements and the participant achieved continuous cortical control of six different wrist and hand motions. Furthermore, he was able to use the system to complete functional tasks relevant to daily living. Clinical assessment showed that, when using the system, his motor impairment improved from the fifth to the sixth cervical (C5-C6) to the seventh cervical to first thoracic (C7-T1) level unilaterally, conferring on him the critical abilities to grasp, manipulate, and release objects. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge of successful control of muscle activation using intracortically recorded signals in a paralysed human. These results have significant implications in advancing neuroprosthetic technology

  9. Worsening renal function in heart failure: the need for a consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Noella J; Newton, Phillip J; Macdonald, Peter S; Leung, Dominic Y C; Sibbritt, David; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Johnson, Kay; Krum, Henry; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-07-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation. This is a period of vulnerability both in altered pathophysiology and also the potential for iatrogenesis due to therapeutic interventions. Renal dysfunction is often associated with heart failure and portends adverse outcomes. Identifying heart failure patients at risk of renal dysfunction is important in preventing progression to chronic kidney disease or worsening renal function, informing adjustment to medication management and potentially preventing adverse events. However, there is no working or consensus definition in international heart failure management guidelines for worsening renal function. In addition, there appears to be no concordance or adaptation of chronic kidney disease guidelines by heart failure guideline development groups for the monitoring of chronic kidney disease in heart failure. Our aim is to encourage the debate for an agreed definition given the prognostic impact of worsening renal function in heart failure. We present the case for the uptake of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for acute kidney injury with some minor alterations. This has the potential to inform study design and meta-analysis thereby building the knowledgebase for guideline development. Definition consensus supports data element, clinical registry and electronic algorithm innovation as instruments for quality improvement and clinical research for better patient outcomes. In addition, we recommend all community managed heart failure patients have their baseline renal function classified and routinely monitored in accordance with established renal guidelines to help identify those at increased risk for worsening renal function or progression to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos R; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25-52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16-21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials, showing that functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) can restore voluntary reaching and/or grasping function, in people with stroke and traumatic SCI. Motivated by this success, we decided to examine changes in the upper limb function following FEST in a patient who suffered loss of hand function due to myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. The participant was a 61-year-old male who had C3-C7 posterior laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical myelopathy. The participant presented with progressive right hand weakness that resulted in his inability to voluntarily open and close the hand and to manipulate objects unilaterally with his right hand. The participant was enrolled in the study ~22 months following initial surgical intervention. Participant was assessed using Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The pre-post differences in scores on all measures clearly demonstrated improvement in voluntary hand function following 15 1-h FEST sessions. The changes observed were meaningful and have resulted in substantial improvement in performance of activities of daily living. These results provide preliminary evidence that FEST has a potential to improve upper limb function in patients with non-traumatic SCI, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis.

  11. Effect of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride Tablets adjuvant therapy on inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial function and myocardial function in patients with coronary heart disease complicated with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Wen Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride Tablets on inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial function and myocardial function in patients with coronary heart disease complicated with heart failure. Methods: A total of 98 patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure who met the criteria of the study were selected as the subjects, based on the random data table they were divided into the control group (n=49 and observation group (n=49, the patients in the control group were treated with Metoprolol Tartrate Sustained-release Tablets treatment, and the patients in the observation group were treated with Metoprolol Tartrate Sustained-release Tablets combined with Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride Tablets, the levels of inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial function and myocardial function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: The difference of the CRP, TNF-α, MDA, SOD, NO, ET-1, LVEF, LVEDD and LVESD levels in the two groups before treatment were not statistically significant; Compared with the levels of the two groups before treatment, the two groups of CRP, TNF-α, MDA, ET-1, LVEDD and LVESD levels after treatment were significantly decreased, and the level of the observation group after treatment was significantly lower than those levels in the control group, the difference was statistically significant; The levels of SOD, NO and LVEF of the two groups after treatment were significantly higher than those in the same group before treatment, and the observation group levels [(88.09±7.51 U/ ml, (72.58±14.64 mol/L, (48.34±5.09% ] were significantly higher than the control group [(79.44±7.27 U/ml, (61.89±11.06 mol/L, (44.19±4.58%], the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride Tablets in the treatment of coronary heart disease with heart failure can effectively inhibit the release

  12. Comparison between Fenugreek and Lovastatin in restoration of endothelial function in an experimental old rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Pipelzadeh MH

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum with that of lovastatin in restoration of endothelia function in the aorta taken form aged N-Mair rats. For this purpose, 4 groups of old N-Mari rats were used (n=6, normal saline treated control group, lovastatin (10 mg/kg, orally and fengreek seed powder in normal saline suspension (100 or 500 mg/kg were administered orally daily for 8 weeks. The rate of relaxation of ephedrine- precontracted aorta to acetycholine, the lipid profiles, and histological examinations of the aorta were compared between these two groups and with a control non-treated normal saline treated group. The results showed that treatment with lovastatin and fenugreek produced significant reduction in IDL, VLDL triglyceride and total cholesterol, while HDL was increased as compared to control non-treated group. Lovastatin induced an increase in contraction/mg tissue weight. However, improvement in endothelial function was significantly increased in all treatment groups. The histological findings showed significant reduction in thickness and lipid deposits in the aorta in all treatment groups. The improvement in the epithelial function was correlated with LDL-cholesterol lowering and partly with the reduction in the thickness of the aortic intimal layer. This study demonstrated that fenugreek is as effective as lovastatin in reducing the features associated with atherosclerosis.

  13. Cognitive Function Before and After Left Heart Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A; Evered, Lisbeth; Maruff, Paul; MacIsaac, Andrew; Maher, Sarah; Silbert, Brendan S

    2018-03-10

    Hospital procedures have been associated with cognitive change in older patients. This study aimed to document the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in individuals undergoing left heart catheterization (LHC) before the procedure and the incidence of cognitive decline to 3 months afterwards. We conducted a prospective, observational, clinical investigation of elderly participants undergoing elective LHC. Cognition was assessed using a battery of written tests and a computerized cognitive battery before the LHC and then at 3 months afterwards. The computerized tests were also administered at 24 hours (or discharge) and 7 days after LHC. A control group of 51 community participants was recruited to calculate cognitive decline using the Reliable Change Index. Of 437 participants, mild cognitive impairment was identified in 226 (51.7%) before the procedure. Computerized tests detected an incidence of cognitive decline of 10.0% at 24 hours and 7.5% at 7 days. At 3 months, written tests detected an incidence of cognitive decline of 13.1% and computerized tests detected an incidence of 8.5%. Cognitive decline at 3 months using written tests was associated with increasing age, whereas computerized tests showed cognitive decline was associated with baseline amnestic mild cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and prior coronary stenting. More than half the patients aged >60 years presenting for LHC have mild cognitive impairment. LHC is followed by cognitive decline in 8% to 13% of individuals at 3 months after the procedure. Subtle cognitive decline both before and after LHC is common and may have important clinical implications. URL: www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12607000051448. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  15. The study on the immunity restoring function of cWPROL in treating experimental radiation esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Shan Baoen; Zhang Li; Lu Fuhe; Guo Xiujuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the restorative function of compound white peony root oral liquids (cWPROL) in treating rats' experimental acute radiation-induced esophagitis from the aspect of immunodeficiency. Methods: 128 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. The radiation esophagitis was induced by 43 Gy 60 Co. Then the rats were treated with medicine in different ways. On every experimental point the absolute number and percentage of T lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The changes of the leukocyte in number and differential count were detected by haemocyte counting instrument. IgG and C3 in rats' serum were analyzed by immunological turbidimetry. Results: Radiation brought on decrease of experimental rats 'leukocyte count, the lymphocyte differential count, absolute count and absolute T lymphocyte subsets in the blood and the content of IgG and C3 with radiation esophagitis. cWPROL could increase the lymphocyte percentage compared that in with the radiated group 2. The preventive (high dose) could increase lymphocyte count while Western medicine decreased rats' leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and absolute count (P<0.05). The absolute T lymphocyte subsets in rats' peripheral blood increased in the group infused with cWPROL (high dose) (P<0.001). Compared with the radiated group 2 the absolute T lymphocyte subsets decreased significantly(P<0.001), and the content of complement C3 increased in the group infused with cWPROL (high dose) (P<0.05) but decreased in the group infused with Western medicine (P<0.01). Conclusion: cWPROL plays the role of restoring the cytoimmunity and immunity damaged by radiation in rats with radiation esophagitis. (authors)

  16. Changes of Heart Structure and Function in Terms of Insulin Resistance at Thyrotoxicosis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the findings of the study on the effect of increased thyroid function on the background of insulin resistance on the performance of the structure and function of the heart. It has been found that in increased thyroid function, main nosological form of myocardial damage in patients without concomitant cardiovascular disease is the development of metabolic endocrine cardiomyopathy. Feature of heart disorder in thyrotoxicosis syndrome is an absence of cardosclerotic, myocarditic and ischemic processes. Features of clinical, instrumental and laboratory changes in patients with elevated thyroid function are subjective manifestation, trend towards the development of systolic hypertension, expressed hypolipidemia, tendency to hyperglycemia. Manifestations of electrical dysfunction of the myocardium in hyperthyroidism are increased heart rate, expressed trend towards increase of arrhythmogenesis (mainly ventricular type, disturbance of ventricular repolarization and the prevalence of electrical inhomogeneity of the myocardium of both atria and ventricles. Morphofunctional changes of the heart in thyrotoxicosis syndrome manifest by increase in the size of its cavities, left ventricular mass, rapid relaxation of the latter. Heart disease in thyrotoxicosis is characterized by an increase in the duration and dispersion of QTc interval, which indicates a violation of myocardial repolarization, and increase in its electrical inhomogeneity, which can be a predictor of the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Changes in cardiac function at thyrotoxicosis in male patients are characterized by greater severity of electrophysiological and morphofunctional changes in the myocardium compared to female patients.

  17. Soil functional diversity analysis of a bauxite-mined restoration chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawn E; White, John R; Wafula, Denis; Athar, Rana; Dickerson, Tamar; Williams, Henry N; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2010-05-01

    Soil microorganisms are sensitive to environmental perturbations such that changes in microbial community structure and function can provide early signs of anthropogenic disturbances and even predict restoration success. We evaluated the bacterial functional diversity of un-mined and three chronosequence sites at various stages of rehabilitation (0, 10, and 20 years old) located in the Mocho Mountains of Jamaica. Samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons and analyzed for metal concentrations, microbial biomass carbon, bacterial numbers, and functional responses of soil microbiota using community-level physiological profile (CLPP) assays. Regardless of the season, un-mined soils consisted of higher microbial biomass and numbers than any of the rehabilitated sites. Additionally, the number and rate of substrates utilized and substrate evenness (the distribution of color development between the substrates) were significantly greater in the un-mined soils with carbohydrates being preferentially utilized than amino acids, polymers, carboxylic acids, and esters. To some extent, functional responses varied with the seasons but the least physiological activity was shown by the site rehabilitated in 1987 indicating long-term perturbation to this ecosystem. Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSUrDNA)-denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis analyses on the microbiota collected from the most preferred CLPP substrates followed by taxonomic analyses showed Proteobacteria, specifically the gamma-proteobacteria, as the most functionally active phyla, indicating a propensity of this phyla to out-compete other groups under the prevailing conditions. Additionally, multivariate statistical analyses, Shannon's diversity, and evenness indices, principal component analysis, biplot and un-weighted-pair-group method with arithmetic averages dendrograms further confirmed that un-mined sites were distinctly different from the rehabilitated soils.

  18. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  19. Nuclear medical determination of left ventricular diastolic function in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.; Laesser, W.K.; Kullich, W.; Stoiberer, I.; Klein, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 64 patients with coronary heart disease, the left ventricular diastolic function was determined by means of a new nuclear medical method (nuclear stethoscope). The investigations revealed an abnormal diastolic filling in 85.9% of the cases on the basis of the parameters peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate as manifestation of a disturbed ventricular function

  20. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  1. NS5806 partially restores action potential duration but fails to ameliorate calcium transient dysfunction in a computational model of canine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleckar, Mary M; Lines, Glenn T; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Calloe, Kirstine

    2014-11-01

    The study investigates how increased Ito, as mediated by the activator NS5806, affects excitation-contraction coupling in chronic heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that restoring spike-and-dome morphology of the action potential (AP) to a healthy phenotype would be insufficient to restore the intracellular Ca(2) (+) transient (CaT), due to HF-induced remodelling of Ca(2+) handling. An existing mathematical model of the canine ventricular myocyte was modified to incorporate recent experimental data from healthy and failing myocytes, resulting in models of both healthy and HF epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial cell variants. Affects of NS5806 were also included in HF models through its direct interaction with Kv4.3 and Kv1.4. Single-cell simulations performed in all models (control, HF, and HF + drug) and variants (epi, mid, and endo) assessed AP morphology and underlying ionic processes with a focus on calcium transients (CaT), how these were altered in HF across the ventricular wall, and the subsequent effects of varying compound concentration in HF. Heart failure model variants recapitulated a characteristic increase in AP duration (APD) in the disease. The qualitative effects of application of half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of NS5806 on APs and CaT are heterogeneous and non-linear. Deepening in the AP notch with drug is a direct effect of the activation of Ito; both Ito and consequent alteration of IK1 kinetics cause decrease in AP plateau potential. Decreased APD50 and APD90 are both due to altered IK1. Analysis revealed that drug effects depend on transmurality. Ca(2+) transient morphology changes-increased amplitude and shorter time to peak-are due to direct increase in ICa,L and indirect larger SR Ca(2+) release subsequent to Ito activation. Downstream effects of a compound acting exclusively on sarcolemmal ion channels are difficult to predict. Remediation of APD to pre-failing state does not ameliorate dysfunction in CaT; however

  2. Spot light on skeletal muscles: optogenetic stimulation to understand and restore skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bremen, Tobias; Send, Thorsten; Sasse, Philipp; Bruegmann, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential. Herein we summarize the current knowledge about the use of this technology to control skeletal muscle function with the focus on the direct, non-neuronal stimulation of muscle fibers. The high temporal flexibility of using light pulses allows new stimulation patterns to investigate skeletal muscle physiology. Furthermore, the high spatial precision of focused illumination was shown to be beneficial for selective stimulation of distinct nearby muscle groups. Finally, the cell-type specific expression of the light-sensitive effector proteins in muscle fibers will allow pain-free stimulation and open new options for clinical treatments. Therefore, we believe that direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscles is a very potent method for basic scientists that also harbors several distinct advantages over electrical stimulation to be considered for clinical use in the future.

  3. Ovarian transfer following irradiation as an alternative to restore reproductive functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Ginemes, Ana Paula; Dias, Viviane Liotti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Multidisciplinar para a Investigacao Biologica (CEMIB/UNICAMP)], e-mail: viviliotti@cemib.unicamp.br; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for restoring reproductive functions, especially in ovary cancer cases, which besides impairing fertility; present the highest lethality amongst gynecological diseases. Classical treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and in young women, the recommended treatment is the removal of the affected ovary, leading to physical, psychological and emotional problems. An alternative would be the ovarian transfer after the treatment. However, there are no data in the literature about experiments specifically designed to investigate the interference of this procedure on reproductive functions. In the present work, we used the C57BL/6Unib and B6CF1 hybrid mice strains to evaluate the viability of ovarian transfer before and after irradiation, as well as possible differences in radiosensitivity between the strains. To do so, female mice from both strains were irradiated with 4 Gy and submitted to either partial or total ovarian transfer form healthy donors. After the surgery, the animals were mated and the results obtained so far for mating 7 days after the procedure indicate that irradiation promoted a significant decrease in fertility (p=0.0127). Also, our data show that the recovery of fertility is proportional to the amount of grafted ovarian tissue. Furthermore, there seems to be differences in radiosensitivity, from genetic origin, between the two mice strain, since, after irradiation, the hybrid mice had bigger litters than the donor strain. (author)

  4. Ovarian transfer following irradiation as an alternative to restore reproductive functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Ginemes, Ana Paula; Dias, Viviane Liotti; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for restoring reproductive functions, especially in ovary cancer cases, which besides impairing fertility; present the highest lethality amongst gynecological diseases. Classical treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and in young women, the recommended treatment is the removal of the affected ovary, leading to physical, psychological and emotional problems. An alternative would be the ovarian transfer after the treatment. However, there are no data in the literature about experiments specifically designed to investigate the interference of this procedure on reproductive functions. In the present work, we used the C57BL/6Unib and B6CF1 hybrid mice strains to evaluate the viability of ovarian transfer before and after irradiation, as well as possible differences in radiosensitivity between the strains. To do so, female mice from both strains were irradiated with 4 Gy and submitted to either partial or total ovarian transfer form healthy donors. After the surgery, the animals were mated and the results obtained so far for mating 7 days after the procedure indicate that irradiation promoted a significant decrease in fertility (p=0.0127). Also, our data show that the recovery of fertility is proportional to the amount of grafted ovarian tissue. Furthermore, there seems to be differences in radiosensitivity, from genetic origin, between the two mice strain, since, after irradiation, the hybrid mice had bigger litters than the donor strain. (author)

  5. Posterior composite restoration update: focus on factors influencing form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohaty BS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brenda S Bohaty,1,2 Qiang Ye,3 Anil Misra,3,4 Fabio Sene,6 Paulette Spencer3,51Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA; 3Bioengineering Research Center, 4Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, State University of Londrina, School of Dentistry, Londrina, BrazilAbstract: Restoring posterior teeth with resin-based composite materials continues to gain popularity among clinicians, and the demand for such aesthetic restorations is increasing. Indeed, the most common aesthetic alternative to dental amalgam is resin composite. Moderate to large posterior composite restorations, however, have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement. Investigators across the globe are researching new materials and techniques that will improve the clinical performance, handling characteristics, and mechanical and physical properties of composite resin restorative materials. Despite such attention, large to moderate posterior composite restorations continue to have a clinical lifetime that is approximately one-half that of the dental amalgam. While there are numerous recommendations regarding preparation design, restoration placement, and polymerization technique, current research indicates that restoration longevity depends on several variables that may be difficult for the dentist to control. These variables include the patient's caries risk, tooth position, patient habits, number of restored surfaces, the quality of the tooth–restoration bond, and the ability of the restorative material to produce a sealed tooth–restoration interface. Although clinicians tend to focus on tooth form when evaluating the success and failure of

  6. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J

    2015-01-01

    variability was defined as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN). Functional status in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living was measured using Barthel and Lawton scales, at baseline and during follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 75...

  7. Ultrasound functional imaging in an ex vivo beating porcine heart platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Niels J.; Fixsen, Louis S.; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; Pijls, Nico H. J.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, novel ultrasound functional imaging (UFI) techniques have been introduced to assess cardiac function by measuring, e.g. cardiac output (CO) and/or myocardial strain. Verification and reproducibility assessment in a realistic setting remain major issues. Simulations and phantoms are often unrealistic, whereas in vivo measurements often lack crucial hemodynamic parameters or ground truth data, or suffer from the large physiological and clinical variation between patients when attempting clinical validation. Controlled validation in certain pathologies is cumbersome and often requires the use of lab animals. In this study, an isolated beating pig heart setup was adapted and used for performance assessment of UFI techniques such as volume assessment and ultrasound strain imaging. The potential of performing verification and reproducibility studies was demonstrated. For proof-of-principle, validation of UFI in pathological hearts was examined. Ex vivo porcine hearts (n  =  6, slaughterhouse waste) were resuscitated and attached to a mock circulatory system. Radio frequency ultrasound data of the left ventricle were acquired in five short axis views and one long axis view. Based on these slices, the CO was measured, where verification was performed using flow sensor measurements in the aorta. Strain imaging was performed providing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain to assess reproducibility and inter-subject variability under steady conditions. Finally, strains in healthy hearts were compared to a heart with an implanted left ventricular assist device, simulating a failing, supported heart. Good agreement between ultrasound and flow sensor based CO measurements was found. Strains were highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficients  >0.8). Differences were found due to biological variation and condition of the hearts. Strain magnitude and patterns in the assisted heart were available for different pump action, revealing

  8. Prognostic value of worsening renal function in outpatients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo; Couto, Marta; Laszczyńska, Olga; Friões, Fernando; Bettencourt, Paulo; Azevedo, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Renal function impairment predicts poor survival in heart failure. Attention has recently shifted to worsening renal function, based mostly on serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. We assessed the prognostic effect of worsening renal function in ambulatory heart failure patients. Data from 306 ambulatory patients were abstracted from medical files. Worsening renal function was based on the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine and urea within 6 months of referral. Prognosis was assessed by the composite endpoint all-cause death or heart failure hospitalization, censored at 2 years. Hazard ratios were estimated for worsening renal function, adjusted for sex, age, diabetes, New York Heart Association class, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, medications and baseline renal function. The agreement among definitions was fair, with kappa coefficients generally not surpassing 0.5. Worsening renal function was associated with poor outcome with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.2 (1.8-5.9) for an increase of serum creatinine >0.3mg/dl; 2.2 (1.3-3.7) for an increase in serum urea >20mg/dl and 1.9 (1.1-3.3) for a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate >20%, independent of baseline renal function. The 2-year risk of death/heart failure hospitalization was approximately 50% in patients with an increase in serum creatinine or in serum urea; this positive predictive value was higher than for decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, worsening renal function was significantly associated with a worse outcome. Different definitions identified different patients at risk and increasing creatinine/urea performed better than decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Renal function monitoring in heart failure - what is the optimal frequency? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naher, Ahmed; Wright, David; Devonald, Mark Alexander John; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2018-01-01

    The second most common cause of hospitalization due to adverse drug reactions in the UK is renal dysfunction due to diuretics, particularly in patients with heart failure, where diuretic therapy is a mainstay of treatment regimens. Therefore, the optimal frequency for monitoring renal function in these patients is an important consideration for preventing renal failure and hospitalization. This review looks at the current evidence for optimal monitoring practices of renal function in patients with heart failure according to national and international guidelines on the management of heart failure (AHA/NICE/ESC/SIGN). Current guidance of renal function monitoring is in large part based on expert opinion, with a lack of clinical studies that have specifically evaluated the optimal frequency of renal function monitoring in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, there is variability between guidelines, and recommendations are typically nonspecific. Safer prescribing of diuretics in combination with other antiheart failure treatments requires better evidence for frequency of renal function monitoring. We suggest developing more personalized monitoring rather than from the current medication-based guidance. Such flexible clinical guidelines could be implemented using intelligent clinical decision support systems. Personalized renal function monitoring would be more effective in preventing renal decline, rather than reacting to it. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  11. Functional outcome of nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder and elbow function in upper brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruquee Sajedur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer (XI-SSN done for restoration of shoulder function and partial transfer of ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps muscle for the recovery of elbow flexion (Oberlin transfer. Methods This is a prospective study involving 15 consecutive cases of upper plexus injury seen between January 2004 and December 2005. The average age of patients was 35.6 yrs (15–52 yrs. The injury-surgery interval was between 2–6 months. All underwent XI-SSN and Oberlin nerve transfer. The coaptation was done close to the biceps muscle to ensure early recovery. The average follow up was 15 months (range 12–36 months. The functional outcome was assessed by measuring range of movements and also on the grading scale proposed by Narakas for shoulder function and Waikakul for elbow function. Results Good/Excellent results were seen in 13/15 patients with respect to elbow function and 8/15 for shoulder function. The time required for the first sign of clinical reinnervation of biceps was 3 months 9 days (range 1 month 25 days to 4 months and for the recovery of antigravity elbow flexion was 5 months (range 3 1/2 months to 8 months. 13 had M4 and two M3 power. On evaluating shoulder function 8/15 regained active abduction, five had M3 and three M4 shoulder abduction. The average range of abduction in these eight patients was 66 degrees (range 45–90. Eight had recovered active external rotation, average 44 degrees (range 15–95. The motor recovery of external rotation was M3 in 5 and M4 in 3. 7/15 had no active abduction/external rotation, but they felt that their shoulder was more stable. Comparable results were observed in both below and above 40 age groups and those with injury to surgery interval less than 3 or 3–6 months. Conclusion Transfer of ulnar nerve fascicle to the motor branch of biceps close to the muscle consistently

  12. Obesity suppresses circulating level and function of endothelial progenitor cells and heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tzu-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim This study tested the hypothesis that obesity suppresses circulating number as well as the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods High fat diet (45 Kcal% fat was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice (n = 8 for 20 weeks to induce obesity (group 1. Another age-matched group (n = 8 were fed with control diet for 20 weeks as controls (group 2. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks after obesity induction. Results By the end of study period, the heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all p Conclusions Obesity diminished circulating EPC level, impaired the recovery of damaged endothelium, suppressed EPC angiogenesis ability and LVEF, and increased LV remodeling.

  13. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate restore bone repair in diabetic rat sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, M A; Andrade, V B; Mendes, R M; Caliari, M V; Ladeira, L O; Silva, E E; Silva, G A B; Corrêa-Júnior, J D; Ferreira, A J

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with HY (HY-CNT) on bone repair in the tooth sockets of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg kg(-1) i.v.), and the sockets were divided into normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with HY (1%), and diabetic treated with HY-CNT (100 μg ml(-1)) groups. The sockets were analyzed according to the percentage of bone formation and the number of cell nuclei. The percentage of bone trabeculae was lower in diabetic control animals (11.16 ± 5.10% vs 41.92 ± 6.34% in normal animals) after 14 days. Treating diabetic animals with HY or HY-CNT significantly increased the percentage of neoformed trabeculae (HY: 29.43 ± 3.29%; HY-CNT: 36.90 ± 3.07%). Moreover, the sockets of diabetic animals had an increased number of cell nuclei and HY or HY-CNT reduced this parameter. Our results indicate that HY and HY-CNT restore bone repair in the tooth sockets of diabetic rats, suggesting that these biomaterials are potential adjuvant therapies for the management of diabetes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular Dynamic Simulation Insights into the Normal State and Restoration of p53 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As a tumor suppressor protein, p53 plays a crucial role in the cell cycle and in cancer prevention. Almost 50 percent of all human malignant tumors are closely related to a deletion or mutation in p53. The activity of p53 is inhibited by over-active celluar antagonists, especially by the over-expression of the negative regulators MDM2 and MDMX. Protein-protein interactions, or post-translational modifications of the C-terminal negative regulatory domain of p53, also regulate its tumor suppressor activity. Restoration of p53 function through peptide and small molecular inhibitors has become a promising strategy for novel anti-cancer drug design and development. Molecular dynamics simulations have been extensively applied to investigate the conformation changes of p53 induced by protein-protein interactions and protein-ligand interactions, including peptide and small molecular inhibitors. This review focuses on the latest MD simulation research, to provide an overview of the current understanding of interactions between p53 and its partners at an atomic level.

  15. Restoration of bladder function in spastic neuropathic bladder using sacral deafferentation and different techniques of neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S; Bross, S; Scheepe, J R; Alken, P; Jünemann, K P

    1999-01-01

    Conventional sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) results in simultaneous activation of both the detrusor muscle and the external urethral sphincter. We evaluated the possibilities of different neurostimulation techniques to overcome stimulation induced detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and to achieve a physiological voiding. The literature was reviewed on different techniques of sacral anterior root stimulation of the bladder and the significance of posterior rhizotomy in patients with supraconal spinal cord injury suffering from the loss of voluntary bladder control, detrusor hyperreflexia and sphincter spasm. The achievement of selective detrusor activation would improve current sacral neurostimulation of the bladder, including the principle of "poststimulus voiding". This is possible with the application of selective neurostimulation in techniques of anodal block, high frequency block, depolarizing prepulses and cold block. Nowadays, sacral deafferentation is a standard therapy in combination with neurostimulation of the bladder because in conclusion advantages of complete rhizotomy predominate. The combination of sacral anterior root stimulation and sacral deafferentation is a successful procedure for restoration of bladder function in patients with supraconal spinal cord injury. Anodal block technique and cryotechnique are excellent methods for selective bladder activation to avoid detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and thus improve stimulation induced voiding.

  16. Relationship of hemoglobin and hematocrit to systolic function in advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglin, Maya; Darbinyan, Nellie

    2012-01-01

    The dataset from the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial provides a rare opportunity to evaluate the whole spectrum of associations of hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) in heart failure (HF). In that trial, subjective and objective data were recorded at multiple time points when HB and HCT were also measured. We investigated the relationship between anemia and ventricular systolic function. A limited access dataset from the ESCAPE trial, provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, was analyzed. Linear regression analysis, correlation coefficients and Student's t test were utilized. Besides the known association of anemia with poor prognosis, more severe symptoms, decreased functional capacity and impaired kidney function, we found a significant and very consistent inverse correlation between HB and HCT and ventricular contractility. Both left ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular fractional area change improved with a decrease in HB and vice versa. We hypothesize that this effect can result from a change in viscosity, which decreases with a decrease in HCT, and may facilitate adaptation of the heart to a volume overload state accompanied by hemodilution. In HF, anemia is associated with poor prognosis and functional impairment, but also with mildly improved systolic function. It may represent an adaptive reaction to congestion. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Radiation-induced changes in the ultrastructure and mechanical function of the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilliers, G.D.; Lochner, A.

    1989-01-01

    A time sequence study was performed to study the early effects of radiation on the ultrastructure of the rat heart. Wistar rats were exposed to 20 Gy electron irradiation to a field including the heart and a third of the lung. The hearts were excised at varying time intervals (1 h-180 days), and the ultrastructure of perfusion-fixed subepicardium and subendocardium studied. Changes were observed in both myocytes and interstitium at all time intervals. The most pronounced change observed in the myocyte was that of intercalated disc damage which reached a peak at 30 days post-irradiation. Mitochondrial damage, characterized by swelling and fenstration in areas of myofibrillar contracture, was focal and relatively scarce. Swelling of the capillary endothelial cells and ollapse of the capillaries were marked up to 60 days. Of significance was the observation that the damage to both myocytes and interstitium receded after 60 days and the hearts exhibited an almost normal ultrastructure from 100 to 180 days post-irradiation. Mechanical function of these hearts followed a similar pattern: maximal depression was observed 60 days after irradiation. Thereafter the work performance of these hearts improved significantly, almost reaching control level after 180 days. (author). 34 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  18. [Experts consensus on the management of the right heart function in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T; Liu, D W; Zhang, H M; Long, Y; Guan, X D; Qiu, H B; Yu, K J; Yan, J; Zhao, H; Tang, Y Q; Ding, X; Ma, X C; Du, W; Kang, Y; Tang, B; Ai, Y H; He, H W; Chen, D C; Chen, H; Chai, W Z; Zhou, X; Cui, N; Wang, H; Rui, X; Hu, Z J; Li, J G; Xu, Y; Yang, Y; Ouyan, B; Lin, H Y; Li, Y M; Wan, X Y; Yang, R L; Qin, Y Z; Chao, Y G; Xie, Z Y; Sun, R H; He, Z Y; Wang, D F; Huang, Q Q; Jiang, D P; Cao, X Y; Yu, R G; Wang, X; Chen, X K; Wu, J F; Zhang, L N; Yin, M G; Liu, L X; Li, S W; Chen, Z J; Luo, Z

    2017-12-01

    To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle. (2) Right heart function management is a key step of the hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients. (3) Fluid resuscitation means the process of fluid therapy through rapid adjustment of intravascular volume aiming to improve tissue perfusion. Reversed fluid resuscitation means reducing volume. (4) The right ventricle afterload should be taken into consideration when using stroke volume variation (SVV) or pulse pressure variation (PPV) to assess fluid responsiveness.(5)Volume overload alone could lead to septal displacement and damage the diastolic function of the left ventricle. (6) The Starling curve of the right ventricle is not the same as the one applied to the left ventricle,the judgement of the different states for the right ventricle is the key of volume management. (7) The alteration of right heart function has its own characteristics, volume assessment and adjustment is an important part of the treatment of right ventricular dysfunction (8) Right ventricular enlargement is the prerequisite for increased cardiac output during reversed fluid resuscitation; Nonetheless, right heart enlargement does not mandate reversed fluid resuscitation.(9)Increased pulmonary vascular resistance induced by a variety of factors could affect right heart function by obstructing the blood flow. (10) When pulmonary hypertension was detected in clinical scenario, the differentiation of

  19. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  20. /sup 201/Thallium scintimetry of the heart as a new method for functional assessment in coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, U; Strauer, B E; Hast, B; Niendorf, H P [Muenchen Univ. (F.R. Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Muenchen Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Medizinische Klinik)

    1976-05-01

    /sup 201/Tl scintimetry of the heart was used for a statistical comparison between normal people (10 individuals) and those with acute anterior wall infarcts (5 patients), anterior wall hypokinesia (5 patients) and dyskinesia (8 patients). Numerical results were obtained by a computer and depended on the relative /sup 201/Tl storage in the left ventricular myocardium (64 mm/sup 2/ area) related to mediastinal background uptake. It was found that maximal myocardial uptake, compared with mediastinal activity (about 290%) did not differ between normals and patients with coronary heart disease. Aneurysms of the anterior ventricular wall showed a reduction (with the ventricle perpendicular to the collimator) of 45.8%; in hypokinesia and acute myocardial infarcts, it was 64.2% and 64.6% respectively (normal 82.6%). /sup 201/Tl uptake in aneurysms (42.4%) approached background activity (36%) if a projection parallel to the collimator was used. /sup 201/Tl scintimetry provides a means of defining function ability of the myocardium (depending on myocardial perfusion and mass). Aneurysms and hypokinetic portions of the myocardium can be differentiated statistically from normal /sup 201/Tl uptake.

  1. Endothelial Function as a Possible Significant Determinant of Cardiac Function during Exercise in Patients with Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonpei Takase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated the role that endothelial function and systemic vascular resistance (SVR play in determining cardiac function reserve during exercise by a new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (VEST in patients with heart disease. The study population consisted of 32 patients. The patients had cardiopulmonary stress testing using the treadmill Ramp protocol and the VEST. The anaerobic threshold (AT was autodetermined using the V-slope method. The SVR was calculated by determining the mean blood pressure/cardiac output. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD was measured in the brachial artery to evaluate endotheilial function. FMD and the percent change f'rom rest to AT in SVR correlated with those from rest to AT in ejection fraction and peak ejection ratio by VEST, respectively. Our findings suggest that FMD in the brachial artery and the SVR determined by VEST in patients with heart disease can possibly reflect cardiac function reserve during aerobic exercise.

  2. The impact of joint line restoration on functional results after hinged knee prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: RHKA is an effective salvage procedure for serious instability and large bone defects. Restoration of the joint line improves the patellar score although it had no effect on the clinical outcome.

  3. Expression, regulation and putative nutrient-sensing function of taste GPCRs in the heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R Foster

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are critical for cardiovascular physiology. Cardiac cells express >100 nonchemosensory GPCRs, indicating that important physiological and potential therapeutic targets remain to be discovered. Moreover, there is a growing appreciation that members of the large, distinct taste and odorant GPCR families have specific functions in tissues beyond the oronasal cavity, including in the brain, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. To date, these chemosensory GPCRs have not been systematically studied in the heart. We performed RT-qPCR taste receptor screens in rodent and human heart tissues that revealed discrete subsets of type 2 taste receptors (TAS2/Tas2 as well as Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 (comprising the umami receptor are expressed. These taste GPCRs are present in cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and by in situ hybridization can be visualized across the myocardium in isolated cardiac cells. Tas1r1 gene-targeted mice (Tas1r1(Cre/Rosa26(tdRFP strikingly recapitulated these data. In vivo taste receptor expression levels were developmentally regulated in the postnatal period. Intriguingly, several Tas2rs were upregulated in cultured rat myocytes and in mouse heart in vivo following starvation. The discovery of taste GPCRs in the heart opens an exciting new field of cardiac research. We predict that these taste receptors may function as nutrient sensors in the heart.

  4. [Improvement in functional capacity after levothyroxine treatment in patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto Grasiosi, Jorge; Peressotti, Bruno; Machado, Rogelio A; Filipini, Eduardo C; Angel, Adriana; Delgado, Jorge; Cortez Quiroga, Gustavo A; Rus Mansilla, Carmen; Martínez Quesada, María del Mar; Degregorio, Alejandro; Cordero, Diego J; Dak, Marcelo; Izurieta, Carlos; Esper, Ricardo J

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether levothyroxine treatment improves functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class i-iii) and subclinical hypothyroidism. One hundred and sixty-three outpatients with stable chronic heart failure followed up for at least 6 months were enrolled. A physical examination was performed, and laboratory tests including thyroid hormone levels, Doppler echocardiogram, radionuclide ventriculography, and Holter monitoring were requested. Functional capacity was assessed by of the 6-min walk test. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected and, after undergoing the s6-min walk test, were given replacement therapy. When they reached normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels, the 6-min walk test was performed again. The distance walked in both tests was recorded, and the difference in meters covered by each patient was analyzed. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure was 13%. These patients walked 292±63m while they were hypothyroid and 350±76m when TSH levels returned to normal, a difference of 58±11m (P<.011). Patients with normal baseline TSH levels showed no significant difference between the 2 6-min walk tests. Patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism significantly improved their physical performance when normal TSH levels were reached. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of mibefradil on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, HJ; vanderVring, JAFM; Niemeyer, MG; vandenBerg, F; Knol, HR; Bernink, PJLM; vanderWall, EE; Blanksma, PK; Lie, KI

    Calcium antagonists have antihypertensive and antianginal properties. In heart failure, however, their use can be hazardous, as systolic function can deteriorate. This may nor be true of the new calcium antagonist mibefradil, which has a new chemical structure. Calcium antagonists may also be

  6. Prognostic importance of renal function in patients with early heart failure and mild left ventricular dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Tom; Hillege, Hans; Voors, Adriaan; Dunselman, P.H.J.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic value of renal function in an initially “untreated” population with mild heart failure and compared the prognosis of this population with a matched controlled population. During a follow-up of 13 years (mean 11.7), 90 patients (56%) died. Mortality was higher compared

  7. "CONGENTIAL PANHYPOPITUITARISM ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED LIVER FUNCTION TESTS AND CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khalili-Matinzadeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term congenital hypopituitarism defines deficiency of all of the pituitary hormones. Hypoglycemia and microphallus (in males are common findings, and some infants have shown evidence of the neonatal hepatitis syndrome. We report a case of congenital panhypopituitarism with deficiency of six major hormones and association with severe hypoglycemia, impaired liver function tests and congenital heart disease.

  8. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  9. The Framingham Risk Function Underestimated Absolute Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Czech Men

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reissigová, Jindra; Zvárová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 43-49 ISSN 0026-1270 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : external validation * Framingham risk function * coronary heart disease Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.451, year: 2007

  10. Restoring Madness to History in J.M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the curious dismissal of madness from the critical landscape surrounding J. M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country, and makes suggestions concerning how madness works in the novel and why—given certain critical and historical pressures—it has been persistently sidelined. An analysis of the novel in light of Coetzee’s scholarship on Samuel Beckett suggests that Magda’s discourse, like those of many Beckettian narrators, follows patterns of affirmation and auto-negation, constituting a fiction of what Coetzee calls “net zero.” In particular, Magda extends this pattern to the taking on and casting off of identities, perhaps in the style of the hermit crab she puts forward as an image of herself. An intertextual examination of the semantic and rhetorical range of madness as it appears in Coetzee’s other fiction and scholarship reveals that madness, for Coetzee, consistently denotes: on the one hand, a contagious force moving throughout a social body, and on the other hand, the labor of writing under the threat of illegibility—a threat conditioned in large part by the madness of the social body. By infecting the writer who might record its workings in history and thereby inhibiting or distorting that record, madness likewise appears in historical record as “net zero.” Thus, rather than simply being mad, Magda’s relationship with madness is emblematic of the (disappearance of madness in and from history.

  11. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  12. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    In the last 50 years conventional treatments have not been able to slow down the expanding chronic low back pain problem. However, nowadays health care has changed according to a broad biopsychosocial model of health, the positive effect of activity on health and healing, emphasis on function rather than pain or impairment, and reliance upon clinical evidence. In search for new solutions "functional restoration" (FR) programs have been developed. They include multidisciplinary treatment of patients in groups, consisting of 6-8 h of treatment a day, lasting 3 to 6 weeks and usually integrating intense physical and ergonomic training, psychological (behavioral) therapy, patient education, and instruction in social- and work-related issues. FR programs have yet to demonstrate their effectiveness in several countries. Controlled studies in the USA were very positive regarding the return-to-work rate, whereas studies in Scandinavian countries did not demonstrate similar results. Possible reasons for the different results concerning back-to-work ratios might be that study design, patient population, content of the program, and other external factors are different and studies as well as effects are therefore not directly comparable. According to several well-controlled studies, the most probable reason for this different effect may be that social and security (health care) systems and cultures differ among countries and that patients with chronic low back pain respond differently to this combination. Sick absenteeism and inability to work may be influenced by many factors besides pain that cannot be addressed by intervention or prevention programs, e.g., job satisfaction, education level, and the compensation systems. It may be that the lower economic benefit during sick leave in the United States leads to favorable results from functional restoration programs. Concerning the prediction of success, several studies have shown that medical background, diagnosis and physical

  13. Improvement of Myocardial Function Following Catheter-Based Renal Denervation in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yan Liao, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Renal denervation (RD is a potential novel nonpharmacological therapy for heart failure (HF. We performed bilateral catheter-based RD in 10 adult pigs and compared them with 10 control subjects after induction of HF to investigate the long-term beneficial effects of RD on left ventricular (LV function and regional norepinephrine gradient after conventional HF pharmacological therapy. Compared with control subjects, animals treated with RD demonstrated an improvement in LV function and reduction of norepinephrine gradients over the myocardium and kidney at 10-week follow-up. Our results demonstrated that effective bilateral RD decrease regional norepinephrine gradients and improve LV contractile function compared with medical therapy alone. Key Words: heart failure, left ventricular function, norepinephrine, renal denervation

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; York, Sam; Natov, Peter S; Paruchuri, Vikram; Zhang, Yali; Aronovitz, Mark J; Karas, Richard H; Kapur, Navin K

    2018-02-27

    Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity. Methods -We examined BMP9 expression and signaling in human cardiac fibroblasts and human subjects with heart failure. We utilized the thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) induced model of heart failure to evaluate the functional effect of BMP9 signaling on cardiac remodeling. Results -BMP9 expression is increased in the circulation and left ventricle (LV) of human subjects with heart failure and is expressed by cardiac fibroblasts. Next, we observed that BMP9 attenuates Type I collagen synthesis in human cardiac fibroblasts using recombinant human BMP9 and an siRNA approach. In BMP9 -/- mice subjected to TAC, loss of BMP9 activity promotes cardiac fibrosis, impairs LV function, and increases LV levels of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3), not pSmad1. In contrast, treatment of wild-type mice subjected to TAC with recombinant BMP9 limits progression of cardiac fibrosis, improves LV function, enhances myocardial capillary density, and increases LV levels of pSmad1, not pSmad3 compared to vehicle treated controls. Since endoglin binds BMP9 with high affinity, we explored the effect of reduced endoglin activity on BMP9 activity. Neutralizing endoglin activity in human cardiac fibroblasts or in wild-type mice subjected to TAC induced heart failure limits collagen production, increases BMP9 protein levels, and increases

  15. Platelet transfusions reduce fibrinolysis but do not restore platelet function during trauma hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Paul; Gillespie, Scarlett; Gall, Lewis S; Green, Laura; Brohi, Karim; Davenport, Ross A

    2017-09-01

    Platelets play a critical role in hemostasis with aberrant function implicated in trauma-induced coagulopathy. However, the impact of massive transfusion protocols on platelet function during trauma hemorrhage is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of platelet transfusion on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic markers during hemostatic resuscitation. Trauma patients enrolled into the prospective Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma study between January 2008 and November 2015 who received at least four units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were included. Blood was drawn in the emergency department within 2 hours of injury and at intervals after every four units of PRBCs transfused. Platelet aggregation was assessed in whole blood with multiple electrode aggregometry. Plasma proteins were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 161 patients who received four or more PRBCs as part of their initial resuscitation, 44 received 8 to 11 units and 28 received 12 units or more. At each timepoint during bleeding, platelet aggregation was similar in patients who had received a platelet transfusion compared with those who had only received other blood products (p > 0.05 for all timepoints). Platelet transfusion during the four PRBC intervals was associated with a decrease in maximum lysis on rotational thromboelastometry (start of interval, 6% [2-12] vs. end of interval, 2% [0-5]; p = 0.001), an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (start of interval, 35.9 ± 14.9 vs. end of interval, 66.7 ± 22.0; p = 0.007) and a decrease in tissue plasminogen activator (start of interval, 26.2 ± 10.5 vs. end of interval, 19.0 +/- 5.1; p = 0.04). No statistically significant changes in these parameters occurred in intervals which did not contain platelets. Current hemostatic resuscitation strategies do not appear to restore platelet aggregation during active hemorrhage. However, stored platelets may attenuate fibrinolysis

  16. Ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease and its correlation with left heart function and serum indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yan Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease and its correlation with left heart function and serum indexes. Methods: A total of 89 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into angina pectoris group 42 cases and myocardial infarction group 47 cases according to the illness, and 58 cases of healthy subjects were included in control group. Values of mitral annular displacement (MAD parameters, left heart function indexes and serum illness-related indexes of three groups were detected, and the correlation between values of MAD parameters and values of cardiac function indexes and serum illness-related indexes were further analyzed. Results: MAD parameters TMAD1, TMAD2 and TMADmid values, heart function LVEF values and serum CysC level of myocardial infarction group and angina pectoris group were lower than those of control group, and cardiac function LVEDD, LVESD and A/E values as well as serum H-FABP, ICTP, Hcy and vWF levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; MAD parameters TMAD1, TMAD2 and TMADmid values of patients with coronary heart disease were negatively correlated with LVEDD, LVESD and A/E values as well as H-FABP, ICTP, Hcy and vWF levels, and were positively correlated with LVEF value and CysC level (P<0.05. Conclusions: Ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease can early diagnose coronary heart disease and judge the disease severity, and it plays a positive role in optimizing disease prognosis.

  17. Therapeutic potential of functional selectivity in the treatment of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund; Aplin, Mark; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic and angiotensin receptors are prominent targets in pharmacological alleviation of cardiac remodeling and heart failure, but their use is associated with cardiodepressant side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of seven transmembrane receptor signaling show that it is possible...... to design ligands with "functional selectivity," acting as agonists on certain signaling pathways while antagonizing others. This represents a major pharmaceutical opportunity to separate desired from adverse effects governed by the same receptor. Accordingly, functionally selective ligands are currently...

  18. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  19. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  20. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats

  1. The performance of DC restoration function for MODIS thermal emissive bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong Jack; Shrestha, Ashish

    2017-09-01

    The DC restore (DCR) process of MODIS instrument maintains the output of a detector at focal plane assembly (FPA) within the dynamic range of subsequent analog-to-digital converter, by adding a specific offset voltage to the output. The DCR offset value is adjusted per scan, based on the comparison of the detector response in digital number (DN) collected from the blackbody (BB) view with target DN saved as an on-board look-up table. In this work, the MODIS DCR mechanism is revisited, with the trends of DCR offset being provided for thermal emissive bands (TEB). Noticeable changes have been occasionally found which coincide with significant detector gain change due to various instrumental events such as safe-mode anomaly or FPA temperature fluctuation. In general, MODIS DCR functionality has been effective and the change of DCR offset has no impact to the quality of MODIS data. One exception is the Earth view (EV) data saturation of Aqua MODIS LWIR bands 33, 35 ad 36 during BB warm-up cool-down (WUCD) cycle which has been observed since 2008. The BB view of their detectors saturate when the BB temperature is above certain threshold so the DCR cannot work as designed. Therefore, the dark signal DN fluctuates with the cold FPA (CFPA) temperature and saturate for a few hours per WUCD cycle, which also saturate the EV data sector within the scan. The CFPA temperature fluctuation peaked in 2012 and has been reduced in recent years and the saturation phenomenon has been easing accordingly. This study demonstrates the importance of DCR to data generation.

  2. Does the economy affect functional restoration outcomes for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Meredith M; Mayer, Tom G; Neblett, Randy; Marquardt, Dennis J; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    To determine how the economy affects psychosocial and socioeconomic treatment outcomes in a cohort of chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorder (CDOMD) patients who completed a functional restoration program (FRP). A cohort of 969 CDOMD patients with active workers' compensation claims completed an FRP (a medically-supervised, quantitatively-directed exercise progression program, with multi-modal disability management). A good economy (GE) group (n = 532) was released to work during a low unemployment period (2005-2007), and a poor economy (PE) group (n = 437) was released during a higher unemployment period (2008-2010). Patients were evaluated upon admission for demographic and psychosocial variables, and were reassessed at discharge. Socioeconomic outcomes, including work return and work retention 1 year post-discharge, were collected. Some significant differences in psychosocial self-report data were found, but most of the effect sizes were small, so caution should be made when interpreting the data. Compared to the PE group, the GE group reported more depressive symptoms and disability at admission, but demonstrated a larger decrease in depressive symptoms and disability and increase in self-reported quality of life at discharge. The PE group had lower rates of work return and retention 1-year after discharge, even after controlling for other factors such as length of disability and admission work status. CDOMD patients who completed an FRP in a PE year were less likely to return to, or retain, work 1-year after discharge, demonstrating that a PE can be an additional barrier to post-discharge work outcomes. A difference in State unemployment rates of <3% (7 vs. 5%) had a disproportionate effect on patients' failure to return to (19 vs. 6%) or retain (28 vs. 15%) work.

  3. Repressive mutations restore function-loss caused by the disruption of trimerization in Escherichia coli multidrug transporter AcrB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshuai eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC and their homologs are major multidrug efflux systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The inner membrane component AcrB functions as a trimer. Replacement of Pro223 by Gly in AcrB decreases the trimer stability and drastically reduces the drug efflux activity. The goal of this study is to identify suppressor mutations that restore function to mutant AcrBP223G and explore the mechanism of function recovery. Two methods were used to introduce random mutations into the plasmid of AcrBP223G. Mutants with elevated drug efflux activity were identified, purified, and characterized to examine their expression level, trimer stability, interaction with AcrA, and substrate binding. Nine single-site repressor mutations were identified, including T199M, D256N, A209V, G257V, M662I, Q737L, D788K, P800S, and E810K. Except for M662I, all other mutations located in the docking region of the periplasmic domain. While three mutations, T199M, A209V, and D256N, significantly increased the trimer stability, none of them restored the trimer affinity to the wild type level. M662, the only site of mutation that located in the porter domain, was involved in substrate binding. Our results suggest that the function loss resulted from compromised AcrB trimerization could be restored through various mechanisms involving the compensation of trimer stability and substrate binding.

  4. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  5. Zebrafish heart as a model to study the integrative autonomic control of pacemaker function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyek, Matthew R.; Quinn, T. Alexander; Croll, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac pacemaker sets the heart's primary rate, with pacemaker discharge controlled by the autonomic nervous system through intracardiac ganglia. A fundamental issue in understanding the relationship between neural activity and cardiac chronotropy is the identification of neuronal populations that control pacemaker cells. To date, most studies of neurocardiac control have been done in mammalian species, where neurons are embedded in and distributed throughout the heart, so they are largely inaccessible for whole-organ, integrative studies. Here, we establish the isolated, innervated zebrafish heart as a novel alternative model for studies of autonomic control of heart rate. Stimulation of individual cardiac vagosympathetic nerve trunks evoked bradycardia (parasympathetic activation) and tachycardia (sympathetic activation). Simultaneous stimulation of both vagosympathetic nerve trunks evoked a summative effect. Effects of nerve stimulation were mimicked by direct application of cholinergic and adrenergic agents. Optical mapping of electrical activity confirmed the sinoatrial region as the site of origin of normal pacemaker activity and identified a secondary pacemaker in the atrioventricular region. Strong vagosympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in a shift in the origin of initial excitation from the sinoatrial pacemaker to the atrioventricular pacemaker. Putative pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular regions expressed adrenergic β2 and cholinergic muscarinic type 2 receptors. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the zebrafish heart contains the accepted hallmarks of vertebrate cardiac control, establishing this preparation as a viable model for studies of integrative physiological control of cardiac function by intracardiac neurons. PMID:27342878

  6. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  7. Drug screens based on the newly found role of dystroglycan proteolysis and restoration of dystroglycan function thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Muschler, John L.

    2010-02-23

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for the diagnosis and treatment of cells lacking normal growth arresting characteristic. The present invention demonstrates that many tumor cells lack normal cell surface .alpha.-dystroglycan and thereby lack dystroglycan function. Dystroglycan can be lost from the cell surface by proteolytic shedding of a fragment of .alpha.-dystroglycan into the surrounding medium. Upon restoration of dystroglycan function and over-expression of the dystroglycan gene, the once tumorigenic cells revert to non-tumorigenic cells which polarize and arrest cell growth in the presence of basement membrane proteins, demonstrating that dystroglycan functions as a tumor marker and suppressor.

  8. Perceived relaxation as a function of restorative yoga combined with Reiki for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiScipio, William J

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-six cancer survivor volunteers participated in a study of the efficacy of perceived relaxation after performing restorative yoga combined with Reiki. Subjects scoring high ratings of Meaning and Peace in life demonstrated greater perception of depth of relaxation. A comparison of subjects receiving concurrent Reiki (19) and restorative yoga with those who only received restorative yoga (7) showed that Reiki subjects experienced greater perceived depth of relaxation than subjects who were not afforded the Reiki intervention. Non-Reiki participants also showed more difficulty overcoming intrusive fearful thoughts than the Reiki group. Clinical implications suggest that patients should be screened and treated for trauma-like symptoms including intrusive thoughts linked to anxiety and depression before referral to complementary programs that offer meditative or relaxation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Executive function, but not memory, associates with incident coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostamian, Somayeh; van Buchem, Mark A; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of performance in cognitive domains executive function and memory with incident coronary heart disease and stroke in older participants without dementia. METHODS: We included 3,926 participants (mean age 75 years, 44% male) at risk for cardiovascular diseases...... from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) with Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24 points. Scores on the Stroop Color-Word Test (selective attention) and the Letter Digit Substitution Test (processing speed) were converted to Z scores and averaged into a composite...... executive function score. Likewise, scores of the Picture Learning Test (immediate and delayed memory) were transformed into a composite memory score. Associations of executive function and memory were longitudinally assessed with risk of coronary heart disease and stroke using multivariable Cox regression...

  10. Clinical research on correlation between BNP and left cardiac function in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xin; Xu Dandan; Wu Chunxu

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the cardiac function in patients with heart failure(HF), the plasma level of BNP was determined by IRMA and the left cardiac function parameters were measured on echocardiogram in patients with different grade of HF. The results showed that the plasma level of BNP elevated with the worsening of heart failure (NYHA classification). The plasma levels of BNP were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd). The plasma level of BNP increases significantly along with the severity of HF classified by NYHA, and might be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function. (authors)

  11. A novel protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Mizuho; Minakata, Kenji; Toyokuni, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery. We established a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis based on preoperative kidney function in patients undergoing open heart surgery. This novel protocol was assessed by comparing patients undergoing open heart surgery before (control group; n = 30) and after its implementation (protocol group; n = 31) at Kyoto University Hospital between July 2012 and January 2013. Surgical site infections (SSIs) were observed in 4 control group patients (13.3 %), whereas no SSIs were observed in the protocol group patients (P open heart surgery.

  12. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  13. Therapeutic Inhibition of miR-208a Improves Cardiac Function and Survival During Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rusty L.; Hullinger, Thomas G.; Semus, Hillary M.; Dickinson, Brent A.; Seto, Anita G.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A.; Olson, Eric N.; van Rooij, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction in response to hypertrophy is a major clinical syndrome with few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of target mRNAs. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of the cardiac-specific miR-208a prevents pathological cardiac remodeling and upregulation of Myh7 in response to pressure overload. Whether this miRNA might contribute to diastolic dysfunction or other forms of heart disease is currently unknown. Methods and Results Here, we show that systemic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide induces potent and sustained silencing of miR-208a in the heart. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a by subcutaneous delivery of antimiR-208a during hypertension-induced heart failure in Dahl hypertensive rats dose-dependently prevents pathological myosin switching and cardiac remodeling while improving cardiac function, overall health, and survival. Transcriptional profiling indicates that antimiR-208a evokes prominent effects on cardiac gene expression; plasma analysis indicates significant changes in circulating levels of miRNAs on antimiR-208a treatment. Conclusions These studies indicate the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapies for modulating cardiac miRNAs and validate miR-208 as a potent therapeutic target for the modulation of cardiac function and remodeling during heart disease progression. PMID:21900086

  14. Arginase induction and activation during ischemia and reperfusion and functional consequences for the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter eSchlüter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction and activation of arginase is among the fastest responses of the heart to ischemic events. Induction of arginase expression and enzyme activation under ischemic conditions shifts arginine consumption from nitric oxide formation (NO to the formation of ornithine and urea. In the heart such a switch in substrate utilisation reduces the impact of the NO/cGMP-pathway on cardiac function that requires intact electromechanical coupling but at the same time it induces ornithine-dependent pathways such as the polyamine metabolism. Both effects significantly reduce the recovery of heart function during reperfusion and thereby limits the success of reperfusion strategies. In this context, changes in arginine consumption trigger cardiac remodelling in an unfavourable way and increases the risk of arrhythmia, specifically in the initial post-ischemic period in which arginase activity is dominating. However, during the entire ischemic period arginase activation might be a meaningful adaptation that is specifically relevant for reperfusion following prolonged ischemic periods. Therefore, a precise understanding about the underlying mechanism that leads to arginase induction as well as of it’s mechanistic impact on post-ischemic hearts is required for optimizing reperfusion strategies. In this review we will summarize our current understanding of these processes and give an outlook about possible treatment options for the future.

  15. MELAS syndrome and cardiomyopathy: linking mitochondrial function to heart failure pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Han R; Yogasundaram, Haran; Parajuli, Nirmal; Valtuille, Lucas; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure remains an important clinical burden, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in its pathogenesis. The heart has a high metabolic demand, and mitochondrial function is a key determinant of myocardial performance. In mitochondrial disorders, hypertrophic remodeling is the early pattern of cardiomyopathy with progression to dilated cardiomyopathy, conduction defects and ventricular pre-excitation occurring in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiac dysfunction occurs in approximately a third of patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, a stereotypical example of a mitochondrial disorder leading to a cardiomyopathy. We performed unique comparative ultrastructural and gene expression in a MELAS heart compared with non-failing controls. Our results showed a remarkable increase in mitochondrial inclusions and increased abnormal mitochondria in MELAS cardiomyopathy coupled with variable sarcomere thickening, heterogeneous distribution of affected cardiomyocytes and a greater elevation in the expression of disease markers. Investigation and management of patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy should follow the well-described contemporary heart failure clinical practice guidelines and include an important role of medical and device therapies. Directed metabolic therapy is lacking, but current research strategies are dedicated toward improving mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disorders.

  16. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a result of fulfilling the criteria for enrollment in either the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT study (left-ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >35%, sinus rhythm, New York Heart Association II–IV or the Prospective Comparison of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI to determine impact on global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF study (LVEF <40%, New York Heart Association II–IV, glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min, was also assessed. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out in all 371 patients treated in this community heart function clinic for at least a 12-month period. The patients were elderly (mean age 74±13.3 years and predominately male (61.5% with symptomatic (82.5% moderate left-ventricular dysfunction (LVEF 45.4%±15.6%. A substantial proportion of the patients also had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (52.8%. The total use of beta blockers exceeded 87%, while 100% of patients without a documented contraindication or intolerance to a beta blocker received therapy. Adherence to other guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies specifically for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection was high: 86.1% of the eligible patients were treated with an ACEI/angiotensin receptor blocker and 61.9% received a mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist. We determined that 13.7% of the complement of this heart

  17. Association between Depression, Pressure Pain Sensitivity, Stress and Autonomous Nervous System Function in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Bergmann, Natasha; Karpatschof, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD) are associated with persistent stress and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The former can be measured by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) of the sternum, and the latter by the PPS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to a til...... in depression, reduction in persistent stress, and restoration of ANS dysfunction was only seen in non-users, suggesting a central role of beta-adrenergic receptors in the association between these factors....

  18. Scientific Coordination and Adaptive Management and Experimental Restoration of Longleaf Pine Community Structure, Function, and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Institutes of Health . Pfincipal Inlstigator’s Signature Date FY7621-94-90245-D Post-Treatment Analysis of Restoration Effects on Soils, Plants...MALVACEAE Hibiscus aculeatus Pineland Rose Mallow MELASTOMACEAE Rhexia alifanus Rose Meadow Beauty R. mrilana Pale Meadow Beauty MYRICACEAE Myrica

  19. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  20. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Renal and cardiac function during alpha1-beta-blockade in congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H

    2002-01-01

    The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control...... of renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....

  2. A Circadian Clock Gene, Cry, Affects Heart Morphogenesis and Function in Drosophila as Revealed by Optical Coherence Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Alex

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (>100-fold in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila heart exhibited major morphological and functional alterations during its development. Notably, heart rate (HR and cardiac activity period (CAP of Drosophila showed significant variations during the pupa stage, when heart remodeling took place. From the M-mode (2D + time OCM images, cardiac structural and functional parameters of Drosophila at different developmental stages were quantitatively determined. In order to study the functional role of dCry on Drosophila heart development, we silenced dCry by RNAi in the Drosophila heart and mesoderm, and quantitatively measured heart morphology and function in those flies throughout its development. Silencing of dCry resulted in slower HR, reduced CAP, smaller heart chamber size, pupal lethality and disrupted posterior segmentation that was related to increased expression of a posterior compartment protein, wingless. Collectively, our studies provided novel evidence that the circadian clock gene, dCry, plays

  3. A Circadian Clock Gene, Cry, Affects Heart Morphogenesis and Function in Drosophila as Revealed by Optical Coherence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianxu; Tate, Rebecca E.; McKee, Mary L.; Capen, Diane E.; Zhang, Zhan; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (>100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila heart exhibited major morphological and functional alterations during its development. Notably, heart rate (HR) and cardiac activity period (CAP) of Drosophila showed significant variations during the pupa stage, when heart remodeling took place. From the M-mode (2D + time) OCM images, cardiac structural and functional parameters of Drosophila at different developmental stages were quantitatively determined. In order to study the functional role of dCry on Drosophila heart development, we silenced dCry by RNAi in the Drosophila heart and mesoderm, and quantitatively measured heart morphology and function in those flies throughout its development. Silencing of dCry resulted in slower HR, reduced CAP, smaller heart chamber size, pupal lethality and disrupted posterior segmentation that was related to increased expression of a posterior compartment protein, wingless. Collectively, our studies provided novel evidence that the circadian clock gene, dCry, plays an essential

  4. Structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction, comorbided with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention was paid to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its role in the occurrence of chronic heart failure. In patients after myocardial infarction, diastolic dysfunction often precedes systolic dysfunction and predicts prognosis. In patients after myocardial infarction, diastolic dysfunction is caused by a violation of early diastolic relaxation in the area of increasing stiffness. Diastolic dysfunction is formed by hypertrophy, fibrosis, myocardial ischemia and arterial hypertension. Given the important role of diastolic dysfunction in the formation of heart failure in postinfarction patients with concomitant arterial hypertension, the mechanisms of its impact on clinical features and structural-functional changes of the heart is an actual problem. Objective: To determine the structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction with concomitant arterial hypertension. Materials and methods: In 91 patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (EF > 45 % with arterial hypertension were investigated structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure by assessing clinical status and ultrasound of the heart. Prescription myocardial infarction ranged from 2 months to 3 years. Patients were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 50 patients with diastolic dysfunction and symptoms of heart failure (mean age 64,1 ± 1,2 years. In the second group were 31 patients with diastolic dysfunction without heart failure symptoms (mean age 59,5 ± 1,6 years. The third group consisted of 10 patients without diastolic dysfunction and manifestations of heart failure (mean age 57 ± 2,8 years. Results and discussion: 10% patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and concomitant hypertension with diastolic heart failure had NYHA

  5. Phospho-BAD BH3 Mimicry Protects β Cells and Restores Functional β Cell Mass in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Ljubicic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategies that simultaneously enhance the survival and glucose responsiveness of insulin-producing β cells will greatly augment β cell replacement therapies in type 1 diabetes (T1D. We show that genetic and pharmacologic mimetics of the phosphorylated BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3 domain of BAD impart β-cell-autonomous protective effects in the face of stress stimuli relevant to β cell demise in T1D. Importantly, these benefits translate into improved engraftment of donor islets in transplanted diabetic mice, increased β cell viability in islet grafts, restoration of insulin release, and diabetes reversal. Survival of β cells in this setting is not merely due to the inability of phospho-BAD to suppress prosurvival BCL-2 proteins but requires its activation of the glucose-metabolizing enzyme glucokinase. Thus, BAD phospho-BH3 mimetics may prove useful in the restoration of functional β cell mass in diabetes.

  6. Mucosal immunity in HIV infection: what can be done to restore gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael D; Asmuth, David M

    2014-06-01

    This review describes the impact of HIV infection on gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the mechanisms for persistent gut-associated lymphoid tissue dysfunction despite effective antiretroviral therapy, and potential strategies to restore gut-associated lymphoid tissue function and promote immune reconstitution. Recent studies indicate that unresolved microbial translocation and intestinal dysbiosis may continue to promote enteropathy as well as HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated conditions in many HIV patients who otherwise maintain therapeutic control of systemic viral replication. Several novel therapeutic approaches to reduce intestinal inflammation and mitigate microbial translocation may hold promise for restoring gastrointestinal health and thereby increasing the efficacy of immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Targeting cFMS signaling to restore immune function and eradicate HIV reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, Lindsey

    While combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has improved the length and quality of life of individuals living with HIV-1 infection, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has increased and remains a significant clinical concern. The neuropathogenesis of HAND is not completely understood, however, latent HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS) and chronic neuroinflammation are believed to play a prominent role. CNS-associated macrophages and resident microglia are significant contributors to CNS inflammation and constitute the chief reservoir of HIV-1 infection in the CNS. Previous studies from our lab suggest monocyte/macrophage invasion of the CNS in HIV may be driven by altered monocyte/macrophage homeostasis. We have reported expansion of a monocyte subset (CD14+CD16 +CD163+) in peripheral blood of HIV+ patients that is phenotypically similar to macrophages/microglia that accumulate in the CNS as seen in post-mortem tissue. The factors driving the expansion of this monocyte subset are unknown, however, signaling through cFMS, a type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), may play a role. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a ligand of cFMS, has been shown to be elevated in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with the most severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia (HAD). M-CSF promotes a Macrophage-2-like phenotype and increases CD16 and CD163 expression in cultured monocytes. M-CSF has also been shown to increase the susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection and enhance virus production. These findings, in addition to the known function of M-CSF in promoting macrophage survival, supports a role for M-CSF in the development and maintenance of macrophage viral reservoirs in tissues where these cells accumulate, including the CNS. Interestingly, a second ligand for cFMS, IL-34, was recently identified and reported to share some functions with M-CSF, suggesting that both ligands may contribute to HIV

  8. Evaluation of the influence of change in heart rate on left ventricular diastolic function indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Motomasa; Yamagishi, Hiroaki; Seino, Yasuyuki; Odano, Ikuo; Sakai, Kunio; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Tsuda, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of change in heart rate on left ventricular diastolic function indices, ECG gated cardiac pool study was performed in 6 patients with implanted programmable AAI pacemakers. Heart rate was changed by atrial pacing from 50 to 120 beats/min, every 10 beats/min. The filling fraction during first third of diastole (1/3FF), the peak filling rate (PFR), mean first third filling rate (1/3FR-mean) and early filling volume ratio (%EFV), being used as the indices of left ventricular diastolic performance, were assessed. In accordance with increase in heart rate, 1/3FF decreased significantly. PFR were fairly stable from 50 to 80 beats/min, but increased significantly from 90 to 120 beats/min. 1/3FR-mean and %EFV did not change significantly, but 1/3FR-mean showed decreasing tendency and %EFV showed increasing tendency as the heart rate was increased. %EFV was more changeable index than other indices among clinical cases. These results indicate that PFR and 1/3FR-mean were appropriate diastolic phase indices at rest. (author)

  9. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  10. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction Treatment Promotes the Restoration of Intestinal Function after Obstruction by Regulating Intestinal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal obstruction is a common disease requiring abdominal surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, an effective medical treatment for obstruction, other than surgical resection or decompression, does not exist. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is a famous Chinese medicine used to replenish qi and invigorate the functions of the spleen. Modern pharmacological studies show that this prescription can improve gastrointestinal function and strengthen immune function. In this study, we investigated the effects of a famous Chinese herbal formula, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction, on the restoration of intestinal function after the relief of obstruction in a rabbit model. We found that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could reduce intestinal mucosal injury while promoting the recovery of the small intestine. Further, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could regulate the intestinal immune system. Our results suggest that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction promotes the restoration of intestinal function after obstruction by regulating intestinal homeostasis. Our observations indicate that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is potentially a therapeutic drug for intestinal obstruction.

  11. Adrenergic Blockade Bi-directionally and Asymmetrically Alters Functional Brain-Heart Communication and Prolongs Electrical Activities of the Brain and Heart during Asphyxic Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangyun; Liu, Tiecheng; Xu, Gang; Li, Duan; Ghazi, Talha; Shick, Trevor; Sajjad, Azeem; Wang, Michael M.; Farrehi, Peter; Borjigin, Jimo

    2018-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2-mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model. Rats received either saline, phentolamine, atenolol, or phentolamine plus atenolol, 30 min before the onset of asphyxia. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were simultaneously collected from each rat during the entire process and investigated for cardiac and brain functions using a battery of analytic tools. We found that adrenergic blockade significantly suppressed the initial decline of cardiac output, prolonged electrical activities of both brain and heart, asymmetrically altered functional connectivity within the brain, and altered, bi-directionally and asymmetrically, functional, and effective connectivity between the brain and heart. The protective effects of adrenergic blockers paralleled the suppression of brain and heart connectivity, especially in the right hemisphere associated with central regulation of sympathetic function. Collectively, our results demonstrate that blockade of brain-heart connection via alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers significantly prolonged the detectable activities of both the heart and the brain in asphyxic rat. The beneficial effects of combined alpha and beta blockers may help extend the survival of cardiac arrest patients. PMID:29487541

  12. Adrenergic Blockade Bi-directionally and Asymmetrically Alters Functional Brain-Heart Communication and Prolongs Electrical Activities of the Brain and Heart during Asphyxic Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyun Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2-mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model. Rats received either saline, phentolamine, atenolol, or phentolamine plus atenolol, 30 min before the onset of asphyxia. Electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG signals were simultaneously collected from each rat during the entire process and investigated for cardiac and brain functions using a battery of analytic tools. We found that adrenergic blockade significantly suppressed the initial decline of cardiac output, prolonged electrical activities of both brain and heart, asymmetrically altered functional connectivity within the brain, and altered, bi-directionally and asymmetrically, functional, and effective connectivity between the brain and heart. The protective effects of adrenergic blockers paralleled the suppression of brain and heart connectivity, especially in the right hemisphere associated with central regulation of sympathetic function. Collectively, our results demonstrate that blockade of brain-heart connection via alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers significantly prolonged the detectable activities of both the heart and the brain in asphyxic rat. The beneficial effects of combined alpha and beta blockers may help extend the survival of cardiac arrest patients.

  13. Coronary flow reserve as a link between diastolic and systolic function and exercise capacity in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure, a reduced exercise capacity is the prevailing symptom and an important prognostic marker of future outcome. The purpose of the study was to assess the relation of coronary flow reserve (CFR) to diastolic and systolic function in heart failure and to determine which...

  14. Tissue advanced glycation end products are associated with diastolic function and aerobic exercise capacity in diabetic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van Ruijven, Marieke H. I.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with diastolic dysfunction through the formation of collagen crosslinks in the heart. The association among AGEs, diastolic function, and aerobic capacity in heart failure (HF) patients with and

  15. Endothelial function is unaffected by changing between carvedilol and metoprolol in patients with heart failure-a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falskov, Britt; Hermann, Thomas Steffen; Raunsø, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol has been shown to be superior to metoprolol tartrate to improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), yet the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain unclear. We examined if there were differences in endothelial function, insulin stimulated endothelial func...... function, 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during treatment with carvedilol, metoprolol tartrate and metoprolol succinate in patients with HF.......Carvedilol has been shown to be superior to metoprolol tartrate to improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), yet the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain unclear. We examined if there were differences in endothelial function, insulin stimulated endothelial...

  16. The effect of chronic digitalization on pump function in systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapoyannes, C A; Easterling, B M; Chavda, K; Chavda, K K; Movahed, M R; Welch, G W

    2001-10-01

    Short- and intermediate-term use of cardiac glycosides promotes inotropy and improves the ejection fraction in systolic heart failure. To determine whether chronic digitalization alters left ventricular function and performance. Eighty patients with mild-to-moderate systolic heart failure (baseline ejection fraction < or =45%) participated from our institution in a multi-center, chronic, randomized, double-blind study of digitalis vs. placebo. Of the 40 survivors, 38 (20 allocated to the digitalis arm and 18 to the placebo arm) were evaluated at the end of follow-up (mean, 48.4 months). Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by both nuclear ventriculography and echocardiography. The ejection fraction was measured scintigraphically, while the ventricular volumes were computed echocardiographically. The groups did not differ, at baseline or end-of-study, with respect to the ejection fraction and the loading conditions (arterial pressure, ventricular volumes and heart rate) by either intention-to-treat or actual-treatment-received analysis. Over the course of the trial, the digitalis arm exhibited no significant increase in the use of diuretics (18%, P=0.33), in distinction from the placebo group (78%, P=0.004), and a longer stay on study drug among those patients who withdrew from double-blind treatment (28.6 vs. 11.4 months, P=0.01). Following chronic use of digitalis for mild-to-moderate heart failure, cross-sectional comparison with a control group from the same inception cohort showed no appreciable difference in systolic function or performance. Thus, the suggested clinical benefit cannot be explained by an inotropic effect.

  17. Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz-EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest

  18. Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meex, R.C.R.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Mensink, M.R.; Phielix, E.; Weijer, van de T.; Sels, J.P.; Schrauwen, P.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2

  19. Gene therapy restores auditory and vestibular function in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bifeng; Askew, Charles; Galvin, Alice; Heman-Ackah, Selena; Asai, Yukako; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Jodelka, Francine M; Hastings, Michelle L; Lentz, Jennifer J; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Holt, Jeffrey R; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S

    2017-03-01

    Because there are currently no biological treatments for hearing loss, we sought to advance gene therapy approaches to treat genetic deafness. We focused on Usher syndrome, a devastating genetic disorder that causes blindness, balance disorders and profound deafness, and studied a knock-in mouse model, Ush1c c.216G>A, for Usher syndrome type IC (USH1C). As restoration of complex auditory and balance function is likely to require gene delivery systems that target auditory and vestibular sensory cells with high efficiency, we delivered wild-type Ush1c into the inner ear of Ush1c c.216G>A mice using a synthetic adeno-associated viral vector, Anc80L65, shown to transduce 80-90% of sensory hair cells. We demonstrate recovery of gene and protein expression, restoration of sensory cell function, rescue of complex auditory function and recovery of hearing and balance behavior to near wild-type levels. The data represent unprecedented recovery of inner ear function and suggest that biological therapies to treat deafness may be suitable for translation to humans with genetic inner ear disorders.

  20. Changes in expression of a functional Gi protein in cultured rat heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, I.S.; Gaa, S.T.; Rogers, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, and pertussis toxin were used to examine the functional status of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein that inhibits adenylate cyclase (G i ) in cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes. The isoproterenol stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in myocyte membranes and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in intact cells (4 days in culture) were insensitive to carbachol. However, in cells cultured for 11 days, carbachol inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation by 30%. Angiotensin II (ANG II) was also found to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in day 11 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin treatment reversed the inhibitory effects of both ANG II and carbachol, suggesting a role for G i in the process. Carbachol binding to membranes from day 4 cells was relatively insensitive to guanine nucleotides when compared with binding to membranes from day 11 or adult cells. Furthermore, pertussis toxin-mediated 32 P incorporation into a 39- to 41-kDa substrate in day 11 membranes was increased 3.2-fold over that measured in day 4 membranes. These findings support the view that, although G i is expressed, it is nonfunctional in 4-day-old cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes and acquisition of functional G i is dependent on culture conditions. Furthermore, the ANG II receptor can couple to G i in heart

  1. Sleep Disturbance, Daytime Symptoms, and Functional Performance in Patients With Stable Heart Failure: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients with heart failure (HF) who also experience symptom burden and poor functional performance. We evaluated the extent to which sleep-related, daytime symptoms (fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms) mediate the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance among patients with stable HF. We recruited patients with stable HF for this secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional, observational study. Participants completed unattended ambulatory polysomnography from which the Respiratory Disturbance Index was calculated, along with a Six-Minute Walk Test, questionnaires to elicit sleep disturbance (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Symptoms from the Sleep Habits Questionnaire), daytime symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Global Fatigue Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and self-reported functional performance (Medical Outcomes Study SF36 V2 Physical Function Scale). We used structural equation modeling with latent variables for the key analysis. Follow-up, exploratory regression analysis with bootstrapped samples was used to examine the extent to which individual daytime symptoms mediated effects of sleep disturbance on functional performance after controlling for clinical and demographic covariates. The sample included 173 New York Heart Association Class I-IV HF patients (n = 60/34.7% women; M = 60.7, SD = 16.07 years of age). Daytime symptoms mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance. Fatigue and depression mediated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and self-reported functional performance, whereas fatigue and sleepiness mediated the relationship between sleep quality and functional performance. Sleepiness mediated the relationship between the respiratory index and self-reported functional performance only in people who did not report insomnia. Daytime symptoms explain the relationships between sleep

  2. Effect of Right Heart Systolic Function on Outcomes in Patients with Constrictive Pericarditis Undergoing Pericardiectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the influence of right ventricular function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP undergoing surgery and to compare the outcomes of patients who received surgery with those managed medically. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of CP and healthy volunteers were recruited from January 2006 to November 2011. Patients with CP chose to either receive pericardiectomy or medical management. Echocardiographic measurements were performed to evaluate heart function, and survival was recorded. Results: A total of 58 patients with CP (36 received pericardiectomy, 22 managed medically, and 43 healthy volunteers were included. CP patients who received surgery had a higher survival rate than those managed medically (P = 0.003, and higher survival was also seen in the subgroup of CP patients with severely impaired right systolic function. Albumin level, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and tricuspid regurgitation velocity were associated with survival in CP patients who received surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative right heart function does not affect surgical outcomes. Patients with severely impaired preoperative right systolic function obtain a greater survival advantage with surgery than with medical treatment.

  3. The effect of chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes on insulin-stimulated endothelial function is similar and additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falskov, Britt; Hermann, Thomas Steffen; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Chronic heart failure is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The aim of this investigation was to study insulin-stimulated endothelial function and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in patients with heart failure in comparison to patients with type 2 diabetes. ME...... in similar vascular insulin resistance and reduced muscular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The effects of systolic heart failure and type 2 diabetes appear to be additive.......AIM: Chronic heart failure is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The aim of this investigation was to study insulin-stimulated endothelial function and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in patients with heart failure in comparison to patients with type 2 diabetes...

  4. Effect of high-voltage impulse current on the structure and function of rabbit heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ping XU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of high-voltage impulse current(HVIC on the structure and function of rabbit heart.Methods Sixty healthy male rabbits were involved in present study and divided into 6 groups randomly(n=10.The rabbits were then shocked using a high-voltage pulse generator with current intensity of 0,50,100,150,250 and 500mA(pulse width 100μs,duration 5s respectively.The heart rate and electrocardiogram(ECG of rabbits were detected before and 0,1,3,7,14 and 28 days after the electric shock.Moreover,the myocardial tissue of rabbits was obtained immediately and 28 days after shock to observe the pathological changes.Results Immediately after electric shock of 50 to 500mA,the heart rate of rabbit increased by different degree,and the ECG showed arrhythmia,myocardial ischemia,atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular block,and the changes recovered gradually one day later.The pathological observation showed cell swelling,separation of myofibril and sarcoplasmic condensation of Purkinje fibers immediately after electric shock of 50 to 500mA,and the changes recovered 28 days after shock.The cardiac injuries aggravated with the increasing of current intensity,especially when it exceeded 150mA,and the recovery time prolonged.Conclusion High-voltage impulse current may induce recoverable injuries on heart structure and function,and the damage effect shows a correlation with the current intensity.

  5. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, A; Manieri, C; Dinatale, S; Bruno, G A; Ghigo, E; Martina, V

    2009-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a wide spectrum of biological actions including a positive role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Free radicals levels have been shown elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and therefore would be responsible for quenching NO that, in turn, would play a role in determining oligo- or amenorrhea connoting PCOS. Eight patients with PCOS displaying oligo-amenorrhea from at least 1 yr underwent a combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1200 mg/die) plus L-arginine (ARG) (1600 mg/die) for 6 months. Menstrual function, glucose and insulin levels, and, in turn, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were monitored. Menstrual function was at some extent restored as indicated by the number of uterine bleedings under treatment (3.00, 0.18-5.83 vs 0.00, 0.00-0.83; p<0.02). Also, a well-defined biphasic pattern in the basal body temperature suggested ovulatory cycles. The HOMA index decreased under treatment (2.12, 1.46-4.42 vs 3.48, 1.62-5.95; p<0.05). In conclusion, this preliminary, open study suggests that prolonged treatment with NAC+ARG might restore gonadal function in PCOS. This effect seems associated to an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  6. Combined Therapy with Desferal and Deferiprone in Improvement of Heart Function in Thalassemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahramian Iraj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac complications due to iron overload are the most common causes of death in patients with major thalassemia. This study assessed the efficacy of iron chelating by desferal-L1 in improvement of cardiac function in patients with major thalassemia.Methods and Materials: Patients older then 8 years old with major thalassemia that were admitted to hematology ward of Ali-e-Asghar hospital of Zahedan in 2005-2006 and had lower than normal diastolic indices in annual echocardiography were considered as study population. During primary tests, indices of diastolic function of left and right hearts were calculated, using echocardiography with 2D, M-mode and Doppler then the patients were placed on a combination of desferal (30-40mg/kg/day two nights per week and L1 (deferiprone (75mg/kg/day, three times a day. At the end of the study, cardiac indices were calculated again. Data were using SPSS software and paired t-test and P0.05. Systolic indices of left ventricule increased significantly after treatment (P<0.05.Conclusion: In this study, after one year of treatment with a combination of desferal-L1 in patients with major thalassemia, echocardiography showed improvement in left heart systolic and diastolic function. This combination therapy prevented progression of right ventricular diastolic function abnormality

  7. The pharmacists' role in improving guideline compliance for thyroid function testing in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, Melanie E; Bui, Hien T; Smith, Craig S; Tsukiji, Lori A; Asmatey, Veda M; Chu, Steven B; Miano, John S

    2012-04-01

    This single-center retrospective pilot program's objective was to utilize outpatient pharmacists to improve laboratory test adherence in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients overdue for thyroid function testing, thereby demonstrating the value of the outpatient pharmacist and justifying possible clinical role expansion. Thyroid disorders may contribute to CHF development, progression, and exacerbation. Testing is the standard of care in CHF patients per American Heart Association's 2009 Guidelines. Delinquency was defined as labs not conducted within 1 year in patients with euthyroid history, within 6 months in patients with thyroid dysfunction, abnormal labs at any time without follow-up, or lab absence after thyroid medication initiation, adjustment, or discontinuation. Targeted 80 nonpregnant adult CHF patients with delinquent thyroid function tests were counseled to get thyroid labs at point of sale, via telephone, e-mail, or letter. In collaboration with physicians, pharmacists ordered thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 (FT4) labs. For patients with abnormal laboratory results, pharmacists coordinated drug therapy and follow-up labs. Data were collected from November 1, 2009 to March 30, 2010. Seventy-two patients (90%) previously delinquent for thyroid function testing received relevant thyroid labs. Ten patients (12.5%) with abnormal thyroid function tests not on prior drug therapy received treatment.

  8. Myofilament Remodeling and Function Is More Impaired in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Compared with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Ilse A E; Ehler, Elisabeth; Fleischanderl, Karin; Bouwman, Floor; Kempers, Lanette; Ricke-Hoch, Melanie; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Krüger, Martina; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Pinto, Yigal M; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-12-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) show similarities in clinical presentation. However, although DCM patients do not recover and slowly deteriorate further, PPCM patients show either a fast cardiac deterioration or complete recovery. The aim of this study was to assess if underlying cellular changes can explain the clinical similarities and differences in the two diseases. We, therefore, assessed sarcomeric protein expression, modification, titin isoform shift, and contractile behavior of cardiomyocytes in heart tissue of PPCM and DCM patients and compared these with nonfailing controls. Heart samples from ischemic heart disease (ISHD) patients served as heart failure control samples. Passive force was only increased in PPCM samples compared with controls, whereas PPCM, DCM, and ISHD samples all showed increased myofilament Ca 2+ sensitivity. Length-dependent activation was significantly impaired in PPCM compared with controls, no impairment was observed in ISHD samples, and DCM samples showed an intermediate response. Contractile impairments were caused by impaired protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation because exogenous PKA restored all parameters to control levels. Although DCM samples showed reexpression of EH-myomesin, an isoform usually only expressed in the heart before birth, PPCM and ISHD did not. The lack of EH-myomesin, combined with low PKA-mediated phosphorylation of myofilament proteins and increased compliant titin isoform, may explain the increase in passive force and blunted length-dependent activation of myofilaments in PPCM samples. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A chronic low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Albayram, Onder; Draffehn, Astrid; Michel, Kerstin; Piyanova, Anastasia; Oppenheimer, Hannah; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Rácz, Ildiko; Ulas, Thomas; Imbeault, Sophie; Bab, Itai; Schultze, Joachim L; Zimmer, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging. The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lower. However, a direct link between endocannabinoid tone and aging symptoms has not been demonstrated. Here we show that a low dose of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reversed the age-related decline in cognitive performance of mice aged 12 and 18 months. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced expression of synaptic marker proteins and increased hippocampal spine density. THC treatment restored hippocampal gene transcription patterns such that the expression profiles of THC-treated mice aged 12 months closely resembled those of THC-free animals aged 2 months. The transcriptional effects of THC were critically dependent on glutamatergic CB1 receptors and histone acetylation, as their inhibition blocked the beneficial effects of THC. Thus, restoration of CB1 signaling in old individuals could be an effective strategy to treat age-related cognitive impairments.

  10. Grazer Functional Roles, Induced Defenses, and Indirect Interactions: Implications for Eelgrass Restoration in San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the individual and interactive roles of consumer species is more than academic when the host plant is a subject of intense conservation interest. In a mesocosm experiment, we compared effects of common invertebrate grazers in San Francisco Bay seagrass (Zostera marina, eelgrass beds, finding that some species (a native opisthobranch, Phyllaplysia taylori; a native isopod, Idotea resecata; and an introduced gastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta enhanced eelgrass growth through removal of epiphytic algae, as is often predicted for small invertebrate grazers on seagrasses, while one (an introduced caprellid amphipod, Caprella cf. drepanochir had neutral effects. In contrast, the putatively-introduced gammaridean amphipod, Ampithoe valida, had strong negative effects on eelgrass (in addition to epiphytes through consumption, as we had previously observed in the field during restoration programs. We tested whether other common grazer species could influence the effects of the eelgrass-grazing Ampithoe, and found that Idotea induced production of phenolic compounds and limited eelgrass damage by Ampithoe, without affecting Ampithoe abundance. These results have implications for restoration strategies, and contribute to a growing awareness of the importance of trait-mediated indirect grazer interactions through grazer-induced changes in plant traits, providing the first example in a seagrass system.

  11. Ribose Supplementation Alone or with Elevated Creatine Does Not Preserve High Energy Nucleotides or Cardiac Function in the Failing Mouse Heart.

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    Kiterie M E Faller

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of creatine and total adenine nucleotides (sum of ATP, ADP and AMP are hallmarks of chronic heart failure and restoring these pools is predicted to be beneficial by maintaining the diseased heart in a more favourable energy state. Ribose supplementation is thought to support both salvage and re-synthesis of adenine nucleotides by bypassing the rate-limiting step. We therefore tested whether ribose would be beneficial in chronic heart failure in control mice and in mice with elevated myocardial creatine due to overexpression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE.FOUR GROUPS WERE STUDIED: sham; myocardial infarction (MI; MI+ribose; MI+CrT-OE+ribose. In a pilot study, ribose given in drinking water was bioavailable, resulting in a two-fold increase in myocardial ribose-5-phosphate levels. However, 8 weeks post-surgery, total adenine nucleotide (TAN pool was decreased to a similar amount (8-14% in all infarcted groups irrespective of the treatment received. All infarcted groups also presented with a similar and substantial degree of left ventricular (LV dysfunction (3-fold reduction in ejection fraction and LV hypertrophy (32-47% increased mass. Ejection fraction closely correlated with infarct size independently of treatment (r(2 = 0.63, p<0.0001, but did not correlate with myocardial creatine or TAN levels.Elevating myocardial ribose and creatine levels failed to maintain TAN pool or improve post-infarction LV remodeling and function. This suggests that ribose is not rate-limiting for purine nucleotide biosynthesis in the chronically failing mouse heart and that alternative strategies to preserve TAN pool should be investigated.

  12. Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells help restore function to ovaries in a premature ovarian failure mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Lai

    Full Text Available Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, they are considered a powerful tool for therapeutic cloning and offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. Recent studies showed that skin-derived stem cells can differentiate into cells expressing germ-cell specific markers in vitro and form oocytes in vivo. The idea that SMSCs may be suitable for the treatment of intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To determine the ability of SMSCs to reactivate injured ovaries, a mouse model with ovaries damaged by busulfan and cyclophosphamide was developed and is described here. Female skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-SMSCs and male skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-SMSCs from red fluorescence protein (RFP transgenic adult mice were used to investigate the restorative effects of SMSCs on ovarian function. Significant increases in total body weight and the weight of reproductive organs were observed in the treated animals. Both F-SMSCs and M-SMSCs were shown to be capable of partially restoring fertility in chemotherapy-treated females. Immunostaining with RFP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH antibodies demonstrated that the grafted SMSCs survived, migrated to the recipient ovaries. After SMSCs were administered to the treated mice, real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFNγ were significantly lower in the ovaries than in the untreated controls. Consistent with this observation, expression of oogenesis marker genes Nobox, Nanos3, and Lhx8 increased in ovaries of SMSCs-treated mice. These findings suggest that SMSCs may play a role within the ovarian follicle microenvironment in restoring the function of damaged ovaries and could be useful in reproductive health.

  13. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  14. Pulmonary Catherization Data Correlate Poorly with Renal Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, Luke; Stone, James; Stone, Danielle; Zhang, Jun; Sheng, Luo

    2018-04-10

    The mechanisms of renal dysfunction in heart failure are poorly understood. We chose to explore the relationship of cardiac filling pressures and cardiac index (CI) in relation to renal dysfunction in advanced heart failure. To determine the relationship between renal function and cardiac filling pressures using the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) pulmonary artery catherization registry. Patients over the age of 18 years who were listed for single-organ heart transplantation were included. Exclusion criteria included a history of mechanical circulatory support, previous transplantation, any use of renal replacement therapy, prior history of malignancy, and cardiac surgery, amongst others. Correlations between serum creatinine (SCr) and CI, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients and simple linear regression coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients between SCr and PCWP, PASP, and PADP were near zero with values of 0.1, 0.07, and 0.08, respectively (p < 0.0001). A weak negative correlation coefficient between SCr and CI was found (correlation coefficient, -0.045, p = 0.027). In a subgroup of young patients unlikely to have noncardiac etiologies, no significant correlations between these values were identified. These findings suggest that, as assessed by pulmonary artery catherization, none of the factors - PCWP, PASP, PADP, or CI - play a prominent role in cardiorenal syndromes. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Cognitive function in patients with stable coronary heart disease: Related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Drigny, Joffrey; Dupuy, Olivier; Lapierre, Gabriel; Labelle, Véronique; Fortier, Annik; Nigam, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis), cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography) and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy) were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max), cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery) and cognitive function (for all items) (Pcognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.

  16. Early administration of tolvaptan preserves renal function in elderly patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Momose, Tomoyasu; Hasegawa, Tomoya; Morita, Takehiro; Misawa, Takuo; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-05-01

    Loop diuretics used in the treatment of heart failure often induce renal impairment. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the renal protective effect of adding tolvaptan (TLV), compared to increasing the furosemide (FRM) dose, for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in a real-world elderly patient population. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 52 consecutive hospitalized patients (age 83.4±9.6 years) with ADHF. The patients were assigned alternately to either the TLV group (TLV plus conventional treatment, n=26) or the FRM group (increasing the dose of FRM, n=26). TLV was administered within 24h from admission. The incidence of worsening renal function (WRF) within 7 days from admission was significantly lower in the TLV group (26.9% vs. 57.7%, p=0.025). Furthermore, the rates of occurrence of persistent and late-onset (≥5 days from admission) WRF were significantly lower in the TLV group. Persistent and late-onset WRF were significantly associated with a higher incidence of cardiac death or readmission for worsening heart failure in the 90 days following discharge, compared to transient and early-onset WRF, respectively. Early administration of TLV, compared to increased FRM dosage, reduces the incidence of WRF in real-world elderly ADHF patients. In addition, it reduces the occurrence of 'worse' WRF-persistent and late-onset WRF-which are associated with increased rates of cardiac death or readmission for worsening heart failure in the 90 days after discharge. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional morphology and patterns of blood flow in the heart of Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, J Matthias

    2009-06-01

    Brightness-modulated ultrasonography, continuous-wave Doppler, and pulsed-wave Doppler-echocardiography were used to analyze the functional morphology of the undisturbed heart of ball pythons. In particular, the action of the muscular ridge and the atrio-ventricular valves are key features to understand how patterns of blood flow emerge from structures directing blood into the various chambers of the heart. A step-by-step image analysis of echocardiographs shows that during ventricular diastole, the atrio-ventricular valves block the interventricular canals so that blood from the right atrium first fills the cavum venosum, and blood from the left atrium fills the cavum arteriosum. During diastole, blood from the cavum venosum crosses the muscular ridge into the cavum pulmonale. During middle to late systole the muscular ridge closes, thus prohibiting further blood flow into the cavum pulmonale. At the same time, the atrio-ventricular valves open the interventricular canal and allow blood from the cavum arteriosum to flow into the cavum venosum. In the late phase of ventricular systole, all blood from the cavum pulmonale is pressed into the pulmonary trunk; all blood from the cavum venosum is pressed into both aortas. Quantitative measures of blood flow volume showed that resting snakes bypass the pulmonary circulation and shunt about twice the blood volume into the systemic circulation as into the pulmonary circulation. When digesting, the oxygen demand of snakes increased tremendously. This is associated with shunting more blood into the pulmonary circulation. The results of this study allow the presentation of a detailed functional model of the python heart. They are also the basis for a functional hypothesis of how shunting is achieved. Further, it was shown that shunting is an active regulation process in response to changing demands of the organism (here, oxygen demand). Finally, the results of this study support earlier reports about a dual pressure

  18. Functional role of voltage gated Ca2+ channels in heart automaticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eMesirca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activity of automatic cardiac myocytes controls the heartbeat in everyday life. Cardiac automaticity is under the control of several neurotransmitters and hormones and is constantly regulated by the autonomic nervous system to match the physiological needs of the organism. Several classes of ion channels and proteins involved in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics contribute to pacemaker activity. The functional role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs in heart automaticity and impulse conduction has been matter of debate for 30 years. However, growing evidence shows that VGCCs are important regulators of the pacemaker mechanisms and play also a major role in atrio-ventricular impulse conduction. Incidentally, studies performed in genetically modified mice lacking L-type Cav1.3 (Cav1.3-/- or T-type Cav3.1 (Cav3.1-/- channels show that genetic inactivation of these channels strongly impacts pacemaking. In cardiac pacemaker cells, VGCCs activate at negative voltages at the beginning of the diastolic depolarization and importantly contribute to this phase by supplying inward current. Loss-of-function of these channels also impairs atrio-ventricular conduction. Furthermore, inactivation of Cav1.3 channels promotes also atrial fibrillation and flutter in knockout mice suggesting that these channels can play a role in stabilizing atrial rhythm. Genomic analysis demonstrated that Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels are widely expressed in pacemaker tissue of mice, rabbits and humans. Importantly, human diseases of pacemaker activity such as congenital bradycardia and heart block have been attributed to loss-of-function of Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels. In this article, we will review the current knowledge on the role of VGCCs in the generation and regulation of heart rate and rhythm. We will discuss also how loss of Ca2+ entry through VGCCs could influence intracellular Ca2+ handling and promote atrial arrhythmias.

  19. Myocardial pre-synaptic sympathetic function correlates with glucose uptake in the failing human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongillo, Marco; Leccisotti, Lucia; John, Anna S.; Pennell, Dudley J.; Camici, Paolo G.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that the myocardium of patients with heart failure (HF) is insulin resistant. Chronic β-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in insulin resistance in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro, where sustained noradrenaline stimulation inhibited insulin-modulated glucose uptake. As the failing heart is characterized by increased sympathetic drive, we hypothesized that there is a correlation between pre-synaptic sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity in the myocardium of patients with HF. Eight patients (aged 67 ± 7 years) with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 44 ± 10%) underwent function and viability assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Pre-synaptic noradrenaline re-uptake was measured by calculating [ 11 C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine (HED) volume of distribution (V d ) with PET. Two groups of healthy volunteers served as controls for the FDG (n = 8, aged 52 ± 4 years, p -1 .g -1 ) and dysfunctional (0.49 ± 0.14 μmol.min -1 .g -1 ) segments compared with controls (0.61 ± 0.7 μmol.min -1 .g -1 ; p d was reduced in dysfunctional segments of patients (38.9 ± 21.2 ml.g -1 ) compared with normal segments (52.2 ± 19.6 ml.g -1 ) and compared with controls (62.7 ± 11.3 ml.g -1 ). In patients, regional MGU was correlated with HED V d . The results of this study provide novel evidence of a correlation between cardiac sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity, which may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance in failing human hearts. (orig.)

  20. Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardassis Dimitris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C. Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

  1. Hemodynamics, functional state of endothelium and renal function, platelets depending on the body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved systolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics, endothelium function of kidneys and platelets depending on the body mass index (BMI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and preserved systolic function. 42 patients (mean age - 76,690,83 years with CHF II-III FC NYHA with preserved systolic function (LVEF>45% were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed, endothelial function, serum creatinine levels and microalbuminuria were determined in patients. BMI and glomerulation filtration rate were calculated by formulas. The morphological and functional status of platelets was estimated by electronic microscopy. It was defined that increased BMI in patients with CHF and preserved systolic function determines the structural and functional changes of the myocardium and leads to the endothelial and renal functional changes. An increased risk of thrombogenesis was established in patients with overweight and obesity.

  2. Adverse effects of permanent atrial fibrillation on heart failure in patients with preserved left ventricular function and chronic right apical pacing for complete heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Brigitte; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Schwab, Jörg Otto; Mellert, Fritz; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Grigull, Andreas; Fimmers, Rolf; Maisch, Bernhard; Nickenig, Georg; Lewalter, Thorsten; Yang, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    The impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) on heart failure (HF) was evaluated in patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) function and long-term right ventricular (RV) pacing for complete heart block. Clinical, echocardiographic, and laboratory parameters of HF were assessed in 35 patients with established AF who had undergone ablation of the atrioventricular node and pacemaker implantation (Group A) and 31 patients who received dual-chamber pacing for spontaneous complete heart block (Group B). During a follow-up period of 12.7 ± 7.5 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class increased from 1.3 ± 0.5 to 2.1 ± 0.6 (p Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased from 59.7 ± 5.1 to 53.0 ± 8.2 (p function were moderately depressed in Group A compared with those in Group B: NYHA class 2.1 ± 0.6 versus 1.6 ± 0.7, p = 0.001; LVEF 53.0 ± 8.2 versus 56.9 ± 7.0 %, p brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) 1116.8 ± 883.9 versus 622.9 ± 1059.4 pg/ml, p 10 %, increasing NYHA class ≥1, and NT-proBNP levels >1,000 pg/ml. Permanent AF was associated with adverse effects on LV function and symptoms of HF in patients with long-term RV pacing for complete heart block, and appears to play an important role in the development of HF in this specific patient cohort.

  3. Large animal model of functional tricuspid regurgitation in pacing induced end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Marcin; Proudfoot, Alistair G; Langholz, David; Eberhart, Lenora; Brown, Michael; Schubert, Hans; Wodarek, Jeremy; Timek, Tomasz A

    2017-06-01

    Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is common in patients with advanced heart failure and frequently complicates left ventricular assist device implantation yet remains poorly understood. We set out to establish large animal model of FTR that could serve as a research platform to investigate the pathogenesis of FTR associated with end-stage heart failure. : Through right thoracotomy, ten adult sheep underwent implantation of pacemaker with epicardial LV lead, five sonomicrometry crystals on the right ventricle, and left and right ventricular telemetry pressure sensors during a beating heart off-pump procedure. After 5 ± 1 days of recovery, baseline haemodynamic, echocardiographic and sonomicrometry data were collected. Animals were paced thereafter at a rate of 220-240 beats/min until the development of heart failure and concomitant tricuspid regurgitation. : Three animals died during early recovery period and one during the pacing phase. Six surviving animals were paced for a mean of 14 ± 5 days. Cardiac function was significantly depressed compared to baseline, with LV ejection fraction falling from 69 ± 2% to 22 ± 4% ( P  tricuspid annulus (from 29.5 ± 1.6 to 36.5 ± 4.5 mm; P  = 0.01) and right ventricle (from 21.9 ± 0.2 to 30.3 ± 0.6 mm; P  = 0.03). Sonomicrometry derived contractility of RV free wall was depressed and at least moderate tricuspid insufficiency developed in all animals. : Biventricular dysfunction, tricuspid annular dilatation and significant FTR were observed in our model of ovine tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy. This animal model reflects the clinical situation of end-stage heart failure patients presenting for mechanical support. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptation to periodic pressure chamber hypoxia and its influence on systolic and diastolic functions in chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrieva М.К.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to determine the influence of adaptation method to periodic pressure chamber hypoxia on dynamics of systolic and diastolic functions of myocardium in patients with early stages of chronic heart failure. Materials and Methods: 100 men with post-infarction cardiosclerosis at the age of 40-65 years with I and IIA stages and l-ll functional classes (NYHA of chronic heart failure have been examined. Results: Positive dynamics of systolic and diastolic cardiac functions and other parameters of echocardioscopy under the influence of the hypoxic therapy in comparison with classical physical rehabilitation have been obtained. Furthermore, a more significant effect has been observed in patients with CHF IIA. Conclusion: Improvement in the geometry of the heart has proved that adaptation method to periodic pressure chamber hypoxia could be recommended for rehabilitation of patients with heart failure of early stages.

  5. Functionality of albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carriers in the Langendorff-heart †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobeln, Anna; Schlüter, Klaus D; Linders, Jürgen; Zähres, Manfred; Mayer, Christian; Kirsch, Michael; Ferenz, Katja B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prove whether albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based nanoparticles (capsules) can operate as a novel artificial oxygen carrier in a rat Langendorff-heart perfusion model. Hearts perfused with capsules showed increased left ventricular pressure and rate pressure product compared to hearts perfused with pure Krebs-Henseleit (KH)-buffer. The capsules prevented the myocardium from functional fail when in their absence a noxious ischemia was observed. Capsules did not change rheological properties of KH-buffer and could repeatedly reload with oxygen. This albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carrier preserved the function of rat hearts due to the transport of oxygen in a satisfactory manner. Because of these positive results, the functionality of the applied capsules should be verified in living animals.

  6. Keeping the heart in balance: the functional interactions of myoglobin with nitrogen oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flögel, Ulrich; Fago, Angela; Rassaf, Tienush

    2010-01-01

    in the heart. By a dynamic cycle, in which a decrease in tissue O2 tension drives the conversion of Mb from being a NO scavenger under normoxia to a NO producer during hypoxia, mitochondrial respiration is reversibly adapted to the intracellular O2 tension. Therefore, Mb may act as an important O2 sensor...... through which NO can regulate muscle energetics and function. As Mb is widespread throughout the fauna, the diverse oxygen-dependent interactions between Mb and nitrogen oxides may not only be of relevance for mammals but also for other vertebrates as evidenced by comparable phenotypes of ‘artificial...

  7. Mast cells regulate myofilament calcium sensitization and heart function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngkelo, Anta; Richart, Adèle; Kirk, Jonathan A; Bonnin, Philippe; Vilar, Jose; Lemitre, Mathilde; Marck, Pauline; Branchereau, Maxime; Le Gall, Sylvain; Renault, Nisa; Guerin, Coralie; Ranek, Mark J; Kervadec, Anaïs; Danelli, Luca; Gautier, Gregory; Blank, Ulrich; Launay, Pierre; Camerer, Eric; Bruneval, Patrick; Menasche, Philippe; Heymes, Christophe; Luche, Elodie; Casteilla, Louis; Cousin, Béatrice; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kass, David A; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-27

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Inflammatory cells orchestrate postischemic cardiac remodeling after MI. Studies using mice with defective mast/stem cell growth factor receptor c-Kit have suggested key roles for mast cells (MCs) in postischemic cardiac remodeling. Because c-Kit mutations affect multiple cell types of both immune and nonimmune origin, we addressed the impact of MCs on cardiac function after MI, using the c-Kit-independent MC-deficient (Cpa3(Cre/+)) mice. In response to MI, MC progenitors originated primarily from white adipose tissue, infiltrated the heart, and differentiated into mature MCs. MC deficiency led to reduced postischemic cardiac function and depressed cardiomyocyte contractility caused by myofilament Ca(2+) desensitization. This effect correlated with increased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and hyperphosphorylation of its targets, troponin I and myosin-binding protein C. MC-specific tryptase was identified to regulate PKA activity in cardiomyocytes via protease-activated receptor 2 proteolysis. This work reveals a novel function for cardiac MCs modulating cardiomyocyte contractility via alteration of PKA-regulated force-Ca(2+) interactions in response to MI. Identification of this MC-cardiomyocyte cross-talk provides new insights on the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the cardiac contractile machinery and a novel platform for therapeutically addressable regulators. ©2016 Ngkelo et al.

  8. Inspiration from heart development: Biomimetic development of functional human cardiac organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan J; Coyle, Robert C; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Wong, Kerri; Toomer, Katelynn; Menick, Donald R; Mei, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in human organoids has provided 3D tissue systems to model human development, diseases, as well as develop cell delivery systems for regenerative therapies. While direct differentiation of human embryoid bodies holds great promise for cardiac organoid production, intramyocardial cell organization during heart development provides biological foundation to fabricate human cardiac organoids with defined cell types. Inspired by the intramyocardial organization events in coronary vasculogenesis, where a diverse, yet defined, mixture of cardiac cell types self-organizes into functional myocardium in the absence of blood flow, we have developed a defined method to produce scaffold-free human cardiac organoids that structurally and functionally resembled the lumenized vascular network in the developing myocardium, supported hiPSC-CM development and possessed fundamental cardiac tissue-level functions. In particular, this development-driven strategy offers a robust, tunable system to examine the contributions of individual cell types, matrix materials and additional factors for developmental insight, biomimetic matrix composition to advance biomaterial design, tissue/organ-level drug screening, and cell therapy for heart repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsvold, Bjørn O; Vatten, Lars J; Bjøro, Trine

    2015-01-01

    documented, but conflicting evidence suggests that thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between differences in thyroid function within the reference range and CHD risk. DESIGN...... known thyroid or cardiovascular disease at baseline. EXPOSURES: Thyroid function as expressed by serum thyrotropin levels at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status....... This finding suggests that differences in thyroid function within the population reference range do not influence the risk of CHD. Increased CHD risk does not appear to be a reason for lowering the upper thyrotropin reference limit....

  10. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The left heart can only be as good as the right heart: determinants of function and dysfunction of the right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Discussions of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology most often emphasise the function of the left heart. However, right heart dysfunction plays an important role in critically ill patients and is often not recognised. This is probably because the role of the right ventricle is for generating flow more than pressure, and flow is not easy to evaluate. Of importance, when right ventricular function limits cardiac output, assessing left ventricular function gives little indication of overall cardiac performance. It has recently become evident that the right ventricle also has different genetic origins and characteristics from the left ventricle. The right and left ventricles interact through series effects, diastolic interactions and systolic interactions. The mechanisms of these, and their physiological and pathological significance are discussed.

  12. Genetic and environmental risk factors in congenital heart disease functionally converge in protein networks driving heart development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Greenway, Steven C.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) occurs in ∼1% of newborns. CHD arises from many distinct etiologies, ranging from genetic or genomic variation to exposure to teratogens, which elicit diverse cell and molecular responses during cardiac development. To systematically explore the relationships between...

  13. Restoring ecosystem functions and services by overcoming soil threats - The case of Mt. Hekla area in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Johann; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2015-04-01

    Soils are one of the main fundamental bodies of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil functions contribute substantially to the ecosystem services humans and all other living beings depend on. Current soil threats are in most cases related to anthropogenic impacts and derived environmental pressures. For instance, overexploitation has in many cases damaged ecosystem resilience, affected current equilibrium and caused severe soil degradation. The resulting dysfunctional ecosystems are incapable of providing necessary ecosystem services. In such cases ecosystem restoration is necessary to restore ecosystem functions and ecological succession. The Mt. Hekla area in Iceland is an example of land suffering from accelerated erosion amplified by anthropogenic impacts. The area is 900 km2 located in South Iceland in the vicinity of the volcano Mt. Hekla. Today over 40% of the area is classified as eroded but historical documents indicate that vast part of the area were fertile and vegetated at the time of settlement, 1100 years ago; hence was able to withstand the geological disturbances occurring prior to the arrival of man as is obvious from the pristine woody patches still remaining. Severe soil degradation followed the large-scale deforestation and overgrazing that took place within the area. The initial land degradation event is considered to have occurred in the 11th century, but has been ongoing since then in several episodes. The Þjórsá glacial river flows through the area and carries enormous amounts of sediments every year. After the deforestation, the ecosystem resilience was damaged and the land left exposed to the elements. Eventually large scale wind erosion started, followed with water erosion and increased impact of freeze-thaw processes. The Soil Conservation Service of Iceland started working in the area in the early 20th century and land reclamation operations have been ongoing until this day. Considerable successes have been made as is manifested in the fact

  14. Using the Human Activity Profile to Assess Functional Performance in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Vieira, Otávia Alves; de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rodrigues, Roseane Santo; Carvalho, Maria Luiza Vieira; Montemezzo, Dayane; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    To investigate (1) the validity of using the Human Activity Profile (HAP) in patients with heart failure (HF) to estimate functional capacity; (2) the association between the HAP and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance; and (3) the ability of the HAP to differentiate between New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 62 clinically stable patients with HF (mean age, 47.98 years; NYHA class I-III). Variables included maximal functional capacity as measured by peak oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2) using a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 as estimated by the HAP, and exercise capacity as measured by the 6MWT. The difference between the measured (CPET) and estimated (HAP) peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 against the average values showed a bias of 2.18 mL/kg/min (P = .007). No agreement was seen between these measures when applying the Bland-Altman method. Peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the HAP showed a moderate association with the 6MWT distance (r = 0.62; P < .0001). Peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the HAP was able to statistically differentiate NYHA functional classes I, II, and III (P < .05). The estimated peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 using the HAP was not concordant with the gold standard CPET measure. On the contrary, the HAP was able to differentiate NYHA functional class associated with the 6MWT distance; therefore, the HAP is a useful tool for assessing functional performance in patients with HF.

  15. Exploring applications of GPR methodology and uses in determining floodplain function of restored streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, S. W.; Shepherd, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately characterizing subsurface structure and function of remediated floodplains is indispensable in understanding the success of stream restoration projects. Although many of these projects are designed to address increased storm water runoff due to urbanization, long term monitoring and assessment are often limited in scope and methodology. Common monitoring practices include geomorphic surveys, stream discharge, and suspended sediment loads. These data are comprehensive for stream monitoring but they do not address floodplain function in terms of infiltration and through flow. Developing noninvasive methods for monitoring floodplain moisture transfer and distribution will aid in current and future stream restoration endeavors. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used in other physiographic regions for noninvasive and continuous monitoring of (1) natural geomorphic environments including subsurface structure and landform change and (2) soil and turf management to monitor subsurface moisture content. We are testing the viability of these existing methods to expand upon the broad capabilities of GPR. Determining suitability will be done in three parts using GPR to (1) find known buried objects of typical materials used in remediation at measured depths, (2) understand GPR functionality in varying soil moisture content thresholds on turf plots, and (3) model reference, remediated, and impacted floodplains in a case study in the D'Olive Creek watershed located in Baldwin County, Alabama. We hypothesize that these methods will allow us to characterize moisture transfer from precipitation and runoff to the floodplain which is a direct function of floodplain health. The need for a methodology to monitor floodplains is widespread and with increased resolution and mobility, expanding GPR applications may help streamline remediation and monitoring practices.

  16. Functional and pathological improvements of the hearts in diabetes model by the combined therapy of bFGF-loaded nanoparticles with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Lu; Ru, Ao; Shen, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Xi; Jin, Rong-Rong; Zheng, Lei; Hawkins, Kyle; Charkrabarti, Subrata; Li, Xiao-Kun; Lin, Qian; Yu, Wen-Ze; Ge, Shuping; Lu, Cui-Tao; Wong, Ho Lun

    2014-07-28

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic patients and currently there is no effective means to reverse its pathological progress. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has shown promise as a molecular therapy for DCM, but its delivery is inefficient and non-specific. In the present study, a therapy combining nanoparticle (NP) carrier and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was reported the first time for bFGF delivery to the heart of diabetic rats. bFGF-loaded NP (bFGF-NP) were prepared with Poloxamer 188-grafted heparin copolymer using water-in-water technique, and the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and bioactivity of bFGF-NP were studied. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of bFGF-NP were evaluated with primary cultures of the left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocytes in vitro. Therapeutic effects of bFGF-NP/UTMD on the heart of DCM rats were studied by measuring LV systolic and diastolic functions, hemodynamic characteristics and indicators of cardiac remodeling including myocardial collagen volume fraction and capillary density. Results demonstrated that bFGF-NP showed good round morphology, efficient bFGF encapsulation and stable bioactivity of bFGF in vitro. bFGF-NP/UTMD combined treatment significantly enhanced the efficiency of bFGF cellular uptake (Pfunctions and tissue morphology in the DCM rats were observed in bFGF-NP/UTMD group. These were not achievable using free bFGF, bFGF-NP or UTMD treatment alone. Our results show that combining a non-viral vector with UTMD technique is an effective strategy to deliver bFGF to the heart, and the resulting growth factor therapy has demonstrated potential to reverse the progress of DCM by restoring the cardiac functions and even the structure of damaged cardiac tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of global and regional heart functions with minimum transit times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Becker, V.; Vyska, K.; Freundlieb, C.; Bosiljanoff, P.

    1980-01-01

    The minimum transit time obviously represents the most constant flow parameter. By means of a constant, that was chosen to be 1.2 for cardiac flow, it is equal to the quotient of volume to flow and is also inversely related proportional to the fraction of ejection that is concerned. The first indicator passage through the heart is measured for the minimum cardiac transit time, whereby interesting regions were chosen for the two auricula, the two ventricula, the pulmonary artery and the aorta. The time activity characteristica obtained from the particular regions need a special smoothing by means of the gliding mean, so that the arrival times can easily be recognized. This way in one examination process the differences of arrival times respectively the minimal transit times can be obtained for each particular cardiac segment, the pulmonary circuit and the whole cardio-pulmonary circuit. The advantages of minimum cardiac transit time measurements are the simplicity and the speed of the noninvasive functional diagnostic with lower radiation load and accuracy and reproductability with low error limits, especially for the whole cardio-pulmonary MTT. The simultaneous acquisition of multiple cardiac segments is to emphasize a special way. For its particular values similar error widths were found as for the left ventricular function measurement with the triggered scintigraphy of the interior of the heart. A further advantage of the measurement is an almost problem-less application in body load. Therefore the MTT-measurement is especially useful for preventive diagnostics of coronary diseases. A combination of MTT-measurements of all segments of the small circuit with the triggered scintigraphy of the interior of the heart for analysis of regional left-ventricular ejection fractions and left-ventricular wall movements would essentially enrich the noninvasive cardiac diagnostics. (orig./APR) [de

  18. Emotional functioning of adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jamie L; Misiti, Brian; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Daniels, Curt J; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively compare findings of emotional functioning across studies of adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) through meta-analysis. The current meta-analysis included 22 studies of adolescent and adult survivors of CHD who completed measures of emotional functioning. Effect sizes were represented by Hedge's g. Heterogeneity was calculated and possible moderators (i.e., lesion severity, age, study location, study quality) were examined. Overall, adolescent and adult survivors of CHD did not differ in emotional functioning from healthy controls or normative data. However, significant heterogeneity was found, and there was a trend for degree of lesion severity to moderate emotional functioning. Further analysis of lesion severity indicated that individuals with moderate lesions reported better emotional functioning than controls/normative data. Limitations in existing literature precluded examination of patient age as a moderator. Study location and quality did not explain a significant portion of the variance in effects. Findings suggest that differences in emotional functioning may exist across lesion severities, and individuals with moderately severe lesions are emotionally thriving. Given the diversity within CHD lesion classifications, future studies should include other indicators of disease severity, such as measures of morbidity, to determine how disease may affect emotional functioning among survivors of CHD. Furthermore, authors and journals need to ensure that research is reported in enough detail to facilitate meta-analysis, a critically important tool in answering discrepancies in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Restoration of orbicularis oculi muscle function in rabbits with peripheral facial paralysis via an implantable artificial facial nerve system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Keyong; Zhang, Qunfeng; Geng, Liang; Liu, Xundao; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to restore orbicularis oculi muscle function using the implantable artificial facial nerve system (IAFNS). The in vivo part of the IAFNS was implanted into 12 rabbits that were facially paralyzed on the right side of the face to restore the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle, which was indicated by closure of the paralyzed eye when the contralateral side was closed. Wireless communication links were established between the in vivo part (the processing chip and microelectrode) and the external part (System Controller program) of the system, which were used to set the working parameters and indicate the working state of the processing chip and microelectrode implanted in the body. A disturbance field strength test of the IAFNS processing chip was performed in a magnetic field dark room to test its electromagnetic radiation safety. Test distances investigated were 0, 1, 3 and 10 m, and levels of radiation intensity were evaluated in the horizontal and vertical planes. Anti-interference experiments were performed to test the stability of the processing chip under the interference of electromagnetic radiation. The fully implanted IAFNS was run for 5 h per day for 30 consecutive days to evaluate the accuracy and precision as well as the long-term stability and effectiveness of wireless communication. The stimulus intensity (range, 0-8 mA) was set every 3 days to confirm the minimum stimulation intensity which could indicate the movement of the paralyzed side was set. Effective stimulation rate was also tested by comparing the number of eye-close movements on both sides. The results of the present study indicated that the IAFNS could rebuild the reflex arc, inducing the experimental rabbits to close the eye of the paralyzed side. The System Controller program was able to reflect the in vivo part of the artificial facial nerve system in real-time and adjust the working pattern, stimulation intensity and frequency, range of wave

  20. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R

    2017-11-07

    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.

  1. Changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and cardiorenal anemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylenko V.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature of chronic heart failure (CHF in elderly people is increasing incidence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which is associated with age. Such patients account for almost half of the total number of patients with heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with CHF. The impact of CRS on the structural and functional condition of the heart in these patients is studied insufficiently. The study involved 103 patients with CHF II-IV NYHA with preserved LVEF (>45% and CRS (hemoglobin <120 g/l and function, namely by the increase of end-systolic volume and decrease in the degree of LV fractional shortening size.

  2. Restoring a functional and mobile shoulder following reconstruction of the sternoclavicular joint with a free vascularized fibular flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Choke

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ is rare and often missed at early stage. In extensive disease with bony and soft tissue destruction, radical excision is indicated. The loss of SCJ results in exposure of vital structures of the anterior mediastinum and instability of the shoulder girdle. SCJ reconstruction using locoregional muscle flaps like the pectoralis major or latissimus dorsi flap has been well described. While these options can provide soft tissue coverage, they do not restore the structural framework of the SCJ which is important for shoulder excursion and chest wall movement. We describe a case of SCJ reconstruction using a free vascularized fibular flap following the resection of sternoclavicular tubercular osteomyelitis. The fibula bone was used to restore the clavicular strut by anchoring it to the remaining manubrium with a steel wire and by plating the lateral end to the remnant clavicle. The steel wire served as a “defunctioning” cerclage that allowed motion of the joint to induce fibrous union. A strict post-operative rehabilitation protocol keeping the shoulder adducted at the initial phase was prescribed. At one year follow up, the patient achieved good shoulder function with 140 degrees of shoulder abduction and 110 degrees flexion.

  3. Local gene therapy durably restores vestibular function in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emptoz, Alice; Michel, Vincent; Lelli, Andrea; Akil, Omar; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Lahlou, Ghizlene; Meyer, Anaïs; Dupont, Typhaine; Nouaille, Sylvie; Ey, Elody; Franca de Barros, Filipa; Beraneck, Mathieu; Dulon, Didier; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Lustig, Lawrence; Avan, Paul; Petit, Christine; Safieddine, Saaid

    2017-09-05

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying inherited forms of inner ear deficits has considerably improved during the past 20 y, but we are still far from curative treatments. We investigated gene replacement as a strategy for restoring inner ear functions in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1G, characterized by congenital profound deafness and balance disorders. These mice lack the scaffold protein sans, which is involved both in the morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, the sensory antenna of inner ear hair cells, and in the mechanoelectrical transduction process. We show that a single delivery of the sans cDNA by the adenoassociated virus 8 to the inner ear of newborn mutant mice reestablishes the expression and targeting of the protein to the tips of stereocilia. The therapeutic gene restores the architecture and mechanosensitivity of stereociliary bundles, improves hearing thresholds, and durably rescues these mice from the balance defects. Our results open up new perspectives for efficient gene therapy of cochlear and vestibular disorders by showing that even severe dysmorphogenesis of stereociliary bundles can be corrected.

  4. Restoration of diaphragmatic function after diaphragm reinnervation by inferior laryngeal nerve; experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barros Angelique

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the possibilities of reinnervation in a paralyzed hemidiaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve in rabbits. Reinnervation of a paralyzed diaphragm could be an alternative to treat patients with ventilatory insufficiency due to upper cervical spine injuries. Material and method Rabbits were divided into five groups of seven rabbits each. Groups I and II were respectively the healthy and the denervated control groups. The 3 other groups were all reinnervated using three different surgical procedures. In groups III and IV, phrenic nerve was respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the trunk of the inferior laryngeal nerve. In group V, the fifth and fourth cervical roots were respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the nerve of the sternothyroid muscle (originating from the hypoglossal nerve. Animals were evaluated 4 months later using electromyography, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements, sonomicrometry and histological examination. Results A poor inspiratory activity was found in quiet breathing in the reinnervated groups, with an increasing pattern of activity during effort. In the reinnervated groups, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements and sonomicrometry were higher in group III with no significant differencewith groups IV and V. Conclusion Inspiratory contractility of an hemidiaphragm could be restored with immediate anastomosis after phrenic nerve section between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve.

  5. The IAEA's functions and policies on the restoration of environments with radioactive residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    A global regime for the regulation of radiation sources is being established by the international community. A general agreement has already been achieved in the current international radiation protection recommendations, which should be resolutely applied. Protection against radioactive residues delivering relatively low level radiation doses can be regulated within the framework provided by the growing international regime based on these recommendations and composed of international conventions, safety standards and provisions for the application of these standards. It is to be noted, however, that the international safety regime is not more than a provider of a decision aiding mechanism based mainly on a global scientific consensus on radiation protection. Its outcome can only serve as input to a final (usually wider) decision making process, which may take into account societal and other concerns at a national, or even local, level. Many situations involving radioactive residues arise in the human habitant and, therefore, the decision making process should involve the participation of all relevant stakeholders in that habitant, rather than radiation protection specialists alone. The combination of decision aiding regulations based on the international regime being catalyzed under the IAEA and a decision making process that takes account of local circumstances and stakeholders' interests should prevent the current problems in the regulation of radioactive residues and in the restoration of the affected environments

  6. Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction. PMID:24429673

  7. Peripheral vascular insufficiency impairs functional capacity in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Murayama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF is a complex syndrome in which effort limitation is associated with deterioration of peripheral musculature. Improving survival rates among these patients have led to the appearance of cases in which other pathologies are associated with HF, such as peripheral vascular insufficiency (PVI. The combination of these two pathologies is common, with significant repercussions for affected patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare functional limitations and quality of life between patients with HF in isolation or HF + PVI. METHOD: Twelve patients with HF+PVI were paired to 12 patients with HF in isolation. All had ejection fraction 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The study participants who had mixed disease exhibited a greater degree of functional impairment than the group with HF, without reporting worsened quality of life.

  8. The Immediate Aesthetic and Functional Restoration of Maxillary Incisors Compromised by Periodontitis Using Short Implants with Single Crown Restorations: A Minimally Invasive Approach and Five-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marincola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional and aesthetic restoration of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis presents numerous challenges for the clinician. Horizontal bone loss and soft tissue destruction resulting from periodontitis can impede implant placement and the regeneration of an aesthetically pleasing gingival smile line, often requiring bone augmentation and mucogingival surgery, respectively. Conservative approaches to the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (i.e., treatments that use minimally invasive tools and techniques have been purported to yield positive outcomes. Here, we report on the treatment and five-year follow-up of patient suffering from aggressive periodontitis using a minimally invasive surgical technique and implant system. By using the methods described herein, we were able to achieve the immediate aesthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary incisors in a case that would otherwise require bone augmentation and extensive mucogingival surgery. This technique represents a conservative and efficacious alternative to the aesthetic and functional replacement of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis.

  9. A phase III, open-label, single-arm study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Cameron; Costanzi, John; Shulman, Robert; Dreisbach, Luke; Jacobs, Brian R; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in a phase III, single-arm study, the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic agent tenecteplase in restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). Pediatric and adult patients with dysfunctional CVCs were eligible to receive as much as 2 mL (2 mg) of intraluminal tenecteplase, which was left to dwell in the CVC lumen for a maximum of 120 minutes. If CVC function was not restored at 120 minutes, a second dose was instilled for an additional 120 minutes. Tenecteplase was administered to 246 patients. Mean patient age was 44 years (range, 0-92 y); 72 patients (29%) were younger than 17 years of age. Chemotherapy was the most common reason for catheter insertion. Restoration of CVC function was achieved in 177 patients (72%) within 120 minutes after the first dose. After instillation of a maximum of two doses of tenecteplase, CVC function was restored in 200 patients (81%), with similar frequencies in pediatric (83%) and adult (80%) patients. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 31 patients (13%); fever (2%), neutropenia (1%), and nausea (0.8%) were most common. One serious AE, an allergic hypersensitivity reaction, was judged to be related to tenecteplase and/or a chemotherapeutic agent that the patient was receiving concurrently. Consecutive administration of one or two doses of tenecteplase into CVCs showed efficacy in the restoration of catheter function in patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  11. Myocardial function during transesophageal cardiac pacing in patients with coronary heart diseases when selected for surgical management: nuclear stethoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitilev, S.B.; Mironova, M.A.; Gordeev, V.F.; Satrapinskij, V.Yu.; Badalyan, E.A.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow

    1991-01-01

    Studies of myocardial function during transesophageal cardiac pacing (TECP) were carried out in 70 patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD). All the patients were examined for central and intracardiac hemodynamics during TECP using nuclear stetoscope Bios (USA). The obtained data of central hemodynamics and myocardium contractibility make it possible to judge not only of pathological hemodynamics changes, as a CHD diagnostic factor, but of factors limiting reserve of cardiovascular system as well, depending on morphological heart changes

  12. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 ...

  13. Assessment of left ventricular function using dobutamine stress echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Nobuchika; Sugimoto, Takaki; Okada, Masayoshi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the left ventricular (LV) function in valvular heart disease, we employed the preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography and the myocardial scintigraphy. During the past 13 years, 37 of 324 the patients showed LV dysfunction with the % fractional shortening (%FS) of 25% or less in the preoperative echocardiogram. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups; Group A (n=21): %FS has improved late after operation; Group B (n=16): %FS has deteriorated or LV failure occurred. The mean follow-up period was 84±54 months after valve surgery. No significant differences were observed in the preoperative characteristics and operative variables between these two groups. The dobutamine stress test had been performed in 8 patients in Group A and 9 patients in Group B preoperatively, and the maximum increase ratio of %FS (Δ%FS) was used for assessment. Seven patients in Group A had showed Δ%FS of more than 9%, while all patients in Group B had showed Δ%FS of less than 9%. Myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 11 patients of them, and another 22 patients with %FS of above 25% acted as the control group. The Defect Score, which was defined as the sum of defect scales in 25 LV segments, showed a significant difference between 11 patients with LV dysfunction and control group. The distribution of the Defect Score in each myocardial segment, showed significantly higher in the posterior and inferior LV segments. In addition, the perfusion defect on myocardial imaging was initiated in the junction between the septal and LV free wall, and extended from the posterior to the lateral wall along with deterioration of LV function. In conclusion, preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography proved to be very useful for prediction of the postoperative LV function, and myocardial scintigraphy might be indicative of LV function even in valvular heart disease. (author)

  14. Assessment of left ventricular function using dobutamine stress echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Nobuchika; Sugimoto, Takaki; Okada, Masayoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    To assess the left ventricular (LV) function in valvular heart disease, we employed the preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography and the myocardial scintigraphy. During the past 13 years, 37 of 324 the patients showed LV dysfunction with the % fractional shortening (%FS) of 25% or less in the preoperative echocardiogram. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups; Group A (n=21): %FS has improved late after operation; Group B (n=16): %FS has deteriorated or LV failure occurred. The mean follow-up period was 84{+-}54 months after valve surgery. No significant differences were observed in the preoperative characteristics and operative variables between these two groups. The dobutamine stress test had been performed in 8 patients in Group A and 9 patients in Group B preoperatively, and the maximum increase ratio of %FS ({delta}%FS) was used for assessment. Seven patients in Group A had showed {delta}%FS of more than 9%, while all patients in Group B had showed {delta}%FS of less than 9%. Myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 11 patients of them, and another 22 patients with %FS of above 25% acted as the control group. The Defect Score, which was defined as the sum of defect scales in 25 LV segments, showed a significant difference between 11 patients with LV dysfunction and control group. The distribution of the Defect Score in each myocardial segment, showed significantly higher in the posterior and inferior LV segments. In addition, the perfusion defect on myocardial imaging was initiated in the junction between the septal and LV free wall, and extended from the posterior to the lateral wall along with deterioration of LV function. In conclusion, preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography proved to be very useful for prediction of the postoperative LV function, and myocardial scintigraphy might be indicative of LV function even in valvular heart disease. (author)

  15. Interaction of prostaglandins and angiotensin II in the modulation of renal function in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, M

    1988-06-01

    Despite a dramatic fall in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate is usually preserved in patients with congestive heart failure until the terminal stages of the disease. This maintenance of renal function appears to be achieved in part by the synthesis of two vasoactive factors within the kidney--angiotensin II and prostaglandins--which are rapidly released whenever renal perfusion is compromised or sympathetic nerve traffic to the kidneys is increased. Although these two hormonal systems exert opposite effects on systemic and renal blood flow and sodium and water excretion, both act to preserve glomerular filtration rate: prostaglandins by a vasodilator action exerted primarily on the afferent arteriole and angiotensin II by a vasoconstrictor effect on the efferent arteriole. Consequently, when the synthesis of these hormones is experimentally blocked, renal function deteriorates, especially in subjects with marked renal hypoperfusion and sodium depletion; these two factors interact to determine the importance of intrarenal hormonal release in the modulation of renal function. Clinically, four specific factors have been identified that predispose patients with heart failure to the development of functional renal insufficiency after treatment with converting-enzyme or cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors: (1) marked renal hypoperfusion, (2) vigorous diuretic therapy, (3) diabetes mellitus, and (4) intensity of hormonal inhibition within the kidney. This last risk factor may provide the basis for differentiating among enzyme-inhibitory drugs and suggests that renal insufficiency in low-output states may be minimized by the development of therapeutic agents that block hormonal synthesis selectively at sites that are critical to the disease process but spare the homeostatic tissue-based enzyme systems that exist within the kidney.

  16. Hemodynamic and neurochemical determinates of renal function in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Cameron; Cherney, David Z I; Parker, Andrea B; Mak, Susanna; Floras, John S; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Parker, John D

    2016-01-15

    Abnormal renal function is common in acute and chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and is related to the severity of congestion. However, treatment of congestion often leads to worsening renal function. Our objective was to explore basal determinants of renal function and their response to hemodynamic interventions. Thirty-seven patients without CHF and 59 patients with chronic CHF (ejection fraction; 23 ± 8%) underwent right heart catheterization, measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin) and renal plasma flow (RPF; para-aminohippurate), and radiotracer estimates of renal sympathetic activity. A subset (26 without, 36 with CHF) underwent acute pharmacological intervention with dobutamine or nitroprusside. We explored the relationship between baseline and drug-induced hemodynamic changes and changes in renal function. In CHF, there was an inverse relationship among right atrial mean pressure (RAM) pressure, RPF, and GFR. By contrast, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), and measures of renal sympathetic activity were not significant predictors. In those with CHF there was also an inverse relationship among the drug-induced changes in RAM as well as pulmonary artery mean pressure and the change in GFR. Changes in MAP and CI did not predict the change in GFR in those with CHF. Baseline values and changes in RAM pressure did not correlate with GFR in those without CHF. In the CHF group there was a positive correlation between RAM pressure and renal sympathetic activity. There was also an inverse relationship among RAM pressure, GFR, and RPF in patients with chronic CHF. The observation that acute reductions in RAM pressure is associated with an increase in GFR in patients with CHF has important clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  18. Ramp Study Hemodynamics, Functional Capacity, and Outcome in Heart Failure Patients with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Gustafsson, Finn; Houston, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ramp studies-measuring changes in cardiac parameters as a function of serial pump speed changes (revolutions per minute [rpm])-are increasingly used to evaluate function and malfunction of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). We hypothesized that ramp studies can predict...... patients (HeartMate II, Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA). Functional status was evaluated in 70% (31/44); average 6 minute walk test (6MWT) was 312 ± 220 min, New York Heart Association (NYHA) I-II/III-IV (70/30%) and activity scores very low-low/moderate-very high (55/45%). Decrease in pulmonary...

  19. Worsening renal function definition is insufficient for evaluating acute renal failure in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakabe, Akihiro; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Okazaki, Hirotake; Matsushita, Masato; Shibata, Yusaku; Nishigoori, Suguru; Uchiyama, Saori; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2018-06-01

    Whether or not the definition of a worsening renal function (WRF) is adequate for the evaluation of acute renal failure in patients with acute heart failure is unclear. One thousand and eighty-three patients with acute heart failure were analysed. A WRF, indicated by a change in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/mL during the first 5 days, occurred in 360 patients while no-WRF, indicated by a change failure; n = 98). The patients were assigned to another set of four groups: no-WRF/no-AKI (n = 512), no-WRF/AKI (n = 211), WRF/no-AKI (n = 239), and WRF/AKI (n = 121). A multivariate logistic regression model found that no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI were independently associated with 365 day mortality (hazard ratio: 1.916; 95% confidence interval: 1.234-2.974 and hazard ratio: 3.622; 95% confidence interval: 2.332-5.624). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the rate of any-cause death during 1 year was significantly poorer in the no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI groups than in the WRF/no-AKI and no-WRF/no-AKI groups and in Class I and Class F than in Class R and the no-AKI group. The presence of AKI on admission, especially Class I and Class F status, is associated with a poor prognosis despite the lack of a WRF within the first 5 days. The prognostic ability of AKI on admission may be superior to WRF within the first 5 days. © 2018 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  20. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  1. Cognitive function in patients with stable coronary heart disease: Related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gayda

    Full Text Available Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC, 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis, cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery and cognitive function (for all items (P<0.05. Compared to OHC, CHD patients had lower [Formula: see text] peak, CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (during recovery and short term-working memory, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (P<0.05. [Formula: see text] peak and CI max were related to exercise cerebral oxygenation-perfusion and cognitive function (P<0.005. Cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (exercise was related to cognitive function (P<0.005. Stable CHD patients have a worse cognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.

  2. Phenotyping of left and right ventricular function in mouse models of compensated hypertrophy and heart failure with cardiac MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Bastiaan J.; van Assen, Hans C.; van Deel, Elza D.; Niesen, Leonie B. P.; Duncker, Dirk J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function have an important impact on symptom occurrence, disease progression and exercise tolerance in pressure overload-induced heart failure, but particularly RV functional changes are not well described in the relevant aortic banding mouse model.

  3. Phenotyping of left and right ventricular function in mouse models of compensated hypertrophy and heart failure with cardiac MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, van B.J.; Assen, van H.C.; Deel, van E.D.; Niesen, L.B.P.; Duncker, D.J.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function have an important impact on symptom occurrence, disease progression and exercise tolerance in pressure overload-induced heart failure, but particularly RV functional changes are not well described in the relevant aortic banding

  4. Difference in long-term prognostic value of renal function between ischemic and non-ischemic mild heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, TDJ; Hillege, HL; Navis, G; Voors, AA; Brouwer, J; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Renal function is one of the strongest prognostic markers in patients with chronic heart failure, but it has been suggested that this might be due to (local, i.e. renal) vascular atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prognostic value of renal function in both

  5. Functional study of DAND5 variant in patients with Congenital Heart Disease and laterality defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristo, Fernando; Inácio, José M; de Almeida, Salomé; Mendes, Patrícia; Martins, Duarte Saraiva; Maio, José; Anjos, Rui; Belo, José A

    2017-07-24

    Perturbations on the Left-Right axis establishment lead to laterality defects, with frequently associated Congenital Heart Diseases (CHDs). Indeed, in the last decade, it has been reported that the etiology of isolated cases of CHDs or cases of laterality defects with associated CHDs is linked with variants of genes involved in the Nodal signaling pathway. With this in mind, we analyzed a cohort of 38 unrelated patients with Congenital Heart Defects that can arise from initial perturbations in the formation of the Left-Right axis and 40 unrelated ethnically matched healthy individuals as a control population. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal epithelial cells, and variants screening was performed by PCR and direct sequencing. A Nodal-dependent luciferase assay was conducted in order to determine the functional effect of the variant found. In this work, we report two patients with a DAND5 heterozygous non-synonymous variant (c.455G > A) in the functional domain of the DAND5 protein (p.R152H), a master regulator of Nodal signaling. Patient 1 presents left isomerism, ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta and pulmonary atresia, while patient 2 presents ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary atresia (a case of extreme tetralogy of Fallot phenotype). The functional analysis assay showed a significant decrease in the activity of this variant protein when compared to its wild-type counterpart. Altogether, our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of the laterality defects and related CHDs, priming for the first time DAND5 as one of multiple candidate determinants for CHDs in humans.

  6. Sustained IGF-1 Secretion by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improves Infarcted Heart Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagno, Luiza L; Carvalho, Deivid; Mesquita, Fernanda; Louzada, Ruy A; Andrade, Bruno; Kasai-Brunswick, Taís H; Lago, Vivian M; Suhet, Grazielle; Cipitelli, Debora; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which stem cell-based therapy improves heart function is still unknown, but paracrine mechanisms seem to be involved. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) secrete several factors, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which may contribute to myocardial regeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether the overexpression of IGF-1 in ADSCs (IGF-1-ADSCs) improves treatment of chronically infarcted rat hearts. ADSCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector to induce IGF-1 overexpression. IGF-1-ADSCs transcribe100- to 200-fold more IGF-1 mRNA levels compared to nontransduced ADSCs. IGF-1 transduction did not alter ADSC immunophenotypic characteristics even under hypoxic conditions. However, IGF-1-ADSCs proliferate at higher rates and release greater amounts of growth factors such as IGF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Importantly, IGF-1 secreted by IGF-1-ADSCs is functional given that Akt-1 phosphorylation was remarkably induced in neonatal cardiomyocytes cocultured with IGF-1-ADSCs, and this increase was prevented with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment. Next, we tested IGF-1-ADSCs in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model. MI was performed by coronary ligation, and 4 weeks after MI, animals received intramyocardial injections of either ADSCs (n = 7), IGF-1-ADSCs (n = 7), or vehicle (n = 7) into the infarcted border zone. Left ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography before and after 6 weeks of treatment, and left ventricular hemodynamics were assessed 7 weeks after cell injection. Notably, IGF-1-ADSCs improved left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac contractility index, but did not reduce scar size when compared to the ADSC-treated group. In summary, transplantation of ADSCs transduced with IGF-1 is a superior therapeutic approach to treat MI compared to nontransduced ADSCs, suggesting that gene and cell

  7. Executive Functioning and School Performance Among Pediatric Survivors of Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Melissa; Beebe, Dean W.; Drotar, Dennis; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence and severity of real-world impairments in executive functioning– responsible for children’s regulatory skills (metacognition, behavioral regulation) – and its potential impact on school performance among pediatric survivors of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Study design Survivors of complex CHD aged 8–16 years (n=143)and their parents/guardians from a regional CHD survivor registry participated (81% participation rate). Parents completed proxy measures of executive functioning, school competency, and school-related quality of life (QOL). Patients also completed a measure of school QOL and underwent IQ testing. Patients were categorized into two groups based on heart lesion complexity: two-ventricle or single-ventricle. Results Survivors of complex CHD performed significantly worse than norms for executive functioning, IQ, school competency, and school QOL. Metacognition was more severely affected than behavioral regulation, and metacognitive deficits were more often present in older children. Even after taking into account demographic factors, disease severity, and IQ, metacognition uniquely and strongly predicted poorer school performance. In exploratory analyses, patients with single-ventricle lesions were rated as having lower school competency and school QOL, and patients with two-ventricle lesions were rated as having poorer behavioral regulation. Conclusions Survivors of complex CHD experience greater executive functioning difficulties than healthy peers, with metacognition particularly impacted and particularly relevant for day-to-day school performance. Especially in older children, clinicians should watch for metacognitive deficits, such as problems with organization, planning, self-monitoring, and follow-through on tasks. PMID:26875011

  8. Intellectual functioning in children with congenital heart defects treated with surgery or by catheter interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ryberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies suggest that children with congenital heart defects (CHD are at risk for adverse intellectual functioning. However, factors related to lower intellectual functioning in this group are largely unknown. This study describes intellectual functioning in children with CHD in relation to severity of the heart defect, the child´s age and the socioeconomic status of the family (SES.Methods: 228 children treated with surgery or by catheter technique were tested using the Wechsler intelligence scales to determine Full Scale IQ (FSIQ. FSIQ was then analyzed in relation to age (3- 5- , 9-, and 15-year-olds, severity of the diagnosis (mild, moderate, and severe, and SES (low, medium, and high. The median age was 70 months (5.8 years with a range of 162 months (30 months (2.5 years to 192 months (16.0 years. Results: The total mean score on FSIQ was 100.8 (SD = 14.5. Children with severe CHD had significantly lower FSIQ than children with mild and moderate CHD, and 9- and 15-year-olds had significantly lower FSIQ compared to the 3-year-olds. Children from families with low SES had significantly lower FSIQ than children from medium SES and high SES families. No interaction between severity of diagnosis, age, and SES was found for FSIQ.Conclusions: 83% of the children with CHD performed at or above average with respect to FSIQ. SES and severity of diagnosis had significant main effects on FSIQ. These factors should be considered when planning interventions and follow-up programs for children with CHD.

  9. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Daniela; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  10. Heart Rate Variability Correlates to Functional Aerobic Impairment in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Magalhães de Queiroz Carreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD patients and has been implicated in their increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: To correlate heart rate variability (HRV during exercise treadmill test (ETT with the values obtained when measuring functional aerobic impairment (FAI in HD patients and controls. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving HD patients and a control group. Clinical examination, blood sampling, transthoracic echocardiogram, 24-hour Holter, and ETT were performed. A symptom-limited ramp treadmill protocol with active recovery was employed. Heart rate variability was evaluated in time domain at exercise and recovery periods. Results: Forty-one HD patients and 41 controls concluded the study. HD patients had higher FAI and lower HRV than controls (p<0.001 for both. A correlation was found between exercise HRV (SDNN and FAI in both groups. This association was independent of age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and clonidine or beta-blocker use, but not of hemoglobin levels. Conclusion: No association was found between FAI and HRV on 24-hour Holter or at the recovery period of ETT. Of note, exercise HRV was inversely correlated with FAI in HD patients and controls. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0

  11. Platelet function and activation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Linda J; Hosgood, Giselle L; French, Anne T; Irwin, Peter J; Shiel, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess platelet closure time (CT), mean platelet component (MPC) concentration, and platelet component distribution width (PCDW) in dogs with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease. ANIMALS 89 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and 39 control dogs (not CKCSs). PROCEDURES Platelet count, MPC concentration, PCDW, and Hct were measured by use of a hematology analyzer, and CT was measured by use of a platelet function analyzer. Murmur grade and echocardiographic variables (mitral valve regurgitant jet size relative to left atrial area, left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio, and left ventricular internal dimensions) were recorded. Associations between explanatory variables (sex, age, murmur grade, echocardiographic variables, platelet count, and Hct) and outcomes (CT, MPC concentration, and PCDW) were examined by use of multivariate regression models. RESULTS A model with 5 variables best explained variation in CT (R(2), 0.74), with > 60% of the variance of CT explained by mitral valve regurgitant jet size. The model of best fit to explain variation in MPC concentration included only platelet count (R(2), 0.24). The model of best fit to explain variation in PCDW included platelet count and sex (R(2), 0.25). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, a significant effect of mitral valve regurgitant jet size on CT was consistent with platelet dysfunction. However, platelet activation, as assessed on the basis of the MPC concentration and PCDW, was not a feature of subclinical chronic valvular heart disease in CKCSs.

  12. Multi-Functional Sensor System for Heart Rate, Body Position and Movement Intensity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael MAO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-functional wearable sensor has been developed with multi-axis accelerometer, disposable hydro-gel electrodes, and analog filtering components. This novel sensor implementation can be used for detecting common body positions, movement intensity, and measures bio-potential signals for ECG and heart rate analysis. Based on the novel sensor principle, a prototype combines position detection, heart rate detection, and motion intensity level detection together in a handheld device that records the physiological information and wirelessly transmits the signals through Bluetooth to a mobile phone. Static body positions such as standing/sitting, lying supine, prone, and on the sides have been detected with high accuracy (97.7 % during the subject tests. Further, an algorithm that detects body movement intensity that can potentially be applied in real-time monitoring physical activity level is proposed based on average variance values. Motion intensity results show variance values increase and exercise intensity increases for almost all of the cases. A clear relation between movement intensity level shown by an increase in frequency and/or speed of exercise increases the variance values detected in all three spatial axes.

  13. Thymosin β4: multiple functions in protection, repair and regeneration of the mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Sveva; Riley, Paul R; Smart, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in interventional medicine, cardiovascular disease still represents the major cause of morbidity worldwide, with myocardial infarction being the most common cardiac injury. This has sustained the development of several regenerative strategies based on the use of stem cells and tissue engineering approaches in order to achieve cardiac repair and regeneration by enhancing coronary neovascularization, modulating acute inflammation and supporting myocardial regeneration to provide new functional muscle. The actin monomer binding peptide, Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), has recently been described as a powerful regenerative agent with angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects on the heart and which specifically acts on its resident cardiac progenitor cells. In this review we will discuss the state of the art regarding the many roles of Tβ4 in preserving and regenerating the mammalian heart, with specific attention to its ability to activate the quiescent adult epicardium and specific subsets of epicardial progenitor cells for repair. The therapeutic potential of Tβ4 for the treatment of cardiac failure is herein evaluated alongside existing, emerging and prospective novel treatments.

  14. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hassager, Christian; Vestbo, Jorgen; Kjoller, Erik

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF). This was a prospective prognostic study performed as part of the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). This analysis included 532 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of HF. All patients underwent spirometry and echocardiography and the diagnosis of HF was made according to established criteria. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) was 65% of the predicted value [95% confidence interval (CI) 63-67%], mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 71% of predicted (95% CI 69-72%), and FEV(1)/FVC was 0.72 (95% CI 0.71-0.73). FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC were all significant prognostic factors for all-cause mortality in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis, FEV(1) had independent prognostic value (hazard ratio 0.86 per 10% change, P information for all-cause mortality in patients admitted with HF. Spirometry therefore seems to be worth considering for all patients admitted with HF in order to identify patients at high risk.

  15. Myocardial pre-synaptic sympathetic function correlates with glucose uptake in the failing human heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongillo, Marco; Leccisotti, Lucia [Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); John, Anna S. [Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Pennell, Dudley J. [Royal Brompton Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Camici, Paolo G. [Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    We have previously shown that the myocardium of patients with heart failure (HF) is insulin resistant. Chronic {beta}-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in insulin resistance in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro, where sustained noradrenaline stimulation inhibited insulin-modulated glucose uptake. As the failing heart is characterized by increased sympathetic drive, we hypothesized that there is a correlation between pre-synaptic sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity in the myocardium of patients with HF. Eight patients (aged 67 {+-} 7 years) with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 44 {+-} 10%) underwent function and viability assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Pre-synaptic noradrenaline re-uptake was measured by calculating [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine (HED) volume of distribution (V{sub d}) with PET. Two groups of healthy volunteers served as controls for the FDG (n = 8, aged 52 {+-} 4 years, p < 0.01 vs patients) and HED (n = 8, aged 40 {+-} 6 years, p < 0.01 vs patients) data. MGU in patients was reduced in both normal remote (0.44 {+-} 0.14 {mu}mol.min{sup -1}.g{sup -1}) and dysfunctional (0.49 {+-} 0.14 {mu}mol.min{sup -1}.g{sup -1}) segments compared with controls (0.61 {+-} 0.7 {mu}mol.min{sup -1}.g{sup -1}; p < 0.001 vs both). HED V{sub d} was reduced in dysfunctional segments of patients (38.9 {+-} 21.2 ml.g{sup -1}) compared with normal segments (52.2 {+-} 19.6 ml.g{sup -1}) and compared with controls (62.7 {+-} 11.3 ml.g{sup -1}). In patients, regional MGU was correlated with HED V{sub d}. The results of this study provide novel evidence of a correlation between cardiac sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity, which may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance in failing human hearts. (orig.)

  16. Long-term heart function after adjuvant epirubicin chemotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Jon M; Zerahn, Bo; Møller, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Newer studies raise concern that adjuvant anthracycline treatment for breast cancer (BC) causes long-term heart damage. We aimed to examine whether heart failure or impairment could be demonstrated several years after low-dose epirubicin-based adjuvant treatment.......Newer studies raise concern that adjuvant anthracycline treatment for breast cancer (BC) causes long-term heart damage. We aimed to examine whether heart failure or impairment could be demonstrated several years after low-dose epirubicin-based adjuvant treatment....

  17. Effect of biventricular pacing on heart function evaluated by gated blood pool study in patients with end-stage heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewinski, W.; Tarkowska, A.; Stefaniak, B.; Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E.; Kutarski, A.; Oleszczak, K.

    2002-01-01

    Biventricular cardiac pacing has been used as a complementary form of therapy in patients with severe heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the synchronous stimulation of both ventricles on the heart function measured by gated blood pool study (GBP). Ten patients (9 men and 1 woman aged 53-74 years) with end-stage heart failure (HF) were studied. In all patients long-term biventricular pacing (BV) was applied. The obtained results were compared with single-chamber stimulation in 5 patients and with sinus rhythm (SR) in 8 patients. All patients underwent repeated GBP with RBC labelled with 740 MBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate. The LVEF was calculated according to the standard method based on the count rates. Phase analysis was performed with the standard method using first Fourier element. Clinically in almost all patients moderate to important symptomatic improvement has been observed. The analysis of LVEF values revealed that BV pacing resulted in significantly higher values only in comparison with SR (21.6% ±10.3 v. 20.1% ± 10.1; p o± 29.6 v. 13.4 o± 37.6 and 7.4 o± 26.5 v. 6.0 o± 17.1, respectively). However, in comparison with LV pacing, BV stimulation revealed a change of dominant conduction abnormalities with a delay of RV contraction in relation to LV (9.0 o± 17.5 v. -3.0 o± 11.4). Biventricular pacing results in slight improvement of LVEF in patients with heart failure and can be considered a promising approach in patients with end-stage heart failure. Synchronous stimulation of both ventricles not always results in decrease of interventricular shift, however that observation requires further studies on a larger population. (author)

  18. A multi-pad electrode based functional electrical stimulation system for restoration of grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Nebojša M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES applied via transcutaneous electrodes is a common rehabilitation technique for assisting grasp in patients with central nervous system lesions. To improve the stimulation effectiveness of conventional FES, we introduce multi-pad electrodes and a new stimulation paradigm. Methods The new FES system comprises an electrode composed of small pads that can be activated individually. This electrode allows the targeting of motoneurons that activate synergistic muscles and produce a functional movement. The new stimulation paradigm allows asynchronous activation of motoneurons and provides controlled spatial distribution of the electrical charge that is delivered to the motoneurons. We developed an automated technique for the determination of the preferred electrode based on a cost function that considers the required movement of the fingers and the stabilization of the wrist joint. The data used within the cost function come from a sensorized garment that is easy to implement and does not require calibration. The design of the system also includes the possibility for fine-tuning and adaptation with a manually controllable interface. Results The device was tested on three stroke patients. The results show that the multi-pad electrodes provide the desired level of selectivity and can be used for generating a functional grasp. The results also show that the procedure, when performed on a specific user, results in the preferred electrode configuration characteristics for that patient. The findings from this study are of importance for the application of transcutaneous stimulation in the clinical and home environments.

  19. About the non-invasive nuclearmedical assessment of the left ventricular function in coronary heart disease - a comparison with right heart catheterization by floating catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.

    1985-09-15

    In this paper there has been analysed the diagnostic value of the parameters of the diastolic function (Peak Filling Rate, PFR and Time to Peak Filling Rate, TPFR) which are not to be covered by invasive methods. To this examination we applied a recently discovered nuclearmedical method: we used the Nuclear Stethoscope and with it were able to investigate not only the systolic function (Ejection Fraction) but also the diastolic function (PFR, TPFR). In addition to this we undertook a floating catheter during exercise for the critical examination of the left ventricle. The examined patients consisted of 28 patients, suffering from Coronary Heart Disease, the majority of them after myocardial infarction. In patients suffering from CHD there may be found relations between the nuclearmedical parameters of the diastolic function and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as far as in all patients who showed a functional disturbance with the aids of invasive methods this could also be proved non-invasively. (Author).

  20. About the non-invasive nuclearmedical assessment of the left ventricular function in coronary heart disease - a comparison with right heart catheterization by floating catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper there has been analysed the diagnostic value of the parameters of the diastolic function (Peak Filling Rate, PFR and Time to Peak Filling Rate, TPFR) which are not to be covered by invasive methods. To this examination we applied a recently discovered nuclearmedical method: we used the Nuclear Stethoscope and with it were able to investigate not only the systolic function (Ejection Fraction) but also the diastolic function (PFR, TPFR). In addition to this we undertook a floating catheter during exercise for the critical examination of the left ventricle. The examined patients consisted of 28 patients, suffering from Coronary Heart Disease, the majority of them after myocardial infarction. In patients suffering from CHD there may be found relations between the nuclearmedical parameters of the diastolic function and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as far as in all patients who showed a functional disturbance with the aids of invasive methods this could also be proved non-invasively. (Author)

  1. Transfer function restoration in 3D electron microscopy via iterative data refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorzano, C O S; Marabini, R; Herman, G T; Censor, Y; Carazo, J M

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) is a powerful tool for visualizing complex biological systems. As with any other imaging device, the electron microscope introduces a transfer function (called in this field the contrast transfer function, CTF) into the image acquisition process that modulates the various frequencies of the signal. Thus, the 3D reconstructions performed with these CTF-affected projections are also affected by an implicit 3D transfer function. For high-resolution electron microscopy, the effect of the CTF is quite dramatic and limits severely the achievable resolution. In this work we make use of the iterative data refinement (IDR) technique to ameliorate the effect of the CTF. It is demonstrated that the approach can be successfully applied to noisy data

  2. Restoring voluntary grasping function in individuals with incomplete chronic spinal cord injury: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Naaz; Zivanovic, Vera; Popovic, Milos R

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy has been shown to be one of the most promising approaches for improving voluntary grasping function in individuals with subacute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine the effectiveness of FES therapy, as compared to conventional occupational therapy (COT), in improving voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic (≥24 months post injury), incomplete (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] B-D), C4 to C7 SCI. Eight participants were randomized to the intervention group (FES therapy; n = 5) or the control group (COT; n = 3). Both groups received 39 hours of therapy over 13 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), and the secondary outcome measures were Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care subscore, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) self-care subscore. Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, after 39 sessions of therapy, and at 6 months following the baseline assessment. After 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 5.8 points on the TRI-HFT's Object Manipulation Task, whereas the control group changed by only 1.17 points. Similarly, after 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 4.6 points on the FIM self-care subscore, whereas the control group did not change at all. The results of the pilot data justify a clinical trial to compare FES therapy and COT alone to improve voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic incomplete tetraplegia.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone restores hepatocellular function and prevents liver damage in estrogen-deficient females following trauma and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, J F; Jarrar, D; Wang, P; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    2001-05-15

    Recent studies have shown that administration of the sex steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in males following trauma-hemorrhagic shock has salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and immunological functions under those conditions. Since the effects of sex steroids are gender specific, we examined whether administration of DHEA has any beneficial effects on hepatocellular function in female rats with low estrogen levels following trauma-hemorrhage. Ovariectomy was performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days prior to the experiments. The animals then underwent a 5-cm midline laparotomy and were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (40 mm Hg for 90 min). This was followed by fluid resuscitation (Ringer's lactate over 60 min) and administration of DHEA (30 mg/kg BW) or vehicle subcutaneously at the end of resuscitation. At 24 h after resuscitation hepatocellular function, i.e., clearance of indocyanine green (ICG), and hepatocyte damage (serum alanine aminotransferase) were measured. Plasma levels of DHEA and 17beta-estradiol were also assayed. Vehicle-treated rats had significantly reduced hepatocellular function, increased ALT activity, and decreased levels of 17beta-estradiol following trauma-hemorrhage compared to sham-operated animals (P trauma-hemorrhage, hepatocellular function and ALT activity were similar to those of shams. However, administration of DHEA did not influence the plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol. Administration of DHEA following trauma-hemorrhage restored hepatocellular function and reduced hepatic damage that was observed in ovariectomized female rats under such conditions. This salutary effect of DHEA did not appear to be due to elevated levels of plasma 17beta-estradiol. We therefore propose that DHEA should be considered a novel, safe, and useful adjunct in the treatment of trauma-induced hepatocellular dysfunction in ovariectomized and postmenopausal females. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Ventricular function during the acute rejection of heterotopic transplanted heart: Gated blood pool studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, H.; Bourguignon, M.H.; Desruennes, M.; Merlet, P.; Le Guludec, D.; Syrota, A.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty patients who had undergone a heterotopic heart transplant were studied prospectively to determine the relationship between rejection and ventricular dysfunction assessed from gated blood pool studies. A fully automated method for detecting ventricular edges was implemented; its success rate for the grafted left and right ventricles was 94% and 77%, respectively. The parameters, peak ejection and filling rates, were calculated pixel per pixel using a two-harmonic Fourier algorithm and then averaged over the ventricular region of interest. Peak filling and ejection rates were closely related with the severity of the rejection, while the left ventricular ejection fraction was not. Peak filling rates of both ventricles were the indices closely related to the presence of moderate rejection. Despite the low number of patients, these data suggested that gated blood pool derived indices of ventricular function are associated with ventricular dysfunction resulting from myocarditis rejection. Radionuclide ventriculography provides parametric data which are accurate and reliable for the diagnosis of rejection. (orig.)

  5. Learning discriminative distance functions for valve retrieval and improved decision support in valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Vitanovski, Dime; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Tsymal, Alexey; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Huber, Martin; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Disorders of the heart valves constitute a considerable health problem and often require surgical intervention. Recently various approaches were published seeking to overcome the shortcomings of current clinical practice,that still relies on manually performed measurements for performance assessment. Clinical decisions are still based on generic information from clinical guidelines and publications and personal experience of clinicians. We present a framework for retrieval and decision support using learning based discriminative distance functions and visualization of patient similarity with relative neighborhood graphsbased on shape and derived features. We considered two learning based techniques, namely learning from equivalence constraints and the intrinsic Random Forest distance. The generic approach enables for learning arbitrary user-defined concepts of similarity depending on the application. This is demonstrated with the proposed applications, including automated diagnosis and interventional suitability classification, where classification rates of up to 88.9% and 85.9% could be observed on a set of valve models from 288 and 102 patients respectively.

  6. Heart rate variability in adolescents with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Corbetta, Fabiola; Gambera, Alessandro; Nicosia, Franco; Bonini, Luisa; Neri, Francesca; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Nacinovich, Renata

    2014-02-28

    Aim of this study consisted in assessing the 24-h heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance, in 21 adolescents with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA, 11 normogonadotropic, N-FHA, and 10 hypogonadotropic, Hy-FHA) compared to 21 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 21 controls. As expected, subjects with AN showed a significant dysregulation in multiple HRV parameters, while Hy-FHA patients presented with a dysregulation in a few domains (SDNN, HFr), which was not present in girls with N-FHA, who showed values largely similar to controls. FHA might represent part of the AN biological spectrum, and a link between these two conditions might exist, possibly related to the degree of psychological and/or hormonal dysfunction. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. A peripheral blood transcriptome biomarker test to diagnose functional recovery potential in advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mario C

    2018-05-08

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that causes systemic hypoperfusion and failure to meet the body's metabolic demands. In an attempt to compensate, chronic upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone leads to further myocardial injury, HF progression and reduced O 2 delivery. This triggers progressive organ dysfunction, immune system activation and profound metabolic derangements, creating a milieu similar to other chronic systemic diseases and presenting as advanced HF with severely limited prognosis. We hypothesize that 1-year survival in advanced HF is linked to functional recovery potential (FRP), a novel clinical composite parameter that includes HF severity, secondary organ dysfunction, co-morbidities, frailty, disabilities as well as chronological age and that can be diagnosed by a molecular biomarker.

  8. Transplantation of adult mouse iPS cell-derived photoreceptor precursors restores retinal structure and function in degenerative mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd A Tucker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and c-Myc. As with normal mouse ES cells, adult dsRed iPSCs expressed the pluripotency genes SSEA1, Oct4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc and Nanog. Following transplantation into the eye of immune-compromised retinal degenerative mice these cells proceeded to form teratomas containing tissue comprising all three germ layers. At 33 days post-differentiation a large proportion of the cells expressed the retinal progenitor cell marker Pax6 and went on to express the photoreceptor markers, CRX, recoverin, and rhodopsin. When tested using calcium imaging these cells were shown to exhibit characteristics of normal retinal physiology, responding to delivery of neurotransmitters. Following subretinal transplantation into degenerative hosts differentiated iPSCs took up residence in the retinal outer nuclear layer and gave rise to increased electro retinal function as determined by ERG and functional anatomy. As such, adult fibroblast-derived iPSCs provide a viable source for the production of retinal precursors to be used for transplantation and treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

  9. Brain machine interface and limb reanimation technologies: restoring function after spinal cord injury through development of a bypass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Darlene A; Lee, Kendall H

    2014-05-01

    Functional restoration of limb movement after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) remains the ultimate goal in SCI treatment and directs the focus of current research strategies. To date, most investigations in the treatment of SCI focus on repairing the injury site. Although offering some promise, these efforts have met with significant roadblocks because treatment measures that are successful in animal trials do not yield similar results in human trials. In contrast to biologic therapies, there are now emerging neural interface technologies, such as brain machine interface (BMI) and limb reanimation through electrical stimulators, to create a bypass around the site of the SCI. The BMI systems analyze brain signals to allow control of devices that are used to assist SCI patients. Such devices may include a computer, robotic arm, or exoskeleton. Limb reanimation technologies, which include functional electrical stimulation, epidural stimulation, and intraspinal microstimulation systems, activate neuronal pathways below the level of the SCI. We present a concise review of recent advances in the BMI and limb reanimation technologies that provides the foundation for the development of a bypass system to improve functional outcome after traumatic SCI. We also discuss challenges to the practical implementation of such a bypass system in both these developing fields. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Full restoration of Brucella-infected dendritic cell functionality through Vγ9Vδ2 T helper type 1 crosstalk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ni

    Full Text Available Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play an important role in the immune response to infectious agents but the mechanisms contributing to this immune process remain to be better characterized. Following their activation, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells develop cytotoxic activity against infected cells, secrete large amounts of cytokines and influence the function of other effectors of immunity, notably cells playing a key role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response such as dendritic cells. Brucella infection dramatically impairs dendritic cell maturation and their capacity to present antigens to T cells. Herein, we investigated whether V T cells have the ability to restore the full functional capacities of Brucella-infected dendritic cells. Using an in vitro multicellular infection model, we showed that: 1/Brucella-infected dendritic cells activate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells through contact-dependent mechanisms, 2/activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells induce full differentiation into IL-12 producing cells of Brucella-infected dendritic cells with functional antigen presentation activity. Furthermore, phosphoantigen-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells also play a role in triggering the maturation process of dendritic cells already infected for 24 h. This suggests that activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells could be used to modulate the outcome of infectious diseases by promoting an adjuvant effect in dendritic cell-based cellular therapies.

  11. Towards a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoost, Shahab; Frost, Shawn; Van Acker, Gustaf; DeJong, Stacey; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 6 million people in the United States are currently living with paralysis in which 23% of the cases are related to spinal cord injury (SCI). Miniaturized closed-loop neural interfaces have the potential for restoring function and mobility lost to debilitating neural injuries such as SCI by leveraging recent advancements in bioelectronics and a better understanding of the processes that underlie functional and anatomical reorganization in an injured nervous system. This paper describes our current progress towards developing a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) that is envisioned to convert in real time the neural command signals recorded from the brain to electrical stimuli delivered to the spinal cord below the injury level. Specifically, the paper reports on a corticospinal interface integrated circuit (IC) as a core building block for such a BMSI that is capable of low-noise recording of extracellular neural spikes from the cerebral cortex as well as muscle activation using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in a rat with contusion injury to the thoracic spinal cord. The paper further presents results from a neurobiological study conducted in both normal and SCI rats to investigate the effect of various ISMS parameters on movement thresholds in the rat hindlimb. Coupled with proper signal-processing algorithms in the future for the transformation between the cortically recorded data and ISMS parameters, such a BMSI has the potential to facilitate functional recovery after an SCI by re-establishing corticospinal communication channels lost due to the injury.

  12. Restoration of Endothelial Function in Pparα−/− Mice by Tempol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerupma Silswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα is one of the PPAR isoforms belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that regulates genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is present in the vascular wall and is thought to be involved in protection against vascular disease. To determine if PPARα contributes to endothelial function, conduit and cerebral resistance arteries were studied in Pparα−/− mice using isometric and isobaric tension myography, respectively. Aortic contractions to PGF2α and constriction of middle cerebral arteries to phenylephrine were not different between wild type (WT and Pparα−/−; however, relaxation/dilation to acetylcholine (ACh was impaired. There was no difference in relaxation between WT and Pparα−/− aorta to treatment with a nitric oxide (NO surrogate indicating impairment in endothelial function. Endothelial NO levels as well as NO synthase expression were reduced in Pparα−/− aortas, while superoxide levels were elevated. Two-week feeding with the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger, tempol, normalized ROS levels and rescued the impaired endothelium-mediated relaxation in Pparα−/− mice. These results suggest that Pparα−/− mice have impaired endothelial function caused by decreased NO bioavailability. Therefore, activation of PPARα receptors may be a therapeutic target for maintaining endothelial function and protection against cardiovascular disease.

  13. Identification of functional mutations in GATA4 in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erli Wang

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD is one of the most prevalent developmental anomalies and the leading cause of noninfectious morbidity and mortality in newborns. Despite its prevalence and clinical significance, the etiology of CHD remains largely unknown. GATA4 is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates a variety of physiological processes and has been extensively studied, particularly on its role in heart development. With the combination of TBX5 and MEF2C, GATA4 can reprogram postnatal fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes directly. In the past decade, a variety of GATA4 mutations were identified and these findings originally came from familial CHD pedigree studies. Given that familial and sporadic CHD cases allegedly share a basic genetic basis, we explore the GATA4 mutations in different types of CHD. In this study, via direct sequencing of the GATA4 coding region and exon-intron boundaries in 384 sporadic Chinese CHD patients, we identified 12 heterozygous non-synonymous mutations, among which 8 mutations were only found in CHD patients when compared with 957 controls. Six of these non-synonymous mutations have not been previously reported. Subsequent functional analyses revealed that the transcriptional activity, subcellular localization and DNA binding affinity of some mutant GATA4 proteins were significantly altered. Our results expand the spectrum of GATA4 mutations linked to cardiac defects. Together with the newly reported mutations, approximately 110 non-synonymous mutations have currently been identified in GATA4. Our future analysis will explore why the evolutionarily conserved GATA4 appears to be hypermutable.

  14. Functional and biochemical responses of cultured heart cells to angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, I.; Gaa, S.; Rogers, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have utilized a cultured neonatal rat heart myocyte system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the stimulation of heart cells by angiotensin II (AII). The intact cultured cells, and membranes from these cells, have specific, high affinity receptors for 125 I-AII and for an AII antagonist, 125 I-Sar 1 ,Leu 8 -AII. Binding affinity was in the nanomolar range and was inhibited by guanine nucleotides. Functional studies on intact, beating cells revealed a maximal increase in contractile frequency of 50%, observed at 5 nM AII, with half maximal effects noted at around 1 nM. These responses were reversible and specific as the antagonist, Sar 1 , Ala 8 -AII, inhibited AII-induced chronotropic stimulation. AII (100 nM) had no effect on basal adenylate cyclase activity (20 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg 2+ ) in cell membranes. Further, in membranes where cyclase activity was stimulated with isoproterenol (290 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg 2+ ), addition of AII had no effect. The cyclase-inhibitory muscarinic agonist, carbachol, also failed to reduce isoproterenol-stimulated activity. In preliminary work with the intact cells, AII again did not alter basal cAMP levels (3-10 pmoles cAMP/mg prot). However, the hormone increased isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP levels by almost 50%. These cells are an excellent system for correlating AII receptor binding with functional and biochemical responses

  15. [Sodium hydrosulfide improves cardiac functions and structures in rats with chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Chao-ying; Zhang, Ting

    2011-11-22

    To explore the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) donor, on cardiac functions and structures in rats with chronic heart failure induced by volume overload and examine its influence on cardiac remodelling. A total of 47 SD rats (120 - 140 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups:shunt group (n = 11), sham group (n = 8), shunt + NaHS group (n = 10), sham + NaHS group (n = 8) and shunt + phentolamine group (n = 10). The rat model of chronic heart failure was induced by abdominal aorta-inferior vena cava puncture. At Week 8 post-operation, hemodynamic parameters, microstructures and ultrastructures of myocardial tissues were analyzed. Extracellular collagen content in myocardial tissues was analyzed after Sirius red staining. Right ventricular hydroxyproline concentration was determined and compared. At Week 8 post-operation, compared with the sham operation and shunt + NaHS groups, the shunt group showed significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) (mm Hg: 35.2 ± 3.9 vs 21.4 ± 3.7 and 28.1 ± 2.7, 32 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4 and 26 ± 4, all P vs 2336 ± 185 and 1835 ± 132, 1331 ± 107 vs 2213 ± 212 and 1768 ± 116, all P non-uniformly in the shunt group, some fiber mitochondria were highly swollen and contained vacuoles. And sarcoplasmic reticulum appeared slightly dilated. Polarized microscopy indicated that, collagen content (particularly type-I collagen) increased in the shunt group compared with the sham operation group. Additionally, compared with the shunt group, the shunt and NaHS treatment groups showed an amelioration of myocardial damage, an alleviation of myocardial fiber changes and a decrease in myocardial collagen content (particularly type-I collagen). Compared with the sham operation and shunt + NaHS groups, the shunt group displayed increased right ventricular hydroxyproline (mg×g(-1)·pro: 1.32 ± 0.25 vs 0.89 ± 0.18 and 0.83 ± 0.19, all P < 0

  16. Beneficial Effects of Physical Exercise on Functional Capacity and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress in Rats with Aortic Stenosis-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Janini Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the influence of exercise on functional capacity, cardiac remodeling, and skeletal muscle oxidative stress, MAPK, and NF-κB pathway in rats with aortic stenosis- (AS- induced heart failure (HF. Methods and Results. Eighteen weeks after AS induction, rats were assigned into sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary AS (AS-Sed, and exercised AS (AS-Ex groups. Exercise was performed on treadmill for eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed with Goodman and ANOVA or Mann-Whitney. HF features frequency and mortality did not differ between AS groups. Exercise improved functional capacity, assessed by maximal exercise test on treadmill, without changing echocardiographic parameters. Soleus cross-sectional areas did not differ between groups. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in AS-Sed than C-Sed and AS-Ex. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was changed in AS-Sed and restored in AS-Ex. NADPH oxidase activity and gene expression of its subunits did not differ between AS groups. Total ROS generation was lower in AS-Ex than C-Ex. Exercise modulated MAPK in AS-Ex and did not change NF-κB pathway proteins. Conclusion. Exercise improves functional capacity in rats with AS-induced HF regardless of echocardiographic parameter changes. In soleus, exercise reduces oxidative stress, preserves antioxidant enzyme activity, and modulates MAPK expression.

  17. Assessing the Effects of the Urban Forest Restoration Effort of MillionTreesNYC on the Structure and Functioning of New York City Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Timon McPhearson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current forest restoration practices for New York City’s (NYC MillionTreesNYC Initiative on public parkland include site preparation with extensive invasive species removal and tree and shrub planting with the goal of creating new multi-layered forests. We have launched a long-term investigation of these sites in order to understand the primary physical, chemical, and biological responses of urban ecosystems to MillionTreesNYC forest restoration practices. This research will examine high and low diversity tree and understory planting combinations in permanent experimental forest restoration plots across NYC. The study assesses how the interactions between soil heterogeneity, plant population dynamics, and forest restoration management strategies drive urban forest ecosystem structure and functioning. Working in collaboration with the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks and the MillionTreesNYC tree planting campaign, we are examining different restoration strategies to assess how restoration practices affect the ecological development trajectories of newly established forests in NYC.

  18. Oral administration of soybean peptide Vglycin normalizes fasting glucose and restores impaired pancreatic function in Type 2 diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, Jueping; Du, Zhongxia; Zhen, Hui; Lin, Mei; Jia, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Huang, Xinyuan; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Chen, Zhengwang

    2014-09-01

    Vglycin, a natural 37-residue polypeptide isolated from pea seeds in which six half-cysteine residues are embedded in three pairs of disulfide bonds, is resistant to digestive enzymes and has antidiabetic potential. To investigate the pharmacological activity of Vglycin in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved, the therapeutic effect of Vglycin in diabetic rats was examined. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by high-fat diet and multiple streptozotocin intraperitoneal injections. Diabetic rats were treated daily with Vglycin for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assayed weekly. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted on Day 29. Subsequently, levels of p-Akt in the liver and pancreas and cleaved PARP, Pdx-1 and insulin in the pancreas were detected by immunoblotting. The morphology of the pancreas and the insulin expression in the pancreas were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, human liver-derived cell lines were used to explore the in vitro effects of Vglycin on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Chronic treatment with Vglycin normalized fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. The improvement in glucose homeostasis and the increased insulin sensitivity mediated by restored insulin signaling likely contributed to decreased food intake and reduced body weight. Vglycin protected pancreatic cells from damage by streptozotocin. Although insulin synthesis and secretion in impaired β-cell were not significantly elevated, islets morphology was improved in the Vglycin-treated groups. These results suggest that Vglycin could be useful in Type 2 diabetes for restoring impaired insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and pancreatic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial shunt type at the Norwood operation impacts myocardial function in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Hanna K; Pihkala, Jaana; Salminen, Jukka; Hornberger, Lisa K; Sairanen, Heikki; Ojala, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the impact of initial shunt type, a Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt versus a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit (RV-PA) on myocardial function at different stages of surgical palliation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A population-based cohort of 63 Finnish children with HLHS (BT n  = 23, RV-PA n  = 40) born between 2003 and 2010 were studied retrospectively by echocardiography prior to Stages 1, 2 and 3 palliation and 0.5-3 years after Stage 3. For comparison of systolic myocardial function, we evaluated the RV fractional area change (FAC), strain, strain rate and mechanical synchrony from the apical 4-chamber view by velocity vector imaging. There were no intergroup differences in demographics during the study period. At baseline, no intergroup differences were detected in RV systolic myocardial function. Before Stage 2, RV FAC was higher ( P  = 0.03) in the RV-PA conduit group. At Stage 3, an increase in all systolic myocardial functional parameters was observed in the BT shunt group. After Stage 3, the BT shunt group had better RV systolic function. In multiple regression analysis, the shunt type and the stage of palliation had an impact on myocardial function. Although patients with HLHS initially palliated with a BT shunt demonstrate lower RV FAC after Stage I, RV FAC improves after Stage 2 with better systolic performance after Stage 3 compared with those initially palliated with an RV-PA conduit. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia restores expiratory lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Backer, Vibeke; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications secondary to intermittent intra-abdominal hypertension and/or atelectasis are common after abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernias. It is unknown if the respiratory function of this patient group is affected long term or impairs activities...... of daily living. We hypothesized that abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia would not lead to improved, long-term pulmonary function or respiratory quality of life. METHODS: Eighteen patients undergoing open abdominal wall reconstruction with mesh for a large incisional hernia...... (horizontal fascial defect width >10 cm) were compared with 18 patients with an intact abdominal wall who underwent colorectal resection. Patients were examined pre- and 1-year postoperatively. Examined measures included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second, peak expiratory flow...

  1. Functional organization and restoration of the brain motor-execution network after stroke and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil eBajaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cortical areas of the human brain motor system interact coherently in the low frequency range (< 0.1 Hz, even in the absence of explicit tasks. Following stroke, cortical interactions are functionally disturbed. How these interactions are affected and how the functional organization is regained from rehabilitative treatments as people begin to recover motor behaviors has not been systematically studied. We recorded the intrinsic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals from 30 participants: 17 young healthy controls and 13 aged stroke survivors. Stroke participants underwent mental practice (MP or both mental practice and physical therapy (MP + PT within 14-51 days following stroke. We investigated the network activity of five core areas in the motor-execution network, consisting of the left primary motor area (LM1, the right primary motor area (RM1, the left pre-motor cortex (LPMC, the right pre-motor cortex (RPMC and the supplementary motor area (SMA. We discovered that (i the network activity dominated in the frequency range 0.06 Hz – 0.08 Hz for all the regions, and for both able-bodied and stroke participants (ii the causal information flow between the regions: LM1 and SMA, RPMC and SMA, RPMC and LM1, SMA and RM1, SMA and LPMC, was reduced significantly for stroke survivors (iii the flow did not increase significantly after MP alone and (iv the flow among the regions during MP+PT increased significantly. We also found that sensation and motor scores were significantly higher and correlated with directed functional connectivity measures when the stroke-survivors underwent MP+PT but not MP alone. The findings provide evidence that a combination of mental practice and physical therapy can be an effective means of treatment for stroke survivors to recover or regain the strength of motor behaviors, and that the spectra of causal information flow can be used as a reliable biomarker for evaluating rehabilitation in stroke

  2. Restoration of Function With Acupuncture Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Jacob; Sparks, Linda; Deng, Yong; Langland, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This case report illustrates the improvement of an acupuncture-treated patient who incurred a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a snowboarding accident. Over 4 years, the patient progressed from initially not being able to walk, having difficulty with speech, and suffering from poor eyesight to where he has now regained significant motor function, speech, and vision and has returned to snowboarding. A core acupuncture protocol plus specific points added to address the patient's ongoing...

  3. Physical exercise restores microvascular function in obese rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; Martins, Rômulo Lanza; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are related to systemic functional microvascular alterations, including a significant reduction in microvessel density. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on functional capillary density in the skeletal muscle and skin of obese rats with metabolic syndrome. We used male Wistar-Kyoto rats that had been fed a standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks. Animals receiving the HFD were randomly divided into sedentary (HFD+SED) and training groups (HFD+TR) at the 20(th) week. After 12 weeks of aerobic treadmill training, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); hemodynamic, biochemical, and anthropometric parameters; and functional capillary density were assessed. In addition, a maximal exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased the VO2max (69 ± 3 mL/kg per min) and exercise tolerance (30 ± 1 min) compared with the HFD+SED (41 ± 6 mL/kg per min, P Exercise training also increased the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries in the skeletal muscle (252 ± 9 vs. 207 ± 9 capillaries/mm(2)) of the training group compared with that in the sedentary animals (260 ± 15 capillaries/mm(2)). These results demonstrate that exercise training reverses capillary rarefaction in our experimental model of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  4. Functional restoration of penis with partial defect by scrotal skin flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Mo-Sheng; Long, Dao-Chou

    2009-11-01

    We investigated a reconstructive method with better sensory and erectile function for partial penile defects and report our long-term results of surgical correction using scrotal skin flaps. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 18 patients with penile defects referred to us between 1992 and 2007. All cases were treated with a scrotal skin flap initially to repair the secondary defect after penile elongation. Of the 18 cases treated during the 15-year period the mechanism of primary injury was circumcision in 3, animal bite in 9 and penile tumor dissection in 6. Penile elongation, division of the suspensory ligament and scrotal skin flaps achieved penile augmentation and enhancement. Six cases were treated with a bilateral scrotal skin flap supplied by the anterior scrotal artery and 12 were repaired with a total anterior scrotal skin flap supplied by the anterior and posterior scrotal arteries. Penile length in the flaccid and erectile states was obviously increased postoperatively (p <0.05). All patients were followed 1 to 9 years (mean 2.3) postoperatively. Deep and superficial sensation recovered and erectile function was retained. Of the 18 patients 15 reported satisfied sexual intercourse during the 0.5 to 5-year followup. The method of correcting partial penile defect using scrotal skin flaps is effective and simple according to our long-term experience. This method achieves reasonable cosmesis and penile length in most cases with better sensory and erectile function.

  5. Functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the functional spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-liang; Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Shao-cheng; Du, Liang-jie; Gao, Feng; Li, Jun; Wang, Yu-ming; Gong, Hui-ming; Cheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.

  6. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restores erectile function after cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Florian; Buchner, Alexander; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Arndt, Christian; Stief, Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the time-course of functional recovery after cavernous nerve injury using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes. Sections of the cavernous nerves were excised bilaterally (5 mm), followed by immediate bilateral surgical repair. A total of 20 study nerves per group were reconstructed by interposition of empty silicon tubes and silicon tubes seeded with either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein-expressing Schwann cells. Control groups were either sham-operated or received bilateral nerve transection without nerve reconstruction. Erectile function was evaluated by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The animals underwent re-exploration only once, and were killed afterwards. The nerve grafts were investigated for the maturation state of regenerating nerve fibers and the fascular composition. Recovery of erectile function took at least 4 weeks in the current model. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than green fluorescent protein-transduced controls and unseeded conduits. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts promoted an intact erectile response (4/4) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks that was overall significantly superior to negative controls (P cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts compared with negative controls (P = 0.018) and unseeded tubes (P = 0.034). Return of function was associated with the electron microscopic evidence of preganglionic myelinated nerve fibers and postganglionic unmyelinated axons. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor presents a viable approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. SIRT1 Functions as an Important Regulator of Estrogen-Mediated Cardiomyocyte Protection in Angiotensin II-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family, which could activate cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective in regulation of heart function. Here, we determined the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates Angiotensin II- (AngII- induced cardiac hypertrophy and injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods. We analyzed SIRT1 expression in the hearts of control and AngII-induced mouse hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and pretreated with 17β-estradiol to measure SIRT1 expression. Protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte surface area analysis, qRT-PCR, TUNEL staining, and Western blot were performed on AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy samples and cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs to investigate the function of SIRT1. Results. SIRT1 expression was slightly upregulated in AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. SIRT1 overexpression relieves AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. 17β-Estradiol was able to protect cardiomyocytes from AngII-induced injury with a profound upregulation of SIRT1 and activation of AMPK. Moreover, estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI 182,780 and SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could block SIRT1’s protective effect. Conclusions. These results indicate that SIRT1 functions as an important regulator of estrogen-mediated cardiomyocyte protection during AngII-induced heart hypertrophy and injury.

  8. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  9. Restoration of Function With Acupuncture Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jacob; Sparks, Linda; Deng, Yong; Langland, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    This case report illustrates the improvement of an acupuncture-treated patient who incurred a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a snowboarding accident. Over 4 years, the patient progressed from initially not being able to walk, having difficulty with speech, and suffering from poor eyesight to where he has now regained significant motor function, speech, and vision and has returned to snowboarding. A core acupuncture protocol plus specific points added to address the patient's ongoing concerns was used. This case adds to the medical literature by demonstrating the potential role of acupuncture in TBI treatment.

  10. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern ...

  11. Cervicovaginal atresia with hematometra: restoring menstrual and sexual function by utero-coloneovaginoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisku, Sundeep; Varghese, Lilly; Kekre, Aruna; Sen, Sudipta; Karl, Sampath; Mathai, John; Thomas, Reju Joseph; Barla, Ravi Kishore

    2014-10-01

    Cervicovaginal atresia is a rare Mullerian anomaly. The management of cervicovaginal atresia has evolved from historical recommendations of hysterectomy to various reconstructive procedures more recently. The latter carries a risk of significant morbidity and unknown fertility. We present our experience in the management of this complex anomaly. Twenty patients with cervicovaginal atresia were operated in our hospital from January 2004 through December 2013. The details of their anatomical variations and functional outcomes were analyzed. Eighteen out of twenty patients had cervical agenesis. Two patients had cervical hypoplasia. All patients underwent utero-coloneovaginoplasty. Post operatively, all patients have regular menstrual cycles. One patient is married, sexually active and has satisfactory coital function. One patient had a bowel anastomotic leak that required a diversion ileostomy. Two patients developed mild stenosis. One patient has mild neovaginal mucosal prolapse. No patient has developed pyometra. Patients with cervicovaginal atresia need to be counselled about the various reconstructive options available and the potential risks. Social and economic factor play a significant role in determining the plan of management. For patients from conservative societies, utero-coloneovaginoplasty provides a safe conduit for the passage of menstrual flow and coitus, at the cost of permanent infertility.

  12. Plant functional groups of potential restoration use in advancing edges of high Andean forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Castro, Carolina; Bonilla, Maria Argenis

    2011-01-01

    The study of plant functional groups constitutes a useful tool in the identification of ecological characteristics relevant in community regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify plant's functional groups in high Andean forest advance edges and to evaluate their role during secondary succession in abandoned pasture lands. Based on 10 x 10 m vegetation relevees for the shrubby-arboreal stratum and 1 x 1 m plots for the herbaceous stratum and the revision of vital attributes for each of the species found, this study uses a multivariate approach to construct a trait-based emergent group's classification. The most important attributes in the definition of the groups were the dispersion mechanism and the presence of basal trunk ramification in woody species; in addition differences in the presence of vegetative propagation, specific leaf area index and the ratio height/diameter at breast height were found between groups of the shrubby-arboreal stratum. Four distinct groups were defined in the herbaceous layer and five in the shrubby-arboreal layer, each group contains species with similar colonization strategies. Among the defined groups, the herbaceous species dispersed by various abiotic factors, the shrubby species with basal ramification and dispersed by wind and the species dispersed by birds constitute key strategies in forest recovery in adjacent abandoned pasture lands dominated by Holcus lanatus, and facilitate the establishment of secondary forest species.

  13. Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to electrophysiologically assess the corticospinal tracts of adult rats and the recovery of motor function of their forelimbs after cervical cord hemisection. Of 39 adult rats used, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs of the forelimbs of 15 rats were evaluated, before they received left C5 segmental hemisection of the spinal cord, by stimulating the pyramid of the medulla oblongata on one side using an exciting microelectrode. All 15 rats exhibited contralateral electrical activity, but their CMAPs disappeared after hemisection. The remaining 24 rats received hemisection first, and CMAPs of 12 rats were assessed over time to study their recovery time. All of them exhibited electrical activity of the forelimbs in 4 weeks after surgery. The remaining 12 rats received additional right C2 segmental hemisection, and variation of CMAPs between before and after surgery was examined. The right side of the 12 rats that received the additional hemisection exhibited no electrical activity in response to the stimulation of the pyramids on both sides. These results suggest that changes in path between the resected and healthy sides, activation of the ventral corticospinal tracts, and propriospinal neurons were involved in the recovery of motor function after cervical cord injury.

  14. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia display an exhausted phenotype and impaired functionality that can be restored by chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, F.

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), beside a massive accumulation of neoplastic B cells, tumour-induced deficiencies in autologous T cells have been reported that impede efficient tumour control and might even support survival of the malignant clone. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that T cells in CLL, due to the persistent availability of tumour antigen, are exhausted, and that reduction of tumour load by chemotherapy might restore T cell functions. We could show that T cells in CLL patients and in a CLL mouse model display an exhausted phenotype, with high expression of the inhibitory surface receptor PD-1, that is clearly induced by the presence of tumour cells. Although the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 is not expressed on peripheral CLL cells, abundant expression could be shown in lymph node sections. Intriguingly, blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway increased short term tumour lysis in a murine in vivo cytotoxicity assay. Furthermore, we present data that after cytoreduction by fludarabine, a standard chemotherapy agent for CLL, the surviving T cell pool consists mainly of fully functional memory T cells with high proliferative potential and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines. Taken together, we conclude that the impaired tumour surveillance observed in CLL might be rooted in the exhaustion of tumour-specific effector T cells. A combination of cytodepletion by chemotherapy and blockade of PD-1 might hence represent a novel therapeutic approach for CLL. (author) [de

  15. Morphology of Donor and Recipient Nerves Utilised in Nerve Transfers to Restore Upper Limb Function in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Messina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss of hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI impacts heavily on independence. Multiple nerve transfer surgery has been applied successfully after cervical SCI to restore critical arm and hand functions, and the outcome depends on nerve integrity. Nerve integrity is assessed indirectly using muscle strength testing and intramuscular electromyography, but these measures cannot show the manifestation that SCI has on the peripheral nerves. We directly assessed the morphology of nerves biopsied at the time of surgery, from three patients within 18 months post injury. Our objective was to document their morphologic features. Donor nerves included teres minor, posterior axillary, brachialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis and supinator. Recipient nerves included triceps, posterior interosseus (PIN and anterior interosseus nerves (AIN. They were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and embedded in Araldite Epon for light microscopy. Eighty percent of nerves showed abnormalities. Most common were myelin thickening and folding, demyelination, inflammation and a reduction of large myelinated axon density. Others were a thickened perineurium, oedematous endoneurium and Renaut bodies. Significantly, very thinly myelinated axons and groups of unmyelinated axons were observed indicating regenerative efforts. Abnormalities exist in both donor and recipient nerves and they differ in appearance and aetiology. The abnormalities observed may be preventable or reversible.

  16. Cortical control of intraspinal microstimulation: Toward a new approach for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoost, Shahab; Frost, Shawn; Dunham, Caleb; DeJong, Stacey; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 6 million people in the United States are currently living with paralysis in which 23% of the cases are related to spinal cord injury (SCI). Miniaturized closed-loop neural interfaces have the potential for restoring function and mobility lost to debilitating neural injuries such as SCI by leveraging recent advancements in bioelectronics and a better understanding of the processes that underlie functional and anatomical reorganization in an injured nervous system. This paper describes our current progress toward developing a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) that converts in real time the neural command signals recorded from the cortical motor regions to electrical stimuli delivered to the spinal cord below the injury level. Using a combination of custom integrated circuit (IC) technology for corticospinal interfacing and field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based technology for embedded signal processing, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of distinct muscle pattern activation via intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) controlled in real time by intracortical neural spikes in an anesthetized laboratory rat.

  17. Engineered disulfide bonds restore chaperone-like function of DJ-1 mutants linked to familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd; Clark, Lindsay; Ray, Soumya S

    2010-07-13

    Loss-of-function mutations such as L166P, A104T, and M26I in the DJ-1 gene (PARK7) have been linked to autosomal-recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular and structural studies of the familial mutants suggest that these mutations may destabilize the dimeric structure. To look for common dynamical signatures among the DJ-1 mutants, short MD simulations of up to 1000 ps were conducted to identify the weakest region of the protein (residues 38-70). In an attempt to stabilize the protein, we mutated residue Val 51 to cysteine (V51C) to make a symmetry-related disulfide bridge with the preexisting Cys 53 on the opposite subunit. We found that the introduction of this disulfide linkage stabilized the mutants A104T and M26I against thermal denaturation, improved their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), and restored a chaperone-like function of blocking alpha-synuclein aggregation. The L166P mutant was far too unstable to be rescued by introduction of the V51C mutation. The results presented here point to the possible development of pharmacological chaperones, which may eventually lead to PD therapeutics.

  18. Expression and function of Ccbe1 in the chick early cardiogenic regions are required for correct heart development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Furtado

    Full Text Available During the course of a differential screen to identify transcripts specific for chick heart/hemangioblast precursor cells, we have identified Ccbe1 (Collagen and calcium-binding EGF-like domain 1. While the importance of Ccbe1 for the development of the lymphatic system is now well demonstrated, its role in cardiac formation remained unknown. Here we show by whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis that cCcbe1 mRNA is initially detected in early cardiac progenitors of the two bilateral cardiogenic fields (HH4, and at later stages on the second heart field (HH9-18. Furthermore, cCcbe1 is expressed in multipotent and highly proliferative cardiac progenitors. We characterized the role of cCcbe1 during early cardiogenesis by performing functional studies. Upon morpholino-induced cCcbe1 knockdown, the chick embryos displayed heart malformations, which include aberrant fusion of the heart fields, leading to incomplete terminal differentiation of the cardiomyocytes. cCcbe1 overexpression also resulted in severe heart defects, including cardia bifida. Altogether, our data demonstrate that although cardiac progenitors cells are specified in cCcbe1 morphants, the migration and proliferation of cardiac precursors cells are impaired, suggesting that cCcbe1 is a key gene during early heart development.

  19. Structural myocardial changes in chronic heart failure of II functional class based on overweight and abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Netyazhenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. 153 patients with CHF of II functional class, with normal weight, overweight and abdominal obesity I-III degrees Examined. Studied structural myocardial changes at CHF depending on the degree of excess weight. Structural changes of the heart, the extent and type of myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle depending on the availability of overweight and obesity were revealed. Actuality. Chronic heart failure (CHF is characterized by a high mortality rate and frequency of hospitalization of patients, a significant decline in their quality of life and significant financial burden. CHF is a medical and social problem that a certain dominant in the near future all over the world, because the average life expectancy of patients with the diagnosis ranges from 1,7 to 7 years and the long-term observation is evidence of the increased risk of death, that 5 year more than four times the initial value. The main etiological factors of occurrence, progression and adverse exit of CHF are age, coronary heart disease (CHD, arterial hypertension, valvular heart disease, diabetes and obesity. In general, structural changes of heart in obesity can be divided into the following main components: left ventricle hypertrophy, changes in the structural composition of cardiac tissue, heart obesity, change of the sizes of the right ventricle and left atrium (PL, valvular heart disease. Research objective: to establish the structural changes of CHF of II functional class depending on the availability of overweight and abdominal type of obesity various degrees. Material and methods: 153 patients with CHF of II functional class were examined. Etiological factors of development CHF were hypertensive disease, chronic forms of CAD and the combination of these pathologies. The diagnosis of CHF installed according to WHO criteria, the European society of cardiology and the Association of cardiologists of Ukraine, and classified according to functional classification of

  20. Glucose Homeostasis, Pancreatic Endocrine Function, and Outcomes in Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Benes, Jan; Franekova, Janka; Kovar, Jan; Borlaug, Barry A; Segetova, Marketa; Tura, Andrea; Pelikanova, Tereza

    2017-08-07

    The mechanisms and relevance of impaired glucose homeostasis in advanced heart failure (HF) are poorly understood. The study goals were to examine glucose regulation, pancreatic endocrine function, and metabolic factors related to prognosis in patients with nondiabetic advanced HF. In total, 140 advanced HF patients without known diabetes mellitus and 21 sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls underwent body composition assessment, oral glucose tolerance testing, and measurement of glucose-regulating hormones to model pancreatic β-cell secretory response. Compared with controls, HF patients had similar fasting glucose and insulin levels but higher levels after oral glucose tolerance testing. Insulin secretion was not impaired, but with increasing HF severity, there was a reduction in glucose, insulin, and insulin/glucagon ratio-a signature of starvation. The insulin/C-peptide ratio was decreased in HF, indicating enhanced insulin clearance, and this was correlated with lower cardiac output, hepatic insufficiency, right ventricular dysfunction, and body wasting. After a median of 449 days, 41% of patients experienced an adverse event (death, urgent transplant, or assist device). Increased glucagon and, paradoxically, low fasting plasma glucose displayed the strongest relations to outcome ( P =0.01). Patients in the lowest quartile of fasting plasma glucose (3.8-5.1 mmol·L -1 , 68-101 mg·dL -1 ) had 3-times higher event risk than in the top quartile (6.0-7.9 mmol·L -1 , 108-142 mg·dL -1 ; relative risk: 3.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.46-6.77]; P =0.002). Low fasting plasma glucose and increased glucagon are robust metabolic predictors of adverse events in advanced HF. Pancreatic insulin secretion is preserved in advanced HF, but levels decrease with increasing HF severity due to enhanced insulin clearance that is coupled with right heart failure and cardiac cachexia. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc

  1. Restoration of tryptophan hydroxylase functions and serotonin content in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus by antioxidant treatment during hypoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saydur Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prototypical scavengers of oxygen-free radicals and have been shown to prevent neuroendocrine dysfunction in vertebrates during oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated whether antioxidant treatment can reverse hypoxia-induced down-regulation of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH and serotonergic functions in Atlantic croaker. Hypothalamic neuronal contents of TPH-1 and TPH-2 proteins, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP as well as hypothalamic TPH-1 and TPH-2 mRNA expression and TPH activity were measured in croaker after exposure to hypoxia and treatment with pharmacological agents. Multiple injections of N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, caused comparable decreases in hypothalamic TPHs functions and 5-HT contents to that induced by hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks which were partially restored by repeated injections with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS-inhibitor and/or vitamin E. Double-labeled immunohistochemical results showed that TPHs and 5-HT neurons were co-expressed with neuronal NOS (nNOS, a neuroenzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide, a free radical, in hypothalamic neurons. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced impairment of TPH and serotonergic functions are mediated by nNOS and involve the generation of free radicals and a decrease in the antioxidant status. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a protective role for an antioxidant in maintaining neural TPHs functions and 5-HT regulation in an aquatic vertebrate during hypoxic stress.

  2. Satisfaction After Restoring Aesthetics and Function in a Child with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Özcan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is a hereditary disorder that disrupts the formation of enamel in both primary and permanent dentition. Management of AI is a challenge for the patient and the clinician. This case report presents the management of AI in a six-year-old female patient. Considering the patient’s age, we decided to make removable dentures in order to avoid growth and development problems. Conventional complete dentures were made, vertical dimension was increased, and the desired aesthetics and function were gained. Additionally, satisfaction with prosthodontic rehabilitation was evaluated using a questionnaire. A high level of patient and parent satisfaction was obtained. Treatment planning for patients with AI is related to many factors including the age and socioeconomic status of the patient, the type and severity of the disorder, the intraoral situation at the time the treatment is planned and most importantly, cooperation of the patient plays a major role.

  3. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lifeng [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zhou, Yong [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yu, Shanhe [Shanghai Institute of Hematology, RuiJin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ji, Guixiang [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences/Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042 (China); Wang, Lei [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Aihua, E-mail: aihuagu@njmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes and nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.

  4. Restoration of Liver Function and Portosystemic Pressure Gradient after TIPSS and Late TIPSS Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, U.; Hansmann, J.; Duex, M.; Noeldge, G.; Sauer, P.; Richter, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) may be indicated to control bleeding from esophageal and gastric varicose veins, to reduce ascites, and to treat patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and veno-occlusive disease. Numerous measures to improve the safety and methodology of the procedure have helped to increase the technical and clinical success. Follow-up of TIPSS patients has revealed shunt stenosis to occur more often in patients with preserved liver function (Child A, Child B). In addition, the extent of liver cirrhosis is the main factor that determines prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the effects of TIPSS with respect to portosystemic hemodynamics. This report deals with a cirrhotic patient who stopped drinking 7 months prior to admission. He received TIPSS to control ascites and recurrent esophageal bleeding. Two years later remarkable hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and shunt occlusion was observed. The portosystemic pressure gradient dropped from 24 mmHg before TIPSS to 11 mmHg and remained stable after shunt occlusion. The Child's B cirrhosis prior to TIPSS turned into Child's A cirrhosis and remained stable during the follow-up period of 32 months. This indicates that liver function of TIPSS patients may recover due to hypertrophy of the remaining non-cirrhotic liver tissue. In addition the hepatic hemodynamics may return to normal. In conclusion, TIPSS cannot cure cirrhosis but its progress may be halted if the cause can be removed. This may result in a normal portosystemic gradient, leading consequently to shunt occlusion

  5. Functional outcome and quality of life following restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekar, Uday; Gupta, Subash; Soin, Arvinder; Nundy, Samiran

    2010-08-01

    The functional outcome and quality of life after sphincter-saving operations for ulcerative colitis have not been previously assessed in Indian patients whose dietary habits and socio-cultural practices differ considerably from those in western countries. Between 1996 and 2002, we performed 46 J-pouch ileoanal anastomoses (IPAA), for patients with ulcerative colitis. Thirty-eight of these patients had had their ileostomy closure more than 4 years previously of whom 31 could be assessed by interviews and a telephonic questionnaire. Their quality of life was objectively assessed using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) index, a validated index for IPAA, the score being 1 in normal people. There were 20 males and 11 females with a mean age of 38 years. In the same period, six of the nine patients who did not opt to have an IPAA (permanent stoma) were assessed. These included four males and two females, mean age 45 years (36-52). One patient died in the postoperative period and another died 3 months after surgery from multiple small bowel perforations. Other complications included intestinal obstruction in seven, pouchitis in four and incisional hernia in two. One pouch had to be converted to a permanent ileostomy following development of a fistula because of Crohn's disease. The mean daily postoperative stool frequency was seven (range 2-20). Eighty-one percent had perfect daytime continence and 81% used dietary restrictions. Eighty-four percent rated their pouch function to be excellent or good. All patients preferred IPAA to an ileostomy citing mainly social and cultural reasons and were willing to choose it again. The mean preoperative CGQL score (0.27) increased significantly after colectomy (0.50) and after closure of ileostomy (0.77; p quality of life in Indians with ulcerative colitis and may be the most appropriate procedure for such patients in developing countries.

  6. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  7. Nuclear heart function diagnostics. Studies during the first tracer passage and on the distribution equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1982-01-01

    The author attempted to establish a method of evaluation for gated blood pool scintiscanning. The necessary hardware for this purpose was installed, and a method of evaluation for the image sequences was developed on the basis of the medicine-specific GAMMA-11 routines. In addition, the inflow phase directly after the injection was observed. Two different images were possible, i.e. left-oblique in 45 0 projection or right-oblique in 30 0 projection. The findings were evaluated by an analysis of the cyclic heart action and by a quantitative determination of global parameters of the heart function, e.g. ejection fraction, rate of volume change etc. The regional myocardial motility can be assessed after orthogonal transformation into an amplitude image and a phase image. A new type of transformation is presented, i.e. the ''quantized sine/cosine transformation'' which allows fast calculation without a floating-point processor. States of akinesia and dyskinesia are well imaged. The first-passage technique gives a general picture of the cardiopulmonary situation. The algorithms described were used in 26 cardiac examinations of 24 patients. Ten further patients were examined by angiography. Except for one case of hypokinesia of the back wall, all disturbances of motility were detected. The angiographic and scintigraphic ejection fractions are correlated with r = 0.98, the rates between first-pass and gated study with r = 0.92, and the rates between 12-picture and 48-picture sequences with r = 0.98. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Reach-scale stream restoration in agricultural streams of southern Minnesota alters structural and functional responses of macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Christine L.; Eggert, Susan L.; Magner, Joe; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that stream restoration at the reach scale may not increase stream biodiversity, raising concerns about the utility of this conservation practice. We examined whether reach-scale restoration in disturbed agricultural streams was associated with changes in macroinvertebrate community structure (total macroinvertebrate taxon richness, total macroinvertebrate density, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera [EPT] taxon richness, % abundance of EPT taxa) or secondary production (macroinvertebrate biomass over time). We collected macroinvertebrate samples over the course of 1 y from restored and unrestored reaches of 3 streams in southern Minnesota and used generalized least-square (GLS) models to assess whether measures of community structure were related to reach type, stream site, or sampling month. After accounting for effects of stream site and time, we found no significant difference in total taxon richness or % abundance of EPT taxa between restored and unrestored reaches. However, the number of EPT taxa and macroinvertebrate density were significantly higher in restored than in unrestored reaches. We compared secondary production estimates among study reaches based on 95th-percentile confidence intervals generated via bootstrapping. In each study stream, secondary production was significantly (2–3×) higher in the restored than in the unrestored reach. Higher productivity in the restored reaches was largely a result of the disproportionate success of a few dominant, tolerant taxa. Our findings suggest that reach-scale restoration may have ecological effects that are not detected by measures of total taxon richness alone.

  9. The relationship of diurnal variability and level of glycemia with structural and functional parameters of heart in patients with chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Денисович Сиволап

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important contribution in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM complications makes not only the chronic hyperglycemia but also the intense diurnal glycemia variability (GV. The aim of research was to assess systolic and diastolic heart functions in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis on the background of DM type 2 depending on GV profile and the mean level of glycemia during the last 3 month.Methods: There were examined 65 patients who were divided into groups twice on the different categoric indicators. The first indicator – an intensity of glycemia profile (GP variability, the second – the mean calculated level of glucose concentration in patients during the last 3 month. All patients underwent dopplerechocardiography, the standard declination and the coefficient of GP variations were calculated. An assessment of reliability of the results of statistic study was carried out by nonparametric method.Results: in patients with the high GP variability was detected the reliably greater size of the left atrium, decrease of the left ventricle output fraction, tendency to the transition of diastolic dysfunction from the I type to the II one comparing with the group with low GP variability. There was not revealed any reliable difference between groups or correlative connection of the mean level of glycemia with parameters that characterize contractility and diastolic myocardium function.Conclusions: There was revealed the negative influence of the high glycemia variability on systolic and diastolic heart functions, left atrium size and there was not revealed any reliable influence of the mean level of glycemia on cardiohemodynamics

  10. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of overstory retention, herbicides, and fertilization on sub-canopy vegetation structure and functional group composition in loblolly pine forests restored to longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker; G. Geoff Wang; Huifeng Hu; Robert N.  Addington

    2014-01-01

    The desirable structure of longleaf pine forests, which generally includes a relatively open canopy of pines, very few woody stems in the mid-story, and a well-developed, herbaceous ground layer, provides critical habitat for flora and fauna and contributes to ecosystem function. Current efforts to restore longleaf pine to upland sites dominated by second-growth...

  12. Using impedance cardiography to assess left ventricular systolic function via postural change in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P; Calvin, James E; Kelly, Russell F; Stamos, Thomas D

    2005-01-01

    For the diagnosis and management of heart failure, it would be useful to have a simple point-of-care test for assessing ventricular function that could be performed by a nurse. An impedance cardiography (ICG) parameter called systolic amplitude (SA) can serve as an indicator of left ventricular systolic function (LVSF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with normal LVSF should have a significant increase in SA in response to an increase in end-diastolic volume caused by postural change from sitting upright to supine, while patients with depressed LVSF associated with heart failure should have a minimal increase or a decrease in SA from upright to supine. ICG data were obtained in 12 patients without heart disease and with normal LVSF and 18 patients with clinically diagnosed heart failure. Consistent with the hypothesis, patients with normal LVSF had a significant increase in SA from upright to supine, whereas heart failure patients had a minimal increase or a decrease in SA from upright to supine. This ICG procedure may be useful for monitoring the trend of patient response to titration of beta blockers and other medications. ICG potentially could be used to detect worsening LVSF and provide a means of measurement for adjusting treatment.

  13. Worsening Renal Function during Management for Chronic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: Results From the Pro-BNP Outpatient Tailored Chronic Heart Failure Therapy (PROTECT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nasrien E; Gaggin, Hanna K; Rabideau, Dustin J; Gandhi, Parul U; Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2017-02-01

    To assess prognostic meaning of worsening renal failure (WRF) occurring during management of chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. When WRF develops during titration of HF medical therapy, it commonly leads to less aggressive care. A total of 151 patients enrolled in a prospective, randomized study of standard of care (SOC) HF therapy versus SOC plus a goal N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) renal function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  15. Modulation of the transducer function of Na+,K+-ATPase: new mechanism of heart remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Ekaterina V; Kipenko, Anna V; Pasatetskaya, Natalia A; Penniyaynen, Valentina A; Krylov, Boris V

    2016-10-01

    Endogenous digitalis-like factors were found in the mammalian and human blood. It was the starting point for the elucidation of the new non-pumping function of the Na + ,K + -ATPase. It was previously well known that Na + ,K + -ATPase is a pharmacological target receptor for cardiac glycosides (J.C. Skou. 1957. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 23: 394-401). We have investigated the trophotropic effects of such agents as ouabain, epinephrine, norepinephrine, atenolol, and comenic acid using the organotypic tissue culture combined with the reconstruction of optical cross sections and confocal microscopy. It was shown that the growth zone of organotypic culture forms a multidimensional structure. Our results indicate that the cardiac glycoside ouabain applied in endogenous concentrations (10 -8 , 10 -10 mol/L) can modulate transducer function of Na + ,K + -ATPase and control the cell growth and proliferation. It was also shown that Src-kinase is involved in "endogenous" ouabain activated intracellular pathways as a series unit. Epinephrine (10 -9 -10 -14 mol/L) and comenic acid (10 -6 -10 -10 mol/L) were demonstrated to modulate the growth of 10- to 12-day-old chicken embryo cardiac tissue explants in a dose-dependent manner. Epinephrine and comenic acid regulate growth and proliferation of the cardiac tissue via receptor-mediated modulation Na + ,K + -ATPase as a signal transducer. The trophotropic effects of the investigated agents specifically control the heart remodeling phenomenon.

  16. Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Joohan; Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Hesun Erin; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-11

    A sense of gratitude is a powerful and positive experience that can promote a happier life, whereas resentment is associated with life dissatisfaction. To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks. The average HR was significantly lower during the gratitude intervention than during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal FC showed a positive correlation with HR during the gratitude intervention, but not during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal resting-state FC was significantly decreased after the gratitude intervention compared to the resentment intervention. After the gratitude intervention, resting-state FC of the amygdala with the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with anxiety scale and depression scale, respectively. Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions.

  17. Diagnostic probability function for acute coronary heart disease garnered from experts' tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Johann; Held, Ulrike; Miettinen, Olli S

    2013-11-01

    Knowing about a diagnostic probability requires general knowledge about the way in which the probability depends on the diagnostic indicators involved in the specification of the case at issue. Diagnostic probability functions (DPFs) are generally unavailable at present. Our objective was to illustrate how diagnostic experts' case-specific tacit knowledge about diagnostic probabilities could be garnered in the form of DPFs. Focusing on diagnosis of acute coronary heart disease (ACHD), we presented doctors with extensive experience in hospitals' emergency departments a set of hypothetical cases specified in terms of an inclusive set of diagnostic indicators. We translated the medians of these experts' case-specific probabilities into a logistic DPF for ACHD. The principal result was the experts' typical diagnostic probability for ACHD as a joint function of the set of diagnostic indicators. A related result of note was the finding that the experts' probabilities in any given case had a surprising degree of variability. Garnering diagnostic experts' case-specific tacit knowledge about diagnostic probabilities in the form of DPFs is feasible to accomplish. Thus, once the methodology of this type of work has been "perfected," practice-guiding diagnostic expert systems can be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreases in daily physical activity predict acute decline in attention and executive function in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hayes, Scott M; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2015-04-01

    Reduced physical activity (PA) may be one factor that contributes to cognitive decline and dementia in heart failure (HF). Yet, the longitudinal relationship between PA and cognition in HF is poorly understood owing to limitations of past work, including single-time assessments of PA. This is the first study to examine changes in objectively measured PA and cognition over time in HF. At baseline and 12 weeks, 57 HF patients completed psychosocial self-report measures and a neuropsychological battery and wore an accelerometer for 7 days. At baseline, HF patients spent an average of 597.83 (SD 75.91) minutes per day sedentary. Steps per day declined from baseline to the 12-week follow-up; there was also a trend for declines in moderate-vigorous PA. Regression analyses controlling for sex, HF severity, and depressive symptoms showed that decreases in light (P = .08) and moderate-vigorous (P = .04) daily PA emerged as strong predictors of declines in attention/executive function over the 12-week period, but not of memory or language. Reductions in daily PA predicted acute decline in attention/executive function in HF, but not of memory or language. Modifications to daily PA may attenuate cognitive decline, and prospective studies are needed to test this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of functional cholinergic innervation in rat heart with a novel vesamicol receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffeen, Paul R.; Efange, S.M.N.; Haidet, George C.; McKnite, Scott; Langason, Rosemary B.; Khare, A.B.; Pennington, Jennifer; Lurie, Keith G.

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in cholinergic activity in the cardiac conduction system have been difficult to study. We tested the utility of (+)-m-[ 125 I]iodobenzyl)trozamicol(+)-[ 125 I]MIBT), a novel radioligand that binds to the vesamicol receptor located on the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic cholinergic neurons, as a functional marker of cholinergic activity in the conduction system. The (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT was injected intravenously into four rats. Three hours later, the rats were killed and their hearts were frozen. Quantitative autoradiography was performed on 20-micron-thick sections that were subsequently stained for acetylcholinesterase to identify specific conduction-system elements. Marked similarities existed between (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake and acetylcholinesterase-positive regions. Optical densitometric analysis of regional (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake revealed significantly greater (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT binding (nCi/mg) in the atrioventricular node (AVN) and His bundle regions compared with other conduction and contractile elements (AVN: 3.43 ± 0.37; His bundle: 2.16 ± 0.30; right bundle branch: 0.95 ± 0.13; right atrium: 0.68 ± 0.05; right ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; and left ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; p 125 I]MIBT binds avidly to cholinergic nerve tissue innervating specific conduction-system elements. Thus, (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT may be a useful functional marker in studies on cholinergic innervation in the cardiac conduction system

  20. Interval training does not modulate diastolic function in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monk-Hansen, Tea; Dall, Christian; Christensen, Stefan B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates the effect of aerobic interval training on diastolic function at rest and during exercise in stable heart transplant (HTx) recipients. Design: 23 stable HTx recipients (74% males, mean age 50 ±14.9 years) were recruited to a training programme. Intervention was 8...... weeks intensive training or control in a randomized controlled design. Results: At baseline participants had normal or mild diastolic dysfunction at rest. During exercise, mean E/e´ increased from 9.0 (±2.8) to 12.8 (±7.7) (p= 0.09), E/A increased from 2.1 (±0.6) to 2.6 (±0.7) (p=0.02), and deceleration...... time decreased by over 50ms, all markers of increased filling pressure. There were no correlations between diastolic function and VO2peak at baseline. After intervention VO2peak increased from 23.9 (±4.5) to 28.3(±6) ml/kg/min in the training group (difference between groups p=0.0018). No consistent...

  1. Plasma Zonulin and its Association with Kidney Function, Severity of Heart Failure, and Metabolic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dschietzig, Thomas B; Boschann, Felix; Ruppert, Jana; Armbruster, Franz P; Meinitzer, Andreas; Bankovic, Dragic; Mitrovic, Veselin; Melzer, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    The tight junction regulator zonulin has attracted clinical attention as a biomarker of increased gastrointestinal permeability. Recent work also suggests zonulin to represent a general regulator of tissue barriers and a player in metabolic inflammation. Here, we investigated the associations of zonulin with chronic heart failure (CHF), kidney function, and metabolic inflammation. Using multiple linear regression (Generalized Linear Model), this study determined the association of plasma zonulin with different laboratory and clinical parameters in 225 patients carrying automatic implantable cardioverters/defibrillators (AICD) for primary or secondary prevention. In another 115 patients with diastolic or systolic CHF, we investigated a possible relationship between zonulin and CHF severity. In the AICD cohort, zonulin associated inversely with serum creatinine (p = 0.013), carboxymethyl-lysine calprotectin (p zonulin increased significantly with high-sensitivity CRP (p = 0.014). In the CHF cohort, we found a highly significant rise of NT-proBNP, but not of zonulin with NYHA functional classes I-IV or other parameters of CHF severity. The inverse associations of zonulin with creatinine and markers of cardio-vascular risk (high CMLcalprotectin and kynurenine, low homoarginine) are novel findings that need further experimental and clinical clarification. Our study indicates zonulin involvement in metabolic inflammation in T2D, but no association with disease status in CHF.

  2. AGXT2 rs37369 polymorphism predicts the renal function in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Lei; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Li, Mu-Peng; Yang, Yong-Long; Kuang, Da-Bin; Li, He; Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Jiang, Chun; Peng, Li-Ming; Qi, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-12-30

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are often accompanied with varying degrees of renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify rs37369 polymorphism of AGXT2 specific to the renal function of CHF patients. A total of 1012 southern Chinese participants, including 487 CHF patients without history of renal diseases and 525 healthy volunteers, were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the genotypes of AGXT2 rs37369 polymorphism. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected to indicate the renal function of the participants. BUN level was significantly higher in CHF patients without history of renal diseases compared with healthy volunteers (p=0.000). And the similar result was also obtained for SCr (p=0.000). Besides, our results indicated that the level of BUN correlated significantly with SCr in both the CHF patients without renal diseases (r=0.4533, prenal diseases (p=0.036, AA+AG vs GG). Patients with rs37369 GG genotype showed a significantly reduced level of BUN compared to those with the AA genotype (p=0.024), and the significant difference was still observed in the smokers of CHF patients without renal diseases (p=0.023). In conclusion, we found that CHF might induce the impairment of kidney and cause deterioration of renal function. AGXT2 rs37369 polymorphism might affect the renal function of CHF patients free from renal diseases, especially in patients with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Dominance of free wall radial motion in global right ventricular function of heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Bálint Károly; Tokodi, Márton; Assabiny, Alexandra; Tősér, Zoltán; Kosztin, Annamária; Doronina, Alexandra; Rácz, Kristóf; Koritsánszky, Kinga Bianka; Berzsenyi, Viktor; Németh, Endre; Sax, Balázs; Kovács, Attila; Merkely, Béla

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function using conventional echocardiography might be inadequate as the radial motion of the RV free wall is often neglected. Our aim was to quantify the longitudinal and the radial components of RV function using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in heart transplant (HTX) recipients. Fifty-one HTX patients in stable cardiovascular condition without history of relevant rejection episode or chronic allograft vasculopathy and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. RV end-diastolic (EDV) volume and total ejection fraction (TEF) were measured by 3D echocardiography. Furthermore, we quantified longitudinal (LEF) and radial ejection fraction (REF) by decomposing the motion of the RV using the ReVISION method. RV EDV did not differ between groups (HTX vs control; 96 ± 27 vs 97 ± 2 mL). In HTX patients, TEF was lower, however, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased to a greater extent (TEF: 47 ± 7 vs 54 ± 4% [-13%], TAPSE: 11 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4 mm [-48%], P < .0001). In HTX patients, REF/TEF ratio was significantly higher compared to LEF/TEF (REF/TEF vs LEF/TEF: 0.58 ± 0.10 vs 0.27 ± 0.08, P < .0001), while in controls the REF/TEF and LEF/TEF ratio was similar (0.45 ± 0.07 vs 0.47 ± 0.07). Current results confirm the superiority of radial motion in determining RV function in HTX patients. Parameters incorporating the radial motion are recommended to assess RV function in HTX recipients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Importance of congestive heart failure and interaction of congestive heart failure and left ventricular systolic function on prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Pedersen, O D

    1996-01-01

    or persistent. Wall motion index and CHF are correlated. Furthermore, there is an interaction between wall motion index and CHF. The prognostic importance of wall motion index depends on whether patients have CHF or not: the risk ratio associated with decreasing 1 wall motion index unit is 3.0 (2.6 to 3......Left ventricular (LV) systolic function and congestive heart failure (CHF) are important predictors of long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The importance of transient CHF and the interaction of CHF and LV function on prognosis has not been studied in detail previously....... In the TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation Study, 6,676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction 1 to 6 days earlier had LV systolic function quantified as wall motion index (echocardiography), which is closely correlated to LV ejection fraction. To study the interaction of CHF and wall motion index on long...

  5. Medical application and clinical validation for reliable and trustworthy physiological monitoring using functional textiles: experience from the HeartCycle and MyHeart project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Harald; Muehlsteff, Jens; Sipilä, Auli

    2011-01-01

    Functional textiles are seen as promising technology to enable healthcare services and medical care outside hospitals due to their ability to integrate textile-based sensing and monitoring technologies into the daily life. In the past much effort has been spent onto basic functional textile research already showing that reliable monitoring solutions can be realized. The challenge remains to find and develop suited medical application and to fulfil the boundary conditions for medical endorsement and exploitation. The HeartCycle vest described in this abstract will serve as an example for a functional textile carefully developed according to the requirements of a specific medical application, its clinical validation, the related certification aspects and the next improvement steps towards exploitation.

  6. Different prognostic impact of systolic function in patients with heart failure and/or acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Carlsen, Christian; Buch, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    with either AMI or HF, a medical history and an echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function by wall motion index (WMI) were obtained. Patients were divided into four groups: AMI with or without a history of HF, and primary HF (no recent AMI) with or without a history of ischemic heart...

  7. Psychosocial functioning of young adults after surgical correction for congenital heart disease in childhood: a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utens, E. M.; Verhulst, F. C.; Erdman, R. A.; Meijboom, F. J.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Bos, E.; Roelandt, J. R.; Hess, J.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the long-term psychosocial outcome of congenital heart disease, the emotional, intellectual and social functioning of 288 (young) adult patients was assessed with standardized assessment procedures 9-23 years (mean follow-up interval: 16 years) after surgical correction for congenital

  8. Sequential biventricular pacing improves regional contractility, longitudinal function and dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Margareta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Biventricular pacing (BiP is an effective treatment in systolic heart failure (HF patients with prolonged QRS. However, approximately 35% of the patients receiving BiP are classified as non-responders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effects of VV-optimization on systolic heart function. Methods Twenty-one HF patients aged 72 (46-88 years, QRS 154 (120-190 ms, were studied with echocardiography, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI and 3D-echo the first day after receiving a BiP device. TDI was performed; during simultaneous pacing (LV-lead pacing 4 ms before the RV-lead and during sequential pacing (LV 20 and 40 ms before RV and RV 20 and 40 ms before LV-lead pacing. Systolic heart function was studied by tissue tracking (TT for longitudinal function and systolic maximal velocity (SMV for regional contractility and signs of dyssynchrony assessed by time-delays standard deviation of aortic valve opening to SMV, AVO-SMV/SD and tissue synchronization imaging (TSI. Results The TT mean value preoperatively was 4,2 ± 1,5 and increased at simultaneous pacing to 5,0 ± 1,2 mm (p Conclusions VV-optimization in the acute phase improves systolic heart function more than simultaneous BiP pacing. Long-term effects should be evaluated in prospective randomized trials.

  9. Pertussis toxin treatment of whole blood. A novel approach to assess G protein function in congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maisel, A. S.; Michel, M. C.; Insel, P. A.; Ennis, C.; Ziegler, M. G.; Phillips, C.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to assess G protein function in mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). MNL membranes were ADP-ribosylated in vitro in the presence of pertussis or cholera toxin. The amount of pertussis toxin substrates did not differ significantly

  10. An angiographic study of left- and right-ventricular function in patients with alcoholic heart and dilatation cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Samko, A.N.; Smetnev, A.S.; Grudtsyn, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    An angiographic study of left- and right-ventricular function in 57 patients with alcoholic heart and dilatation cardiomyopathy demonstrated preclinical disorders of left-ventricular myocardial contractility and more marked right-ventricular changes in patients with second-stage chronic alcoholism. In cases of dilatation cardiomyopathy, left-ventricular dysfunction was predominant, while right-venricular changes were less pronouced

  11. Evolutionary and functional mitogenomics associated with the genetic restoration of the Florida panther

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Onorato, David P.; Fitak, Robert R.; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Culver, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Florida panthers are endangered pumas that currently persist in reduced patches of habitat in South Florida, USA. We performed mitogenome reference-based assemblies for most parental lines of the admixed Florida panthers that resulted from the introduction of female Texas pumas into South Florida in 1995. With the addition of 2 puma mitogenomes, we characterized 174 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 12 individuals. We defined 5 haplotypes (Pco1–Pco5), one of which (Pco1) had a geographic origin exclusive to Costa Rica and Panama and was possibly introduced into the Everglades National Park, Florida, prior to 1995. Haplotype Pco2 was native to Florida. Haplotypes Pco3 and Pco4 were exclusive to Texas, whereas haplotype Pco5 had an undetermined geographic origin. Phylogenetic inference suggests that haplotypes Pco1–Pco4 diverged ~202000 (95% HPDI = 83000–345000) years ago and that haplotypes Pco2–Pco4 diverged ~61000 (95% HPDI = 9000–127000) years ago. These results are congruent with a south-to-north continental expansion and with a recent North American colonization by pumas. Furthermore, pumas may have migrated from Texas to Florida no earlier than ~44000 (95% HPDI = 2000–98000) years ago. Synonymous mutations presented a greater mean substitution rate than other mitochondrial functional regions: nonsynonymous mutations, tRNAs, rRNAs, and control region. Similarly, all protein-coding genes were under predominant negative selection constraints. We directly and indirectly assessed the presence of potential deleterious SNPs in the ND2 and ND5 genes in Florida panthers prior to and as a consequence of the introduction of Texas pumas. Screenings for such variants are recommended in extant Florida panthers.

  12. Aerobic Swim Training Restores Aortic Endothelial Function by Decreasing Superoxide Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila P. Jordão

    endothelial function.

  13. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-15

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT 1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT 1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT 1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrophil degranulation and immunosuppression in patients with GBM: restoration of cellular immune function by targeting arginase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Trisha R; White, Jason; Nag, Kamalika; Tsvankin, Vadim; Klaassen, Marci; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K; Waziri, Allen

    2011-11-15

    The source of glioblastoma (GBM)-associated immunosuppression remains multifactorial. We sought to clarify and therapeutically target myeloid cell-derived peripheral immunosuppression in patients with GBM. Direct ex vivo T-cell function, serum Arginase I (ArgI) levels, and circulating myeloid lineage populations were compared between patients with GBM and normal donors or patients with other intracranial tumors. Immunofunctional assays were conducted using bulk and sorted cell populations to explore the potential transfer of myeloid cell-mediated immunosuppression and to identify a potential mechanism for these effects. ArgI-mediated immunosuppression was therapeutically targeted in vitro through pharmacologic inhibition or arginine supplementation. We identified a significantly expanded population of circulating, degranulated neutrophils associated with elevated levels of serum ArgI and decreased T-cell CD3ζ expression within peripheral blood from patients with GBM. Sorted CD11b(+) cells from patients with GBM were found to markedly suppress normal donor T-cell function in coculture, and media harvested from mitogen-stimulated GBM peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) or GBM-associated mixed lymphoid reactions showed ArgI levels that were significantly higher than controls. Critically, T-cell suppression in both settings could be completely reversed through pharmacologic ArgI inhibition or with arginine supplementation. These data indicate that peripheral cellular immunosuppression in patients with GBM is associated with neutrophil degranulation and elevated levels of circulating ArgI, and that T-cell function can be restored in these individuals by targeting ArgI. These data identify a novel pathway of GBM-mediated suppression of cellular immunity and offer a potential therapeutic window for improving antitumor immunity in affected patients.

  15. Poststroke upper-limb rehabilitation using 5 to 7 inserted microstimulators: implant procedure, safety, and efficacy for restoration of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ross; Sparrow, Owen; Cosendai, Gregoire; Burridge, Jane H; Wulff, Christian; Turk, Ruth; Schulman, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of implanting microstimulators to deliver programmed nerve stimulation for sequenced muscle activation to recover arm-hand functions. By using a minimally invasive procedure and local anesthesia, 5 to 7 microstimulators can be safely and comfortably implanted adjacent to targeted radial nerve branches in the arm and forearm of 7 subjects with poststroke paresis. The microstimulators' position should remain stable with no tissue infection and can be programmed to produce effective personalized functional muscle activity with no discomfort for a preliminary 12-week study. Clinical testing, before and after the study, is reported in the accompanying study. Microstimulator implantations in a sterile operating room. Seven adults, with poststroke hemiparesis of 12 months or more. Under local anesthesia, a stimulating probe was inserted to identify radial nerve branches. Microstimulators were inserted by using an introducer and were retrievable for 6 days by attached suture. Each device was powered via a radiofrequency link from 2 external cuff coils connected to a control unit. To achieve low threshold values at the target sites with minimal implant discomfort. Microstimulators and external equipment were monitored over 12 weeks of exercise. Seven subjects were implanted with 41 microstimulators, 5 to 7 per subject, taking 3.5 to 6 hours. Implantation pain levels were 20% more than anticipated. No infections or microstimulator failures occurred. Mean nerve thresholds ranged between 4.0 to 7.7 microcoulomb/cm(2)/phase over 90 days, indicating that cathodes were within 2 to 4 mm of target sites. In 1 subject, 2 additional microstimulators were inserted. Microstimulators were safely implanted with no infection or failure. The system was reliable and programmed effectively to perform exercises at home for functional restoration.

  16. Restoration of muscle mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes by exercise training is paralleled by increased myocellular fat storage and improved insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meex, Ruth C R; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Mensink, Marco; Phielix, Esther; van de Weijer, Tineke; Sels, Jean-Pierre; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen male type 2 diabetic and 20 healthy male control subjects of comparable body weight, BMI, age, and VO2max participated in a 12-week combined progressive training program (three times per week and 45 min per session). In vivo mitochondrial function (assessed via magnetic resonance spectroscopy), insulin sensitivity (clamp), metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry), and IMCL content (histochemically) were measured before and after training. Mitochondrial function was lower in type 2 diabetic compared with control subjects (P = 0.03), improved by training in control subjects (28% increase; P = 0.02), and restored to control values in type 2 diabetic subjects (48% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects (delta Rd 63% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects was restored (delta respiratory exchange ratio 63% increase; P = 0.01) but was unchanged in control subjects (delta respiratory exchange ratio 7% increase; P = 0.22). Starting with comparable pretraining IMCL levels, training tended to increase IMCL content in type 2 diabetic subjects (27% increase; P = 0.10), especially in type 2 muscle fibers. Exercise training restored in vivo mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility improved in type 2 diabetic subjects in the face of near-significantly increased IMCL content. This indicates that increased capacity to store IMCL and restoration of improved mitochondrial function contribute to improved muscle insulin sensitivity.

  17. Effect of in vivo heart irradiation on the development of antioxidant defenses and cardiac functions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.; Assem, M.; Maupoil, V.

    1995-01-01

    During radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, the heart is often included in the primary treatment volume, and chronic impairment of myocardial function occurs. The cellular biomolecules are altered directly by radiation or damaged indirectly by free radical production. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biochemical and functional response of the rat heart to a single high dose of radiation. The effect of 20 Gy local X irradiation was determined in the heart of Wistar rats under general anesthesia. Mechanical performances were measured in vitro using an isolated perfused working heart model, and cardiac antioxidant defenses were also evaluated. Hearts were studied at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. This single dose of radiation induced a marked drop in the mechanical activity of the rat heart: aortic output was significantly reduced (18% less than control values) at 1 month postirradiation and remained depressed for the rest of the experimental period (21% less than control 4 months after treatment). This suggests the development of myocardial failure after irradiation. The decline of functional parameters was associated with changes in antioxidant defenses. The decrease in cardiac levels of vitamin E (-30%) was associated with an increase in the levels of Mn-SOD and glustathione peroxidase (+45.5% and +32%, respectively, at 4 months postirradiation). However, cardiac vitamin C and catalase levels remained constant. Since these antioxidant defenses were activated relatively long after irradiation, it is suggested that this was probable due to the production of free radical species associated with the development of inflammation. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Impact of cognitive function on compliance with treatment in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jankowska-Polańska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF patients frailty syndrome and cognitive impairment (CI affect outcome by decreasing the capability for performing self-care, adhering to the prescribed treatment regimen, monitoring symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether CI affects the compliance to therapeutic regimens. Methods: 170 with HF were included. We employed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, for dementia and the Revised Heart Failure Compliance Scale to assess compliance. Results: CI patients showed lower compliance in all domains: 2.8±1.0 vs 3.3±1.0 (keeping appointments, 2.8±0.9 vs. 3.4±0.9 (pharmaceutical compliance, 0.4±0.8 vs. 1.4±1.2 (regular body weight monitoring, 2.0±1.3 vs. 2.7±1.0 (reduced salt intake, 1.9±1.2vs. 2.9±1.0 (fluid intake restriction, and 0.5±0.8 vs. 1.7±1.1 (regular exercise. Multiple regression analysis showed cognitive function to be an independent predictor for regular body weight monitoring (β=1.223;p<0.001, fluid intake restriction (β=1.081;p<0.001, and regular exercise (β=1.237;p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, the stimulant variables for compliance with HF treatment were: education (β=1.124, being in a relationship (β=2.231, and lack of cognitive impairment (β=0.320; the number of hospitalizations due to HF was identified as a destimulant (β=-0.495. Conclusion: Non-compliance is a major problem in elderly with HF. The cognitive function is an independent contributor to total compliance and to compliance with non-pharmaceutical recommendations. Being in a relationship and education are independent predictors of better compliance, while the number of rehospitalizations due to HF exacerbations is an independent predictor of worse compliance. Early detection of CI may offer an opportunity for intervention and a key strategy for improving clinical outcomes in older adults with HF.

  19. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion on the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles (25 Gosner stage is affected by their acute exposure (48 h to a sub-lethal concentration (10 µg.L–1 of the active principle of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600R (methyl parathion - MP. Our results demonstrated that MP causes not only a reduction in tadpoles’ cardiac ventricular mass, resulting in a marked reduction in their cardiac twitch force, but also impairs their swimming performance, irrespective of increasing their heart rate. Together, these findings indicate that low and realistic concentration of MP have a negative impact on tadpoles’ performance, jeopardizing their survival.

  1. Association Between Periodontal Disease and Kidney Function Decline in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Vittinghoff, Eric; Beck, James D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Wang, Wei; Griswold, Michael E; Powe, Neil R; Correa, Adolfo; Young, Bessie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a prevalent public health problem that disproportionately affects African Americans, despite intense efforts targeting traditional risk factors. Periodontal disease, a chronic bacterial infection of the oral cavity, is both common and modifiable and has been implicated as a novel potential CKD risk factor. The authors seek to examine to what extent periodontal disease is associated with kidney function decline. This retrospective cohort study examines 699 African American participants with preserved kidney function (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) at baseline) who underwent complete dental examinations as part of the Dental-Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (1996 to 1998) and subsequently enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (2000 to 2004). Using multivariable Poisson regression, the authors examined the association of periodontal disease (severe versus non-severe) with incident CKD, defined as incident eGFR periodontal disease. There were 21 cases (3.0%) of incident CKD after a mean follow-up of 4.8 (± 0.6) years. Compared with participants with non-severe periodontal disease, those with severe periodontal disease had a four-fold greater rate of incident CKD (adjusted incidence rate ratio 4.18 [95% confidence interval 1.68 to 10.39], P = 0.002). Severe periodontal disease is prevalent among a population at high risk for CKD and is associated with clinically significant kidney function decline. Further research is needed to determine if periodontal disease treatment alters the trajectory of renal deterioration.

  2. Adipose-Derived Cell Construct Stabilizes Heart Function and Increases Microvascular Perfusion in an Established Infarct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang T.; Touroo, Jeremy S.; Aird, Allison L.; Chang, Raymond C.; Ng, Chin K.; Hoying, James B.; Williams, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that myocardial infarction (MI) immediately treated with an epicardial construct containing stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from adipose tissue preserved microvascular function and left ventricle contractile mechanisms. In order to evaluate a more clinically relevant condition, we investigated the cardiac recovery potential of an SVF construct implanted onto an established infarct. SVF cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue, plated on Vicryl, and cultured for 14 days. Fischer-344 rats were separated into MI groups: (a) 6-week MI (MI), (b) 6-week MI treated with an SVF construct at 2 weeks (MI SVF), (c) 6-week MI with Vicryl construct at 2 weeks (MI Vicryl), and (d) MI 2wk (time point of intervention). Emax, an indicator of systolic performance and contractile function, was lower in the MI and MI Vicryl versus MI SVF. Positron emission tomography imaging (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) revealed a decreased percentage of relative infarct volume in the MI SVF versus MI and MI Vicryl. Total vessel count and percentage of perfusion assessed via immunohistochemistry were both increased in the infarct region of MI SVF versus MI and MI Vicryl. Overall cardiac function, percentage of relative infarct, and percentage of perfusion were similar between MI SVF and MI 2wk; however, total vessel count increased after SVF treatment. These data suggest that SVF treatment of an established infarct stabilizes the heart at the time point of intervention by preventing a worsening of cardiac performance and infarcted volume, and is associated with increased microvessel perfusion in the area of established infarct. PMID:24106337

  3. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  4. FROM VIRTUAL TO MATERIAL RESTORATION. A PROPOSAL FOR THE REASSEMBLY OF THE ALTAR OF THE HOLY HEART OF MARY IN THE CATHEDRAL OF SANTA MARIA ASSUNTA IN GERACE (REGGIO CALABRIA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prampolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between the new frontiers of architectural survey and architectural restoration. The result is a project for the reassembly of the Altar of the Holy Heart of Mary in the Cathedral of Gerace, in the province of Reggio Calabria. It was dismantled in the last century with the purpose to restore the “solemn and sober aspect” of the church during the medieval age. The idea was born in the sphere of a multidisciplinary didactic experience, which involved history, conservation, digital modelling, design and enhancement of cultural heritage. The process, from analyses to project, followed four steps: realization of a systematic photogrammetrical survey of each architectural element of the 18th century altars of the cathedral, which were dismantled in the last century, with high precision photomodelling techniques; early identification of the single objects, positioning structured QR-CODE with metadata and short description directly in the shooting phase; pre-cataloguing phase, implemented by the compilation of single cards regarding each piece, using a redrafted version of the ICCD OA card (artwork 3.00 version; a proposal for the reassembly of the altar of the Holy Heart of Mary. The reassembly is conceived as an alternative to the reconstruction of the altar “as it was”, using a steel structure that is partially visible, which was studied to support and “exhibit” the marble pieces. The availability of numerical models for each piece facilitated, on one side, weight distribution analysis and, consequently, correct dimensioning of the support structure and, on the other side, interactive simulation processes for design optimisation and aesthetic evaluation.

  5. From Virtual to Material Restoration. a Proposal for the Reassembly of the Altar of the Holy Heart of Mary in the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta in Gerace (reggio Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prampolini, F.; Oteri, A. M.; Caporale, S.; Mazzeo, S.; Muscherà, F.

    2017-05-01

    The present study explores the relationship between the new frontiers of architectural survey and architectural restoration. The result is a project for the reassembly of the Altar of the Holy Heart of Mary in the Cathedral of Gerace, in the province of Reggio Calabria. It was dismantled in the last century with the purpose to restore the "solemn and sober aspect" of the church during the medieval age. The idea was born in the sphere of a multidisciplinary didactic experience, which involved history, conservation, digital modelling, design and enhancement of cultural heritage. The process, from analyses to project, followed four steps: realization of a systematic photogrammetrical survey of each architectural element of the 18th century altars of the cathedral, which were dismantled in the last century, with high precision photomodelling techniques; early identification of the single objects, positioning structured QR-CODE with metadata and short description directly in the shooting phase; pre-cataloguing phase, implemented by the compilation of single cards regarding each piece, using a redrafted version of the ICCD OA card (artwork 3.00 version); a proposal for the reassembly of the altar of the Holy Heart of Mary. The reassembly is conceived as an alternative to the reconstruction of the altar "as it was", using a steel structure that is partially visible, which was studied to support and "exhibit" the marble pieces. The availability of numerical models for each piece facilitated, on one side, weight distribution analysis and, consequently, correct dimensioning of the support structure and, on the other side, interactive simulation processes for design optimisation and aesthetic evaluation.

  6. Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared P. Schprechman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF. Methods. Older adults (N=119 with heart failure (69.84±9.09 years completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed.

  7. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on functional status in patients with heart failure--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Køber, Lars; Christensen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results of randomised control trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on functional status in patients with chronic heart failure are conflicting. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on New York Heart...... Association (NYHA) classification and exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected 28 RCTs evaluating beta-blocker versus placebo in addition to ACE inhibitor therapy. Combined results of 23 RCTs showed that beta-blockers improved NYHA class by at least one class with odds...... ratio (OR) 1.80 (1.33-2.43) pbeta-blockers had no significant effect...

  8. Intake of vinegar beverage is associated with restoration of ovulatory function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Kimura, Fuminori; Takashima, Akiko; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Takebayashi, Akie; Kita, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Guangmei; Murakami, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of major causes of irregular menstruation. It is defined as a condition involving the combination of hyperandrogenism and chronic oligomenorrhea or anovulation, and is thought to have a variety of etiologies. Insulin resistance (impaired insulin sensitivity) has been suggested to be one of the etiologies of PCOS. PCOS patients often need to take medication to treat anovulation and infertility. Therefore, it would be beneficial to patients if simple non-pharmacological treatments can be developed. Recently the efficacy of vinegar to improve insulin resistance has been reported. To study the effect of vinegar on metabolic and hormonal indices and ovulatory function in PCOS, seven patients seeking a non-pharmacological treatment for PCOS took a beverage containing 15 g of apple vinegar daily for 90 to 110 days. Ovulation, the menstrual interval, fasting serum glucose level, fasting serum insulin level, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were compared before and after intake of the vinegar beverage. Intake of the vinegar beverage resulted in a decrease of the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-R) in six patients, as well as a decrease of the LH/FSH ratio in five of seven patients. Ovulatory menstruation was observed within 40 day in four of seven patients. These findings suggest the possibility of vinegar to restore ovulatory function through improving insulin sensitivity in PCOS patients, thus, avoiding pharmacological treatment. Intake of vinegar might reduce medical cost and treatment time for insulin resistance, anovulation, and infertility in patients with PCOS.

  9. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  10. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  11. Diabetic db/db mice do not develop heart failure upon pressure overload: a longitudinal in vivo PET, MRI, and MRS study on cardiac metabolic, structural, and functional adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrachim, Desiree; Nabben, Miranda; Hoerr, Verena; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Bovenkamp, Philipp; Ciapaite, Jolita; Geraets, Ilvy M E; Coumans, Will; Luiken, Joost J F P; Glatz, Jan F C; Schäfers, Michael; Nicolay, Klaas; Faber, Cornelius; Hermann, Sven; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure is associated with altered myocardial substrate metabolism and impaired cardiac energetics. Comorbidities like diabetes may influence the metabolic adaptations during heart failure development. We quantified to what extent changes in substrate preference, lipid accumulation, and energy status predict the longitudinal development of hypertrophy and failure in the non-diabetic and the diabetic heart. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed in non-diabetic (db/+) and diabetic (db/db) mice to induce pressure overload. Magnetic resonance imaging, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 1H MRS, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) were applied to measure cardiac function, energy status, lipid content, and glucose uptake, respectively. In vivo measurements were complemented with ex vivo techniques of high-resolution respirometry, proteomics, and western blotting to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. In non-diabetic mice, TAC induced progressive cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which correlated with increased protein kinase D-1 (PKD1) phosphorylation and increased glucose uptake. These changes in glucose utilization preceded a reduction in cardiac energy status. At baseline, compared with non-diabetic mice, diabetic mice showed normal cardiac function, higher lipid content and mitochondrial capacity for fatty acid oxidation, and lower PKD1 phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and energetics. Interestingly, TAC affected cardiac function only mildly in diabetic mice, which was accompanied by normalization of phosphorylated PKD1, glucose uptake, and cardiac energy status. The cardiac metabolic adaptations in diabetic mice seem to prevent the heart from failing upon pressure overload, suggesting that restoring the balance between glucose and fatty acid utilization is beneficial for cardiac function. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions

  12. Comparative Assessment of the Heart's Functioning by Using the Akabane Test and Classical Methods of Instrumental Examination

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    Valery Muzhikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture physicians have studied the application of reflexotherapy to cardiology. However, no one has investigated the connection of ancient Chinese diagnostic methods with modern tools. A total of 102 patients (54 men and 48 women with heart pathology, namely, sick-sinus syndrome, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, and atrioventricular blockade, were studied using the usual instrumental methods (transesophageal electrophysiological study of the heart, echocardiography, after which they underwent Akabane thermopuncture testing as in traditional Chinese medicine. The results of cardio examination from one side of the Akabane test with that from the other side were compared by means of a multiple stepwise regression analysis. We revealed the effects on the characteristic pattern of acupuncture channel lesions inherent in a definite heart pathology, i.e., the most vulnerable acupuncture channel (AC, of such factors as disturbances of the contractile, conductive, or automatic heart functions, and changes in the chambers' size or circulation volume. Сhanges in the indices of the left and the right branches of these channels usually reflect the opposing natures of the changes in these indicators, which should be considered in reflexotherapy. The main value of the Akabane test along with the use of mathematical analysis lies in early, quick, and inexpensive detection of the above-mentioned heart disturbances.

  13. Still Heart Encodes a Structural HMT, SMYD1b, with Chaperone-Like Function during Fast Muscle Sarcomere Assembly.

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    Kendal Prill

    Full Text Available The vertebrate sarcomere is a complex and highly organized contractile structure whose assembly and function requires the coordination of hundreds of proteins. Proteins require proper folding and incorporation into the sarcomere by assembly factors, and they must also be maintained and replaced due to the constant physical stress of muscle contraction. Zebrafish mutants affecting muscle assembly and maintenance have proven to be an ideal tool for identification and analysis of factors necessary for these processes. The still heart mutant was identified due to motility defects and a nonfunctional heart. The cognate gene for the mutant was shown to be smyd1b and the still heart mutation results in an early nonsense codon. SMYD1 mutants show a lack of heart looping and chamber definition due to a lack of expression of heart morphogenesis factors gata4, gata5 and hand2. On a cellular level, fast muscle fibers in homozygous mutants do not form mature sarcomeres due to the lack of fast muscle myosin incorporation by SMYD1b when sarcomeres are first being assembled (19hpf, supporting SMYD1b as an assembly protein during sarcomere formation.

  14. Maternal executive function, heart rate, and EEG alpha reactivity interact in the prediction of harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-02-01

    Do physiological and behavioral performance indicators of effortful cognitive self-regulation converge additively or interactively in their statistical prediction of individual differences in harsh parenting? To answer this question, we examined heart rate (HR) and electroencephalography alpha (α) reactivity during executive function (EF) tasks, along with observed and self-reported indicators of harsh parenting. A socioeconomically diverse sample of 115 mothers with 3- to 7-year-old children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit. Three quarters of the mothers showed typical patterns of task reactivity that were interpretable (i.e., increases in HR and decreases in α). Among them, we found no evidence to suggest that variance in harsh parenting was associated with magnitude of HR or α reactivity independently. Instead, the physiological variables interacted to enhance the EF statistical effect. EF explained one third of the variance in harsh parenting among mothers showing the largest α decreases when accompanied by modest to moderate (rather than substantial) HR increases. Physiological indicators can clarify the role and estimation of the strength of the effect of direct behavioral measures of cognitive regulation in the etiology of harsh parenting behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cardiopulmonary determinants of functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure compared with normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Westbrook, S; Schwaibold, M; Hajric, R; Lehmann, M; Roskamm, H

    1996-12-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are characterized by abnormal gas exchange and ventilatory responses to exercise. This study compares variables obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing in 35 patients with CHF with 35 age- and weight-matched healthy subjects. A second goal was to obtain cardiopulmonary variables measured at ventilatory threshold to distinguish patient changes from those of healthy subjects. Exercise testing was carried out using bicycle ergometry with ramplike protocol (work rate increments 12.5 W/min). Gas exchange and ventilation were measured breath by breath. Compared with healthy subjects, the VO2 in patients was lower at identical work rates (p rate, the variables for VO2, VCO2, ventilation, O2 pulse, ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2, and VD/VT (physiologic deadspace to tidal volume ratio), as well as lactate differed significantly at identical work rates. With the exception of VD/VT, all cardiopulmonary variables showed significant differences in their slopes during exercise. By means of a discriminant analysis, VCO2 and ventilation proved to be the most distinguishing variables at ventilatory threshold between patients with CHF and healthy subjects. These results indicate the clinical usefulness of cardiopulmonary exercise testing when assessing functional impairment due to CHF. For treatment evaluation, not only VO2 but also VCO2 and ventilation responses to exercise should be considered.

  16. The Renal Arterial Resistance Index Predicts Worsening Renal Function in Chronic Heart Failure Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Massimo; Monitillo, Francesco; Leone, Marta; Citarelli, Gaetano; Doronzo, Annalisa; Antoncecchi, Valeria; Puzzovivo, Agata; Rizzo, Caterina; Lattarulo, Maria Silvia; Massari, Francesco; Caldarola, Pasquale; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim The renal arterial resistance index (RRI) is a Doppler measure, which reflects abnormalities in the renal blood flow. The aim of this study was to verify the value of RRI as a predictor of worsening renal function (WRF) in a group of chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients. Methods We enrolled 266 patients in stable clinical conditions and on conventional therapy. Peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity of a segmental renal artery were obtained by pulsed Doppler flow, and RRI was calculated. Creatinine serum levels were evaluated at baseline and at 1 year, and the changes were used to assess WRF occurrence. Results During follow-up, 34 (13%) patients showed WRF. RRI was associated with WRF at univariate (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07–1.20) as well as at a forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03–1.16; p = 0.005) including the other univariate predictors. Conclusions Quantification of arterial renal perfusion provides a new parameter that independently predicts the WRF in CHF outpatients. Its possible role in current clinical practice to better define the risk of cardiorenal syndrome progression is strengthened. PMID:27994601

  17. Heart Failure Increases the Risk of Adverse Renal Outcomes in Patients With Normal Kidney Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lekha K; Koshy, Santhosh K G; Molnar, Miklos Z; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun L; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with poor cardiac outcomes and mortality. It is not known whether HF leads to poor renal outcomes in patients with normal kidney function. We hypothesized that HF is associated with worse long-term renal outcomes. Among 3 570 865 US veterans with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 during October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006, we identified 156 743 with an International Classification of Diseases , Ninth Revision , diagnosis of HF. We examined the association of HF with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), the composite of incident CKD or mortality, and rapid rate of eGFR decline (slopes steeper than -5 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 y -1 ) using Cox proportional hazard analyses and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for various confounders. The mean±standard deviation baseline age and eGFR of HF patients were 68±11 years and 78±14 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 and in patients without HF were 59±14 years and 84±16 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 , respectively. HF patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac, peripheral vascular and chronic lung diseases, stroke, and dementia. Incidence of CKD was 69.0/1000 patient-years in HF patients versus 14.5/1000 patient-years in patients without HF, and 22% of patients with HF had rapid decline in eGFR compared with 8.5% in patients without HF. HF patients had a 2.12-, 2.06-, and 2.13-fold higher multivariable-adjusted risk of incident CKD, composite of CKD or mortality, and rapid eGFR decline, respectively. HF is associated with significantly higher risk of incident CKD, incident CKD or mortality, and rapid eGFR decline. Early diagnosis and management of HF could help reduce the risk of long-term renal complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of Heart Function During Exposure to Subacute Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, Petra; Finderle, Zarko; Schlegel, Todd T.; Princi, Tanja; Starc, Vito

    2010-01-01

    High altitude climbing presents a wide spectrum of health risks, including exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Risks are also typically exacerbated by the difficulty in appropriately monitoring for early signs of organ dysfunction in remote areas. We investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool (e.g., instead of Doppler echocardiography) for evaluating early signs of heart overload in hypobaric hypoxia. Nine non-acclimatized healthy trained alpine rescuers (age 43.7 plus or minus 7.3 years) climbed in four days to the altitude of 4,200 m on Mount Ararat. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position on different days but at the same time of day at four different altitudes: 400 m (reference altitude), 1,700 m, 3,200 m and 4,200 m. Changes in conventional and advanced resting ECG parameters, including in beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG was estimated by calculation of the regression coefficients in independent linear regression models. A p-value of less than 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with trends k = -96 ms/1000 m with p = 0.000 and k = -9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.001, respectively. Significant changes were found in P-wave amplitude, which nearly doubled from the lowest to the highest altitude (k = 41.6 microvolt/1000 m with p = 0.000), and nearly significant changes in P-wave duration (k = 2.9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.059). Changes were less significant or non-significant in other studied parameters including those of waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG. High resolution ECG analysis, particularly of the P wave, shows promise as a tool for monitoring early changes in heart function

  19. Worsening renal function definition is insufficient for evaluating acute renal failure in acute heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Okazaki, Hirotake; Matsushita, Masato; Shibata, Yusaku; Nishigoori, Suguru; Uchiyama, Saori; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims Whether or not the definition of a worsening renal function (WRF) is adequate for the evaluation of acute renal failure in patients with acute heart failure is unclear. Methods and results One thousand and eighty‐three patients with acute heart failure were analysed. A WRF, indicated by a change in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/mL during the first 5 days, occurred in 360 patients while no‐WRF, indicated by a change <0.3 mg/dL, in 723 patients. Acute kidney injury (AKI) upon admission was defined based on the ratio of the serum creatinine value recorded on admission to the baseline creatinine value and placed into groups based on the degree of AKI: no‐AKI (n = 751), Class R (risk; n = 193), Class I (injury; n = 41), or Class F (failure; n = 98). The patients were assigned to another set of four groups: no‐WRF/no‐AKI (n = 512), no‐WRF/AKI (n = 211), WRF/no‐AKI (n = 239), and WRF/AKI (n = 121). A multivariate logistic regression model found that no‐WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI were independently associated with 365 day mortality (hazard ratio: 1.916; 95% confidence interval: 1.234–2.974 and hazard ratio: 3.622; 95% confidence interval: 2.332–5.624). Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the rate of any‐cause death during 1 year was significantly poorer in the no‐WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI groups than in the WRF/no‐AKI and no‐WRF/no‐AKI groups and in Class I and Class F than in Class R and the no‐AKI group. Conclusions The presence of AKI on admission, especially Class I and Class F status, is associated with a poor prognosis despite the lack of a WRF within the first 5 days. The prognostic ability of AKI on admission may be superior to WRF within the first 5 days. PMID:29388735

  20. Functional Analysis of the Coronary Heart Disease Risk Locus on Chromosome 21q22

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    Katherine E. Beaney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The coronary heart disease (CHD risk locus on 21q22 (lead SNP rs9982601 lies within a “gene desert.” The aim of this study was to assess if this locus is associated with CHD risk factors and to identify the functional variant(s and gene(s involved. Methods. A phenome scan was performed with UCLEB Consortium data. Allele-specific protein binding was studied using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Dual-reporter luciferase assays were used to assess the impact of genetic variation on expression. Expression quantitative trait analysis was performed with Advanced Study of Aortic Pathology (ASAP and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx consortium data. Results. A suggestive association between QT interval and the locus was observed (rs9982601  p=0.04. One variant at the locus, rs28451064, showed allele-specific protein binding and its minor allele showed 12% higher luciferase expression (p = 4.82 × 10−3 compared to the common allele. The minor allele of rs9982601 was associated with higher expression of the closest upstream genes (SLC5A3 1.30-fold increase p = 3.98 × 10−5; MRPS6 1.15-fold increase p = 9.60 × 10−4 in aortic intima media in ASAP. Both rs9982601 and rs28451064 showed a suggestive association with MRPS6 expression in relevant tissues in the GTEx data. Conclusions. A candidate functional variant, rs28451064, was identified. Future work should focus on identifying the pathway(s involved.

  1. Dietary sodium modulation of aldosterone activation and renal function during the progression of experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Borgeson, Daniel D; Grantham, J Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C

    2015-02-01

    Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium–fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: (i) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 g) per day, n =6]; (ii) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 g) per day, n =6]; and (iii) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 g) per day, n =6]. During the 38-day study, haemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in haemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups; however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression.

  2. Evaluation of right heart function in a rat model using modified echocardiographic views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ivan; Wong, James; Wlodek, Mary E; Vlahos, Ross; Soeding, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Echocardiography plays a major role in assessing cardiac function in animal models. We investigated use of a modified parasternal mid right-ventricular (MRV) and right ventricle (RV) outflow (RVOT) view, in assessing RV size and function, and the suitability of advanced 2D-strain analysis. 15 WKY rats were examined using transthoracic echocardiography. The left heart was assessed using standard short and long axis views. For the right ventricle a MRV and RVOT view were used to measure RV chamber and free wall area. 2D-strain analysis was applied to both ventricles using off-line analysis. RV chamber volume was determined by injection of 2% agarose gel, and RV free wall dissected and weighed. Echocardiography measurement was correlated with necropsy findings. The RV mid-ventricular dimension (R1) was 0.42±0.07cm and the right ventricular outflow tract dimension (R2) was 0.34±0.06cm, chamber end-diastolic area measurements were 0.38±0.09cm2 and 0.29±0.08cm2 for MRV and RVOT views respectively. RVOT and MRV chamber area correlated with gel mass. Doppler RV stroke volume was 0.32±0.08ml, cardiac output (CO) 110±27 ml.min-1 and RV free wall contractility assessed using 2D-strain analysis was demonstrated. We have shown that modified MRV and RVOT views can provide detailed assessment of the RV in rodents, with 2D-strain analysis of the RV free wall potentially feasible.

  3. [Type B natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved systolic function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A; Dias, P; Pereira, M; Pimenta, J; Friões, F; Rodrigues, R; Ferreira, A; Bettencourt, P

    2001-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) is observed in up to 50% patients with HF. There is no consensus on non-invasive diagnosis of this entity. Evaluation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the diagnosis of HF with preserved left ventricular systolic function. Prospective study. One hundred and seventy-six consecutive patients with suspected HF were evaluated. Patients were classified as having HF with preserved LVSF, if they had symptoms and signs of HF, an ejection fraction greater than 40% and an abnormal Doppler pattern of the mitral inflow or atrial fibrilation and no other causes for the symptoms. All patients had a 12-lead EKG, chest roentgenogram, simple spirometry, M-mode and 2D echocardiogram with pulsed Doppler study of transmitral inflow and determination of plasma BNP levels. Of the 176 patients, 65 had ejection fraction greater than 40%. Of these patients 46 were classified as having HF with preserved LVSF and 19 as not having HF. Patients with HF and preserved LVSF were older, had a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), less pathologic Q waves on ECG and higher left ventricular ejection fraction and plasma BNP than patients without HF. Multivariate analysis revealed that BNP and SBP were independently associated with the diagnosis of HF. The accuracy of BNP in the diagnosis of HF with preserved LVSF evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94. These results suggest that the measurement of BNP levels can help clinicians in the diagnosis of HF with preserved LVSF. Whether BNP levels might be used in clinical practice as a test for the diagnosis of HF with preserved LVSF is a question that merits further studies.

  4. Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Lower Physical Function in Patients with Heart Failure and Diabetes

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    M. R. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is frequent among patients with heart failure (HF and diabetes, disorders associated with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. This study aims to search for associations between vitamin D sufficiency and physical function indexes in patients with HF and diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 146 HF patients, 39.7% with diabetes, at a Brazilian tertiary outpatient clinic was performed. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT, handgrip strength, physical activity level (IPAQ, and biochemical evaluations including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Classification was done according to vitamin D status (≥30 ng/dL, sufficient and presence/absence of diabetes in vitamin sufficient, no diabetes (DS-C, n=25, vitamin sufficient, diabetes (DS-DM, n=18, vitamin deficient, no diabetes (DD-C, n= 63, and vitamin deficient, diabetes (DD-DM, n=40. Patients age was 55.4 ± 8 yrs; 70.5% had vitamin D deficiency. Clinical characteristics were similar among groups. Total time expended in physical activity was similar among groups (P=0.26. DS-C covered higher distances in the 6 MWT (392 ± 60 m versus DD-DM (309 ± 116 m; P=0.024. Handgrip strength was similar among groups but tended to lower levels in DD-DM (P=0.074 even after being adjusted to physical activity (P=0.069. Vitamin D deficiency can influence physical function in HF diabetic patients.

  5. Long-term, regular remote ischemic preconditioning improves endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease

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    Liang, Y.; Li, Y.P.; He, F.; Liu, X.Q.; Zhang, J.Y. [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPre) can prevent myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of long-term regular RIPre on human arteries. Forty patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were assigned randomly to a RIPre group (n=20) or coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n=20). Twenty patients scheduled for mastectomy were enrolled as a control group. RIPre was achieved by occluding arterial blood flow 5 min with a mercury sphygmomanometer followed by a 5-min reperfusion period, and this was repeated 4 times. The RIPre procedure was repeated 3 times a day for 20 days. In all patients, arterial fragments discarded during surgery were collected to evaluate endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), CD34{sup +} monocyte count, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression). Phosphorylation levels of STAT-3 and Akt were also assayed to explore the underlying mechanisms. Compared with the CHD group, long-term regular RIPre significantly improved FMD after 20 days (8.5±2.4 vs 4.9±4.2%, P<0.05) and significantly reduced troponin after CABG surgery (0.72±0.31 and 1.64±0.19, P<0.05). RIPre activated STAT-3 and increased CD34{sup +} endothelial progenitor cell counts found in arteries. Long-term, regular RIPre improved endothelial function in patients with CHD, possibly due to STAT-3 activation, and this may have led to an increase in endothelial progenitor cells.

  6. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of [11C]-(-)-phenylephrine as a functional heart neuronal PET agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Renato B. del; Jung, Y.-W.; Caraher, John; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Wieland, Donald M.

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo behavior of (-)-[ 11 C]phenylephrine (PHEN) is compared with the structurally similar but monoamine oxidase (MAO)-resistant analog (-)-[ 11 C]-m-hydroxyephedrine (HED), which is an established heart neuronal marker. The chiral synthesis of PHEN has been achieved by direct methylation of (-)-m-octopamine with either 11 CH 3 I or CF 3 SO 11 3 CH 3 . These synthetic methods produced PHEN with a specific activity ranging from 500-1000 Ci/mmol, in a radiochemical yield of >50% (EOS) and with an enantiomeric purity of 94-96%. Biodistribution studies indicate the initial uptake of PHEN in rat heart is approximately half that of HED. Following PHEN injection, radioactivity egresses from the rat heart rapidly, with 50% washout occurring from 5 to 60 min. HED washout over this interval was less than 20%. The heart neuronal selectivity determined by desipramine blockade of the amine neuronal transporter was 75-77% compared to 92-95% for HED. Ring-labeled (-)-[ 3 H]phenylephrine gave tissue-to-blood concentration ratios and heart clearance times very similar to PHEN. Rats pretreated with the MAO A inhibitor clorgyline showed higher levels of activity in the heart at 15 and 60 min. Tandem PET studies with PHEN and HED in the closed-chest dog provided excellent heart images with both tracers

  7. Study on the relationship between plasma BNP levels and left cardiac function in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xin; Xu Dandan; Wu Chunxu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and cardiac function in patients with heart failure. Methods: Plasma levels of BNP (with IRMA) and left cardiac function parameters (examined with echocardiogram) were obtained in 80 patients with heart failure at admission and repeatedly examined in 43 of them later after 2w treatment a swell as in 30 controls. Results: The plasma BNP levels increased along with the deterioration of cardiac function, with significant differences among the patients with different cardiac function grades (P<0.01). After 2w treatment, the plasma BNP levels were significantly lower than those before (P<0.01). The plasma levels of BNP were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricle fraction shortening, but positively correlated with left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVSd) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd). Conclusion: Plasma levels of BNP were closely related to the severity of heart failure and could serve as a biochemical marker for assessing the left cardiac function. (authors)

  8. Competing Risk of Cardiac Status and Renal Function During Hospitalization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Khibar; Kok, Wouter E; Eurlings, Luc W; Bettencourt, Paulo; Pimenta, Joana M; Metra, Marco; Verdiani, Valerio; Tijssen, Jan G; Pinto, Yigal M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamic changes in renal function in combination with dynamic changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Treatment of ADHF improves cardiac parameters, as reflected by lower levels of NT-proBNP. However this often comes at the cost of worsening renal parameters (e.g., serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], or serum urea). Both the cardiac and renal markers are validated indicators of prognosis, but it is not yet clear whether the benefits of lowering NT-proBNP are outweighed by the concomitant worsening of renal parameters. This study was an individual patient data analysis assembled from 6 prospective cohorts consisting of 1,232 patients hospitalized for ADHF. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality and/or readmission for a cardiovascular reason within 180 days after discharge. A significant reduction in NT-proBNP was not associated with worsening of renal function (WRF) or severe WRF (sWRF). A reduction of NT-proBNP of more than 30% during hospitalization determined prognosis (all-cause mortality hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81; 95% confidence Interval [CI]: 1.32 to 2.50; composite endpoint: HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.64), regardless of changes in renal function and other clinical variables. When we defined prognosis, NT-proBNP changes during hospitalization for treatment of ADHF prevailed over parameters for worsening renal function. Severe WRF is a measure of prognosis, but is of lesser value than, and independent of the prognostic changes induced by adequate NT-proBNP reduction. This suggests that in ADHF patients it may be warranted to strive for an optimal decrease in NT-proBNP, even if this induces WRF. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G.; Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C.; Belin, A.; Babatasi, G.; Amar, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801±428 vs 1229±245 kpm.min -1 , P=0.001), exercise duration (504±190 vs 649±125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%±19% vs 156%±25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%±9% vs 21%±10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  10. Roles of Sensory Nerves in the Regulation of Radiation-Induced Structural and Functional Changes in the Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti; Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G.; Zheng, Junying; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Boerma, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a chronic severe side effect of radiation therapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. The heart contains a dense network of sensory neurons that not only are involved in monitoring of cardiac events such as ischemia and reperfusion but also play a role in cardiac tissue homeostasis, preconditioning, and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sensory nerves in RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered capsaicin to permanently ablate sensory nerves, 2 weeks before local image-guided heart x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 21 Gy. During the 6 months of follow-up, heart function was assessed with high-resolution echocardiography. At 6 months after irradiation, cardiac structural and molecular changes were examined with histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results: Capsaicin pretreatment blunted the effects of radiation on myocardial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration and activity. By contrast, capsaicin pretreatment caused a small but significant reduction in cardiac output 6 months after irradiation. Capsaicin did not alter the effects of radiation on cardiac macrophage number or indicators of autophagy and apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that sensory nerves, although they play a predominantly protective role in radiation-induced cardiac function changes, may eventually enhance radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and mast cell activity

  11. Peculiarities of cardiac hemodynamics and functional state of left ventricular myocardium in teenagers with connective heart tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhmudova F.M.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation is to study heart hemodynamics in teenagers with connective tissue dysplasia of heart (CTDH. 35 patients ages 12 to 15 years with CTDH have been observed: Group I (n=14 are the patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP without mitral regurgitation (MR and myxomatous degeneration(MD or isolated minor heart abnormalities (MHA, Group II (n=11are patients with MVP and MR in combination with 1 or2 MHA, and Group III (n=10 are patients with MVP and mixoid degeneration (MD in combination with 2 or more MHA. The control group consisted of 15 patients of the same age without MHA. All the children passed Doppler and echocardiography. According to the results significant changes of cardiohemodynamic indices in patients of Group I were not observed. The changes of size and volume indices of the left ventricle (LV, increase in wall thickness and diastolic dysfunction of the LV were observed in Group II. The significant changes of systolic function of left ventricular myocardium were observed in Group III. The study comes to the conclusion that teenagers with CTDH have definite changes of heart hemodynamics and functional state of left ventricular myocardium. These changes depend on mitral regurgitation, myxomatous degeneration and MHA combination

  12. Roles of Sensory Nerves in the Regulation of Radiation-Induced Structural and Functional Changes in the Heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Moros, Eduardo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Zheng, Junying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Boerma, Marjan, E-mail: mboerma@uams.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a chronic severe side effect of radiation therapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. The heart contains a dense network of sensory neurons that not only are involved in monitoring of cardiac events such as ischemia and reperfusion but also play a role in cardiac tissue homeostasis, preconditioning, and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sensory nerves in RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered capsaicin to permanently ablate sensory nerves, 2 weeks before local image-guided heart x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 21 Gy. During the 6 months of follow-up, heart function was assessed with high-resolution echocardiography. At 6 months after irradiation, cardiac structural and molecular changes were examined with histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results: Capsaicin pretreatment blunted the effects of radiation on myocardial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration and activity. By contrast, capsaicin pretreatment caused a small but significant reduction in cardiac output 6 months after irradiation. Capsaicin did not alter the effects of radiation on cardiac macrophage number or indicators of autophagy and apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that sensory nerves, although they play a predominantly protective role in radiation-induced cardiac function changes, may eventually enhance radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and mast cell activity.

  13. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C. [Service de Cardiologie, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Belin, A. [Service de Readaptation Cardiaque, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Babatasi, G. [Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Thoracique, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Amar, M.H. [Centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France). Service de Recherche Clinique

    1998-03-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent progressive, supervised endurance training (treadmill test, Bruce protocol) during a 6-month period (60 sessions, 3 sessions per week) at a cardiac rehabilitation referral centre in order to measure exercise parameters. Planar {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801{+-}428 vs 1229{+-}245 kpm.min{sup -1}, P=0.001), exercise duration (504{+-}190 vs 649{+-}125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%{+-}19% vs 156%{+-}25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%{+-}9% vs 21%{+-}10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  14. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  15. Endothelial function is unaffected by changing between carvedilol and metoprolol in patients with heart failure-a randomized study

    Directo