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Sample records for restores 24-hour growth

  1. Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Hvidberg, A; Juul, A

    1995-01-01

    levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as insulin in obese subjects before and after a massive weight loss. We studied 18 obese subjects (age, 26 +/- 1 yr; body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2); 18 normal age-, and sex-matched control subjects; and 9...... using anthropometric measurements and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA). In the obese subjects, 24-h spontaneous GH release profiles and the GH responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and L-arginine as well as basal IGF-I levels and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were decreased, whereas...

  2. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  3. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  4. Gene and protein expression of epidermal growth factor measured on the kidney 24 hours after irradiation correlates to late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the proliferative response of epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene expression as an early indicator of late renal radiation damage. EGF gene expression was measured in the irradiated left kidney of C3H/HeSlc mice using RT-PCR 24 hours after radiation doses of 9, 12, or 15 Gy. In a second experiment, the same radiation doses were administered to the right kidney plus the lower half of the left kidney. The partly irradiated left kidneys were harvested and EGF gene expression was measured. The irradiated whole right kidneys were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for EGF protein. In a third experiment, 12 Gy was administered to the right kidney plus the lower half of the left kidney. The mice underwent left nephrectomy 24 hours after radiation, and the EGF gene expression in the kidney was correlated with the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level representing late renal functional damage. EGF expression increased in 1 of 10 control mice and in 9 of 10 mice that received 15 Gy. The extent of increase of EGF was dependent on radiation dose. In mice having an increased BUN level after irradiation, 7 of 10 had EGF positive irradiated kidneys. All six mice whose BUN levels were unchanged had EGF-negative irradiated kidneys. EGF protein staining was observed in tubule cells only, not in glomerular cells. The amount of EGF protein staining correlated with radiation dose to some extent. EGF gene expression seems to be a very early indicator of late radiation damage to the kidney. (author)

  5. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  6. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  7. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  8. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  9. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Detection During 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Comparison With 24-Hour Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos G; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a novel 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitor (Microlife WatchBP O3 Afib) with implemented algorithm for automated atrial fibrillation (AF) detection during each ABP measurement. One hundred subjects (mean age 70.6±8.2 [SD] years; men 53%; hypertensives 85%; 17 with permanent AF; 4 paroxysmal AF; and 79 non-AF) had simultaneous 24-hour ABP monitoring and 24-hour Holter monitoring. Among a total of 6410 valid ABP readings, 1091 (17%) were taken in ECG AF rhythm. In reading-to-reading ABP analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ABP monitoring in detecting AF were 93%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. In non-AF subjects, 12.8% of the 24-hour ABP readings indicated false-positive AF, of whom 27% were taken during supraventricular premature beats. There was a strong association between the proportion of false-positive AF readings and that of supraventricular premature beats ( r =0.67; P ABP monitoring had 100%/85% sensitivity/specificity (area under the curve 0.91; P ABP monitor with AF detector has high sensitivity and moderate specificity for AF screening during routine ABP monitoring. Thus, in elderly hypertensives, a 24-hour ABP recording with at least 26% of the readings suggesting AF indicates a high probability for AF diagnosis and should be regarded as an indication for performing 24-hour Holter monitoring. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  12. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Less than 24-hour duty. 785.21 Section 785.21 Labor...

  13. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.

  14. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  15. Continuous 24-hour intravenous infusion of recombinant human growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-(1-44)-amide augments pulsatile, entropic, and daily rhythmic GH secretion in postmenopausal women equally in the estrogen-withdrawn and estrogen-supplemented states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W S; Anderson, S M; Hull, L T; Azimi, P P; Bowers, C Y; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-02-01

    (P = 0.047); 2) augmented GH secretory burst mass (P: = 0.025) without influencing pulse frequency, duration, half-life, or basal secretion; 2) stimulated more irregular patterns of GH release (higher ApEn; P = 0.012); and 3) elevated the 24-h rhythmic GH mesor (P = 0.0005), but not amplitude. Notably, combined stimulation of the GH axis with GHRH-(1--44)-amide and estradiol exerted no further effect beyond that evoked by GHRH alone, except for normalizing the acrophase of 24-h GH rhythmic release and elevating the postinfusion plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentration (P = 0.016). Unexpectedly, the two GHRH-infused serum GH concentration profiles monitored after placebo and estradiol pretreatment showed strongly nonrandom synchrony with a 20- to 30-min lag (P < 0.001). In summary, the present clinical investigations unmask a 3-fold (pulsatile, entropic, and daily rhythmic) similitude between the neuroregulatory actions of estradiol and GHRH in healthy postmenopausal women. However, GHRH infusion was multifold more effectual than estradiol, and only GHRH elevated nonpulsatile (basal) GH secretion, shifted the GH acrophase, and synchronized GH profiles. Given the nonadditive nature of the joint effects of estradiol and GHRH on pulsatile and entropic GH release, we hypothesize that estrogen amplifies GH secretion in part by enhancing endogenous GHRH release or actions. In addition, the distinctive ability of GHRH (but not estradiol) to increase basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion, shift the GH acrophase and synchronize GH output patterns identifies certain divergent hypothalamo-pituitary actions of these two major GH secretagogues.

  16. 24-Hour Holter Monitoring at the Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, only a minority of such patients have documented and confirmed clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in this study. A subsequent larger prospective study would shed more light on this subject. Key Words: Electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-hour Holter, Heart Rate variability. Paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias.

  17. Feasibility of ambulatory, continuous 24-hour finger arterial pressure recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Langewouters, G. J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Parati, G.; van Goudoever, J.; Wesseling, K. H.; Wieling, W.; Mancia, G.

    1993-01-01

    We tested Portapres, an innovative portable, battery-operated device for the continuous, noninvasive, 24-hour ambulatory measurement of blood pressure in the finger. Portapres is based on Finapres, a stationary device for the measurement of finger arterial pressure. Systems were added to record

  18. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1993-07-01

    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  19. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  20. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kuang-Chao Chen

    Full Text Available Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001. There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes

  1. The 24-hour society between myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2001-12-01

    The 24-hour society appears to be an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more "restricting" the human life. But, what kind of 24-hour society do we need? At what costs? Are they acceptable/sustainable? Shift work, night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage, of which shift workers are builders and victims at the same time. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined: not only the link between work place and working hours is broken, but also the value of working time changes according to the different economic/productive/social effects it can make. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of physical health; psychological well-being, family and social life? The research on irregular working hours and health shows us what can be the negative consequences of non-human-centered working times organisations. Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building a more sustainable society, at acceptable costs and with the highest possible benefits.

  2. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  3. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  4. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Knemometry is more sensitive to systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma than 24-hour urine cortisol excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo; Nilsson, Erik; Nørgaard, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacodynamic assessment of the systemic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is often done by measuring 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) excretion. Knemometry assessing short-term lower-leg growth rate (LLGR) is a more rarely used alternative. Objective: The primary aim...... of this study was to compare the sensitivity of LLGR and 24-hour UFC excretion for evaluating systemic exposure to ICSs in prepubertal children with asthma. The secondary aim was to evaluate factors influencing the precision of LLGR calculated by the traditional 1 leg nonparametric method versus a new 2 leg...... parametric method. Methods: The study evaluated 60 children with mild asthma aged 5 to 12 years participating in a randomized controlled trial of ICSs with longitudinal concomitant assessments of LLGR and 24-hour UFC excretion. The sensitivity of the safety assessments was analyzed by comparing LLGR and 24...

  6. Sleep, 24-hour activity rhythms, and brain structure : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Zuurbier (Lisette)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis, Chapter 2 focuses on sleep, 24-hour activity rhythms and health. Chapter 2.1 describes the influence of demographics, lifestyle and sleep on 24-hour activity rhythms. In Chapter 2.2 sleep and 24-hour activity rhythms are used to predict mortality. This chapter is

  7. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Kalliolia

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes.We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting, 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed.24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington's disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington's disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington's disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls.The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack of significant results despite many

  8. Microleakage of two self-adhesive cements in the enamel and dentin after 24 hours and two months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jaberi Ansari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months.In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control, RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001 and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001. Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months.Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours.

  9. Coral restoration Bonaire : an evaluation of growth, regeneration and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, H.W.G.; Boomstra, B.; Hurtado-Lopez, N.; Montbrun, A.; Virdis, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Coral restoration of Staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and Elkhorn (A. palmata) as practiced by the Coral Restoration Foundation Bonaire (CRFB) is shown to be highly successful in terms of growth and survival of new colonies, in both nurseries and transplant locations. Coral restoration is

  10. Effect of travoprost on 24-hour intraocular pressure in normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Nomura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuya Nomura1, Shunsuke Nakakura2, Mitsuyasu Moriwaki1, Yasuhiro Takahashi1, Kunihiko Shiraki11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Gose Hospital, JapanPurpose: The effect of travoprost 0.004% on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP was examined in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG.Subjects and methods: This study included 17 patients with newly diagnosed unilateral NTG. IOP was measured at three-hour intervals over 24 hours by Goldman applanation tonometer in patients taking topical travoprost 0.004% and was compared retrospectively with 24-hour IOP data in untreated eyes.Results: IOP values were significantly reduced at individual time points after treatment (P < 0.01. Mean 24-hour IOP, maximum 24-hour IOP, minimum 24-hour IOP, and 24-hour IOP fluctuations at baseline (mean ± SD were 12.9 ± 2.2 mmHg, 15.4 ± 2.7 mmHg, 10.5 ± 2.2 mmHg, and 4.9 ± 1.2 mmHg, respectively, and were significantly reduced to 10.3 ± 2.0 mmHg, 12.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, 8.5 ± 1.9 mmHg (all P < 0.001, and 3.9 ± 1.5 mmHg (P < 0.05, respectively, after treatment. The rate of IOP reduction greater than 20% was 58.8% (10 eyes for maximum 24-hour IOP and 53.0% (nine eyes for mean 24-hour IOP.Conclusion: Travoprost reduced IOP throughout the 24-hour study period, with over half of the eyes examined showing IOP reduction exceeding 20%.Keywords: 24-hour intraocular pressure, fluctuation, normal tension glaucoma, travoprost, Travatan Z

  11. Comparison of 44-hour and fixed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Hong; Tang, Bing; Sun, Zhiping; Wen, Ping; Wu, Wenhui; Bian, Xueqing; Shen, Xia; Yang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P marathon race times. In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance.

  13. ASA24 enables multiple automatically coded self-administered 24-hour recalls and food records

    Science.gov (United States)

    A freely available web-based tool for epidemiologic, interventional, behavioral, or clinical research from NCI that enables multiple automatically coded self-administered 24-hour recalls and food records.

  14. Reproducibility of two, three, four and five 24-hour recalls in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... participants' ability to accurately record or recall food consumption, describe food .... used.16 The accuracy of food item and portion size data captured for ..... Four 24-hour recalls are more practical and cost-effective, and carry.

  15. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  16. Assessment of radioactivity for 24 hours urine sample depending on correction factor by using creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Maghrabi, M.

    2006-09-01

    Assessment of intake and internal does requires knowing the amount of radioactivity in 24 hours urine sample, sometimes it is difficult to get 24 hour sample because this method is not comfortable and in most cases the workers refuse to collect this amount of urine. This work focuses on finding correction factor of 24 hour sample depending on knowing the amount of creatinine in the sample whatever the size of this sample. Then the 24 hours excretion of radionuclide is calculated assuming the average creatinine excretion rate is 1.7 g per 24 hours, based on the amount of activity and creatinine in the urine sample. Several urine sample were collected from occupationally exposed workers the amount and ratios of creatinine and activity in these samples were determined, then normalized to 24 excretion of radionuclide. The average chemical recovery was 77%. It should be emphasized that this method should only be used if a 24 hours sample was not possible to collect. (author)

  17. 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability showed a stronger association with carotid damage than 24-hour brachial blood pressure variability: The SAFAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shikai; Chi, Chen; Protogerou, Athanase D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques; Argyris, Antonis A; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Sfikakis, Petros P; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Xu, Henry; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yawei

    2018-03-01

    We aim to compare 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability (BPV) with brachial BPV in relation to carotid damage as estimated by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cross-sectional area (CCSA). Four hundred and forty five individuals received brachial and aortic 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with a validated device (Mobil-O-Graph). Systolic BPV was estimated by average real variability (ARV) and time-weighted standard deviation (wSD). In multiple logistic regression analysis, CIMT > 900 μm was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.84), aortic wSD (OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.19-2.29) and brachial ARV (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07-2.18), but not with brachial wSD. CCSA > 90th percentile was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) and wSD (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.12-2.56), but not with brachial BPVs. In receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, aortic wSD identified CCSA > 90th percentile better than brachial wSD (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.68, P < .01). In conclusion, aortic 24-hour systolic BPV showed a slightly stronger association with carotid damage than brachial BPV. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Comparison of 4- and 24-Hour Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Proteinuria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Amirabi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24 hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test. Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86. Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria

  19. Occurrence of hypotension in older participants. Which 24-hour ABPM parameter better correlate with?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Angelo; Modestino, Anna; Frattari, Alessandra; Di Daniele, Nicola; Tesauro, Manfredi

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hypotension in older participants and to identify which 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameter better correlated with the occurrence of hypotension. We studied 588 elderly participants (mean age 78.7 ± 7.1 years; 70% women) who underwent a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, without moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, myocardial infarction, or stroke within the previous 6 months; renal (serum creatinine > 2.5 mg/dL), respiratory, or liver insufficiency; and atrial fibrillation. In older participants, the occurrence of systolic hypotension is very common (≈55% presenting at least one episode of systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 100 mmHg and about 20% presenting ≥10% of the SBP registrations < 100 mmHg). More than 30% of participants with 24-hour SBP, daytime, and nighttime above the reference threshold had hypotension. Hypotension did not correlated with BP variability indices (standard deviation of BPs). None of the parameters commonly present in 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring clinical reports is able to accurately identify those older participants with episode of hypotension. Episodes of SBP hypotension are extremely common in older participants and do not appear to relate to BP variability indices. Indeed, no parameter of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was capable to accurately identify the occurrence of hypotension. We expect that ongoing studies will contribute to identification of specific factors predicting hypotensive episodes in the older participants.

  20. Delay of constant light-induced persistent vaginal estrus by 24-hour time cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A L; Adler, N T

    1979-04-20

    The normal ovarian cycle of female rats is typically replaced by persistent estrus when these animals are housed under constant light. Evidence presented here shows that the maintenance of periodicity in the environment can at least delay (if not prevent) the photic induction of persistent vaginal estrus. Female rats in constant light were exposed to vaginal smearing at random times or at the same time every day. In another experiment, female rats were exposed to either constant bright light, constant dim light, or a 24-hour photic cycle of bright and dim light. The onset of persistent vaginal estrus was delayed in rats exposed to 24-hour time cues even though the light intensities were the same as or greater than those for the aperiodic control groups. The results suggest that the absence of 24-hour time cues in constant light contributes to the induction of persistent estrus.

  1. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandBackground: Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners.Methods: The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites, previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time, and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05, had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05 and thigh (P < 0.01, and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05 compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001 and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001, but were running slower (P < 0.01 compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05. In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001 and running speed during training (P < 0.0001 were related to marathon race times.Conclusion: In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do

  3. 24-hour whole-body retention of sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is described for the examination of bone tissue metabolism; a 24-hour retention of diphosphonate labelled with radioactive sup(99m)Tc (assessed using a whole-body counter or by estimation of the amount of labelled substance excreted in the course of 24 hours via the urine). The values are elevated in primary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, generalized Paget's disease, multiple bone metastases; the values are not uniform in osteoporosis. The method is simple, sensitive and reliable (provided renal function is normal), suited for screening, as part of specialized osteological diagnosis as well as for repeated longitudinal investigations. (author)

  4. The features of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus depending on endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Pertseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Arterial hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM plays a main role in the earlier formation of diabetic kidney disease (DKD. Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be a process based on the development of diabetic complications. It is important to study the markers, which gives the opportunity to identify DKD in early stage. Objective: to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure data in patients with DM and its correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate and endothelial dysfunction. Materials and methods. The endothelial function was determined by the levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-b1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1. There were 124 patients with DM (66 with type 1 and 58 with type 2 under observation. Results. Levels of endothelial function (TGF-b1 and VCAM-1 indexes in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM depended on glomerular filtration rate. Between the indexes of endothelial function (TGF-b1, VCAM-1 and the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, there is strong and average correlation, therefore, parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and presence of endothelial dysfunction can be considered as early signs of DKD progression in patients with DM. Conclusions. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with DM on the early stages of diabetic nephropathy is characterized by significant circadian rhythm disorders. The insufficient night decline of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM characterizes the presence of diabetic nephropathy progression according to the indexes of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure.

  5. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee is required to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee may agree to exclude... from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the employee... of sleeping time and lunch periods constitute hours worked. (Armour v. Wantock, 323 U.S. 126 (1944...

  6. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  7. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  8. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices.

  9. Validation of a dietary questionnaire assessed with multiple weighed dietary records or 24-hour recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors evaluated the validity of a 152-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) by comparing it with two 7-day dietary records (7DDRs) or up to 4 automated self-administered 24-hour recalls (ASA24s) over a 1-year period in the women's Lifestyle Validation Study (2010-2012), con...

  10. Analysis of 24-hour versus 48-hour traffic counts for HPMS sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to : allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway : Perf...

  11. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8, the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results: There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58% for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%, specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%, and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47% for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%, specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%, and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion: The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines.

  12. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  13. 24-hour central aortic systolic pressure and 24-hour central pulse pressure are related to diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive measurements of 24 hour ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure (24 h-CASP) and central pulse pressure (24 h-CPP) are now feasible. We evaluate the relationship between 24 h central blood pressure and diabetes-related complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.......68) and 3.72 (1.85-7.47) and autonomic dysfunction: 3.25 (1.65-6.41), 1.64 (1.12-2.39) and 2.89 (1.54-5.42). CONCLUSIONS: 24 h-CASP and 24 h-CPP was higher in patients vs. controls and increased with diabetic complications independently of covariates. Furthermore, 24 h-CASP was stronger associated....... METHODS: The study was cross-sectional, including 715 subjects: 86 controls (C), 69 patients with short diabetes duration (diabetes (≥ 10 years) and normoalbuminuria (LN), 163...

  14. 24-Hour Fetal/Maternal Monitoring System Based on Phonocardiogram Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an engineering prototype of the Device for 24-hour monitoring over the functional state of the fetus and mother’s cardiovascular system in the antenatal period of pregnancy. The Device is a hardware and software system that ensures the registration and analysis of fetus and mother’s phonocardiograms with further processing and interpretation. The interpretation process is designed to timely detect conditions that constitute a threat to a fetus. The Device operates as part of a telemedicine network that allows obstetricians-gynecologists managing pregnant women to remotely control their state. The article describes the Device design concept and features of its specific components. The engineering prototype of the Device was used to carry out biomedical tests that confirmed its suitability for 24-hour monitoring over the functional state of fetus and mother’s cardiovascular system in home settings.

  15. Pulse wave velocity 24-hour monitoring with one-site measurements by oscillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posokhov IN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Igor N PosokhovHemodynamic Laboratory Ltd, Nizhniy Novgorod, RussiaAbstract: This review describes issues for the estimation of pulse wave velocity (PWV under ambulatory conditions using oscillometric systems. The difference between the principles of measuring the PWV by the standard method and by oscillometry is shown, and information on device validation studies is summarized. It was concluded that currently oscillometry is a method that is very convenient to use in the 24-hour monitoring of the PWV, is relatively accurate, and is reasonably comfortable for the patient. Several indices with the same principles as those in the analysis of blood pressure in ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure, namely the assessment of load, variability, and circadian rhythm, are proposed.Keywords: pulse wave velocity, 24-hour monitoring, oscillometry

  16. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.

  17. 24-Hour Fetal/Maternal Monitoring System Based on Phonocardiogram Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhdanov Dmitry; Bureev Artem; Kosteley Yana

    2018-01-01

    The article describes an engineering prototype of the Device for 24-hour monitoring over the functional state of the fetus and mother’s cardiovascular system in the antenatal period of pregnancy. The Device is a hardware and software system that ensures the registration and analysis of fetus and mother’s phonocardiograms with further processing and interpretation. The interpretation process is designed to timely detect conditions that constitute a threat to a fetus. The Device operates as par...

  18. Meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Karen C; Yao, Xiaoquan; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-10-18

    The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep , provide specific recommendations on the amount of time over a typical 24-hour day that children and youth aged 5 to 17 should spend in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (at least 60 minutes), recreational screen time (no more than 2 hours), and sleep (9 to 11 hours for 5- to 13-year-olds; 8 to 10 hours for 14- to 17-year-olds). Based on combined results of cycles 2 (2009-to-2011) and 3 (2012-to-2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, this analysis examines average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration of 5- to 11-year-olds and 12- to 17-year-olds, and the percentages meeting the 24-Hour Guidelines' recommendations. Findings are presented overall and by age group and sex. Differences in average daily times between groups were tested for statistical significance, as weredifferences between groups in the percentages meeting each recommendation and combination of recommendations. Overall, 17.5% of children and youth met the 24-Hour Guidelines' specific time recommendations. Higher percentages of children than youth (29.6% versus 5.5%) and boys than girls (22.9% versus 11.8%) met the recommendations. About a third (36.3%) met two of the three recommendations. Recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep have higher levels of adherence among children than youth.

  19. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this d...... of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter....

  20. Quantitation of 24-Hour Moisturization by Electrical Measurements of Skin Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, R Randall; Damjanovic, Bronson

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of several moisturizers on hydration of the stratum corneum by measuring their effect on electrical conductance over a 24-hour period. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers aged 18 to 65 years with dry skin on the lower legs and no other known dermatologic pathology participated in the study. Additional exclusion criteria were pregnant or taking anti-inflammatory steroids. The study was carried out in a clinical research facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Subjects underwent a 3-day conditioning period using a natural soap bar on the lower legs and no application of moisturizer to the skin. Participants then came to the test site and equilibrated for at least 30 minutes under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. After baseline hydration measurements on test sites on the lower legs of each subject, a single application of each of 5 test products at a dose of 2 mg/cm was made. Skin hydration was assessed by electrical conductance measurements with a specialized probe. The probe was briefly placed on the skin surface with light pressure, and the measurement recorded in units of microsiemens (μS). Conductance was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after product applications. Although all but 1 of the test products increased conductance at 2 hours, only 2 moisturizers containing high levels of glycerin (products C and E) maintained increased conductance relative to baseline at 24 hours, +37.8 (P skin conductance for at least 24 hours after a single application.

  1. Continuous 24-hour ocular dimensional profile recording in medically treated normal-tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Lin Fu,1 Jennifer WH Shum,1 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Jimmy SM Lai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Purpose: To analyze the 24-hour ocular dimensional profile in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients on medical treatment.Methods: Consecutive, medically treated NTG subjects were recruited from a university eye center. Subjects were on a mean of 1.7±0.7 types of antiglaucoma medications and 56.6% were on a prostaglandin analog. A contact lens-based sensor device was worn in one eye of NTG patients to record the intraocular pressure (IOP-related profile for 24 hours, recording the following: variability from mean over 24 hours, nocturnally and diurnally, as well as the number of peaks and troughs diurnally and nocturnally.Results: In 18 NTG subjects, the nocturnal variability around the mean contact lens-based sensor device signal was 48.9% less than the diurnal variability around the mean. The number of peaks was 54.7% less during the nocturnal period than during the diurnal period. The rate of increase in the ocular dimensional profile when going to sleep was significantly greater than the rate of decrease upon waking (P<0.001.Conclusion: In medically treated NTG subjects, there was more variability in the IOP-related pattern during the daytime and there were fewer peaks during sleep. Keywords: intraocular pressure, 24-hour, normal tension glaucoma

  2. Comparing Color Change Value of Three Types of Composite Resins in Distilled Water during the First 24 Hours after Exposure to Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afkhami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Color change of composite resin restorations is one the most common causes for replacing these restorations, which might occur due to internal and external factors. This research was carried out to study and compare color change value of three types of composite resins in distilled water during the first 24 hours after exposure to light. METHODS: In this laboratory research, 120 samples were prepared from three types of composites (Z350, Z250 and Heliomolar and were divided into 3 groups of 40. Samples with 2 mm thickness and 7 mm diameter were prepared. After assessing the initial color by spectrophotometer, samples were exposed to distilled water for 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Then, the final color was assessed by EasyShade device and the color change value (ΔE was calculated for all samples. Moreover, ΔE<3.3 was clinically acceptable. FINDINGS: In 12h group, Heliomolar composite showed lowest color change value compared with two other composites (Z350=1.385, Z250=1.179 and Heliomolar=0.854 (p<0.05, while no significant difference was observed in other groups. Furthermore, lowest color change value in each composite was observed 1 hour after curing (Z350=0.352, Z250=0.641 and Heliomolar=0.298 and color change value increased 24 hours after curing (Z350=1.888, Z250=1.903 and Heliomolar=1.929. CONCLUSION: Results of the study revealed that color change value of all three composites in distilled water was less than 3.3 after 24 hours and it was clinically acceptable

  3. Relationship between 24- hour Holter variables, chest discomfort and syncope: Does age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kanti Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty four ambulatory, non-emergent human subjects from 20-88 years of age were investigated following routine 24 hour Holter monitoring referred by primary and tertiary care centers primarily for evaluation of palpitations and syncope. The patients were grouped into 3 different age categories: A 20-59 years of age (16%, B 60-69 years of age (26.4% and C > 70 years of age (57.6%. Heart rate profile, RR intervals, symptoms, frequency of premature supra ventricular and ventricular complexes were registered. The data show that though the occurrence and frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions over a period of 24 hours did not differ between the groups, the younger subjects documented more subjective discomforts during the Holter monitoring. Extra-systoles in excess of 1000 beats / 24 hour occured incessantly throughout the registration. Patients with syncope and those without did not differ as regards the Holter variables. However, subjects with atrial fibrillation had acceptable rate control and had significantly lower incidence of syncope than those with sinus rhythm. The findings suggest that in a county setting, Holter monitoring for evaluation of syncope may not be the first hand mode of investigation in a non emergent setting. On the contrary, the modality appears to be valuable for monitoring patients with atrial fibrillation. Even mild symptoms in the elderly population may warrant closer clinical follow up to prevent cardiac events and/or syncope leading to serious physical injury.

  4. Medical Decisions of Pediatric Residents Turn Riskier after a 24-Hour Call with No Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Adi; Wasserteil, Netanel; Gross, Itai; Mendlovic, Joseph; Pollak, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    Despite a gradual reduction in the workload during residency, 24-hour calls are still an integral part of most training programs. While sleep deprivation increases the risk propensity, the impact on medical risk taking has not been studied. This study aimed to assess the clinical decision making and psychomotor performance of pediatric residents following a limited nap time during a 24-hour call. A neurocognitive battery (IntegNeuro) and a medical decision questionnaire were completed by 44 pediatric residents at 2 time points: after a 24-hour call and following 3 nights with no calls (sleep ≥5 hours). To monitor sleep, residents wore actigraphs and completed sleep logs. Nap time during the shift was change in risk taking) or 2 to 3 hours (4% decreased risk taking) (difference between groups, P = 0.001). Risk-taking tendency inversely correlated with sustained attention scores (Pearson = -0.433, P = 0.003). Sustained attention was the neurocognitive domain most affected by sleep deprivation (effect size = 0.29, P = 0.025). This study suggests that residents napping less than an hour during a night shift are prone to riskier clinical decisions. Hence, enabling residents to nap at least 1 hour during shifts is recommended. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    . This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...... subjects. We conclude that the increase in 24-h spontaneous GH release and IGFBP-1 levels observed in normal subjects during the last 24 h of a 96-h VLCD is abolished in obese subjects. The lack of short term hypocaloric stimulation of spontaneous GH release may promote the retention of body fat...

  6. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 da...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  7. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  8. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinaemia in the First 24 Hours of Life: Tertiary Center Experience in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Ali Al Ajmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal jaundice is a common condition observed in approximately two-thirds of all newborns in the first postnatal week of life. In most cases it is benign and no treatment is required. However, in severe cases, pathological jaundice can lead to acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus. Aim: To characterise the main predisposing factors as well as the treatment modalities of babies with significant neonatal jaundice presenting in the first 24 hours of life. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of all babies admitted to the neonatal unit at the Royal hospital in Oman in the period between 1st January 2014 and 31st December 2014 and treated for significant hyperbilirubinaemia presenting in the first 24 hours of life. Patients were selected from the Royal Hospital neonatal admission registry. A total of 125 patients records were analysed for the sake of the study. Results: The mean gestational age was 34 weeks and the mean birth weight was 2070 grams. Male to female ratio was 1:1.2. About 30 (45% of the males and 15 (26% of the females had Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. Blood group of the babies was A 42 (33.6%, B 34 (27.2%, AB 4 (3.2% and O 45 (36%. About 4.8% were Rhesus negative. In all 27 (21.6% of the babies tested positive for Direct Coombs Test. The maximum Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB in the first 24 hours of life was 130±65 µmol/L and the maximum TSB anytime during the admission was 215±80 µmol/L. About 88 (70% of the babies received standard phototherapy and 37 (30% received intensive phototherapy. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG in addition to phototherapy was administered in 21 (17% of the babies. None of the babies required exchange transfusion. Conclusion: It was observed that the most common predisposing factors for significant neonatal jaundice presenting in the first 24 hours of life were prematurity, G6PD deficiency and isoimmune hemolytic disease

  9. RF measurement made over 24 hours around mobile telephone base station (MTBS) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaimah Abdul Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Roha Tukimin; Mohd Amirul Nizam; Ahmad Fadzli

    2007-01-01

    The fact that so many people use of mobile phone has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. The concern relate to the emissions of radiofrequency (RF) radiation from the mobile phone and from the MTBS that receive and transmit the signal. A study had been carried out by Nuclear Malaysia with aims to assess the levels of radiofrequency radiation and to analyze the radiation pattern against time for period of 24 hours. The finding of this study confirms that the MTBS transmit radiofrequency radiation with low level and vary against time. (Author)

  10. Normal values of iodine - 131 uptake in 24 hours, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Filho, T.F. de; Oliveira, C.F.F. de

    Thorough clinical exams on all patients come to the radioisotope Laboratory at UFRN, where carried out attempting to select those patients with thyroids considered to be clinically normal. After wayne tests for hypo and hyperthyroidism were carried out, 100 patients were considered to be fit for the research. All of them had an impalpable and asympitomatic thyroid. Waynes clinical indices were precisely revealed in 93% of cases. It was concluded that the normal values of uptake of 131 I during the 24 hours in RGN varied between 14% and 44% [pt

  11. Multicentre evaluation of postoperative pain control after 24hours in three hospitals of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Ramírez-Sarmiento, Javier Orlando

    To determine the intensity of pain in operated patients using a visual analogue scale and identify variables associated with lack of pain control in three cities in Colombia. A cross-sectional study in patients over the age of 18 years, between January 1 st and September 30 th 2014, in 3 clinics in Colombia. The intensity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale at 24hours after surgery was recorded. Socio-demographic, clinical and pharmacological variables were taken into account. SPSS 22.0 was used for the analysis. 460 patients were evaluated, mean age 47.6±17.4 years, and 63.3% were female. The mean pain level was 23.8±17.4mm, with 91 (19.8% of patients) with moderate or greater pain (i.e., lack of pain control). Tramadol was the most used analgesic, followed by dipyrone and diclofenac. 53.0% were treated with monotherapy. Compliance with the dosing regimen of the first analgesic (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.294 to .988; p=.046) was statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk of poorly controlled pain. Pain intensity and the proportion of patients with uncontrolled pain at 24hours after surgery show better results than other studies previously published in the country. There must be insistence on the administration of analgesia within a suitable interval in order to improve pain control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF DAIRY CONSUMPTION AND 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE IN OLDER ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Alberto; Banegas, Jose R; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2018-05-25

    The aim was to examine the association between habitual consumption of dairy products and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring among older adults with hypertension. We conducted an analysis of 715 community-living hypertensive adults aged ≥60. Habitual dairy consumption was assessed with a validated diet history. Blood pressure was recorded by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; controlled blood pressure was defined as 24-hour blood pressure blood pressure 1.40 mm Hg higher (95% confidence interval: 0.01, 2.81) than consumers of blood pressure 1.74 mm Hg lower (95% confidence interval: -3.26, -0.23) than consumers of blood pressure was 1.83 (1.05-3.08) for those consuming ≥7 servings/wk of low-fat milk/yogurt, when comparing with consumers of blood pressure. Regular consumption of low-fat milk/yogurt was associated with lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure and with better blood pressure control among older adults with hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The 24- hour pattern of intraocular pressure in suspected glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the value of 24-hour intraocular pressure(IOPmonitoring in suspected glaucoma patients.METHODS: Totally 48 suspected glaucoma(96 eyeswere selected for 24-hour IOP monitoring by using Accupen tonometer(24-3000and non-contact tonometer(NCT, CT-80Afrom 9:30 to 7:30 next day(once in 2h. During 07:30 to 21:30, patients were measured in sitting position, while during 23:30 to 05:30 in both sitting and supine position.RESULTS: A morning peak of IOP was shown at 7:30 in traditional position by using two measures with 22.05±3.608mmHg of NCT and 19.79±4.147mmHg of Accupen tonometer. The peak IOP in habitual position appeared in 5:30 with 21.64±4.814mmHg. The lowest IOP occurred in both position at 21:30 with 15.73±3.649mmHg. Both positions showed IOP trend of going up at night and then declining in the morning. CONCLUSION: The peak IOP in suspected glaucoma occurs mostly at early morning. Supine IOP of sleeping time is higher than that of sitting position.

  14. Improvement of Endovascular Stroke Treatment: A 24-Hour Neuroradiological On-Site Service Is Not Enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Nikoubashman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. With the advent of endovascular stroke treatment (EST with mechanical thrombectomy, stroke treatment has also become more challenging. Purpose of this study was to investigate whether a fulltime neuroradiological on-site service and workflow optimization with a structured documentation of the interdisciplinary stroke workflow resulted in improved procedural times. Material and Methods. Procedural times of 322 consecutive patients, who received EST (1 before (n=96 and (2 after (n=126 establishing a 24-hour neuroradiological on-site service as well as (3 after implementation of a structured interdisciplinary workflow documentation (“Stroke Check” (n=100, were analysed. Results. A fulltime neuroradiological on-site service resulted in a nonsignificant improvement of procedural times during out-of-hours admissions (p≥0.204. Working hours and out-of-hours procedural times improved significantly, if additional workflow optimization was realized (p≤0.026. Conclusions. A 24-hour interventional on-site service is a major prerequisite to adequately provide modern reperfusion therapies in patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, simple measures like standardized and focused documentation that affect the entire interdisciplinary pre- and intrahospital stroke rescue chain seem to be important.

  15. Thrombocytopenia in the first 24 hours after birth and incidence of patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmon, Hannes; Weber, Sven C; Hüning, Britta; Stein, Anja; Horn, Peter A; Metze, Boris C; Dame, Christof; Bührer, Christoph; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Hansmann, Georg; Koehne, Petra

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies suggest that platelet-triggered ductal sealing is critically involved in definite ductus arteriosus closure. Whether thrombocytopenia contributes to persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in humans is controversial. This was a retrospective study of 1350 very low birth weight (VLBW; gender, and sepsis on PDA was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve, odds ratio, and regression analyses. Platelet numbers within the first 24 hours after birth did not differ between VLBW/ELBW infants with and without spontaneous ductal closure. Platelet numbers were not associated with subsequent PDA treatment. Low platelet counts were not related to failure of pharma-cologic PDA treatment and the need for subsequent surgical ligation. Lower gestational age or birth weight, male gender, and sepsis were linked to the presence of PDA in VLBW infants on day of life 4 to 5. Thrombocytopenia in the first 24 hours after birth was not associated with PDA in this largest VLBW/ELBW infant cohort studied to date. Impaired platelet function, due to immaturity and critical illness, rather than platelet number, might play a role in ductus arteriosus patency.

  16. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelnes, R.

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 μCi 133-Xenon in 0.1 ml isotonic saline injected into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot. The detector is connected to a memory unit allowing for storage of data. Due to the short distance, the recorded elimination rate constant must be corrected for combined convection and diffusion of the radioactive indicator. After reconstructive vascular surgery, the 24-hour blood flow pattern normalized although the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index did not come within normal range. SBF during day-time activities decreased by up to 50% postoperatively. This is caused by the reappearance of the local, sympathetic, veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response. During sleep SBF increased by 71%. The term postreconstructuve hyperamia seems improper, at least in a long-term context, normalization of preoperative ischaemia is a more correct notation. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal SBF was calculated to 10%. The method thus seems apt as a monitor in medical therapy for occlusive arterial disease. Changes of λ has, however, to be considered in each study. 94 refs. (EG)

  17. Effects of clonidine on 24-hour hormonal secretory patterns, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and central nervous function in hypertensive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyar, R M; Fixler, D F; Kaplan, N M; Graham, R M; Price, K P; Chipman, J J; Laird, W P

    1980-01-01

    To assess the potential of antihypertensive drugs for interference with somatic growth and sexual development in hypertensive children, the effect of clonidine therapy on various endocrine, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular functions has been examined in five male adolescents with idiopathic hypertension. In studies done before and at the end of 4 weeks of twice-daily clonidine therapy, in an average daily dose of 0.31 mg, no significant effects were noted in the secretory patterns of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, aldosterone, or testosterone, measured in blood obtained every 20 minutes for 24 hours. In blood obtained while the patients were supine and then erect, plasma renin activity and norepinephrine levels were significantly lowered after clonidine therapy. Cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise were little altered beyond a 17% decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. The performance of fine motor skills was minimally altered. These data provide preliminary evidence that clonidine, an antihypertensive drug that affects the adrenergic nervous system, may not interfere with normal growth and maturation in adolescent males.

  18. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica é um fator de risco importante para

  19. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stefanie Zuern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 68.9±7.0 years; baseline systolic BP 189±23mmHg despite medication with 5.6±2.1 antihypertensive drugs underwent bilateral RDN. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before RDN and six months thereafter. BPV was primarily assessed by means of standard deviation of 24-hour systolic arterial blood pressures (SDsys. Secondary measures of BPV were maximum systolic blood pressure (MAXsys and maximum difference between two consecutive readings of systolic BP (deltamaxsys over 24 hours. Six months after RDN, SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were significantly reduced from 16.9±4.6mmHg to 13.5±2.5mmHg (p=0.003, from 190±22mmHg to 172±20mmHg (p<0.001 and from 40±15mmHg to 28±7mmHg (p=0.006, respectively, without changes in concomitant antihypertensive therapy. Reductions of SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were observed in 10/11 (90.9%, 11/11 (100% and 9/11 (81.8% patients, respectively. Although we noted a significant reduction of systolic office blood pressure by 30.4±27.7mmHg (p=0.007, there was only a trend in reduction of average systolic BP assessed from ABPM (149±19mmHg to 142±18mmHg; p=0.086.Conclusions: In patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension, RDN leads to significant reductions of BP variability. Effects of RDN on BPV over 24 hours were more pronounced than on average levels of BP.

  20. The 24-hour profiles of thyrotropin, throxine and triiodothyronine in goitrous and goitre-free Ugandans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajubi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay with commercial assay kits in serial blood samples collected over a 24-hour period from 6 normal and 6 clinically euthyroid but goitrous male Ugandan subjects. Measurements on normal subjects revealed two peaks in plasma TSH concentration, one at about 08.00 hrs, the other at about 20.00 hrs. Plasma T4 concentrations showed two corresponding peaks, while plasma T3 concentrations showed no discernable pattern. Measurement on goitrous subjects revealed only the earlier peak in plasma TSH concentration, while the pooled mean TSH concentration was lower than in normal subjects. Plasma T4 concentrations showed two peaks, as for normal subjects, but the pooled mean T4 concentration was also lower than in normal subjects. Measurements on plasma T3 concentration again showed no discernable pattern. The significance of these findings is discussed

  1. Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges of Sighted Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Roneil G; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2018-04-15

    To report the diagnostic and treatment challenges of sighted non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (N24SWD). We report a series of seven sighted patients with N24SWD clinically evaluated by history and sleep diaries, and when available wrist actigraphy and salivary melatonin levels, and treated with timed melatonin and bright light therapy. Most patients had a history of a delayed sleep-wake pattern prior to developing N24SWD. The typical sleep-wake pattern of N24SWD was seen in the sleep diaries (and in actigraphy when available) in all patients with a daily delay in midpoint of sleep ranging 0.8 to 1.8 hours. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was evaluated in four patients but was missed in one. The estimated phase angle from DLMO to sleep onset ranged from 5.25 to 9 hours. All six patients who attempted timed melatonin and bright light therapy were able to entrain their sleep-wake schedules. Entrainment occurred at a late circadian phase, possibly related to the late timing of melatonin administration, though the patients often preferred late sleep times. Most did not continue treatment and continued to have a non-24-hour sleep-wake pattern. N24SWD is a chronic debilitating disorder that is often overlooked in sighted people and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Tools to assess circadian pattern and timing can be effectively applied to aid the diagnosis. The progressive delay of the circadian rhythm poses a challenge for determining the most effective timing for melatonin and bright light therapies. Furthermore, once the circadian sleep-wake rhythm is entrained, long-term effectiveness is limited because of the behavioral and environmental structure that is required to maintain stable entrainment. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  2. Diastolic blood pressure variability in 24 hour-ABPM and outcomes of chronic kidney disease
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer

    2018-04-10

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There are a few studies that reported worse outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with greater visit-to-visit BPV (VVV), but data with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is scarce. Ambulatory hypertensive CKD (stage 2 - 4) patients (> 18 years old) with complete 24 hours of ABPM study (SpaceLabs), who were followed up between January 2012 and December 2016, were retrospectively analyzed for the baseline characteristics and outcomes of CKD. Coefficient of variation (CV) in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was used as an index of BPV. Data of 191 patients (mean age 59.7 ± 12.4 years, 54.9% males, 42.1% diabetic, mean eGFR-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) 51.7 ± 22.0 mL/min/1.73m2, mean follow-up 26.2 ± 10.4 months) were available for the analysis. On multivariate linear regression analysis, greater DBP-CV was associated with slower decline in eGFR-EPI per year (B -0.648, p = 0.000). Likewise, the hazard ratio (HR) for dialysis inception (occurred in 9.4%) was found significantly lower with increasing DBP-CV in unadjusted and fully adjusted Cox models (HR 0.730, 95% CI 0.618 - 0.861, p = 0.000, and HR 0.678, 95% CI 0.526 - 0.874, p = 0.003, respectively). These findings suggest that DBP variability in 24-hour ABPM may be a good prognostic factor for the outcomes of CKD. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of 24-hour ABPM BPV on CKD progression and its differences from VVV.
.

  3. Respiratory Rate During the First 24 Hours of Life in Healthy Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveiten, Lars; Diep, Lien My; Halvorsen, Thomas; Markestad, Trond

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal respiratory rate (RR) is a key symptom of disease in the newborn. The aim of this study was to establish the reference range for RR during the first 24 hours of life in healthy infants born at term. Infants were included at the hospital postnatal ward when time permitted. During sleep or a defined quiet state, RR was counted at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours by placing the bell of a stethoscope in front of the nostrils and mouth for 60 seconds. Data on maternal health, pregnancies, and births were obtained from medical records and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The study included 953 infants. Median RRs were 46 breaths/minute at 2 hours, thereafter 42 to 44 breaths/minute. The 95th percentile was 65 breaths/minute at 2 hours, thereafter 58 to 60 breaths/minute. The fifth percentile was 30 to 32 breaths/minute. Within these limits, the intraindividual variation was wide. The overall mean RR was 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7 to 5.7, P < .001) breaths/minute higher while awake than during sleep, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5 to 4.8, P < .001) breaths/minute higher after heavy meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.4, P < .001) breaths/minute higher in boys than girls. RR did not differ for infants born after vaginal versus cesarean deliveries. The RR percentiles established from this study allow for a scientifically based use of RR when assessing newborn infants born at term. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) 'wanting', as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) 'liking', as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit 'liking' and 'wanting' (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food 'liking' (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of 'liking', and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (pFASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit 'wanting' and 'liking' significantly increased for all food categories. 'Liking' of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED.

  5. A critical evalution of 24 hours whole-body (skeletal) retention of diphosphonate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Bessent, R.G.; Scullion, J.E.; Cuthbert, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In previous studies we have found that 24 hour whole-body retention (WBR) of diphosphonate is a valuable test for the assessment of skeletal metabolism. However, the reproducibility, accuracy and possible sources of error in WBR measurements have not previously been studied. In 21 paired studies the technique was found to be highly reproducible (r = 0.998, p < 0.0001). The coefficient of variation for whole-body counts on day 1 was 0.1% and on day 2, 1.1%. The net whole-body count of a phantom representing the 24 hour whole-body distribution of tracer was 98% of that of a uniform phantom. Ten subjects, counted twice within a few minutes to study the effect of repositioning showed a mean difference between counts of only 0.8%. For eleven subjects with traumatic fractures it was found that 9 had normal values for WBR, while 2 had minimally elevated results. For twenty patients with renal disease but no apparent skeletal disease a significant correlation between serum creatinine and WBR was found (r = 0.72, p<0.001). However WBR results were always normal when serum creatinine values were <130 μmol/l. It is suggested that WBR measurement is accurate and the technique is highly reproducible. The presence of a focal lesion is unlikely to affect a WBR result significantly and if serum creatinine is in the normal range then an elevated WBR result can be assumed to reflect increased skeletal metabolism without further concern as to renal function. (Author)

  6. Assessment of dietary sodium intake using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachael M; Farmer, Victoria L; Nettleton, Alice; Cameron, Claire M; Cook, Nancy R; Campbell, Norman R C

    2017-12-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary sodium intake, although 24-hour urinary excretion is the most accurate measure of intake. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate whether FFQs are a reliable and valid way of measuring usual dietary sodium intake. Results from 18 studies are described in this review, including 16 validation studies. The methods of study design and analysis varied widely with respect to FFQ instrument, number of 24-hour urine collections collected per participant, methods used to assess completeness of urine collections, and statistical analysis. Overall, there was poor agreement between estimates from FFQ and 24-hour urine. The authors suggest a framework for validation and reporting based on a consensus statement (2004), and recommend that all FFQs used to estimate dietary sodium intake undergo validation against multiple 24-hour urine collections. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  8. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  9. 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability Assessed by Average Real Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Luis J; Felix, Vanessa G; Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E

    2017-10-19

    Although 24-hour blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes independent of absolute BP levels, it is not regularly assessed in clinical practice. One possible limitation to routine BPV assessment is the lack of standardized methods for accurately estimating 24-hour BPV. We conducted a systematic review to assess the predictive power of reported BPV indexes to address appropriate quantification of 24-hour BPV, including the average real variability (ARV) index. Studies chosen for review were those that presented data for 24-hour BPV in adults from meta-analysis, longitudinal or cross-sectional design, and examined BPV in terms of the following issues: (1) methods used to calculate and evaluate ARV; (2) assessment of 24-hour BPV determined using noninvasive ambulatory BP monitoring; (3) multivariate analysis adjusted for covariates, including some measure of BP; (4) association of 24-hour BPV with subclinical organ damage; and (5) the predictive value of 24-hour BPV on target organ damage and rate of cardiovascular events. Of the 19 assessed studies, 17 reported significant associations between high ARV and the presence and progression of subclinical organ damage, as well as the incidence of hard end points, such as cardiovascular events. In all these cases, ARV remained a significant independent predictor ( P <0.05) after adjustment for BP and other clinical factors. In addition, increased ARV in systolic BP was associated with risk of all cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.27). Only 2 cross-sectional studies did not find that high ARV was a significant risk factor. Current evidence suggests that ARV index adds significant prognostic information to 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and is a useful approach for studying the clinical value of BPV. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Heart Rate Variability in Obstetricians Working 14-Hour Call Compared to 24-Hour Call in Labour and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robin H; Yoon, Eugene; Murphy, Kellie E; Windrim, Rory; Farrugia, M Michéle

    2017-12-01

    Obstetricians have stressful and demanding jobs that may impact their health. A physiological measurement of cardiac function which varies with stress is heart rate variability (HRV). By measuring the cyclic variations in R-R intervals, or beat-to-beat differences, HRV reflects the continuous interplay of the controlling forces in the autonomic nervous system. Studies have shown HRV to be reduced during periods of work-induced stress, including 24-hour shifts. Our study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between length of shift worked and HRV. We hypothesised that working for a full 24-hour period is more stressful than a shorter, nighttime-only period, and HRV analyses were used to measure this objectively. Obstetricians wore an HRV monitor for 24 hours during both a regular day followed by a 14-hour night shift and a continuous 24-hour shift in labour and delivery. The 24-hour samples were analysed using standard HRV measurements. HRV measurements obtained from each physician were then compared according to shift type, with each physician acting as his or her own comparator. There were no statistically significant differences in the most important measures of HRV between 24-hour periods which included either a 14-hour overnight shift or a continuous 24-hour shift on labour and delivery. We found no significant differences in key HRV measures in obstetricians working 14 hours versus 24 hours in labour and delivery. An anecdotal increase in physician awareness of his/her own health related to working conditions was noted during the study. Future studies should attempt to control for the hours prior to a night shift, assess associated endocrine variations, and focus upon HRV in the post-shift period. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  12. Comparison of three methods in the measurement of 24 hours urinary free cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yue; Lu Zhaolin; Li Min; Zhang Bo; Sun Meili

    2003-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate and compare the precision and specificity of the two CLIA and CPBA in the measurement of 24 hours urinary free cortisol (UFC). Method was 1) 24h UFC were measured by three methods in 53 normal subjects, 13 Cushing's syndrome patients, 92 cases of obesity and 37 patients under prednisone treatment; 2) the specificity of the three methods was evaluated by measuring 7 different steroids cross-reactivity. 3) the precision of three methods by the intra-assay and inter-assay CV% was evaluated. Relativity for extracted CLIA vs. CPBA, direct CLIA vs. CPBA and extracted CLIA vs. direct CLIA was r=0.814 (P<0.0001), r=0.706 (P<0.0001), r = 0.901 (P<0.0001) respectively; Cross reactivity of prednisolone with cortisol was 19.0%, 15.4% and 24.9% in CPBA, extracted and direct CLIA respectively. There was no significant cross reactivity with other 5 steroids. The intra-assay and inter-assay CV% of both CLIA were better than CPBA. Conclusions were: 1) Both extracted and direct CLIA has good relativity with CPBA; 2) Precision and specificity were showed for extracted CLIA better than that for CPBA and direct CLIA. So it should be considered that the extracted CLIA may be replace of CPBA in the measurement of UFC

  13. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  15. Pathophysiological changes detected by MRI within 24 hours after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Nariai, Tadashi; Ohno, Kikuo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Fukui, Shinsuke; Takei, Hidenori.

    1995-01-01

    This report concerns the evaluation of the usefulness of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with head injuries. For this purpose we compared the CT and MRI results obtained on 48 such patients. MRI of all cases was taken within 24 hours after head injury using a 1.5-Tesla unit. The sensitivity of the two modalities in the detection of small traumatic lesions was compared. Traumatic lesions of 23 patients (47.9%) were not detected by CT, but they were demonstrated on MRI. Overall, MRI was significantly more sensitive than CT in detecting early and/or subtle traumatic changes of the brain parenchyma (P 1 -WI and T 2 -WI. (B) Corpus callosum lesions with hyperintensity on T 2 -WI were in fact hemorrhagic contusions by signal changes on sequential MRI. The follow-up of chronological changes of a given corpus callosum lesion was essential for confirmation of its pathology. (C) In one case, scratch-like lesions with strong hypointensity on T 1 -WI and hyperintensity on T 2 -WI were clearly demonstrated in the white matter. These observations appeared to indicate axonal damages. (D) Even if initial GCS score is low ( 2 -WI and subsequently disappeared completely. We conclude that performing MRI in the early stage of a head injury is of utility for the understanding of pertinent pathophysiological changes and for predicting outcome. (author)

  16. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  17. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  18. Perchance to Dream: Pathology, Pharmacology, and Politics in a 24-Hour Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain

    2018-04-01

    The lack of sleep is a significant problem in the modern world. The structure of the economy means that 24 hour working is required from some of us, sometimes because we are expected to be able to respond to share-price fluctuations on the other side of the planet, sometimes because we are expected to serve kebabs to people leaving nightclubs, and sometimes because lives depend on it. The immediate effect is that we feel groggy; but there may be much more sinister long-term effects of persistent sleep deprivation and disruption, the evidence for which is significant, and worth taking seriously. If sleeplessness has a serious impact on health, it represents a notable public health problem. In this article, I sketch that problem, and look at how exploiting the pharmacopoeia (or a possible future pharmacopoeia) might allow us to tackle it. I also suggest that using drugs to mitigate or militate against sleeplessness is potentially morally and politically fraught, with implications for social justice. Hence, whatever reasons we have to use drugs to deal with the problems of sleeplessness, we ought to be careful.

  19. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  20. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Paula, Cid Mariana; Nelly, Borchert Alba; Adrian, Nari Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours. (paper)

  1. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal

  2. [Effect of 24-hour sleep deprivation on the oculomotor reactions of human operator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhtiiarov, I V; Chistov, S D

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the results of oculomotor reaction investigations during 24-hour sleep deprivation of 10 normal male subjects aged 25 to 30 yrs. Video nistagmograph VNG System VO-25 was used for binocular registration of eye movements. The proposed video procedures for assessment of the functional ability of human operator are a balancing test, investigation of saccadic and smooth tracking eye movements. The balancing test is designed to determine the nystagmic activity, the saccade test, latency, peak velocity and precision of saccades, and the smooth tracking test, standard errors in tracking velocity and displacement In addition to video oculography, velocity of a simple sensorimotor reaction was measured and the self-rating scale of well-being, alertness and mood (SAN) was employed. The balancing test showed balancing nystagmus; occurrence of this nystagmus grew high with desynchronosis. Saccades registered during sleep deprivation pointed to a considerable decline of velocity, less noticeable extension of latency and degradation of precision. Sleep deprivation reduced values of the mean coefficient of gain and increased the standard error in velocity and displacement of smooth eye tracking.

  3. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  4. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pcontrol groups (Pcontrol groups (P<0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P<0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  5. Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-08-01

    In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ∼3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ∼60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance.

  6. Methodological considerations and future insights for 24-hour dietary recall assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods. In this review we focus on dietary assessment with children with particular attention on the 24-hour dietary recall method. We look at the level of under-reporting of energy intakes and how this tends to change with age, gender and body mass index. We discuss potential alternatives to self-reported (or proxy-reported) dietary assessment methods with children, such as biomarkers, and how these do not enable the collection of information important to public health nutrition such as the cooking method, the mixture of foods eaten together or the context in which the food is consumed. We conclude that despite all of the challenges and flaws, the data collected using self-reported dietary assessment methods are extremely valuable. Research into dietary assessment methodology has resulted in significant increases in our understanding of the limitations of self-reported methods and progressive improvements in the accuracy of the data collected. Hence, future investment in dietary surveillance and in improving self-reported methods of intake can make vital contributions to our understanding of dietary intakes and are thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PATTERNS OF THE MAXIMUM RAINFALL AMOUNTS REGISTERED IN 24 HOURS WITHIN THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VLĂDUŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 hours within the Oltenia Plain. The present study aims at rendering the main features of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 h within the Oltenia Plain. We used 30-year time series (1980-2009 for seven meteorological stations. Generally, the maximum amounts in 24 h display the same pattern as the monthly mean amounts, namely higher values in the interval May-October. In terms of mean values, the highest amounts are registered in the western and northern extremity of the plain. The maximum values generally exceed 70 mm at all meteorological stations: D.T. Severin, 224 mm, July 1999; Slatina, 104.8 mm, August 2002; Caracal, 92.2 m, July 1991; Bechet, 80.8 mm, July 2006; Craiova, 77.6 mm, April 2003. During the cold season, there was noticed a greater uniformity all over the plain, due to the cyclonic origin of rainfalls compared to the warm season, when thermal convection is quite active and it triggers local showers. In order to better emphasize the peculiarities of this parameter, we have calculated the frequency on different value classes (eight classes, as well as the probability of appearance of different amounts. Thus, it resulted that the highest frequency (25-35% is held by the first two classes of values (0-10 mm; 10.1-20 mm. The lowest frequency is registered in case of the amounts of more than 100 mm, which generally display a probability of occurrence of less than 1% and only in the western and eastern extremities of the plain.

  8. Estimation model for habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium excretion using simple questionnaires from normotensive Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sook Kong

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set. The best model consisted of age, body weight, dietary behavior ('eating salty food', 'Kimchi consumption', 'Korean soup or stew consumption', 'soy sauce or red pepper paste consumption', and smoking status in men, and age, body weight, dietary behavior ('salt preference', 'eating salty food', 'checking sodium content for processed foods', 'nut consumption', and smoking status in women, respectively. When this model was tested in the external validation set, the mean bias between the measured and estimated 24-h urinary-sodium excretion from Bland-Altman plots was -1.92 (95% CI: -113, 110 mmol/d for men and -1.51 (95% CI: -90.6, 87.6 mmol/d for women. The cut-points of sodium intake calculated based on the equations were ≥4,000 mg/d for men and ≥3,500 mg/d for women, with 89.8 and 76.6% sensitivity and 29.3 and 64.2% specificity, respectively. In this study, a habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium-excretion-estimation model of normotensive Korean adults based on anthropometric and lifestyle factors was developed and showed feasibility for an asymptomatic population.

  9. Office and 24-hour heart rate and target organ damage in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-García Ángel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between heart rate and its variability with the parameters that assess vascular, renal and cardiac target organ damage. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including a consecutive sample of 360 hypertensive patients without heart rate lowering drugs (aged 56 ± 11 years, 64.2% male. Heart rate (HR and its standard deviation (HRV in clinical and 24-hour ambulatory monitoring were evaluated. Renal damage was assessed by glomerular filtration rate and albumin/creatinine ratio; vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness and ankle/brachial index; and cardiac damage by the Cornell voltage-duration product and left ventricular mass index. Results There was a positive correlation between ambulatory, but not clinical, heart rate and its standard deviation with glomerular filtration rate, and a negative correlation with carotid intima-media thickness, and night/day ratio of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was no correlation with albumin/creatinine ratio, ankle/brachial index, Cornell voltage-duration product or left ventricular mass index. In the multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age, the association of glomerular filtration rate and intima-media thickness with ambulatory heart rate and its standard deviation was lost. According to the logistic regression analysis, the predictors of any target organ damage were age (OR = 1.034 and 1.033 and night/day systolic blood pressure ratio (OR = 1.425 and 1.512. Neither 24 HR nor 24 HRV reached statistical significance. Conclusions High ambulatory heart rate and its variability, but not clinical HR, are associated with decreased carotid intima-media thickness and a higher glomerular filtration rate, although this is lost after adjusting for age. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01325064

  10. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Hussain

    Full Text Available Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly

  11. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sara J; Cole, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  12. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sara J.; Cole, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  13. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  14. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  15. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  16. Thallium reinjection after stress-redistribution imaging. Does 24-hour delayed imaging after reinjection enhance detection of viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Smeltzer, W.R.; Freedman, N.M.; Dextras, R.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Thallium reinjection immediately after conventional stress-redistribution imaging improves the detection of viable myocardium, as many myocardial regions with apparently 'irreversible' thallium defects on standard 3-4-hour redistribution images manifest enhanced thallium uptake after reinjection. Because the 10-minute period between reinjection and imaging may be too short, the present study was designed to determine whether 24-hour imaging after thallium reinjection provides additional information regarding myocardial viability beyond that obtained by imaging shortly after reinjection. We studied 50 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease undergoing exercise thallium tomography, radionuclide angiography, and coronary arteriography. Immediately after the 3-4-hour redistribution images were obtained, 1 mCi thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24 hours after reinjection. The stress, redistribution, reinjection, and 24-hour images were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the 127 abnormal myocardial regions on the stress images, 55 had persistent defects on redistribution images by qualitative analysis, of which 25 (45%) demonstrated improved thallium uptake after reinjection. At the 24-hour study, 23 of the 25 regions (92%) with previously improved thallium uptake by reinjection showed no further improvement. Similarly, of the 30 regions determined to have irreversible defects after reinjection, 29 (97%) remained irreversible on 24-hour images. These findings were confirmed by the quantitative analysis. The mean normalized thallium activity in regions with enhanced thallium activity after reinjection increased from 57 +/- 13% on redistribution studies to 70 +/- 14% after reinjection but did not change at 24 hours (71 +/- 14%)

  17. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment

  18. Tasimelteon (Hetlioz™): A New Melatonin Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Janene M; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-10-01

    In January 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved tasimelteon (Hetlioz™), a melatonin-receptor agonist for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. This article provides an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tasimelteon. Relevant information was identified through a comprehensive literature search of several databases using the key words tasimelteon, Non-24-hour Sleep-Wake disorder, Non-24, and melatonin. Further information was obtained from the tasimelteon package insert, fda.gov, clinicaltrials.gov, briefing materials provided by Vanda Pharmaceuticals, and posters from scientific meetings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. [Comparison of dietary survey, frequency and 24 hour urinary Na methods in evaluation of salt intake in the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhong; Lu, Zilong; Yan, Liuxia; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the difference and correlation between dietary salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. All 2 184 subjects aged 18 to 69 were selected by multi stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Shandong province in June to September, 2011. Dietary salt intakes were measured by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. The information on gender, age, dining locations and labour intensity of members dining at home for 3 days were recorded. And the dietary habits were surveyed by questionnaire. Salt intakes were 14.0, 12.0 and 10.5 g/d assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method were 2.0 g (14.3% undervalued) and 3.4 g (24.3% undervalued) less, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, the proportion of individuals with salt intake over-reported and under-reported were 42.4% (856/2 020) and 55.3% (1 117/2 020) by food weighted record method, and were 20.7% (418/2 020) and 16.3% (329/2 020) by food frequency questionnaire method, respectively; the proportion of individuals with salt intakes within ± 25% of 24 hours urinary Na method were 36.9% (745/2 020) and 28.4% (574/2 020), respectively. Salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary method correlated significantly with both salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method; the correlation coefficients were 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. With the increasing of salt intakes by subjects' self-judgment, salt intakes were all rising significantly using three survey methods. Salt intakes of three group population of light, moderate and partial taste salty were 13.6, 13.6 and 14.7 g/d by 24 hours urinary Na method (F

  20. KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline CKD classification rules out creatinine clearance 24 hour urine collection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, A; Grandi, G; Lorubbio, M; Rapi, S; Salvadori, B; Terreni, A; Veroni, F

    2016-01-01

    The recent guideline for the evaluation and management of Chronic Kidney Disease recommends assessing GFR employing equations based on serum creatinine; despite this, creatinine clearance 24-hour urine collection is used routinely in many settings. In this study we compared the classification assessed from CrCl (creatinine clearance 24h urine collection) and e-GFR calculated with CKD-EPI or MDRD formulas. In this retrospective study we analyze consecutive laboratory data: creatinine clearance 24h urine collection, serum creatinine and demographic data such as sex and age from 15,777 patients >18 years of age collected from 2011 to 2013 in our laboratory at Careggi Hospital. The results were then compared to the estimated GFR calculated with the equations according to the recent treatment guidelines. Consecutive and retrospective laboratory data (creatinine clearance 24h urine collection, serum creatinine and, demographic data such as sex and age) from 15,777 patients >18 years of age seen at Careggi Hospital were collected. Comparison between e-GFR calculated with CKD-EPI or MDRD formulas and GFR according CrCl determinations and bias [95% CI] were 11.34 [-47,4/70.1] and 11.4 [-50.2/73] respectively. The concordance for 18/65 years aged group when compared with e-GFR classification between MDRD vs CKDEPI, MDRD vs CrCl and CKD-EPI vs CrCl were 0.78, 0.34, and 0.41 respectively, while in the 65/110years aged group the concordance Kappas were 0.84, 0.38, and 0.36 respectively. The use of CrCl provides a different classification than the estimation of GFR using a prediction equation. The CrCl is unreliable when it is necessary to identify CKD subjects with decrease of GFR of 5ml/min/1.73m(2)/year. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 1B.08: USEFULNESS OF 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuernberg, M; Lang, S; Curjol, A; Haddour, N; Ederhy, S; Asri, C El; Dufour-Soulat, L; Van Der Vynckt, C; Charbonnier, M; Cohen, A; Boccara, F

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the utility of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a priori normotensive and known hypertensive people living with HIV by quantifying new hypertension (HTN), masked hypertension, uncontrolled BP, and white coat effect. Data analysed was from the Register of cardiovascular Complications among people living with HIV (RECOVIH), including 263 HIV+ individuals with 1 or more CV risk factors who underwent 24-h ABPM in our cardiac centre.Diagnostic criteria:Elevated clinic BP: at or above 140/90 mmHgElevated mean 24-h ABPM: at or above 130/80 mmHg, systolic and/or diastolicNew hypertension: elevated clinic BP and/or elevated mean 24-h ABPMMasked hypertension: normal clinic BP and elevated mean 24-h ABPMUncontrolled BP: elevated clinic BP and/or elevated mean 24 h ABPM, in known HTNWhite coat effect: elevated clinic BP and normal mean 24-h ABPM, in a priori normotensives. The cohort had a mean age of 50.3 ± 7.7 years, was predominantly male (91%), had a long median HIV duration (15.3 years), and included 150 (57%) known HTN.In RECOVIH the prevalence of new HTN was 22% (n = 25), of which 50% masked hypertension diagnosed by 24-h ABPM solely. Uncontrolled HTN prevalence was 45% using clinic BP alone and 32% using 24-h ABPM alone. 24-h ABPM revealed that this masked uncontrolled HTN was frequently due to poor nocturnal BP control. White coat effect prevalence was not significantly different between the 2 groups (6.3% a priori normotensives vs. 9.3% known HTN, p = 0.37).HTN subjects were older, had higher BMI, and more frequently had a history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and heart failure as compared to normotensives. Masked hypertension prevalence is high in RECOVIH, particularly among a priori normotensives. Suboptimal BP control is frequent among patients with treated and well-controlled clinic BP. Clinic BP monitoring alone is inadequate to diagnose HTN and assess true BP control because elevated

  2. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  3. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kıraç

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%, 43 (39.8%, and 38 (35.5% of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05. The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate—but not calcium—abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  4. 24-Hour protein, arginine and citrulline metabolism in fed critically ill children – a stable isotope tracer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.I.; Garcia Casal, Xiomara C.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Joosten, Koen F.M.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4–8h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-hour. However, 24-hour measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-hour appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children. Methods In eight critically ill children, admitted to the pediatric (n=4) or cardiovascular (n=4) intensive care unit, aged 0–10 years, receiving continuous (par)enteral nutrition with protein intake 1.0–3.7 g/kg/day, a 24-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was carried out. L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, L-[3,3-2H2]-tyrosine, L-[5,5,5-2H3]-leucine, L-[guanido-15N2]-arginine and L-[5-13C-3,3,4,4-2H4]-citrulline were infused intravenously and L-[15N]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine enterally. Arterial blood was sampled every hour. Results Coefficients of variation, representing intra-individual variability, of the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline were high, on average 14–19% for intravenous tracers and 23–26% for enteral tracers. No evident circadian rhythm was present. The pattern and overall 24-hour level of whole body protein balance differed per individual. Conclusions In continuously fed stable critically ill children, the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline show high variability. This should be kept in mind when performing stable isotope studies in this population. There was no apparent circadian rhythm. PMID:28089618

  5. Management of minor head injury in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a prospective study of a 24-hour observation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditto, Vincenzo G; Lucci, Moira; Polonara, Stefano; Pomponio, Giovanni; Gabrielli, Armando

    2012-06-01

    Patients receiving warfarin who experience minor head injury are at risk of intracranial hemorrhage, and optimal management after a single head computed tomography (CT) scan is unclear. We evaluate a protocol of 24-hour observation followed by a second head CT scan. In this prospective case series, we enrolled consecutive patients receiving warfarin and showing no intracranial lesions on a first CT scan after minor head injury treated at a Level II trauma center. We implemented a structured clinical pathway, including 24-hour observation and a CT scan performed before discharge. We then evaluated the frequency of death, admission, neurosurgery, and delayed intracranial hemorrhage. We enrolled and observed 97 consecutive patients. Ten refused the second CT scan and were well during 30-day follow-up. Repeated CT scanning in the remaining 87 patients revealed a new hemorrhage lesion in 5 (6%), with 3 subsequently hospitalized and 1 receiving craniotomy. Two patients discharged after completing the study protocol with 2 negative CT scan results were admitted 2 and 8 days later with symptomatic subdural hematomas; neither received surgery. Two of the 5 patients with delayed bleeding at 24 hours had an initial international normalized ratio greater than 3.0, as did both patients with delayed bleeding beyond 24 hours. The relative risk of delayed hemorrhage with an initial international normalized ratio greater than 3.0 was 14 (95% confidence interval 4 to 49). For patients receiving warfarin who experience minor head injury and have a negative initial head CT scan result, a protocol of 24-hour observation followed by a second CT scan will identify most occurrences of delayed bleeding. An initial international normalized ratio greater than 3 suggests higher risk. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) form and administration mode on PABA recovery in 24-hour urine collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi S; Joy, Raechel C; Boushey, Carol J; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Leonov, Alexei P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-03-01

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has long been used as an objective measure to assess completeness of 24-hour urine collections. However, pharmaceutical-grade PABA for human ingestion is not available in the United States. An alternative, the potassium salt of PABA, aminobenzoate potassium, can be obtained for clinical use, although it has not yet been validated in this role. Both PABA and aminobenzoate potassium can be directly ingested in their tablet or capsule forms or added to food before consumption. Our aim was to investigate the effect of form (PABA vs aminobenzoate potassium) and administration mode (directly ingested as a tablet/capsule vs added to food) on urinary PABA recovery levels. Twenty healthy participants underwent 3 test days separated by two 24-hour wash-out periods. Three test conditions, one on each test day, were investigated in randomized order: PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA or aminobenzoate potassium in food. Ingestion of each dose was supervised and participants performed the 24-hour urine collections while free-living. The 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for PABA recovery (%R) levels using a colorimetric assay. Recoveries 85% to 110% were deemed complete and those >110% were reanalyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Only complete collections (>85%R) were included in analyses. The recovery for the PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA/aminobenzoate potassium in food were similar at 98.8%R±2.0%R, 95.1%R±2.3%R, and 93.2%R±2.1%R, respectively, and did not differ significantly. These results suggest that aminobenzoate potassium may be used as an alternative to PABA for assessing the completeness of 24-hour urine collections and to track compliance with consuming provided diets in community-dwelling studies. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of 24-hour urinary protein and protein-to-creatinine ratio in the assessment of proteinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbeh, Ayman M; Ewais, Mohammad H; Elsharif, Mahamed E

    2009-01-01

    To determine the correlation between protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) and 24-hour urinary protein (UP), we measured proteinuria in 68 patients attending the nephrology clinic at Jordan University Hospital by 24-hour urine protein excretion and protein-to-creatinine ratio. The cutoff values for spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in predicting 24-hour protein 'threshold' excretion of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.5 g/day were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. A very good correlation (r= 0.832, P< 0.0001) was found between spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein excretion. Bland-Altman plot showed the two tests had reasonable limits of agreement at low level of protein excretion but the limits became wider as the protein excretion increased. For protein excretion < 2.0 g/day, the limits of agreement of spot urine (PCR) and (UP) were +1.48 and -1.2 g/day. The spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratios of 0.72 (sensitivity 0.97; specificity 1.0), 1.2 (0.97; 0.89) and 3.23 (1.0; 0.86) mg/mg reliably predicted 24-hour urine total protein equivalent 'thresholds' of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.5 g/day, respectively. We conclude that the protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine specimens is an accurate, convenient, and reliable method to estimate the protein excretion in urine. However, the protein-to-creatinine ratio will likely be within clinically acceptable limits only when proteinuria is at reasonably low levels. (author)

  8. [Effect of maximum blood pressure fluctuation on prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke within 24 hours after hospital admission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Tang, Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, K; Zhao, J B

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the maximum blood pressure fluctuation within 24 hours after admission and the prognosis at discharge. Methods: The patients with ischemic stroke admitted in Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University within 24 hours after onset were consecutively selected from April 2016 to March 2017. The patients were grouped according to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure of the patients within 24 hours after admission were measured with bedside monitors and baseline data were collected. The patients were scored by NIHSS at discharge. The relationships between the maximum values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the prognosis at discharge were analyzed. Results: A total of 521 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They were divided into normal blood pressure group (82 cases) and hypertension group(439 cases). In normal blood pressure group, the maximum values of SBP and DBP were all in normal distribution ( P >0.05). The maximum value of SBP fluctuation was set at 146.6 mmHg. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR for poor prognosis at discharge in patients with SBP fluctuation ≥146.6 mmHg was 2.669 (95 %CI : 0.594-11.992) compared with those with SBP fluctuation blood pressure at admission, the maximum values of SBP and DBP within 24 hours after admission had no relationship with prognosis at discharge. In acute ischemic stroke patients with hypertension at admission, the maximum values of SBP and DBP within 24 hours after admission were associated with poor prognosis at discharge.

  9. Raman spectroscopic assessment of degree of conversion of bulk-fill resin composites--changes at 24 hours post cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, M; Gamulin, O; Marovic, D; Klaric, E; Tarle, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine degree of conversion (DC) of solid and flowable bulk-fill composites immediately and after 24 hours and investigate the variations of DC at surface and depths up to 4 mm. Eight bulk-fill composites (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [shades IVA and IVB], Quixfil, X-tra fil, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra Base, SDR, Filtek Bulk Fill) were investigated, and two conventional composites (GrandioSO, X-Flow) were used as controls. The samples (n = 5) were cured for 20 seconds with irradiance of 1090 mW/cm(2). Raman spectroscopic measurements were made immediately after curing on sample surfaces and after 24 hours of dark storage at surface and at incremental depths up to 4 mm. Mean DC values were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test for dependent samples. Surface DC values immediately after curing ranged from 59.1%-71.8%, while the 24-hour postcure values ranged from 71.3%-86.1%. A significant increase of DC was observed 24 hours post cure for all bulk-fill composites, which amounted from 11.3% to 16.9%. Decrease of DC through depths up to 4 mm varied widely among bulk-fill composites and ranged from 2.9% to 19.7%. All bulk-fill composites presented a considerable 24-hour postcure DC increase and clinically acceptable DC at depths up to 4 mm. Conventional control composites were sufficiently cured only up to 2 mm, despite significant postcure polymerization.

  10. Role of redistribution and 24 hour reinjection images to assess myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam; Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Yoon, Myung Ho; Choi, Byung Il

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of redistribution and 24 hour reinjection images in Tl-201 SPECT assessment of myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We performed dipyridamole stress-4 hour redistribution-24 hour reinjection Tl-201 SPECT in 43 patients with recent AMI (4-16 days). The myocardium was divided into 16 segments and perfusion grade was measured visually with 4 point score from 0 to 3 (absent uptake to normal uptake). A perfusion defect with stress score 2 was considered moderate. A defect was considered severe if the stress score was 0 or 1 (absent uptake or severe perfusion decrease). Moderate defect on stress image were considered viable and and segments with severe defect were considered viable if they showed improvement of 1 score or more on redistribution or reinjection images. We compared the results of viability assessment in stress-redistribution and stress-reinjection images. On visual analysis, 344 of 688 segments (50%) had abnormal perfusion. Fify two (15%) had moderate perfusion defects and 292 (85%) had severe perfusion defects on stress image. Of 292 severe stress defects, 53 were irreversible on redistribution and reversible on reinjection images, and 15 were reverseble on redistribution and irreversible on reinjection images. Two hundred twenty four of 292 segments (76.7%) showed concordant results on stress-redistribution and stress- reinjection images. Therefore 24 hour reinjection image changed viability status from necrotic to viable in 53 segments of 292 severe stress defect (18%). However, myocardial viability was underestimated in only 5% (15/292) of severe defects by 24 hour reinjection. The 24 hour reinjection imaging is useful in the assessment of myocardial viability. It is more sensitive than 4 hour redistribution imaging. However, both redistribution and reinjection images are needed since they complement each other

  11. GFR, serum creatinine and 24-hour urine protein in evaluating renal function of patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Xiaohua; Li Guiping; Liu Feng; Wang Bing; Du Li; Deng Zhifang; Li Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus patients. Early detection of renal impairment can improve the quality of life of patients. Purpose: The value of total GFR, serum creatinine, 24-hour urine protein excretion in diabetes mellitus patients with renal impairment were evaluated. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 147 patients with diabetes undergoing routine renal dynamic imaging was undertaken. The cases were divided into three groups according to the illness duration: group I of not more than five years, group 2 of five to ten years, Gr.3: more than ten years. The 22 renal transplant donors were selected as the normal control group, The total GFR, serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary protein excretion of all patients were measured before the treatments, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: There was no significant differences in renal function between the two kidneys of in the diabetes mellitus patients (P=0.536). Serum creatinine and total GFR had significant correlation (R 2 =0.762), but no significant relationship between the 24-hour urine protein and the total GFR or serum creatinine. In the early and middle times of renal function impairment, the total GFR and serum creatinine have significant difference in different time periods (P<0.05). During the mid-late times of renal function impairment, total GFR and serum creatinine have no statistically significant differences (P value is 0.781, 0.297). 24-hour urine protein quality had no statistical differences in each stage. However: the total GFR is more sensitive than the serum creatinine in evaluation of early impairing of renal function. Conclusions: There is significant correlation between serum creatinine and total GFR. Both of them can reflect the degree of diabetic renal injury, but the total GFR is more sensitive than serum creatinine in early degree. 24-hour urine protein quantitative can not evaluate the degree of impaired renal function alone

  12. Meeting new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with adiposity among toddlers living in Edmonton, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Hesketh, Kylie D; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Rhodes, Ryan E; Rinaldi, Christina M; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    Canada has recently released guidelines that include toddler-specific recommendations for physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and sleep. This study examined the proportions of toddlers meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) and associations with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample from Edmonton, Canada. Participants included 151 toddlers (aged 19.0 ± 1.9 months) for whom there was complete objectively measured physical activity data from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behaviour habits (PREPS) project. Toddlers' physical activity was measured using ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors. Toddlers' screen time and sleep were measured using the PREPS questionnaire. Toddlers' height and weight were objectively measured by public health nurses and BMI z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization growth standards. Meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was defined as: ≥180 min/day of total physical activity, including ≥1 min/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity; no screen time per day (for those aged 12-23 months) or ≤1 h/day of screen time per day (ages 24-35 months); and 11-14 h of sleep per 24-h period. Frequency analyses and linear regression models were conducted. Only 11.9% of toddlers met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, but this finding was largely driven by screen time. The majority of toddlers met the individual physical activity (99.3%) and sleep (82.1%) recommendations, while only 15.2% of toddlers met the screen time recommendation. No associations were observed between meeting specific and general combinations of recommendations within the guidelines and BMI z-scores. Most toddlers in this sample were meeting physical activity and sleep recommendations but were engaging in more screen time than recommended. Consequently, only a small proportion of toddlers met the overall guidelines. Based on

  13. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  14. One fourth of acutely admitted patients use over-the-counter-drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Magnus; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is increasing and is poorly registered, which can lead to complications. The most commonly used OTC drugs are analgesics, and their usage is highest among elderly patients. Our study investigates the use of OTC drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisat......INTRODUCTION: Use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is increasing and is poorly registered, which can lead to complications. The most commonly used OTC drugs are analgesics, and their usage is highest among elderly patients. Our study investigates the use of OTC drugs 24 hours prior...... to hospitalisation and the effects of this intake. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Junior physicians on call interviewed patients admitted to the medical admission unit at South-West Jutland Hospital in Esbjerg using a modified chart template. Adult patients aged 15 and older admitted during a two-week period in August 2012...

  15. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Data using Orthonormal Polynomials in the Linear Mixed Model

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Sean L.

    2010-01-01

    The use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in clinical practice and observational epidemiological studies has grown considerably in the past 25 years. ABPM is a very effective technique for assessing biological, environmental, and drug effects on blood pressure. In order to enhance the effectiveness of ABPM for clinical and observational research studies via analytical and graphical results, developing alternative data analysis approaches are important. The linear mixed mo...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury Has Not Prominent Effects on Cardiopulmonary Indices of Rat after 24 Hours: Hemodynamic, Histopathology, and Biochemical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Najafipour, Hamid; Siahposht Khachaki, Ali; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Joukar, Siyavash; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accidents are the second reason for mortality and morbidity in Iran. Among them, brain injuries are the most important damage. Clarification of the effects of brain injuries on different body systems will help physicians to prioritize their treatment strategies. In this study, the effect of pure brain trauma on the cardiovascular system and lungs 24 hours post trauma was assessed. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into sham control and traumatic brain injury (TBI) gr...

  17. Physicians' attentional performance following a 24-hour observation period: do we need to regulate sleep prior to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P; Maximova, K; Jirsch, J D

    2017-08-01

    The tradition of physicians working while sleep deprived is increasingly criticised. Medical regulatory bodies have restricted resident physician duty-hours, not addressing the greater population of physicians. We aimed to assess factors such as sleep duration prior to a 24-hour observation period on physicians' attention. We studied 70 physicians (mean age 38 years old (SD 10.8 years)): 36 residents and 34 faculty from call rosters at the University of Alberta. Among 70 physicians, 52 (74%) performed overnight call; 18 did not perform overnight call and were recruited to control for the learning effect of repetitive neuropsychological testing. Attentional Network Test (ANT) measured physicians' attention at the beginning and end of the 24-hour observation period. Participants self-reported ideal sleep needs, sleep duration in the 24 hours prior to (ie, baseline) and during the 24-hour observation period (ie, follow-up). Median regression models examined effects on ANT parameters. Sleep deprivation at follow-up was associated with reduced attentional accuracy following the 24-hour observation period, but only for physicians more sleep deprived at baseline. Other components of attention were not associated with sleep deprivation after adjusting for repetitive testing. Age, years since medical school and caffeine use did not impact changes in ANT parameters. Our study suggests that baseline sleep before 24 hours of observation impacts the accuracy of physicians' attentional testing at 24 hours. Further study is required to determine if optimising physician sleep prior to overnight call shifts is a sustainable strategy to mitigate the effects of sleep deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Efficacy and duration of benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide on 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Kenneth A; Devereux, Richard; Bakris, George L; Dahlöf, Björn; Pitt, Bertram; Velazquez, Eric J; Weir, Matthew; Kelly, Roxzana Y; Hua, Tsushung A; Hester, Allen; Weber, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    The combination of benazepril plus amlodipine was shown to be more effective than benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide in reducing cardiovascular events in the Avoiding Cardiovascular Events through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial. There was a small difference in clinic systolic blood pressure between the treatment arms favoring benazepril plus amlodipine. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides a more rigorous estimate of blood pressure effects. A subset of 573 subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during year 2. Readings were obtained every 20 minutes during a 24-hour period. Between-treatment differences (benazepril plus amlodipine versus benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide) in mean values were analyzed using ANOVA. Treatment comparisons with respect to categorical variables were made using Pearson's χ². At year 2, the treatment groups did not differ significantly in 24-hour mean daytime or nighttime blood pressures (values of 123.9, 125.9, and 118.1 mm Hg for benazepril plus amlodipine group versus 122.3, 124.1, and 116.9 for the benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide group), with mean between-group differences of 1.6, 1.8, and 1.2 mm Hg, respectively. Blood pressure control rates (24-hour mean systolic blood pressure <130 mm Hg on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) were greater than 80% in both groups. Nighttime systolic blood pressure provided additional risk prediction after adjusting for the effects of drugs. The 24-hour blood pressure control was similar in both treatment arms, supporting the interpretation that the difference in cardiovascular outcomes favoring a renin angiotensin system blocker combined with amlodipine rather than hydrochlorothiazide shown in the ACCOMPLISH trial was not caused by differences in blood pressure, but instead intrinsic properties (metabolic or hemodynamic) of the combination therapies.

  19. The effect of urban growth on landscape-scale restoration for a fire-dependent songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bradley A.; Marcus, Jeffrey F.; Carpenter, John P.; Anderson, Scott; Taillie, Paul J.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2017-01-01

    A landscape-scale perspective on restoration ecology has been advocated, but few studies have informed restoration with landscape metrics or addressed broad-scale threats. Threats such as urban growth may affect restoration effectiveness in a landscape context. Here, we studied longleaf pine savanna in the rapidly urbanizing southeastern United States where a habitat-specialist bird, Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), is closely associated with savanna vegetation structure and frequent fire. Our objectives were to construct a species distribution model for Bachman's sparrow, determine the relationship between fire and urbanization, quantify the urban growth effect (2010–2090), identify potential restoration areas, and determine the interaction between restoration potential and urban growth by 2050. Number of patches, patch size, and isolation metrics were used to evaluate scenarios. The species distribution model was 88% accurate and emphasized multiscale canopy cover characteristics, fire, and percent habitat. Fires were less common urban areas, and this fire suppression effect exacerbated urban growth effects. For restoration scenarios, canopy cover reduction by 30% resulted in nearly double the amount of habitat compared to the prescribed fire scenario; canopy cover reduction resulted in larger patch sizes and less patch isolation compared to current conditions. The effect of urban growth on restoration scenarios was unequal. Seventy-four percent of restoration areas from the prescribed fire scenario overlapped with projected urban growth, whereas the canopy cover reduction scenario only overlapped by 9%. We emphasize the benefits of simultaneously considering the effects of urban growth and landscape-scale restoration potential to promote a landscape with greater patch sizes and less isolation.

  20. Targeted Temperature Management for 48 vs 24 Hours and Neurologic Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Hans; Søreide, Eldar; de Haas, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Importance: International resuscitation guidelines recommend targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33°C to 36°C in unconscious patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for at least 24 hours, but the optimal duration of TTM is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether TTM at 33°C for 48....... Secondary outcomes included 6-month mortality, including time to death, the occurrence of adverse events, and intensive care unit resource use. Results: In 355 patients who were randomized (mean age, 60 years; 295 [83%] men), 351 (99%) completed the trial. Of these patients, 69% (120/175) in the 48-hour.......5%; 95% CI, -16.1% to 3.1%; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.11; P = .19). There was no significant difference in the time to mortality between the 48-hour group and the 24-hour group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.54-1.15; P = .22). Adverse events were more common in the 48-hour group (97%) than in the 24-hour...

  1. Morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth after stream restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Antonius J.F.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Uijttewaal, Wim S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of the morphological evolution of renaturalized streams is important for the success of restoration projects. Riparian vegetation is a key component of the riverine landscape and is therefore essential for the natural rehabilitation of rivers. This complicates the design of

  2. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (Pstroke on stroke units compared with 24-hour Holter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  3. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. METHODS: Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA. During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm, IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (<10 lux at 11:30 pm, 1:30 am, 3:30 am, and 5:30 am. The subjects were awakened and maintained each position for 5 min before the measurement. The 24-hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP for either eye. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: Nineteen healthy subjects were included with a mean age of 51.3±5.8 years. During the nocturnal period, a significant IOP difference was found between the dependent eye (the eye on the lower side of LDP and the supine position, but not for all the nocturnal time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. CONCLUSION: Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.

  4. Diagnostic value and cost-benefit analysis of 24?hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in primary care in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pessanha, Paulo; Viana, Manuel; Ferreira, Paula; Bertoquini, Susana; Pol?nia, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertensive patients (HTs) are usually attended in primary care (PC). We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and cost-benefit ratio of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in all newly diagnosed hypertensive patients (HTs) attended in PC. Methods In a cross-sectional study ABPM was recorded in all 336 never treated HTs (Office BP ?140 and/or???90?mm Hg) that were admitted during 16?months. Since benefits from drug treatment in white-coat hypertension (WCH) remai...

  5. Observational study to characterise 24-hour COPD symptoms and their relationship with patient-reported outcomes : results from the ASSESS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler Cataluna, Juan Jose; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; van der Molen, Thys; Lofdahl, Claes-Goran; Padulles, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the 24-hour symptom profile in patients with COPD or how symptoms during the 24-hour day are inter-related. This observational study assessed the prevalence, severity and relationship between night-time, early morning and daytime COPD symptoms and explored

  6. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Hao; Yang, Diya; Wang, Ningli

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP) on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA). During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm), IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux) after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP) for either eye. Phour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.

  7. QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorentini Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04. Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05. Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007. Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component.

  8. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  9. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test ... Abnormal results may be due to: A group ...

  10. In the aftermath of SPRINT: further comparison of unattended automated office blood pressure measurement and 24-hour blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlerová, Jitka; Gelžinský, Julius; Mateřánková, Markéta; Ceral, Jiří; König, Petr; Filipovský, Jan

    2018-03-22

    Several papers reported that unattended automated office blood pressure (uAutoOBP) is closely related to daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In the present study, we aim to study uAutoOBP and its relation to 24-hour ABPM and ABPM variability. Stable treated hypertensive subjects were examined in two Czech academic hypertension centres. uAutoOBP was measured with the BP Tru device; attended BP three times with auscultatory method (AuscOBP) by the physician. ABPM was performed within one week from the clinical visit. Data on 98 subjects aged 67.7 ± 9.3 years with 24-hour ABPM 120.3 ± 10.6/72.7 ± 7.9 mm Hg are reported. uAutoOBP was lower than 24-hour (by -5.2 ± 11.3/-0.5 ± 6.9 mm Hg) and daytime (by -6.7 ± 12.82.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg) ABPM and the individual variability of the difference was very large (up to 30 mm Hg). The correlation coefficients between ABPM and uAutoOBP were similar compared to AuscOBP (p ≥ .17). Variability of uAutoOBP, but not AuscOBP, readings during one clinical visit was related to short-term blood pressure variability of ABPM. The difference between AuscOBP and uAutoOBP was larger in patients with white-coat effect compared to other blood pressure control groups (25.1 ± 7.0 vs. 2.2 ± 10.3 mm Hg; p = .0036). Our study shows that uAutoOBP is not good predictor of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, not even of the daytime values. It might, however, indicate short-term blood pressure variability and, when compared with AuscOBP, also detect patients with white-coat effect.

  11. Optimization of urinary dipstick pH: Are multiple dipstick pH readings reliably comparable to commercial 24-hour urinary pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joel E; Miller, Daniel L; Shi, William; Wenzler, David; Elkhoury, Fuad F; Patel, Nishant D; Sur, Roger L

    2017-09-01

    Accurate measurement of pH is necessary to guide medical management of nephrolithiasis. Urinary dipsticks offer a convenient method to measure pH, but prior studies have only assessed the accuracy of a single, spot dipstick. Given the known diurnal variation in pH, a single dipstick pH is unlikely to reflect the average daily urinary pH. Our goal was to determine whether multiple dipstick pH readings would be reliably comparable to pH from a 24-hour urine analysis. Kidney stone patients undergoing a 24-hour urine collection were enrolled and took images of dipsticks from their first 3 voids concurrently with the 24-hour collection. Images were sent to and read by a study investigator. The individual and mean pH from the dipsticks were compared to the 24-hour urine pH and considered to be accurate if the dipstick readings were within 0.5 of the 24-hour urine pH. The Bland-Altman test of agreement was used to further compare dipstick pH relative to 24-hour urine pH. Fifty-nine percent of patients had mean urinary pH values within 0.5 pH units of their 24-hour urine pH. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference between dipstick pH and 24-hour urine pH of -0.22, with an upper limit of agreement of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-1.59) and a lower limit of agreement of -1.47 (95% CI, -2.04 to -0.90). We concluded that urinary dipstick based pH measurement lacks the precision required to guide medical management of nephrolithiasis and physicians should use 24-hour urine analysis to base their metabolic therapy.

  12. HYPERCONNECTED YOUTH. COMMUNICATION AND VITUAL SOCIABILITY CASE STUDY ABOUT DISCONNECTION IN MEDIA FOR 24 HOURS IN SPANISH COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Cáceres Zapatero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This collaboration presents the results of a study conducted with 190 college students who had a 24 hours media disconnection experience. The aim was to know the feelings experienced and how the situation affected their interpersonal and communication relationships. We wanted that students could learn, reflect and analyze their own communication habits in order to identify opportunities, challenges and risks; and also become aware of their dependence on media every day. The work tried to promote responsible use of the Internet and other media. Young people were invited to express, through a questionnaire, their feelings. Answers were coded and processed with SPSS software. The results show that hyperconnection is their way of relating and being in the world, that its absence causes discomfort and technologically mediated communication has replaced a major part of the face to face communication.

  13. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary disease in obese women with a 24-hour hormone profile after buserelin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, P; Ben-Shlomo, A; Herzianu, I; Weiss, M

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the 24-hour hormone response to GnRH agonist stimulation in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) in obese women. Forty-three obese PCOD patients and 23 controls were randomized to 1 mg buserelin (BSRL) stimulation (PCOD group P-1, n = 31; control group C-1, n = 12) or 0.1 mg (PCOD group P-0.1, n = 12; control group C-0.1, n = 11). Whereas following 1 mg BSRL administration, serum levels of 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), delta 4 androstenedione, estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone increment (delta LH) as well as the delta LH/delta follicle stimulating hormone ratio were all higher in group P-1 than in group C-1 (P PCOD. The hormone response to BSRL administration is related to obesity, not to insulin resistance.

  14. One fourth of acutely admitted patients use over-the-counter-drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Magnus; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    to hospitalisation and the effects of this intake. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Junior physicians on call interviewed patients admitted to the medical admission unit at South-West Jutland Hospital in Esbjerg using a modified chart template. Adult patients aged 15 and older admitted during a two-week period in August 2012...... were included. Patients were asked about consumed OTC drugs, dosage, indication and effect. RESULTS: From a total of 349 admissions, 188 usable chart templates were registered (54%), and information on OTC usage was registered on 165 of these (88%). The patients where elderly (median: 70 years) and 43......, 60% felt an effect of the intake and the majority felt an effect on pain symptoms. CONCLUSION: One in four patients used OTC drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisation and primarily analgesics were used. Most patients used OTC drugs relevantly and half with a positive effect. The intake is poorly...

  15. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models......, which included both ABP(24) and eGFR, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes...... (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP(24) and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end...

  16. Proinsulin is stable at room temperature for 24 hours in EDTA: A clinical laboratory analysis (adAPT 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Davidson

    Full Text Available Reference laboratories advise immediate separation and freezing of samples for the assay of proinsulin, which limit its practicability for smaller centres. Following the demonstration that insulin and C-peptide are stable in EDTA at room temperature for at least 24hours, we undertook simple stability studies to establish whether the same might apply to proinsulin.Venous blood samples were drawn from six adult women, some fasting, some not, aliquoted and assayed immediately and after storage at either 4°C or ambient temperature for periods from 2h to 24h.There was no significant variation or difference with storage time or storage condition in either individual or group analysis.Proinsulin appears to be stable at room temperature in EDTA for at least 24h. Immediate separation and storage on ice of samples for proinsulin assay is not necessary, which will simplify sample transport, particularly for multicentre trials.

  17. Reciprocal Interaction of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure on Outcome in Stroke Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, Lars; Hametner, Christian; Ahmed, Niaz; Rauch, Geraldine; MacLeod, Mary J; Perini, Francesco; Lees, Kennedy R; Ringleb, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Significance and management of blood pressure (BP) changes in acute stroke care are unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 24-hour BP variability (BPV) on outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. From the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis registry, 28 976 patients with documented pre-treatment systolic BP at 2 and 24 hours were analyzed. The primary measure of BP variability was successive variability. Data were preprocessed using coarsened exact matching. We assessed early neurological improvement, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), and long-term functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] at 90 days) by binary and ordinal regression analyses. Attempts to explain successive variation for analysis of BPV with patients characteristics at admission found systolic BP (5.5% variance) to be most influential, yet 92% of BPV variance remained unexplained. Independently from systolic BP, successive variation for analysis of BPV was associated with poor functional outcome mRS score of 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.98), disadvantage across the shift of mRS (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), mortality (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), SICH SITS (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23), and SICH ECASS (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.40; ECASS [European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 2]). Analyzing successive variation for analysis of BPV as a function of pre-treatment, systolic BP significantly improved the prediction of functional outcome (mRS score of 0-1, mRS score of 0-2, neurological improvement, mRS-shift: all P interaction accounting for pre-treatment BP and the acute BP course (ie, BPV) to achieve best possible outcome for the patient. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Phase II trial of weekly 24-hour infusion of gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delius, Stefan von; Lersch, Christian; Schulte-Frohlinde, Ewert; Mayr, Martina; Schmid, Roland M; Eckel, Florian

    2005-01-01

    Patients with advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma face a dismal prognosis, as no effective palliative chemotherapy exists. The antitumor effect of gemcitabine is schedule-dependent rather than dose-dependent. We evaluated the activity of a prolonged infusion of gemcitabine in advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinomas. Nineteen consecutive eligible patients were enrolled. All patients were required to have histologically confirmed diagnosis and measurable disease. Gemcitabine was infused over 24 hours at a dose of 100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15. Treatment was repeated every 28 days until progression of disease or limiting toxicity. Tumor response was evaluated every second course by computed tomography (CT) scans. Eighteen patients were evaluable for response. A total of 89 cycles of therapy were administered. One partial response was observed (6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0–27%) and ten additional patients had stable disease for at least two months (disease control rate 61%; 95% CI: 36–83%). The therapy was well tolerated, with moderate myelosuppression as the main toxicity. The median time to tumor progression and median overall survival was 3.6 months (95% CI 2.6–4.6 months) and 7.5 months (95% CI 6.5–8.5 months), respectively. Weekly 24-hour gemcitabine at a dose of 100 mg/m 2 is well tolerated. There was a relatively high rate of disease control for a median duration of 5.3 months (range 2.8–18.8 months). However, the objective response rate of this regimen in gallbladder and biliary tract carcinomas was limited

  19. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  20. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (pdifferent in cosmonauts and in subjects participating in the head down tilted bed rest study (170± 29% (Mean± SEM) vs. 57± 7%, respectively; presponse to combined effects of a reduced plasma volume and an increased vascular capacity in flight.

  1. 24-HOUR ARTERIAL STIFFNESS VALUES IN MEN WITH DIFFERENT PHENOTYPES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE CONCURRENT WITH HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of the daily arterial stiffness (AS profile in men with different phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD concurrent with hypertension. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 78 male patients with COPD and hypertension. The patients were divided according to COPD phenotypes into 2 groups: 1 COPD patients with emphysema; 2 those with bronchitis. The exclusion criteria were less than 40 years and more than 80 years of age; diabetes mellitus; coronary heart disease; vascular diseases; an exacerbation of chronic diseases; bronchial and pulmonary diseases of another etiology. The patients underwent 24-hour blood pressure and AS monitoring, external respiratory function testing: spirography with a short-acting β2-agonist test, a six-minute walk test at baseline and after a hemoglobin oxygen saturation test, and a CAT test. Results. The patients of both groups were observed to have a statistically significant increase in (dP/dtmax as compared to those of the control group (p < 0.05; p < 0.01 in both the daytime and nighttime. In these periods, the COPD patients with emphysema had a higher AIx than those with bronchitis (p < 0.001. There was a statistically significantly (p < 0.001 higher AIx in the nighttime than in the daytime in Groups 1 and 2 patients. Conclusion. The patients with different COPD phenotypes were noted to have impaired arterial elastic properties, circadian AS changes with predominantly nocturnal impaired vascular stiffness. Relationships were found between 24-hour AS values and clinicoanamnestic findings. 

  2. Restoring hydrology and old-growth structures in a former production forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    to restore hydrology and old-growth structure. We collected presence/absence data for four organism groups (vascular plants, epiphytic bryophytes and lichens, wood-inhabiting fungi) and measured environmental variables associated with species occurrence and influenced by restoration (dead or living tree...... characteristics, stand age, water level). We investigated biodiversity consequences of restoration towards pristine environmental characteristics by using a space-for-time substitution model. We evaluated how and through what mechanisms species richness is likely to react when pre-forestry hydrological conditions......-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the increase in soil moisture shifted the forest plots towards an alder carr, while the stand ageing process sustained the shade-tolerant beech despite its low tolerance for high soil humidity. Our prediction shows an increase in species richness for plants directly driven...

  3. Relative value of clinical variables, bicycle ergometry, rest radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring at discharge to predict 1 year survival after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); R.W. Brower (Ronald); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); H.J. ten Katen (Harald); A. Beelen (Anita); T. Baardman (Taco); J. Lubsen (Jacob); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe relative value of predischarge clinical variables, bicycle ergometry, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring for predicting survival during the first year in 351 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction was assessed. Discriminant

  4. Stand conditions immediately following a restoration harvest in an old-growth pine-hardwood remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Bragg

    2010-01-01

    Portions of the Levi Wilcoxon Demonstration Forest (LWDF), a privately owned parcel of old-growth pine and hardwoods in Ashley County, Arkansas, were recently treated to restore conditions similar to some historic accounts of the virgin forest. Following a hardwood-only cut, a post-harvest inventory showed that the number of tree species in the sample area declined...

  5. Ecological restoration of an old-growth longleaf pine stand utilizing prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl

    2000-01-01

    Ecological restoration using prescribed fire has been underway for 3 years in an uncut, old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) stand located in south Alabama. The longleaf pine ecosystem requires frequent (once every 1-10 years) surface fire to prevent succesion to later several stages. Before this study began, this stand had not burned in >...

  6. Quantifying flooding effects on hardwood seedling survival and growth for bottomland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide in bottomland hardwood restoration necessitates improved ecological understanding of flooding effects on forest tree seedlings using methodology that accurately reflects field conditions. We examined hardwood seedling survival and growth in an outdoor laboratory where the timing, depth, duration, and flow rate of flood water can be carefully...

  7. Restoring old-growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin

    2008-01-01

    The successful restoration of old-growth-like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied...

  8. Relationship Between 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Cognitive Function in Community-Living Older Adults: The UCSD Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kyle S; Forbang, Nketi; Beben, Tomasz; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rifkin, Dena E

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) patterns have been associated with diminished cognitive function in hypertensive and very elderly populations. The relationship between ambulatory BP patterns and cognitive function in community-living older adults is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour ambulatory BP, in-clinic BP, and cognitive function measures were obtained from 319 community-living older adults. The mean age was 72 years, 66% were female, and 13% were African-American. We performed linear regression with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as the primary outcome and 24-hour BP patterns as the independent variable, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and comorbidities. Greater nighttime systolic dipping (P = 0.046) and higher 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP; P = 0.015) were both significantly associated with better cognitive function, whereas 24-hour systolic BP (SBP), average real variability, and ambulatory arterial stiffness were not. Higher 24-hour DBP and greater nighttime systolic dipping were significantly associated with improved cognitive function. Future studies should examine whether low 24-hour DBP and lack of nighttime systolic dipping predict future cognitive impairment. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

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    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  10. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (P<0.001). Respective changes in mean diastolic BP were -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), and 0.7 (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.7) mm Hg (P=0.017). Daytime and nighttime BP followed similar patterns. Mean changes from baseline in fasting blood glucose were -6.1, -4.6, and 3.5 mg/dL (P=0.016) in the MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Correction ofvitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and assessment of 24-hour blood pressure parameters in perimenopausal women with arterial hypertension

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    Ludmiła Walerjewna Jankowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both arterial hypertension and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in the general population. Aim of the study was to assess blood pressure and its dynamics in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM while correcting the vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in perimenopausal women, who have grade 2 arterial hypertension. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 50 premenopausal women [48 (45–50 years] and 52 women in early (up to 5 years postmenopausal period [52 (50–54 years]. Total 25-(OHD blood plasma levels were assessed by immunoenzyme assay using DRG kit (Marburg, Germany. The total 25-(OHD blood plasma levels below 20 ng/ml were considered as vitamin D insufficiency, the concentration of 20–30 ng/ml – as deficiency, and the levels 30–60 ng/ml were considered normal. In the group of women with 25-(OHD deficiency/insufficiency two subgroups were isolated: IB subgroup (n = 25 and IIB (n = 21, which were introduced with treatment algorithm, including cholecalciferol administration at a daily dose of 2000 IU for 3 months. Results: Cholecalciferol therapy at a dose of 2000 IU per day for a period of 3 months has allowed reaching the optimum concentration of vitamin D in 80% of premenopausal hypertensive women, and in 76.2% of women in the early postmenopausal period. Correction of plasma vitamin D deficiency achieved by taking cholecalciferol, while using combined antihypertensive therapy (ramipril + indapamide allows to improve the following parameters assessed in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in premenopausal women: the mean daytime and nighttime systolic blood pressure, time index of 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure variability, systolic and diastolic blood pressure morning surge, and normalization of nighttime:daytime blood pressure ratio; in postmenopausal women the treatment allowed: the reduction of morning surge of

  12. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

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    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  13. Restoring directional growth sense to plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    Introduction of new plant classification: electrotropic (Et) and non-electrotropic (nEt) plants gives us a criterion which plants need electric field to grow "normally" in space. The electric field: E is measured in V/m (volt per meter). Do not confuse "electrotropism" understood by some as the response to current flow transversely through the plant's root. This effect was previously described in biological textbooks. I suggest to call it as (Ct) (here C stands for current and t for tropism). In the laboratory we have in the plant growth chamber two transparent to light (wire mesh) conducting sheets separated by m(meters) and V volts potential difference. It has been shown in laboratory that Et is a very important factor in electrotropic plant development. Space experiments with plants grown in orbit from seed to seed have been fully successful only (in my very best knowledge) with nEt plants. The most common nEt plants are grasses (more than 50% of all plants). The nEt plants in space use phototropism as their sensor of direction. In space (and most greenhouses) we have to provide the electric field at least for the Et plants. It has been shown that the electric field is also beneficial to nEt plants which also acquire the sense of direction imposed by stronger than the normal 130V/m E field (vector). The stronger horizontal E field of 1.6kV/m (slightly more than 12 times stronger than 130V/m) does not influence the rate of growth of maize (which is nEt) in 130V/m vertical field or even in the Faraday cage 0V/m. Yet when the maize gets its leaves, they all lean in the horizontal field (1.6kV/m) towards the anode. The direction of the E vector is defined by the E field lines running from the positive to the negative charges. Because the electric forces are a factor of 1038 times stronger than the gravitational forces, it is not important for the E field whether it acts on ions in the gravity or in weightlessness. We have to recall that on the Earth and in space Et

  14. The assessment of neonates’ exposure to traumatic factors in the cardiac ward within the first 24 hours of hospitalization

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    Grażyna Cepuch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, neonates with ductus-dependent CHD are exposed to a number of traumatic impulses arising from the need for necessary care and therapeutic procedures. Material and methods: The studied group consisted of neonates in a stable condition, suffering from ductusdependent CHD, monitored from the first to the fifth day of their life. The research involved the observation of 10 patients of the cardiac ward at the University Children’s Hospital. The research was carried out by means of the following methods: observation with available assessment tools, such as author’s questionnaire, CRIES scale, sound level meter and stopper. Results: The total number of all procedures performed on the group of 10 neonates amounted to 622 per day. The average number of invasive procedures per day performed on one patient was 6.6, while the procedures connected with touching averaged at 57.3. The average daily noise level amounted to 72.2 dB; the total daily time of exposure to artificial light averaged at 87 minutes, with the average duration of a single lighting episode lasting 14.6 minutes. The average pain level of a neonate connected with chosen invasive procedures fell between 5 and 7 points in the CRIES scale. Conclusions: The impact of traumatic factors disrupts the process of adaptation, may adversely influence further development of central nervous system, perception and sense organs and disturbs psychological development.

  15. DETERMINANTS OF SUBOPTIMAL BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRES-SURE MONITORING

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    Mansoor Moazenzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to define the determinants of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control among hypertensive patients under treatment and explore a predictive model for detecting the patients at risk for increased BP.    METHODS: We enrolled 97 patients (40 males, 57 females under treatment for hypertension between June 2006 and May 2007 in Shafa hospital, Kerman, Iran. BP was measured at clinic twice within 5-minute intervals. After setting up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BP was measured at 30-minute intervals during the day and 60-minute intervals during the night. The frequency of increased BP (more than 140/90 mmHg was included in a regression model as dependent variable and all the others such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI, drugs and baseline clinical measurements as the predictors.    RESULTS: Increased BP was detected in 44% (95% CI: 38.79%-49.65% of all measurements during 24-hour monitoring. The frequency of increased BP had a significant relationship with BMI (b=0.35, P=0.001. Clinic's pulse pressure was a significant predicting factor for BP increase (P=0.02.    CONCLUSION: BMI and pulse pressure are the best predictors for being hypertensive during lifetime. Ineffective treatment of hypertension is frequent among the hypertensive patients.      Keywords: Blood pressure control, Pulse pressure, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BMI.

  16. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada

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    Sharon I. Kirkpatrick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24 Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents, in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years, and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research.

  17. The Association of Pediatric Obesity With Nocturnal Non-Dipping on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macumber, Ian R; Weiss, Noel S; Halbach, Susan M; Hanevold, Coral D; Flynn, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been linked with abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure (BP) in adults, which in turn is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. There are few data regarding abnormal dipping status in the obese pediatric population. The goal of this study was to further describe the relationship between obesity and non-dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a database of patients aged 5-21 years who had undergone 24-hour ABPM at Seattle Children's Hospital from January 2008 through May 2014. Subjects were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into lean (BMI 15th-85th percentile) and obese (BMI >95th percentile) groups. Compared to lean subjects (n = 161), obese subjects (n = 247) had a prevalence ratio (PR) for non-dipping of 2.15, adjusted for race (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-3.42). Increasing severity of obesity was not further associated with nocturnal non-dipping. Nocturnal non-dipping was not associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (PR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.71-1.44). These results suggest that in children, just as in adults, obesity is related to a relatively decreased dipping in nocturnal BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index – Revised (BHEI-R, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R. The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components (“total fruits”, “whole fruits”, “total vegetables”, “integral cereals”, “saturated fat”, “sodium”, and “energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages” were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for “integral cereals” to 147% for “whole fruits”. The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption.

  19. Use of household supermarket sales data to estimate nutrient intakes: a comparison with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-01-01

    Electronic supermarket sales data provide a promising, novel way of estimating nutrient intakes. However, little is known about how these data reflect the nutrients consumed by an individual household member. A cross-sectional survey of 49 primary household shoppers (age [mean+/-standard deviation age]=48+/-14 years; 84% female) from Wellington, New Zealand, was undertaken. Three months of baseline electronic supermarket sales data were compared with individual dietary intakes estimated from four random 24-hour dietary recalls collected during the same 3-month period. Spearman rank correlations between household purchases and individual intakes ranged from 0.54 for percentage of energy from saturated fat (Psupermarket sales data may be a useful surrogate measure of some nutrient intakes of individuals, particularly percentage of energy from saturated and total fat. In the case of a supermarket intervention, an effect on household sales of percentage energy from saturated and total fat is also likely to impact the saturated and total fat intake of individual household members. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term growth and succession in restored and natural mangrove forests in southwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, C.E.; Devlin, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We compared colonization, growth and succession from 1989 to 2000 in a restored mangrove site and in gap and closed canopy sites in a natural mangrove forest. The restored site was created in 1982 and planted with Rhizophora mangle (???2 m-2) propagules. By 1989, Laguncularia racemosa, with densities up to 12.9 tree m-2, was a dominant in all plots, although densities were greater at edge plots relative to inner plots, and near open water (west plots) relative to further inland (east plots), and in tall mangrove plots relative to scrub plots. Rhizophora mangle (1989 tree densities about 2 m-2) was a codominant in inner and scrub plots, while Avicennia germinans had the lowest densities (mangle and L. racemosa, rapid growth in height of all species (1989-1996), followed by a dieoff of L. racemosa in later years (1997-2000) as the canopy came to resemble that of tall mangrove plots. Colonization and growth rates were lower in gap and closed canopy regions of the natural forest relative to rates in the restored site. After 11 years, densities of L. racemosa were 10-20x lower and R. mangle slightly less in the gap relative to densities in tall mangrove plots in the restored site at the same age. Although the restored stand had converged with the natural forest by 2000 in terms of some factors such as species richness, vegetation cover, litterfall, and light penetration, trees were still much smaller and stem densities much higher. Full development of mature structure and ecological function will likely require decades more development. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Observational study to characterise 24-hour COPD symptoms and their relationship with patient-reported outcomes: results from the ASSESS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2014-10-21

    Few studies have investigated the 24-hour symptom profile in patients with COPD or how symptoms during the 24-hour day are inter-related. This observational study assessed the prevalence, severity and relationship between night-time, early morning and daytime COPD symptoms and explored the relationship between 24-hour symptoms and other patient-reported outcomes. The study enrolled patients with stable COPD in clinical practice. Baseline night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms (symptom questionnaire), severity of airflow obstruction (FEV1), dyspnoea (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale), health status (COPD Assessment Test), anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), sleep quality (COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale) and physical activity level (sedentary, moderately active or active) were recorded. The full analysis set included 727 patients: 65.8% male, mean ± standard deviation age 67.2 ± 8.8 years, % predicted FEV1 52.8 ± 20.5%. In each part of the 24-hour day, >60% of patients reported experiencing ≥1 symptom in the week before baseline. Symptoms were more common in the early morning and daytime versus night-time (81.4%, 82.7% and 63.0%, respectively). Symptom severity was comparable for each period assessed. Overall, in the week before baseline, 56.7% of patients had symptoms throughout the whole 24-hour day (3 parts of the day); 79.9% had symptoms in ≥2 parts of the 24-hour day. Symptoms during each part of the day were inter-related, irrespective of disease severity (all p < 0.001). Early morning and daytime symptoms were associated with the severity of airflow obstruction (p < 0.05 for both). Night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms were all associated with worse dyspnoea, health status and sleep quality, and higher anxiety and depression levels (all p < 0.001 versus patients without symptoms in each corresponding period). In each part of the 24-hour day, there was also an association between

  2. EFFECT OF LISINOPRIL ON 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Sarkisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effect of 24-week treatment with lisinopril on blood pressure (BP and arterial stiffness in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Material and methods. Twenty patients with essential HT grade  1-2 and RA (mean age 60.2±7.9 years were treated with lisinoprilin 24 weeks in open controlled study. Office blood pressure (BP was 147.2±9.4/87.5±8.6 mm Hg; 24-h mean  BP – 141.8±9.3/82.2±9.6 mm Hg; HT duration was 14.5±9.4 years, and RA duration – 12.3±2.6 years. A high incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors was identified: 95% of patients had dyslipidaemia, 45% – obesity, 35% – impaired glucose tolerance. Atherosclerosis of carotid arteries with stenosis less than 25% was diagnosed in 65% of patients. Most patients had a positive rheumatoid factor and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, as well as moderate RA activity and III-IV radiologic stage of RA. All patients received methotrexate as the basic anti-inflammatory drug, 12 (60% patients – selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, 6 (30% patients took corticosteroids equivalent to prednisolone 7.5±5.5 mg per day. Mean  dose  of lisinopril was 12.2±9.8 mg/day. Office BP measurements, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, and  arterial stiffness evaluation were  performed initially and  at the end of the study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index on the right (R-CAVI and on the left (L-CAVI.Results. After 24-week therapy with lisinopril office systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by 16.0±7.2/11.6±9.1 mm Hg (p<0.0001 and 11.6±9.1 mm Hg (p<0.0001, respectively. The target BP was achieved in 16 (83% patients. According to the ABPM 24-week therapy with lisino pril led to a significant (p<0.002 decrease in BP for all referable periods: by 12.4±9.1/7.6±3.9 mm Hg within 24 hours;  by 13.4±10.1/8.0±6.1 mm Hg for daytime; by 10.1±9.3/7.3±6.3 mm Hg for night-time. After

  3. Reliability of hunger-related assessments during 24-hour fasts and their relationship to body composition and subsequent energy compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Moore, M Lane; Graybeal, Austin J

    2018-05-01

    Many diets employ regular periods of fasting that extend beyond a typical overnight fast (i.e. intermittent fasting [IF]). Evaluation of acute fasting responses provides information concerning the potential theoretical rationale for IF. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the test-retest reliability of hunger-related variables during 24-hour fasts and the relationship between these variables and body composition, as well as subsequent energy intake (EI) after fasting. Eleven participants (6 F, 5 M) completed two 24-hour fasts after being provided a 3-day standardized weight-maintenance diet. From 16 to 24 h of fasting, participants were directly observed and provided hourly assessments of hunger, desire to eat (DTE), prospective food consumption (PFC), fullness and energy. After the fast, participants were allowed ad libitum food consumption, and compensation was calculated as EI relative to weight-maintenance energy needs. Test-retest reliability for hunger-related assessments at particular durations of fasting was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), changes in dependent variables were evaluated using ANOVA with repeated measures, and relationships between variables were explored using bivariate correlations. At 16 h of fasting, the ICCs for all hunger-related assessments were statistically significant (r = 0.67-0.91; p ≤ 0.05). However, as the fast progressed, reliability varied substantially. When averaged across the nine measurements, the ICCs were: 0.81 (fullness), 0.74 (PFC), 0.67 (energy), 0.44 (DTE) and 0.36 (hunger). Body fat percentage was significantly correlated with changes in PFC (r = 0.62, p = 0.04), hunger (r = 0.66, p = 0.03), DTE (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and fullness (r = -0.63, p = 0.04), but not energy (r = -0.16, p = 0.64). Average EI compensation was only 60% of weight-maintenance needs, but substantial variability was observed (7 to 110

  4. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G., E-mail: jt@pnl.gov [Health Effects and Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 93771 (United States); Twaddle, Nathan C., E-mail: nathan.twaddle@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Churchwell, Mona I., E-mail: mona.churchwell@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: xiaoxia.yang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jeffrey.fisher@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Seryak, Liesel M., E-mail: seryak.2@osu.edu [Division of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.doerge@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to < 1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t{sub 1/2} = 0.45 h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24 h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43 nM at 1.6 h after administration and represented < 0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29 h vs 0.45 h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (< 1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies.

  5. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a 24-hour recall diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-03-05

    Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). Adolescents (12-16 years) with access to an active video game and who reported to spend at least one hour per week in active video gaming were invited to participate in the study. They were asked to complete electronic 24-hour recall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend-days in a one-month period, reporting on time spent playing active and non-active video games and on other EBRBs. Findings indicated that adolescents who reported playing active video games on assessed days also reported spending more time playing non-active video games (Median = 23.6, IQR = 56.8 minutes per week) compared to adolescents who did not report playing active video games on assessed days (Median = 10.0, IQR = 51.3 minutes per week, P games on assessed days, active video game time was positively yet weakly associated with TV/DVD time and snack consumption. Active video game time was not significantly associated with other activities and sugar-sweetened beverages intake. The results suggest that it is unlikely that time spent by adolescents in playing active video games replaces time spent in other physically active behaviours or sedentary activities. Spending more time playing active video games does seem to be associated with a small, but significant increase in intake of snacks. This suggests that interventions aimed at increasing time spent on active video gaming, may have unexpected side effects, thus warranting caution.

  7. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR using EPIC-SOFT were recommended.To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR. To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample.A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement.In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water.The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.

  8. [Concordance of glomerular filtration rate with creatinine clearance in 24-hour urine and Schwartz and Schwartz updated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Gutiérrez, María Luisa; Ochoa-Ponce, Cristina; Lona-Reyes, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez-Íñiguez, Sara Ivonne

    Reference methods for the quantification of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are difficult to use in clinical practice; formulas for evaluating GFR based on serum creatinine (SCr) and/or creatinine clearance are used. The aim of this study was to quantify the correlation and concordance of GFR with creatinine clearance in 24-hour urine (GFR24) and Schwartz and Schwartz updated formulas. Cross-sectional study involving healthy pediatric patients and with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from 5 to 16.9 years. Linear correlation between GFR 24 and two formulas was evaluated with the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We studied 134 patients, of which 59.7% were male. Mean age was 10.8 years. The average GFR24 was 140.34ml/min/1.73m 2 ; 34.3% (n=46) had GFR <90ml/min/1.73m 2 . Moderate linear correlation between GFR24 and Schwartz (r= 0.63) and Schwartz updated (r= 0.65) formulas was observed. There was good concordance between the GFR24 and Schwartz (ICC= 0.77) and updated Schwartz (ICC= 0.77) formulas. Schwartz classical formula in patients with GFR24 ≥ 90ml/min/1.73m 2 estimated higher values, while Schwartz updated underestimated values. There is moderate correlation and good concordance between the GFR24 and Schwartz and Schwartz updated formulas. The concordance was better in patients with obesity and lower in women, patients with hyperfiltration and normal weight. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to < 1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t 1/2 = 0.45 h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24 h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43 nM at 1.6 h after administration and represented < 0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29 h vs 0.45 h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (< 1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies.

  10. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  11. Both semiquantitative degree of rest Tl-201 uptake and reversibility at 24 hour-delay were needed to predict wall motion improvement after bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Yoon, S. N.; Kim, K. B.; Jeong, Z. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy still exists about how to use the uptake at rest and 24 hour delay in rest redistribution Tl-201 SPECT to predict improvement of wall motion abnormality after bypass surgery. To find the best way to combine diagnostic efficacy of Tl-201 SPECT to predict myocardial viability, we studied the predictive values (positive: PPV, negative: NPV) of rest and 24 hour-delay Tl-201 SPECT in 21 patients. Wall motion was assessed comparing preoperative post-stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT with that of 3 months after surgery. Four point scoring system was used for 17 myocardial segments to asses uptakes ( 0 to 3 for normal to defect) at rest and 24 hour-delay and wall motion ( 0 to 3 for normal to dyskinesia). Ejection fraction improved after surgery (5011% vs 4313%). Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility of EF was 7 and 9% respectively when we used 3D Perfusion-Motion Map. Sixty seven segments showed wall motion abnormality before surgery. Predictive values of rest Tl-201 uptake decrease were as follows: 0: 15/15(100%), 1: 30/34(88%), 2: 6/11 (55%), 3: 3/7(43%). So PPV of mild decrease was 88%, and NPV of severe decrease was 50%. Delayed reversibility was evaluated in 37 segments (15 patients). Twenty seven segment had persistence or aggravation, but the other 10 segments improved at 24 hour delay. PPV of reversible 10 segments was 80%, and NPV of reversibility was only 46%. PPV of combination of rest Tl-201 uptake of mild degree and 24 hour reversibility was 86% (38/44) and NPV of neither one was 88%. We concluded that both semi-quantitative degree of Tl-201 uptake at rest and reversibility at 24 hour delay was the best to warrant or abandon postoperative improvement of abnormal wall motion found at preoperative post-stress gated myocardial SPECT

  12. Postnatal soluble FGFR3 therapy rescues achondroplasia symptoms and restores bone growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Stéphanie; Dirat, Béatrice; Tognacci, Thomas; Rochet, Nathalie; Mouska, Xavier; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Gennero, Isabelle; Gouze, Elvire

    2013-09-18

    Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormal bone development, resulting in short stature. It is caused by a single point mutation in the gene coding for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which leads to prolonged activation upon ligand binding. To prevent excessive intracellular signaling and rescue the symptoms of achondroplasia, we have developed a recombinant protein therapeutic approach using a soluble form of human FGFR3 (sFGFR3), which acts as a decoy receptor and prevents FGF from binding to mutant FGFR3. sFGFR3 was injected subcutaneously to newborn Fgfr3(ach/+) mice-the mouse model of achondroplasia-twice per week throughout the growth period during 3 weeks. Effective maturation of growth plate chondrocytes was restored in bones of treated mice, with a dose-dependent enhancement of skeletal growth in Fgfr3(ach/+) mice. This resulted in normal stature and a significant decrease in mortality and associated complications, without any evidence of toxicity. These results describe a new approach for restoring bone growth and suggest that sFGFR3 could be a potential therapy for children with achondroplasia and related disorders.

  13. Determination of the 24-hours survival of stored red cells beyond the legal duration (42 and 49 days). Value of a double labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messian, O.; Noel, L.; Saint-Paul, B.; Fabre, G.; Saint-Blancard, J.

    1985-01-01

    Red cell double labelling using chromium 51 and Tc 99m proved to be the good method for the measurement of 24-hour post-transfusion survival values of red cells stored at 4 0 C. Satisfactory results were obtained with the preservative solution PAGGSS (Phosphate Adenine Guanosine Glucose Sorbitol Saline) for 42 and 49 days, and with ADSOL (Adenine Dextrose Saline Mannital) for 42 days. But for 49 days ADSOL does not maintain 24-hour post-transfusion survival of the cells at an acceptable level, 70 per cent, for this length of time [fr

  14. A fixed-dose 24-hour regimen of artesunate plus sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Ishag; Magzoub, Mamoun; Osman, Maha E

    2006-01-01

    -sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS+SMP f) administered at time intervals of 12 hours for a 24-hour therapy was compared with the efficacy of the same drug given as a loose combination (AS+SMP l) with a dose interval of 24 hours for 3 days for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. RESULTS...... of the patients. CONCLUSION: both regimens of AS+SMP were effective and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. Due to its simplicity, the fixed dose one-day treatment regimen may improve compliance and therefore may be the preferred choice....

  15. [Pharmacokinetic monitoring of 24-hour infusion of methotrexate in an adult population with non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Megía, M J; Alós Almiñana, M; Esquer Borrás, J

    2004-01-01

    a Bayesian method implementing pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from an adult population with NHL, which allows therapy safety and the clearance profile of MTX to be predicted from a single sample collected at 24 hours post-infusion.

  16. Experimental Salix shoot and root growth statistics on the alluvial sediment of a restored river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Verones, F.; Francis, R.; Burlando, P.

    2009-12-01

    River restoration projects encompass not only the amelioration of flood protection but also the rehabilitation of the riverine ecosystem. However, the interactions and feedbacks between river hydrology, riparian vegetation and aquifer dynamics are still poorly understood. Vegetation interacts with river hydrology on multiple time scales. Hence, there is considerable interest in understanding the morphodynamics of restored river reaches in relation to the characteristics of vegetation that may colonize the bare sediment, and locally stabilize it by root anchoring. In this paper we document results from a number of ongoing experiments within the project RECORD (Restored CORridor Dynamics, sponsored by CCES - www.cces.ch - and Cantons Zurich and Thurgau, CH). In particular, we discuss both the above and below ground biomass growth dynamics of 1188 Salix cuttings (individual and group survival rate, growth of the longest shoots and number of branches and morphological root analysis) in relation to local river hydrodynamics. Cuttings were organized in square plots of different size and planted in spring 2009 on a gravel island of the restored river section of River Thur in Switzerland. By periodical monitoring the plots we obtained a detailed and quite unique set of data, including root statistics of uprooted samples derived from image analysis from a high-resolution scanner. Beyond describing the survival rate dynamics in relation to river hydrology, we show the nature and strength of correlations between island topography and cutting growth statistics. In particular, by root analysis and by comparing empirical histograms of the vertical root distribution vs satured water surface in the sediment, we show that main tropic responses on such environment are oxytropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. The main factor influencing the survival rate is naturally found in erosion by floods, of which we also give an interesting example that helps demonstrate the role of river

  17. The effect of urban growth on landscape-scale restoration for a fire-dependent songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bradley A; Marcus, Jeffrey F; Carpenter, John P; Anderson, Scott; Taillie, Paul J; Collazo, Jaime A

    2017-04-15

    A landscape-scale perspective on restoration ecology has been advocated, but few studies have informed restoration with landscape metrics or addressed broad-scale threats. Threats such as urban growth may affect restoration effectiveness in a landscape context. Here, we studied longleaf pine savanna in the rapidly urbanizing southeastern United States where a habitat-specialist bird, Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), is closely associated with savanna vegetation structure and frequent fire. Our objectives were to construct a species distribution model for Bachman's sparrow, determine the relationship between fire and urbanization, quantify the urban growth effect (2010-2090), identify potential restoration areas, and determine the interaction between restoration potential and urban growth by 2050. Number of patches, patch size, and isolation metrics were used to evaluate scenarios. The species distribution model was 88% accurate and emphasized multiscale canopy cover characteristics, fire, and percent habitat. Fires were less common urban areas, and this fire suppression effect exacerbated urban growth effects. For restoration scenarios, canopy cover reduction by 30% resulted in nearly double the amount of habitat compared to the prescribed fire scenario; canopy cover reduction resulted in larger patch sizes and less patch isolation compared to current conditions. The effect of urban growth on restoration scenarios was unequal. Seventy-four percent of restoration areas from the prescribed fire scenario overlapped with projected urban growth, whereas the canopy cover reduction scenario only overlapped by 9%. We emphasize the benefits of simultaneously considering the effects of urban growth and landscape-scale restoration potential to promote a landscape with greater patch sizes and less isolation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. An individual-based growth and competition model for coastal redwood forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Das, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Thinning treatments to accelerate coastal redwood forest stand development are in wide application, but managers have yet to identify prescriptions that might best promote Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl. (redwood) growth. The creation of successful thinning prescriptions would be aided by identifying the underlying mechanisms governing how individual tree growth responds to competitive environments in coastal redwood forests. We created a spatially explicit individual-based model of tree competition and growth parameterized using surveys of upland redwood forests at Redwood National Park, California. We modeled competition for overstory trees (stems ≥ 20 cm stem diameter at breast height, 1.37 m (dbh)) as growth reductions arising from sizes, distances, and species identity of competitor trees. Our model explained up to half of the variation in individual tree growth, suggesting that neighborhood crowding is an important determinant of growth in this forest type. We used our model to simulate the effects of novel thinning prescriptions (e.g., 40% stand basal area removal) for redwood forest restoration, concluding that these treatments could lead to substantial growth releases, particularly for S. sempervirens. The results of this study, along with continued improvements to our model, will help to determine spacing and species composition that best encourage growth.

  19. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  20. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  1. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromvoirt, S.M. van; Thomas, C.M.G.; Quinn, M.A.; McNally, O.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). METHODS: From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases

  2. 24-hour immunologic assessment of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients receiving chronic methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornatore, K M; Reed, K; Venuto, R

    1995-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly prescribed in the post transplant period as a component of combination immunosuppressive regimens. However, the daily 24-hour pattern of helper lymphocytes (CD4+) and suppressor cells (CD8+) during chronic methylprednisolone therapy has not been examined in renal transplant recipients in relation to glucocorticoid exposure and time post-transplant. The response of total lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was examined in 23 stable renal transplant recipients who received methylprednisolone for at least 8 months post-transplant. The patient's prescribed oral methylprednisolone dose (mean daily dose = 9.7 +/- 2.6 mg) was given intravenously and whole blood was sampled periodically over 24 h for lymphocyte counts and methylprednisolone concentrations. A complete blood count with differential was determined via an automated hemocytometer with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes determined using flow cytometry. Methylprednisolone area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) was determined and normalized for each patient's respective dose. A general lymphopenia resulted in all patients with a mean decrease of 61 +/- 15% and an average nadir time occurring at 6 h. The decline from baseline was 76 +/- 17% for absolute number of CD4+ and 59 +/- 18% for CD8+ lymphocytes with an average nadir time at 6 h. Twelve patients exhibited a baseline CD4+ count to be less than 688 cells/mm3 (the low end of the reference range) and the lymphocyte count of all the patients fell below this value at the nadir. Six patients had a CD8+ lymphocyte count below 380 cells/mm3 (low end of the reference range) at baseline with 21 of the 23 patients exhibiting less than 380 cells/mm3 at the nadir time. At the time of nadir, the mean CD4+ and CD8+ counts were 156 +/- 105 cells/mm3 and 256 +/- 270 cells/mm3, respectively. In 17 of the 23 patients, the CD4+ count was below 200 cells/mm3 at the time of nadir. The dose-normalized AUC of methylprednisolone ranged from 22

  3. Conserving and Restoring Old Growth in Frequent-fire Forests: Cycles of Disruption and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Egan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide a synthesis of the papers in the Special Issue, The Conservation and Restoration of Old Growth in Frequent-fire Forests of the American West. These papers - the product of an Old Growth Writing Workshop, held at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona on 18-19 April 2006 - represent the ideas of 25 workshop participants who argue for a new attitude toward managing old growth in the frequent-fire forests of the American West. Unlike the lush, old-growth rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, the dry, frequent-fire forests of the western United States evolved with surface fires that disturbed the system with such regularity that young trees were almost always killed. When saplings did survive, they grew beyond the harm of frequent surface fires and, ultimately, attained the characteristics that define old growth in these systems. This system worked well, producing old-growth trees in abundance, until the onset of Euro-American settlement in the mid- to late-19th century. The arrival of these settlers put in motion an interplay of unprecedented social, political, economic, and ecological forces (e.g., removal of Native Americans and their fire-based land management systems, overgrazing of the understory, aggressive logging, establishment of federal land management agencies, implementation of a federal fire suppression policy. These activities have culminated in 1 overly dense forested ecosystems that are now on the verge of collapse because of catastrophic fires (i.e., crown fire at the landscape level; the Rodeo-Chediski Fire and insect outbreaks, 2 the emergence of conservation-minded environmental legislation and policy, and 3 greater levels of interaction between citizens, federal agencies, and fire-prone landscapes. Recognizing the tenuous ecological situation of these forests, restoration ecologists, foresters, and others have developed ways to return historic ecological processes and lower tree densities to these forests

  4. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin; Innominato, Pasquale F; Boerner, Julie; Mormont, M Christine; Iacobelli, Stefano; Baron, Benoit; Jasmin, Claude; Lévi, Francis

    2005-03-01

    Incapacitating symptom burden in cancer patients contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and can influence treatment outcomes because of poor tolerance to therapy. In this study, the role of circulating cytokines in the production symptoms in cancer patients is evaluated. Eighty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either normal (group I, n = 40) or dampened (group II, n = 40) 24-hour rest/activity patterns measured by actigraphy were identified. Actigraphy patterns were correlated with QOL indices, serum cortisol obtained at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and with serum levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) obtained at 8:00 a.m. and analyzed in duplicate by ELISA. Cytokine levels and survival were also correlated. Group II patients had significantly higher pre treatment levels of all three cytokines, displayed significantly poorer emotional and social functioning, had higher fatigue, more appetite loss, and poorer performance status compared with group I patients. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with WHO performance status >1 and in those with appetite loss. Fatigue was significantly associated with elevated TGF-alpha only. IL-6 was increased in those patients with extensive liver involvement and multiple organ replacement, and it was significantly correlated with dampened cortisol rhythm. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 was correlated with poor treatment outcome. Significant correlations were found between serum levels of TGF-alpha and IL-6, circadian patterns in wrist activity and serum cortisol and tumor-related symptoms in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These data support the hypothesis that some cancer patient's symptoms of fatigue, poor QOL, and treatment outcome are related to tumor or host generated cytokines and could reflect cytokine effects on the circadian timing system. This interplay between cytokine

  5. Effect of Strain Restored Energy on Abnormal Grain Growth in Mg Alloy Simulated by Phase Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Huang, Yuan-yuan

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal grain growth of single phase AZ31 Mg alloy in the spatio-temporal process has been simulated by phase field models, and the influencing factors of abnormal grain growth are studied in order to find the ways to control secondary recrystallization in the microstructure. The study aims to find out the mechanisms for abnormal grain growth in real alloys. It is shown from the simulated results that the abnormal grain growth can be controlled by the strain restored energy. Secondary recrystallization after an annealing treatment can be induced if there are grains of a certain orientation in the microstructure with local high restored energy. However, if the value of the local restored energy at a certain grain orientation is not greater than 1.1E 0, there may be no abnormal grain growth in the microstructure.

  6. Reduced aboveground tree growth associated with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-10-01

    Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species ( Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis ) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates. The AMF community was measured in multiple ways: as percent colonization of host tree roots, by DNA isolation of the fungal species associated with the roots, and through spore density, volume, and identity in both the wet and dry seasons. Consistent with prior tropical restoration research, the majority of fungal species belonged to the genus Glomus and genus Acaulospora , accounting for more than half of the species and relative abundance found on trees roots and over 95% of spore density across all sites. Greater AMF diversity correlated with lower soil organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen concentrations and longer durations of prior pasture use across sites. Contrary to previous literature findings, AMF species diversity and spore densities were inversely related to tree growth, which may have arisen from trees facultatively increasing their associations with AMF in lower soil fertility sites. Changes to AMF community composition also may have led to variation in disturbance susceptibility, host tree nutrient acquisition, and tree growth. These results highlight the potential importance of fungal-tree-soil interactions in forest recovery and suggest that fungal community dynamics could have important implications for tree growth in disturbed soils.

  7. Oral Streptococci growth on aging and non-aging esthetic restorations after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Adriana D. da; Boscolo, Frab N.; Almeida, Solange M. de; Cogo, Karina; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de C.; Groppo, Francisco C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on both aged and non-aged restorative dental resins, which were submitted to therapeutic irradiation. Sixty-four disks of an esthetic restorative material (Filtek Supreme) were divided into two groups: aged group (AG) and a non-aged group (NAG). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups: non-irradiated and irradiated with 10 Gy, 35 Gy, and 70 Gy. The biofilms were produced by Streptococcus mutans UA159 growing on both AG and NAG surfaces. The colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) were evaluated by the ANOVA and the Tukey LSD tests (a=0.05). AG presented smaller amounts of CFU/mL than the NAG before irradiation and after 10 Gy of irradiation (p<0.05). AG irradiated with 35 and 70 Gy showed increased amount of bacterial biofilm when compared to non-irradiated and 10 Gy-irradiated disks (p<0.05). The exposure to ionizing radiation at therapeutic doses promoted changes in bacterial adherence of aged dental restorative material. (author)

  8. Oral Streptococci growth on aging and non-aging esthetic restorations after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Adriana D. da; Boscolo, Frab N.; Almeida, Solange M. de [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Cogo, Karina; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de C.; Groppo, Francisco C., E-mail: karicogo@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dental School. Dept. of Physiology

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on both aged and non-aged restorative dental resins, which were submitted to therapeutic irradiation. Sixty-four disks of an esthetic restorative material (Filtek Supreme) were divided into two groups: aged group (AG) and a non-aged group (NAG). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups: non-irradiated and irradiated with 10 Gy, 35 Gy, and 70 Gy. The biofilms were produced by Streptococcus mutans UA159 growing on both AG and NAG surfaces. The colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) were evaluated by the ANOVA and the Tukey LSD tests (a=0.05). AG presented smaller amounts of CFU/mL than the NAG before irradiation and after 10 Gy of irradiation (p<0.05). AG irradiated with 35 and 70 Gy showed increased amount of bacterial biofilm when compared to non-irradiated and 10 Gy-irradiated disks (p<0.05). The exposure to ionizing radiation at therapeutic doses promoted changes in bacterial adherence of aged dental restorative material. (author)

  9. Determination of 24-hour insulin infusion pattern by an artificial endocrine pancreas for intravenous insulin infusion with a miniature pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølendorf, K; Christiansen, J S; Bojsen, J

    1981-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intravenous insulin infusion with a glucose controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS) is known to restore glucose homeostasis. A simpler approach to improve blood glucose regulation is preprogrammed intravenous insulin infusion with portable pumps without sensor-mediated feedback. We...... report a study designed to evaluate whether the preprogrammed insulin infusion pattern to be used in the miniature insulin infusion pump (MIIP) could be optimized by concomitant employment of the GCIIS for blood glucose control. Six juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 31 yrs) were...... studied. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was 6.2 mmol/l +/- 0.5 (SD) during glucose controlled infusion and 5.3 +/- 0.6 during the combined MIIP + GCIIS-day. The insulin requirements calculated from the s.c. regimen (56 U +/- 10 SD) were identical to the GCIIS-measured (51 U +/- 14) and to the amounts delivered...

  10. Hourly awakening vs continuous contact lens sensor measurements of 24-hour intraocular pressure: effect on sleep macrostructure and intraocular pressure rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mottet, Benjamin; Hubanova, Ralitsa; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Chiquet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    All studies of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythm conducted to date have used repeated IOP measurements requiring nocturnal awakenings, potentially disturbing sleep macrostructure. To evaluate the effects on sleep architecture and IOP rhythm of hourly awakening vs a contact lens sensor (CLS) to continuously monitor IOP without awakening. Cross-sectional study at a referral center of chronobiology among 12 young healthy volunteers, with a mean (SD) age of 22.3 (2.3) years. Volunteers underwent two 24-hour IOP measurement sessions during a 2-month period. The eye order and session order were randomized. During one session, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS, and the IOP of the fellow eye was measured hourly using a portable noncontact tonometer (session with nocturnal hourly awakening). During the other session, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS, and the IOP of the fellow eye was not measured (session without nocturnal awakening). Overnight polysomnography was performed during the 2 sessions. A nonlinear least squares, dual-harmonic regression analysis was used to model the 24-hour IOP rhythm from the CLS data. Comparisons of acrophase, bathyphase, amplitude, and the midline estimating statistic of rhythm were used to evaluate the effect of hourly awakening on IOP rhythm. To evaluate the effects of hourly awakening on sleep architecture, comparisons of sleep structure were used, including total sleep period, rapid eye movement, wake after sleep onset, absolute and relative total sleep time, and non-rapid eye movement sleep (N1, N2, and N3). A 24-hour IOP rhythm was found in all individuals for the sessions with and without awakening (P  .30). Hourly awakening during noncontact tonometer IOP measurements did not seem to alter the mean variables of the 24-hour IOP pattern evaluated using CLS, including signal, maximum signal, minimum signal, acrophase, and bathyphase (P > .15). The 24-hour IOP

  11. Differences between office and 24-hour blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with CKD: A 5,693-patient cross-sectional analysis from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, Manuel; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Segura, Julian; de la Cruz, Juan J; Banegas, Jose R; Ruilope, Luis M

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have examined control rates of office blood pressure (BP) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, recent evidence suggests major discrepancies between office and 24-hour BP values in hypertensive populations. This study examined concordance/discordance between office- and ambulatory-based BP control in a large cohort of patients with CKD. Cross-sectional. 5,693 hypertensive individuals with CKD stages 1-5 from the Spanish ABPM (ambulatory BP monitoring) Registry. Thresholds of 140/90 and 130/80 mm Hg for office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension duration, kidney measures, diabetes, dyslipidemia, target-organ damage, and cardiovascular comorbid conditions. Misclassification of BP control as "white-coat" hypertension (office BP ≥140/90 mm Hg, 24-hour BP <130/80 mm Hg) or masked hypertension (office BP <140/90 mm Hg, 24-hour BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Standardized office-based BP and 24-hour ABPM. Mean age was 61.0 ± 13.9 (SD) years and 52.6% were men. The proportion with white-coat hypertension was 28.8% (36.8% of patients with office BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and that of masked hypertension was 7.0% (but 32.1% of patients with office BP <140/90 mm Hg). Female sex, aging, obesity, and target-organ damage were associated with white-coat hypertension; aging and obesity were associated with masked hypertension. Only 21.7% and 8.1% of the CKD population had office BP <140/90 and <130/80 mm Hg, respectively. In contrast, 43.5% of individuals had average 24-hour BP <130/80 mm Hg. Cross-sectional design, longitudinal associations cannot be established. Misclassification of BP control at the office was observed in 1 of 3 hypertensive patients with CKD. Ambulatory-based control rates were far better than office-based rates. Nevertheless, the burden of uncontrolled ambulatory BP and misclassification of BP control at the office constitutes a call for wider use of ABPM to evaluate the success of

  12. Increase of an introduced bird competitor in old-growth forest associated with restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Freed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many successful invasions involve long initial periods in which the invader exists at low densities followed by sudden population increases. The reasons for such time-lags remain poorly understood. Here we document a sudden increase in density of the introduced Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus in a restoration area contiguous with old-growth forest at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge on the Island of Hawaii. The refuge, with very high density of native birds, existed in a pocket of low white-eye density that persisted for at least 20 years since the late 1970s. The refuge began an extensive native trees restoration project in 1989 within a 1314 ha abandoned pasture above old-growth forest. This area was soon colonized by white-eyes and their population grew exponentially once the trees had grown tall enough to develop a canopy. This increase was in turn followed by significantly more white-eyes in the open and closed forests adjacent to the restoration area. Competition between white-eyes and native species was documented on study sites within these forests. Density data indicate that competition was more widespread, with loss of tens of thousands of native birds in the 5371 ha area surveyed. Our results are consistent with the view that ecological barriers may delay the population increase of invaders and that human-derived activities may help invaders cross these barriers by creating new ecological opportunities. Control of white-eye numbers may be essential for recovery of native species.

  13. The effect of long-term dexfenfluramine treatment on 24-hour energy expenditure in man. A double-blind placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Astrup, A; Andersen, T

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of long-term treatment with dexfenfluramine (dF) on 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), 10 obese females were studied in a double-blind design. Shortly before and 4 weeks after cessation of a 13 months treatment period with either dF (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL...... differences. The conclusion is therefore that dF possesses no significant thermogenic effect during long-term administration in human obese subjects.......) the 24-hour EE was measured. The measurements were performed using a 24 m3 direct heat sink calorimeter with continuous real time measurements of evaporative and sensible heat losses. The patients performed a standardized program of exercise, rest and meals. The measurements were performed at 24 degrees...

  14. Correlation between 5-Minute {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate Uptake and 24-Hour {sup 131}I Uptake in Patients with Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Woo; Won, Kyu Chang; Yoon, Hyun Dae; Cho, In Ho; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Shin, Dong Gu; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Shim, Bong Sup; Lee, Hyun Woo [Yeungnam University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The 20-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake became readily available for routine use and it replaced {sup 131}I for thyroid imaging. However measuring thyroid uptake during a 5-minute minimizes pertechnetate uptake by the salivary glands and presence of contaminated saliva from those glands in to the pharynx and esophagus. A study was carried out to determine the suitability of the utility of a 5-minute and 20-minute interval from administration of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate to imaging and uptake measurement as a replacement for the 24 hour standard originally established with {sup 131}I, and to evaluate the relationship between 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake and other thyroid functions. A 5-minute and 20-minute uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate were measured in 70 patients with thyroid disease at Yeungnam University Hospital from March 1, 1991 to Feb. 29, 1992. The results were as follows. 1) The 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, simple goiter non toxic nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis and euthyroid were 18.2%, 14.6%, 2.8%, 3.2%, 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean of the euthyroid group and the mean of the Graves' disease. So differentiation between them can be easily made. 2) The 5 minute {sup 99m}Tc- pertechnetate thyroid uptake was well correlated with 24 hour {sup 131}I thyroid uptake (r=0.75, p<0.001). These data provided an equation for estimating the 24 hour uptake of iodide given the 5 minute pertechnetate uptake: Estimated 24-hour '1{sup 31}I thyroid Uptake = 7.188{sup *}In (5 minute {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate uptake)+16.94 3) The 20-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake was well correlated with 24-hour {sup 131}I uptake (r=0.72, p<0.001) and 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake (r=0.96, p<0.001). 4) In the Graves' disease, The 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake was well

  15. Spot Urine Protein-to-Creatinine Ratio to Predict the Magnitude of 24-Hour Total Proteinuria in Preeclampsia of Varying Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukgoz Gulec, Umran; Sucu, Mete; Ozgunen, Fatma Tuncay; Buyukkurt, Selim; Guzel, Ahmet Baris; Paydas, Saime

    2017-10-01

    The predictive value of spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) for estimating total 24-hour proteinuria in severe preeclampsia is unclear. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of spot urine PCR for ascertaining the magnitude of proteinuria in women with preeclampsia of varying severity. A total of 205 patients with prediagnosed preeclampsia were included in this prospective cohort study. Patients were allocated into one of the three groups categorized by severity of disease, as follows: gestational hypertension, group 1 (n = 41); preeclampsia, group 2 (n = 88); and severe preeclampsia, group 3 (n = 76). We assessed the spot urine PCRs to determine significant proteinuria and the magnitude of proteinuria in these groups. The spot urine PCR was 0.53, with 81% sensitivity and 93% specificity to detect significant proteinuria. A significant correlation was found between PCR and 24-hour total proteinuria in group 1 (r = 0.473, P = 0.002). There were also significant correlations in group 2 (r = 0.814, P spot urine PCR to estimate 24-hour total proteinuria in severe preeclampsia was Y = 832.02X + 378.74 mg (r 2  = 0.8304). Although 24-hour urine collection remains a merely reliable test to determine the degree of total proteinuria, our findings suggest that it is likely to assess the magnitude of proteinuria by the spot urine PCR, especially in severe preeclampsia. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01623791. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ability of a 5-minute electrocardiography (ECG) for predicting arrhythmias in Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy in comparison with a 24-hour ambulatory ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, G; Schulze, A; Geraghty, N; Hartmann, K

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) are common in the occult stage of cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers. Although the gold standard for detecting arrhythmia is the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) (Holter), this method is more expensive, time-consuming and often not as readily available as common ECG. Comparison of 5-minute ECGs with Holter examinations. Eight hundred and seventy-five 5-minute ECGs and Holter examinations of 431 Doberman Pinschers. Each examination included a 5-minute ECG and Holter examination. A cut-off value of > 100 VPCs/24 hours using Holter was considered diagnostic for the presence of cardiomyopathy. Statistical evaluation included calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Holter examinations revealed > 100 VPCs/24 hours in 204/875 examinations. At least 1 VPC during a 5-minute ECG was detected in 131 (64.2%) of these 204 examinations. No VPCs were found in the 5-minute ECG in 73 (35.8%) examinations of affected Doberman Pinschers. A 5-minute ECG with at least 1 VPC as cut-off had a sensitivity of 64.2%, a specificity of 96.7%, a positive predictive value of 85.6% and a negative predictive value of 89.9% for the presence of > 100 VPCs/24 hours. A 5-minute ECG is a rather insensitive method for detecting arrhythmias in Doberman Pinschers. However, the occurrence of at least 1 VPC in 5 minutes strongly warrants further examination of the dog, because specificity (96.7%) and positive predictive value (85.6%) are high and could suggest occult cardiomyopathy.

  17. 24 Hours chronomics of ambulatory blood pressure and its relation with circadian rhythm of 6-sulfatoxy melatonin in night shift health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Anjum; Narsingh Verma; Sandeep Tiwari; Abbas A Mahdi; Ranjana Singh; Qulsoom Naaz; Saumya Mishra; Prerna Singh; Suman Gautam; Shipra Bhardwaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Night shift workers have altered circadian pattern of blood pressure/heart rate and hormones like melatonin and cortisol. Due to this variation, night shift worker suffers from various cardiovascular disorders and hormonal disturbances. Methods: The Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of rotating night shift on 24 hours chronomics of BP/HR and its relation with 6-sulfatoxy melatonin levels. 62 healthy nursing professionals, aged 20-40 year, performing day and ni...

  18. Comparison of an Additional Transdermal Fentanyl Patch Compared to Intravenous NSAID and Opioid Analgesics within 24 Hours of an Uterine Artery Embolization for Myoma and Adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Suk Yun; Kang, Byung Chul; Rho, Kyung Min [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an additional transdermal fentanyl patch compared to intravenous analgesics in pain control during the 24-hour period following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for myoma and adenomyosis. Between September 2009 and August 2010, 42 patients underwent UAE for myoma or adenomyosis. Of these, 21 received an intravenous opioid (pethidine) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (group A), and 21 received an additional transdermal fentanyl patch (group B). Pain perception levels were established verbally on a 0-10 scale during the 24-hour period following UAE. Differences in pain trends, mean dose of intravenous pethidine, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Pain perception was most severe at 6 hours after UAE and the mean pain level of group B at that time was 6.3 {+-} 0.7, which was significantly lower than that of group A, 8.2 {+-} 0.7 (p<0.05). The mean dose of intravenous pethidine was 114.3 {+-} 59.5 mg in group A and 90.5 {+-} 49.0 mg in group B, while the incidence of nausea was 67% in group A and 77% in group B. In both cases, the differences were not significantly different (p>0.05), and no evidence of respiratory distress was demonstrated. The addition of a transdermal fentanyl patch to intravenous analgesics is effective in reducing post-embolization pain during the 24-hour period after UAE.

  19. Comparison of an Additional Transdermal Fentanyl Patch Compared to Intravenous NSAID and Opioid Analgesics within 24 Hours of an Uterine Artery Embolization for Myoma and Adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Suk Yun; Kang, Byung Chul; Rho, Kyung Min

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an additional transdermal fentanyl patch compared to intravenous analgesics in pain control during the 24-hour period following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for myoma and adenomyosis. Between September 2009 and August 2010, 42 patients underwent UAE for myoma or adenomyosis. Of these, 21 received an intravenous opioid (pethidine) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (group A), and 21 received an additional transdermal fentanyl patch (group B). Pain perception levels were established verbally on a 0-10 scale during the 24-hour period following UAE. Differences in pain trends, mean dose of intravenous pethidine, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Pain perception was most severe at 6 hours after UAE and the mean pain level of group B at that time was 6.3 ± 0.7, which was significantly lower than that of group A, 8.2 ± 0.7 (p 0.05), and no evidence of respiratory distress was demonstrated. The addition of a transdermal fentanyl patch to intravenous analgesics is effective in reducing post-embolization pain during the 24-hour period after UAE.

  20. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  1. [Correlation of intraocular pressure variation after visual field examination with 24-hour intraocular pressure variations in primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Takahiko; Nakamoto, Kenji; Sato, Makoto; Yasuda, Noriko; Ito, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Shumpei; Nakano, Tadashi; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    We retrospectively examined intraocular pressure variations after visual field examination in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), together with its influencing factors and its association with 24-hour intraocular pressure variations. Subjects were 94 eyes (52 POAG patients) subjected to measurements of 24-hour intraocular pressure and of changes in intraocular pressure after visual field examination using a Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer. Subjects were classified into three groups according to the magnitude of variation (large, intermediate and small), and 24-hour intraocular pressure variations were compared among the three groups. Factors influencing intraocular pressure variations after visual field examination and those associated with the large variation group were investigated. Average intraocular pressure variation after visual field examination was -0.28 ± 1.90 (range - 6.0(-) + 5.0) mmHg. No significant influencing factors were identified. The intraocular pressure at 3 a.m. was significantly higher in the large variation group than other two groups (p field examination. Increases in intraocular pressure during the night might be associated with large intraocular pressure variations after visual field examination.

  2. Evaluation of Rhizophora Mucronata Growth at first-year Mangrove Restoration at Abandoned Ponds, Langkat, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Telaumbanua, TFC; Wati, R.; Sulistyono, N.; Putri, LAP

    2018-03-01

    Degraded mangrove areas can be restored and rehabilitated. In Indonesia, one of the main recommended of mangrove species for restoration of degraded was Rhizophora mucronata. The purpose of the study was to evaluate R. mucronata growth at first-year mangrove restoration at abandoned shrimp ponds, Pulau Sembilan village, Langkat, North Sumatera, Indonesia. The recovery area divided into three zones based on the salinity concentration, landward, middle, and seaward zones. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaves number, and seedling growth rate. Results showed that 3 of 4 evaluation parameters of R. mucronata growth belong to landward zone, namely seedlings diameter, the number of leaves, and percentage of growth. By contrast, height R. mucronata seedlings dominated in the middle area. The study also found that the proper zone for mangrove restoration with R. mucronata was in the landward with 96% growth rate and 30 part per thousand salinity concentration. The present study, therefore, suggested that the recommended species for the degraded area was the prerequisite for successful mangrove restoration.

  3. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Sadjadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed-Ali Sadjadi1,2, Navin Jaipaul1,21Jerry L Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, 2Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01 in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS] and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001, and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02 and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and

  4. Global Molecular and Morphological Effects of 24-Hour Chromium(VI)Exposure on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Thompson, Melissa R [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Thompson, Dorothea K [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The biological impact of 24-h ("chronic") chromium(VI) [Cr(VI) or chromate] exposure on ShewanellaoneidensisMR-1 was assessed by analyzing cellular morphology as well as genome-wide differential gene and protein expression profiles. Cells challenged aerobically with an initial chromate concentration of 0.3 mM in complex growth medium were compared to untreated control cells grown in the absence of chromate. At the 24-h time point at which cells were harvested for transcriptome and proteome analyses, no residual Cr(VI) was detected in the culture supernatant, thus suggesting the complete uptake and/or reduction of this metal by cells. In contrast to the untreated control cells, Cr(VI)-exposed cells formed apparently aseptate, nonmotile filaments that tended to aggregate. Transcriptome profiling and mass spectrometry-based proteomic charac terization revealed that the principal molecular response to 24-h Cr(VI) exposure was the induction of prophage-related genes and their encoded products as well as a number of functionally undefined hypothetical genes that were located within the integrated phage regions of the MR-1 genome. In addition, genes with annotated functions in DNA metabolism, cell division, biosynthesis and degradation of the murein (pepti doglycan) sacculus, membrane response, and general environmental stress protection were upregulated, while genes encoding chemotaxis, motility, and transport/binding proteins were largely repressed under conditions of 24-h chromate treatment.

  5. [24-hour work: the interaction of stress and changes in the sleep-wake cycle in the police force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep. Consequently, excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most frequent health and safety hazards that police officers have to deal with. Sleep deprivation affects performance outcomes through a wide range of cognitive domains. Sleepiness and fatigue, caused by sleep loss, extended work and wakefulness, circadian misalignment and sleep disorders are major causes of workplace human errors, incidents, and accidents. Therefore, prevention of sleep loss, high levels of stress and fatigue is a key factor to consider when assessing emergency intervention. In order to combat fatigue and sleepiness, a 30-90 minutes nap before night shift could be a viable option.

  6. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P r = 0.99 (P r = 0.95 (P bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P 3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (r = 0.84; P r = 0.99 (P r = 0.92 (P bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  7. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  8. Estimation of hand hygiene opportunities on an adult medical ward using 24-hour camera surveillance: validation of the HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Thomas; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Steed, Connie; Boeker, Sue; McElveen, Danielle C

    2014-06-01

    We previously published a formula to estimate the number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) per patient-day using the World Health Organization's "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology (HOW2 Benchmark Study). HHOs can be used as a denominator for calculating hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. This study validates the previously derived HHO estimate using 24-hour video surveillance of health care worker hand hygiene activity. The validation study utilized 24-hour video surveillance recordings of 26 patients' hospital stays to measure the actual number of HHOs per patient-day on a medicine ward in a large teaching hospital. Statistical methods were used to compare these results to those obtained by episodic observation of patient activity in the original derivation study. Total hours of data collection were 81.3 and 1,510.8, resulting in 1,740 and 4,522 HHOs in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Comparisons of the mean and median HHOs per 24-hour period did not differ significantly. HHOs were 71.6 (95% confidence interval: 64.9-78.3) and 73.9 (95% confidence interval: 69.1-84.1), respectively. This study validates the HOW2 Benchmark Study and confirms that expected numbers of HHOs can be estimated from the unit's patient census and patient-to-nurse ratio. These data can be used as denominators in calculations of hand hygiene compliance rates from electronic monitoring using the "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of APACHE II scoring system at 24 hours after admission as a prognostic tool in urosepsis: A prospective observational study

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    Sundaramoorthy VijayGanapathy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urosepsis implies clinically evident severe infection of urinary tract with features of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. We validate the role of a single Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score at 24 hours after admission in predicting mortality in urosepsis. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was done in 178 patients admitted with urosepsis in the Department of Urology, in a tertiary care institute from January 2015 to August 2016. Patients >18 years diagnosed as urosepsis using SIRS criteria with positive urine or blood culture for bacteria were included. At 24 hours after admission to intensive care unit, APACHE II score was calculated using 12 physiological variables, age and chronic health. Results: Mean±standard deviation (SD APACHE II score was 26.03±7.03. It was 24.31±6.48 in survivors and 32.39±5.09 in those expired (p<0.001. Among patients undergoing surgery, mean±SD score was higher (30.74±4.85 than among survivors (24.30±6.54 (p<0.001. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed area under curve (AUC of 0.825 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 56.4% specific to predict mortality. Mean±SD score in those undergoing surgery was 25.22±6.70 and was lesser than those who did not undergo surgery (28.44±7.49 (p=0.007. ROC analysis revealed AUC of 0.760 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 45.6% specific to predict mortality even after surgery. Conclusions: A single APACHE II score assessed at 24 hours after admission was able to predict morbidity, mortality, need for surgical intervention, length of hospitalization, treatment success and outcome in urosepsis patients.

  10. Validation of APACHE II scoring system at 24 hours after admission as a prognostic tool in urosepsis: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VijayGanapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Karthikeyan, VIlvapathy Senguttuvan; Sreenivas, Jayaram; Mallya, Ashwin; Keshavamurthy, Ramaiah

    2017-11-01

    Urosepsis implies clinically evident severe infection of urinary tract with features of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We validate the role of a single Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at 24 hours after admission in predicting mortality in urosepsis. A prospective observational study was done in 178 patients admitted with urosepsis in the Department of Urology, in a tertiary care institute from January 2015 to August 2016. Patients >18 years diagnosed as urosepsis using SIRS criteria with positive urine or blood culture for bacteria were included. At 24 hours after admission to intensive care unit, APACHE II score was calculated using 12 physiological variables, age and chronic health. Mean±standard deviation (SD) APACHE II score was 26.03±7.03. It was 24.31±6.48 in survivors and 32.39±5.09 in those expired (p<0.001). Among patients undergoing surgery, mean±SD score was higher (30.74±4.85) than among survivors (24.30±6.54) (p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed area under curve (AUC) of 0.825 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 56.4% specific to predict mortality. Mean±SD score in those undergoing surgery was 25.22±6.70 and was lesser than those who did not undergo surgery (28.44±7.49) (p=0.007). ROC analysis revealed AUC of 0.760 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 45.6% specific to predict mortality even after surgery. A single APACHE II score assessed at 24 hours after admission was able to predict morbidity, mortality, need for surgical intervention, length of hospitalization, treatment success and outcome in urosepsis patients.

  11. Acid and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux after single anastomosis gastric bypass. An objective assessment using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH metry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulami, Georgia; Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Albanopoulos, Konstantinos; Natoudi, Maria; Zografos, Georgios; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Single anastomosis gastric bypass (SaGB) was introduced in 2001 as an alternative to "loop" gastric bypass. It was considered as a procedure that would eliminate alkaline reflux and associated esophagitis. Existing evidence about the postoperative incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) after SaGB is based on studies using symptom questionnaires. The aim of our study was to evaluate GERD 12 months after SaGB by using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH metry (24-h MIIpH). Surgical department of a university hospital METHODS: Morbidly obese candidates for SaGB underwent 24-hour MIIpH prior and 12 months after their bariatric procedure. There were 11 patients included in this prospective study. Results of 24-hour MIIpH revealed that DeMeester score (40.48 versus 24.16, P = .339) had an increasing trend 12 months after SaGB. Acid reflux episodes decreased, whereas nonacid reflux episodes increased postoperatively, both in proximal and distal esophagus. Total median bolus clearance time and acid clearance time increased. De novo GERD developed in 2 patients (28.6%) and worsening of already existing GERD developed in all patients with preoperative evidence of GERD. The use of symptom questionnaires to assess postoperative GERD after SaGB may not accurately depict the real image. Twenty-four-hour MIIpH in 12 months after SaGB revealed an increase of total number of nonacid reflux episodes and a decrease of total number of acid reflux episodes, with longer duration of each acid reflux episode. Close postoperative follow-up with reflux testing and possibly endoscopy could eliminate the risk of complicated GERD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potentially dangerous 24-hour rainfall in the Provadiyska vally system at the end of the 20th and early 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladev, Dimitar

    2018-03-01

    Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.

  14. Meaning Making and Psychological Adjustment following Cancer: The Mediating Roles of Growth, Life Meaning, and Restored Just-World Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald; Fenster, Juliane R.; Blank, Thomas O.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer survivors' efforts at meaning making may influence the extent to which they successfully make meaning from their experience (i.e., experience posttraumatic growth, find life meaningful, and restore beliefs in a just world), which may, in turn, influence their psychological adjustment. Previous research regarding both meaning making…

  15. Investigations of step-growth thiol-ene polymerizations for novel dental restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Carioscia, Jacquelyn A; Stansbury, Jeffery W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the feasibility of formulating novel dental restorative materials that utilize a step-growth thiol-ene photopolymerization. Particularly, we are aiming to significantly reduce the polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress while retaining adequate physical properties as compared to current dimethacrylatre-based systems. The thiol-ene system is composed of a 4:3 molar mixture of triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-trione (TATATO) and pentaerythritol tetramercaptopropionate (PETMP). The simultaneous measurement of shrinkage stress and functional group conversion was performed. Solvent extraction of unreacted monomers and dynamic mechanical analysis on the polymer networks that were formed were also studied. Flexural strength was measured for both filled and unfilled PETMP/TATATO and Bis-GMA/TEGDMA systems. Photopolymerization of PETMP/TATATO occurs at a much higher rate, with the maximum polymerization rate six times faster, than Bis-GMA/TEGDMA cured under the identical conditions. The results from the simultaneous measurement of shrinkage stress and conversion showed that the onset of shrinkage stress coincides with the delayed gel point conversion, which is predicted to be 41% for the 3:4 stoichiometric PETMP/TATATO resin composition. The maximum shrinkage stress developed for PETMP/TATATO was about 0.4 MPa, which was only approximately 14% of the maximum shrinkage stress of the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA system. Adequate flexural strength and flexural modulus values were obtained for both filled and unfilled PETMP/TATATO systems. The dramatically reduced shrinkage stress, increased polymerization rate, significance increased functional group conversion, and decreased leachable species are all benefits for the use-of thiol-ene systems as potential dental restorative materials.

  16. Serum IGF-1 is insufficient to restore skeletal size in the total absence of the growth hormone receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjie; Sun, Hui; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Cardoso, Luis; Kennedy, Oran D; Jasper, Hector; Domené, Horacio; Karabatas, Liliana; Guida, Clara; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    States of growth hormone (GH) resistance, such those observed in Laron’s dwarf patients, are characterized by mutations in the GH receptor (GHR), decreased serum and tissue IGF-1 levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired skeletal acquisition. IGF-1 replacement therapy in such patients increases growth velocity but does not normalize growth. Herein we combined the GH-resistant (GHR knockout, GHRKO) mouse model with mice expressing the hepatic Igf-1 transgene (HIT) to generate the GHRKO-HIT mouse model. In GHRKOHIT mice, serum IGF-1 levels were restored via transgenic expression of Igf-1 allowing us to study how endocrine IGF-1 affects growth, metabolic homeostasis, and skeletal integrity. We show that in a GH-resistant state, normalization of serum IGF-1 improved body adiposity and restored glucose tolerance but was insufficient to support normal skeletal growth, resulting in an osteopenic skeletal phenotype. The inability of serum IGF-1 to restore skeletal integrity in the total absence of GHR likely resulted from reduced skeletal Igf-1 gene expression, blunted GH-mediated effects on the skeleton that are independent of serum or tissue IGF-1, and from poor delivery of IGF-1 to the tissues. These findings are consistent with clinical data showing that IGF-I replacement therapy in patients with Laron’s syndrome does not achieve full skeletal growth. PMID:23456957

  17. Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour urine collections in a white, black, and Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Bianca; Schutte, Aletta E; Cockeran, Marike; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2016-11-01

    Limited number of studies on salt intake has been conducted in the South Africa. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium, and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5 mmol/d, respectively, and the median salt intake was 7.2 g/d. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake/d, and 65.6% consumed more than 6 g of salt/d. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (P-trend ≤ .001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government's sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 24-hour whole-body retention of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate as indikator of bone tissue metabolic activity in osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Jahoda, I.; Kobos, L.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    The assessment was introduced of 24-hour whole-body retention of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate by estimating the amount excreted in urine per 24 hours. The mean value ± standard deviation of 34 subjects without disorders of the skeleton, aged 22 to 70 years, is 34.8±7.1%: 23 men with a value of 35.9±7.4% and 11 women with 32.4±6.3%. The results in pathological conditions (in parentheses the number of examinations): primary hyperparathyroidism (13) 58.4±4.7% (p<0.01); osteoporosis (11) 34.2±3.3% (NS); osteomalacia (16) 59.1±3.8% (p<0.01); acromegaly (10) 37.4±4.1% (NS); not evaluated by statistical methods: Paget's disease (6) 50.4%; multiple metastases in bones (3) 60.7%; malnutritional states (6) 50.5%; myositis ossificans (1) 67.8%. Normal and pathological results are consistent with assumptions and the available experience. The method appears to be a suitable indicator of the metabolic activity of the skeleton for clinical diagnosis and research. (author)

  19. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  20. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  1. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphuwanun V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%, survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%, and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%. The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19; ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13; precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90; the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38; surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82; shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15

  2. Managing a 24-hour lifestyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, N.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation on sleep deprivation highlighted the important factors that can increase the chances for human error because of lack of alertness. Effects that irregular work schedules have on the performance and alertness of employees were also discussed. Sleep deprivation and driver fatigue were listed as the major causes of single vehicle accidents. Alertness enhancing techniques, driving alertness management and other methods by which driver safety can be improved were presented. 22 diapositives

  3. Managing a 24-hour lifestyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, N. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    This presentation on sleep deprivation highlighted the important factors that can increase the chances for human error because of lack of alertness. Effects that irregular work schedules have on the performance and alertness of employees were also discussed. Sleep deprivation and driver fatigue were listed as the major causes of single vehicle accidents. Alertness enhancing techniques, driving alertness management and other methods by which driver safety can be improved were presented. 22 diapositives.

  4. 24-Hour Kinetics of Cardiac Troponin-T Using a "High-Sensitivity" Assay in Thoroughbred Chuckwagon Racing Geldings after Race and Associated Clinical Sampling Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E; Seiden-Long, I; Massie, S; Leguillette, R

    2018-01-01

    A "high-sensitivity" cardiac troponin-T (hscTnT) assay recently has been validated for use in horses and is a specific biomarker of myocardial damage. Postexercise release kinetics of cTnT utilizing the hscTnT assay have yet to be established in horses. To determine: (1) cTnT release kinetics in racing Thoroughbreds after a high-intensity 5/8th mile Chuckwagon race; (2) the effects of age on pre- and postrace cTnT concentrations; and (3) sampling guidelines for clinicians evaluating horses presenting after exercise. Samples were obtained from 38 Thoroughbred geldings aged 5-16 years before racing and immediately, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hour postrace. Prospective, observational study with convenience sampling. A fifth-generation hscTnT assay was used for plasma sample analysis, and concentrations were compared at all time-points. Correlations were determined between cTnT concentrations and age. Biochemistry analysis was performed to assess rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and exercise-induced dehydration. All horses with measureable cTnT concentrations had significant postexercise increases in cTnT with a median peak (8.0 ng/L) at 3-hour postrace. All horses had peak postexercise cTnT concentrations 2- to 6-hour postrace ≤ the 99th percentile upper reference limit of 23.2 ng/L, after which all cTnT concentrations decreased until returning to baseline by 12-24 hours. There was no correlation over time between cTnT concentrations and age. In racing Thoroughbreds completing short-duration, high-intensity Chuckwagon races, cTnT concentrations are expected to be increased 2- to 6-hour postrace and to decrease by 12-24 hours while remaining ≤23.2 ng/L throughout. This study contributes to establishing guidelines for clinical use of the hscTnT assay in exercising horses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Improvement in 24-hour bronchodilation and symptom control with aclidinium bromide versus tiotropium and placebo in symptomatic patients with COPD: post hoc analysis of a Phase IIIb study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Beier,1 Robert Mroz,2,3 Anne-Marie Kirsten,4 Ferran Chuecos,5 Esther Garcia Gil5 1insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 2Centrum Medycyny Oddechowej, 3Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland; 4Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 5AstraZeneca PLC, Barcelona, Spain Background: A previous Phase IIIb study (NCT01462929 in patients with moderate to severe COPD demonstrated that 6 weeks of treatment with aclidinium led to improvements in 24-hour bronchodilation comparable to those with tiotropium, and improvement of symptoms versus placebo. This post hoc analysis was performed to assess the effect of treatment in the symptomatic patient group participating in the study. Methods: Symptomatic patients (defined as those with Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS™] in COPD baseline score ≥10 units received aclidinium bromide 400 µg twice daily (BID, tiotropium 18 µg once daily (QD, or placebo, for 6 weeks. Lung function, COPD respiratory symptoms, and incidence of adverse events (AEs were assessed. Results: In all, 277 symptomatic patients were included in this post hoc analysis. Aclidinium and tiotropium treatment improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 from baseline to week 6 at all time points over 24 hours versus placebo. In addition, improvements in FEV1 from baseline during the nighttime period were observed for aclidinium versus tiotropium on day 1 (aclidinium 157 mL, tiotropium 67 mL; P<0.001 and week 6 (aclidinium 153 mL, tiotropium 90 mL; P<0.05. Aclidinium improved trough FEV1 from baseline versus placebo and tiotropium at day 1 (aclidinium 136 mL, tiotropium 68 mL; P<0.05 and week 6 (aclidinium 137 mL, tiotropium 71 mL; P<0.05. Aclidinium also improved early-morning and nighttime symptom severity, limitation of early-morning activities, and E-RS Total and domain scores versus

  6. Proportion of infants meeting the Australian 24-hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years: data from the Melbourne InFANT Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kylie D; Downing, Katherine L; Campbell, Karen; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; Hnatiuk, Jill A

    2017-11-20

    Little information is available on the movement behaviours of infants, despite evidence that these are important for development. The release of new Australian 24-hour Movement Guidelines provides an opportunity to document the current state of movement behaviours in infants relative to these guidelines. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of 4 month old Australian infants meeting the 24-hour Movement Guidelines, individually, and in combination, and to describe associations with individual characteristics. Maternal report baseline data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were used to determine prevalence of infants meeting physical activity (30 min of tummy time per day), sedentary behaviour (no more than 1 h at a time kept restrained; zero screen time), and sleep guidelines (14-17 h for 0-3 month olds or 12-16 h for 4-11 month olds). Prevalence of infants meeting combined guidelines was also described. The odds of meeting guidelines based on infant and family characteristics was determined. Data are reported for 455 infants with a mean age of 3.6 months (SD = 1.0). The proportion of infants meeting each of the guidelines was 29.7% for tummy time, 56.9% for kept restrained, 27.9% for screen time, 58.7% for sleep and 3.5% for the combined guidelines (i.e. meeting all four guidelines). A significantly higher proportion of girls than boys met the screen time guideline (32.5% versus 24.0%, p = 0.04) and the combined guidelines (5.7% versus 1.6%, p = 0.01). Few associations were observed between infant and family characteristics and proportion of infants meeting individual guidelines. Very few infants met all of the guidelines contained in the new Australian 24-hour Movement Guidelines suggesting there is much room for improvement in movement behaviours from early life. Fewer infants met the tummy time and screen time guidelines hence these appear to be the behaviours requiring most attention. Parents and

  7. A Validation Study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 Version, at School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Caroline F; DuPaul, George J; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining valid and reliable estimates of usual dietary intake at a reasonable cost is a challenge in school-based nutrition research. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 version (ASA24 Kids-2014), a self-administered, computerized 24-hour dietary recall, offers improved feasibility over traditional interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. This mixed-methods study examined ASA24 Kids-2014's validity for measuring dietary intake from National School Lunch Program lunches. After 24% attrition, 96 middle-school students from three urban schools in eastern Pennsylvania participated in the study. A subsample of 27 participants completed qualitative interviews. Data were collected in the spring of 2014. Self-reported ASA24 Kids-2014 data were compared to direct observations of school lunch, which served as the criterion measure. Dependent variables included eight meal components selected from the National School Lunch Program guidelines (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, dairy, oils, solid fats, and added sugars). A supplemental interview collected qualitative data regarding students' perceptions of content and substantive validity. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman's ρ examined criterion-related validity; qualitative content analysis examined content and substantive validity. Participants inaccurately recalled food items eaten at lunch, as 58% of foods were reported in error. However, among foods recalled correctly, no statistically significant differences emerged for estimates of portions consumed for six meal components (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, oils, and added sugars). In addition, statistically significant positive correlations emerged between ASA24 Kids-2014 and direct observation for all estimates. Qualitative data identified students' interest and motivation, comprehension, memory, and English-language fluency as relevant sources of error. Middle school students have difficulty

  8. New Advantage 24 contraceptive gel claims 24-hour effectiveness. But proposed FDA rule could put N-9 products to the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Advantage 24 is a new contraceptive gel that makes use of bioadhesive technology to offer 24 hours of protection relying on the spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in lower concentrations. If a proposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rule is enforced N-9 may be examined closely. The manufacturer, Whitehall-Robins Healthcare in New Jersey, stopped production of the Today contraceptive sponge because of the costs of complying with FDA standards. The Advantage 24 gel costs twice as much as the sponge. It is made in Switzerland and distributed by an Illinois company. Any vaginal contraceptive containing N-9 would be approved by the FDA as long as it complied with guidelines laid down in an FDA monograph. However, the registration of the gel could not be confirmed. The product uses a bioadhesive technology concept that natural substances adhere to epithelial and mucosal tissues in the body. Polycarbofil is mixed with water, N-9, and mineral oil to create an emulsion that allows for a time-release mechanism, but at any given time only 2 mg of N-9 is available to kill sperm. The final formula for Advantage 24 is 52.5 mg per dose. Too much N-9 can be toxic, as demonstrated by the Today sponge, which contained 1000 mg of N-9. In Kenya prostitutes using it frequently experienced 3 times as many genital lesions as those using a placebo. A study of Advantage 24 by a Miami laboratory involved 250 women, 22-45 years old, who had had prior tubal ligations. When the gel was applied 15-30 minutes before intercourse the efficacy rate was 98%; it was 91% for those applying it 12 hours before; and it was 86% when the gel was applied 24 hours ahead of time. FDA compliance officers are intrigued about the claim that the gel lasts 24 hours. However, if the claim is held up by research data, women will have an easily available, portable, efficient, aesthetic, and highly effective contraceptive.

  9. Effects of telmisartan on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure: an observational study in hypertensive patients managed in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Kontny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Kontny1, Terje Risanger2, Arne Bye3, Øyvind Arnesen4, Odd Erik Johansen4 for the TELMIMORE Study Investigators51Dept of Cardiology, Volvat Medical Centre, Oslo, Norway; 2Prinsdal Health Centre, Oslo, Norway; 3Frosta Health Centre, Frosta, Norway; 4Medical Department, Boehringer-Ingelheim Norway KS, Asker, Norway; 5The TELMIMORE Study Investigators are listed at the end of the paperPurpose: Although elevated blood pressure (BP predicts future cardiovascular events, recommended BP targets often is not reached in the general community. In a clinical real-life setting we evaluated BP impact and tolerability of the angiotensin-II receptor blocker telmisartan in patients with essential hypertension.Patients and methods: Patients in this observational study not at target BP started or switched to telmisartan monotherapy (40 or 80 mg or a fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT 80 mg/12.5 mg. Office and 24-hour ambulatory BP (AMBP were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment and physicians reported perceived drug efficacy and tolerability as “Very good”, “Good”, “Moderate” or “Bad”.Results: 100 patients (34% female, 60 years, BMI 29.4 kg/m2, mean office BP 159/92 mmHg of whom 38% were treatment naïve and 30%, 17%, 9% and 6% respectively were on 1, 2, 3 or 4 BP-lowering drugs, completed 8 weeks of treatment. The proportion of patients with office BP < 140/90 mmHg increased from 3% to 54% for systolic (P < 0.001, 38% to 75% for diastolic (P < 0.001, and 2% to 45% for systolic and diastolic BP (P < 0.001. A significant effect on BP levels was seen in patients being either treatment naïve or on 1 to 3 BP-lowering drugs at study entry, whereas no BP improvement occurred in those who switched from 4 drugs. Overall, mean 24-hour AMBP was reduced from 141/85 to 131/79 mmHg (P < 0.001. Drug efficacy and tolerability were perceived as “Very good” or “Good” by 44%/34% and 66%/27%, respectively

  10. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: part II. Patient preparation, refined surgical techniques, and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbetts, John B

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop practices that would allow patients undergoing subpectoral augmentation to predictably return to full normal activities within 24 hours after the operation, free of postoperative adjuncts. Part I of this study used motion and time study principles to reduce operative times, medication dosages, perioperative morbidity, and recovery times in augmentation mammaplasty. Part II of the study focuses on details of patient education, preoperative planning, instrumentation, and surgical technique modifications that were identified, modified, and implemented to achieve the results reported in part I. Two groups of 16 patients each (groups 1 and 2) were studied retrospectively for comparison to a third group of 627 patients (group 3) studied prospectively. Patients in group 1 had axillary partial retropectoral breast augmentations in 1982-1983, using dissociative anesthesia, blunt instrument implant pocket dissection, and Dow Corning, double-lumen implants containing 20 mg of methylprednisolone and 20 cc of saline in the outer lumen of the implants. Patients in group 2 (1990) had inframammary, retromammary augmentations by using a combination of blunt and electrocautery dissection, Surgitek Replicon polyurethane-covered, silicone gel-filled implants, and general endotracheal anesthesia. Patients in group 3 (1998 to 2001, n = 627) had inframammary partial retropectoral, inframammary retromammary, and axillary partial retropectoral augmentations under general endotracheal anesthesia. Refined practices and surgical techniques from studies of groups 1 and 2 were applied in group 3. Videotapes from operative procedures of groups 1 and 2 were analyzed with macromotion and micromotion study principles, and tables of events were formulated for each move during the operation for all personnel in the operating room. Extensive details of surgical technique were examined and reexamined in 13 different stages by using principles of motion and time

  11. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan CH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hong Pan,1,2,* Kai-Jen Chuang,3,4,* Jen-Kun Chen,5 Ta-Chih Hsiao,6 Ching-Huang Lai,2 Tim P Jones,7 Kelly A BéruBé,8 Gui-Bing Hong,9 Kin-Fai Ho,10,11 Hsiao-Chi Chuang12,13 1Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan, 2School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 3School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, 4Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, 6Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 7School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 8School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK; 9Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 10Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 11Shenzhen Municipal Key Laboratory for Health Risk Analysis, Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 12School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 13Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential

  12. Gfr estimation using 99mTc DTPA gates method for assessment of early diabetic nephropathy - a comparison with 24-hour creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, S.; Ali, M.K.; Khan, G.

    2014-01-01

    To correlate Gates glomerular filtration rate (GGFR) using technetium-99m diethylene triaminepentacetic acid (99mTc DTPA) with 24-hour creatinine clearance (CRCL) and to establish relationship with duration of diabetes in patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Study Design: A cross-sectional comparative study carried out in Nuclear Medical Centre from Aug 2009 to Jan 2010 at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of eighty three subjects were enrolled, who were divided into three groups; group 1 comprised 31 normotensive diabetics, group 2 had 37 hypertensive diabetics while group 3 had 15 normal subjects. The DTPA GFR and creatinine clearance in healthy subjects as well as diabetic patients were compared using the unpaired student's t-test. The linear association between GFR, creatinine clearance and disease duration was expressed by Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r' along with their significance levels. Results: Gates GFR showed hyperfiltration in normotensive diabetics (96.6 +- 3.3 ml/min/1.73 m/sub 2/), significantly (p<0.05) higher than controls (85.5 +- 5 ml/min/1.73 m/sub 2/), whereas hypertensive diabetics had a significantly lower (p<0.05) Gates GFR (76.8 +- 3.7) than that of controls. Significant degree of correlation existed between GGFR and CRCL in hypertensive diabetics (p<0.05, r=0.716) and controls (r=0.546). Gates GFR also showed good correlation with duration of diabetes in both diabetic groups as compared to that of CRCL. GGFR also correlated well with duration of hypertension 0.37 (0.31-0.43) as compared to CRCL 0.155 (0.15-0.16) in all groups. Conclusions: The 99mTc-DTPA clearance correlates significantly with 24-hour creatinine clearance as well as with disease duration and can provide a simple and convenient index of kidney function in patients of early diabetic nephropathy. (author)

  13. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  14. Correlations of post-implant regional dosimetric parameters at 24 hours and one month, with clinical results of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Okazaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the correlations of post-implant regional dosimetrics at 24 hours (24 h and 1 month after implant procedures, with clinical outcomes of low-dose-rate (LDR brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Material and methods : Between January 2008 and December 2014, 130 consecutive patients treated for localized prostate cancer, receiving definitive iodine-125 ( 125 I brachytherapy treatment were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent post-implant CT imaging for dosimetric analysis at 24 h and 1 month after implantation procedure. Prostate contours were divided into quadrants: anterior-superior (ASQ, posterior-superior (PSQ, anterior-inferior (AIQ, and posterior-inferior (PIQ. Predictive factors and cut-off values of biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS and toxicities of LDR brachytherapy were analyzed. Results : The median follow-up time was 69.5 months. Seven patients (5.4% had biochemical failure. The 3-year and 5-year BFFS rates were 96.7% and 93.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score were significant prognostic factors for biochemical failure. D 90 (the minimal dose received by 90% of the volume of PSQ and PIQ at 24 h, and D 90 of PSQ at 1 month were also significant factors. The cut-off values of PSQ D 90 were 145 Gy at 24 h and 160 Gy at 1 month. D 90 of the whole prostate was not significant at 24 h and at 1 month. D 90 of PSQ at 1 month was a significant factor for rectal hemorrhage. Conclusions : Post-implant D 90 of PSQ is significantly associated with BFFS for localized prostate cancer not only at 1 month, but also at 24 hours. D 90 of PSQ at 1 month is also a significant factor for rectal hemorrhage.

  15. CHANGES IN THE PARAMETERS OF 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE TREATED WITH VALSARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes in the parameters of the 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring and arterial stiffness (AS in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD treated with angiotensin II receptors blocker, valsartan.Material and methods. Men with HT and COPD (n=23, who have been receiving valsartan with starting dose 80 mg/day for 6 months as antihypertensive therapy were included into the study. If target BP was not achieved, correction of the valsartan dose was carried out with the hydrochlorothiazide addition when needed. Clinical examination, 24-hour BP and AS monitoring using BPLab MnSDP-2 monitor ("Petr TELEGIN",Russia, clinical evaluation of COPD were performed.Results. Abnormal circadian BP profile and the elastic properties of arteries were diagnosed in the majority of hypertensive patients with COPD. Valsartan therapy allowed to achieve target BP levels in 100% of patients, normalization of circadian BP profile in 56.5%, improvement in AS parameters: a significant increase in PTT2 (from 89.6±14.3 to 94.4±18.4 ms, reduction of (dP/dtmax (from 566.6±117.9 to 518.8±146.2 mmHg/s, AIx (from -4.0±15.2 to -11.6±20.8 % as compared to the baseline. Circadian changes in daily parameters of AS in studied patients with the most obvious night-time abnormalities of the elastic properties of arteries were detected. Valsartan intake led to Alx reduction at night-time.Conclusion. Valsartan-based therapy in hypertensive patients with concomitant COPD demonstrated a high antihypertensive efficacy and favorable changes in the elastic properties of the vascular wall that confirm its organoprotective effect.

  16. CHANGES IN THE PARAMETERS OF 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE TREATED WITH VALSARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes in the parameters of the 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring and arterial stiffness (AS in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD treated with angiotensin II receptors blocker, valsartan.Material and methods. Men with HT and COPD (n=23, who have been receiving valsartan with starting dose 80 mg/day for 6 months as antihypertensive therapy were included into the study. If target BP was not achieved, correction of the valsartan dose was carried out with the hydrochlorothiazide addition when needed. Clinical examination, 24-hour BP and AS monitoring using BPLab MnSDP-2 monitor ("Petr TELEGIN",Russia, clinical evaluation of COPD were performed.Results. Abnormal circadian BP profile and the elastic properties of arteries were diagnosed in the majority of hypertensive patients with COPD. Valsartan therapy allowed to achieve target BP levels in 100% of patients, normalization of circadian BP profile in 56.5%, improvement in AS parameters: a significant increase in PTT2 (from 89.6±14.3 to 94.4±18.4 ms, reduction of (dP/dtmax (from 566.6±117.9 to 518.8±146.2 mmHg/s, AIx (from -4.0±15.2 to -11.6±20.8 % as compared to the baseline. Circadian changes in daily parameters of AS in studied patients with the most obvious night-time abnormalities of the elastic properties of arteries were detected. Valsartan intake led to Alx reduction at night-time.Conclusion. Valsartan-based therapy in hypertensive patients with concomitant COPD demonstrated a high antihypertensive efficacy and favorable changes in the elastic properties of the vascular wall that confirm its organoprotective effect.

  17. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaev MY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikhail Y Ledyaev, Olga V Stepanova, Anastasia M Ledyaeva Department of Pediatric Disease, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, Russian Federation Background: Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93 protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods: Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP. Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results: The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion: The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, children, device, validation 

  18. Class II glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations and their effect on interproximal growth of mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J H; Farrell, J E; Brown, L R

    1990-02-01

    The release of fluoride from glass ionomer materials is one of the most important features of this newly implemented material, and the remineralization effects of this phenomenon have been documented (Hicks and Silverstone 1986). This paper examines the effects of glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations on the plaque levels of interproximal mutans streptococci. Fifteen patients with Class II lesions in primary molars were selected for study. Interproximal plaque samples were obtained from each of the lesion sites and from one caries-free site approximal to a primary molar. One lesion was restored with composite resin to serve as a treated control to the glass ionomer/silver cermet (Ketac Silver, ESPE/Premier Sales Corp., Norristown, Pennsylvania) test site. A sound (unaltered) interproximal site served as the untreated control site. Plaque samples were collected before and at one week, one month, and three months post-treatment. Samples were serially diluted to enable colony counts of mutans streptococci. One week post-treatment counts showed that the glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) the approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. Conversely, the untreated and treated control sites did not exhibit reductions in approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. These results indicate that glass ionomer restorations may be inhibitory to the growth of mutans streptococci in dental plaque approximal to this restorative material in the primary dentition.

  19. Levothyroxine treatment restored the decreased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Ning; Hu, Yanjin; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Li; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator of energy metabolism. Thyroid hormone has been shown to regulate hepatic FGF21 expression in rodents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma FGF21 levels in participants with normal thyroid function, subclinical hypothyroidism, or overt hypothyroidism and to investigate the change of plasma FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism after levothyroxine treatment. A total of 473 drug-naive participants were recruited, including 250 healthy control subjects, 116 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 107 patients with overt hypothyroidism. Thirty-eight patients with overt hypothyroidism were assigned to receive levothyroxine treatment. The overt hypothyroidism group had decreased FGF21 levels compared with the control and subclinical hypothyroidism groups (Ptreatment markedly attenuated the increased circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with overt hypothyroidism. A significant increase in plasma FGF21 levels was observed after levothyroxine treatment (Ptreatment (FT3: r=0.44; FT4: r=0.53; all Ptreatment ameliorated metabolic disorders and restored the decreased circulating FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism. The increase in FGF21 levels after levothyroxine treatment might be partly associated with the amelioration of metabolic disorders in patients with hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-Hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    2004-01-01

    .... We assessed the sublethal insult to human retinal pigment epithelial cells using a cadaver organ donor explant system for genes differentially expressed 12 and 24 hours post- exposure using gene...

  1. Catch-up growth following fetal growth restriction promotes rapid restoration of fat mass but without metabolic consequences at one year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beltrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR followed by rapid weight gain during early life has been suggested to be the initial sequence promoting central adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the link between fetal and early postnatal growth and the associated anthropometric and metabolic changes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the first year of post-natal life, changes in body mass index, skinfold thickness and hormonal concentrations were prospectively monitored in 94 infants in whom the fetal growth velocity had previously been measured using a repeated standardized procedure of ultrasound fetal measurements. 45 infants, thinner at birth, had experienced previous FGR (FGR+ regardless of birth weight. Growth pattern in the first four months of life was characterized by greater change in BMI z-score in FGR+ (+1.26+/-1.2 vs +0.58 +/-1.17 SD in FGR- resulting in the restoration of BMI and of fat mass to values similar to FGR-, independently of caloric intakes. Growth velocity after 4 months was similar and BMI z-score and fat mass remained similar at 12 months of age. At both time-points, fetal growth velocity was an independent predictor of fat mass in FGR+. At one year, fasting insulin levels were not different but leptin was significantly higher in the FGR+ (4.43+/-1.41 vs 2.63+/-1 ng/ml in FGR-. CONCLUSION: Early catch-up growth is related to the fetal growth pattern itself, irrespective of birth weight, and is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower leptin levels after birth. Catch-up growth promotes the restoration of body size and fat stores without detrimental consequences at one year of age on body composition or metabolic profile. The higher leptin concentration at one year may reflect a positive energy balance in children who previously faced fetal growth restriction.

  2. Mirror Lake salmon growth rate - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  3. Restoration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Zheng D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the current grant is to investigate the potential antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 along with the activation of TGFb signaling pathway with the restoration of TGFb receptor II...

  4. Restoration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Zheng D

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the current grant is to investigate the potential antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 a with the activation of TGFb signaling pathway with the restoration of TGFbeta receptor II...

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  6. Comparison of 99mTc-MIBI Myocardial Uptake at Rest with Reinjection and 24-hour after Reinjection Images of 201T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Kim, Ji Yeul; Park, Joo Hyung; Ahn, Young Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Choon; Kang, Jung Chaee

    1992-01-01

    Clinical role of 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is now well accepted, however, the role of it in the identification of viable myocardium in patients with chronic CAD has not yet been clarified. To determine the usefulness of rest-injected 99m Tc-MIBI scan as a marker of myocardial viability, the regional uptake of this agent at rest was compared with that of '2 01 T1 on reinjection and 24 hours after reinjection images. Subject patients were 13 chronic CAD patients who showed irreversible perfusion defect(s) on standard pharmacologic (dipyridamole) stress-redistribution images. Immediately after the redistribution images were obtained, 37 MBq thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24 hours after reinjection. After then 740 MBq 99m Tc-MIBI was injected, and 1 hour later rest MIBI myocardial imaging was performed. Five sets of images (stress, redistribution, reinjection, delayed images of thallium, and rest image of MIBI) were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Left ventricle was arbitrarily divided into 9 segments (apex, basal and apical portions of anterior, septal, inferior, and lateral walls). Seven patients and 30 regions showed a fixed perfusion defect on the stress-redistribution images. Among 30 regions, 15 showed positive uptakes and 6 showed negative uptakes on both 201 T1 reinjection/delayed images and 99m Tc-MIBI rest images. Five regions showed only thallium uptake and were regarded as viable clinically. Of four regions which showed only 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, two were regarded as viable, while the other two were regarded as a nonviable scar tissue clinically. In conclusion, 201 T1 reinjection technique was more reliable in the identification of viable myocardium. However, the role of 99m Tc-MIBI in identification of viable myocardium was still remained to be clarified because 2 of 9 regions showed only 99m Tc-MIBI uptake and were regarded as viable

  7. Intraocular pressure change over a habitual 24-hour period after changing posture or drinking water and related factors in normal tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Rei; Aihara, Makoto; Murata, Hiroshi; Saito, Hitomi; Iwase, Aiko; Yasuda, Noriko; Araie, Makoto

    2013-08-07

    We investigated the correlation between 24-hour IOP in the habitual (sitting during day and supine during night) position (H24h-IOP) and IOP after a postural-change test (PCT-IOP) and a water-drinking test (WDT-IOP). We also investigated ocular and systemic factors related with them in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Japanese NTG patients underwent H24h-IOP, PCT-IOP, and WDT-IOP measurements during a 24-hour period. Correlations among H24h-IOP, PCT-IOP, and WDT-IOP, and contributing ocular/systemic factors were investigated using regression analysis. There were 33 patients included. Peak H24h-IOP correlated positively with peak PCT-IOP and peak WDT-IOP (estimate = 0.422 and 0.419, P ≤ 0.010), and peak PCT-IOP with WDT-IOP (0.44, P = 0.002). Peak H24h-IOP correlated with refraction (0.36, P = 0.048) and negatively with the mean deviation (MD, -0.066, P = 0.031). MD and baseline IOP (the mean of H24h-IOP) correlated negatively with the H24h-IOP fluctuation (-0.058 and -0.58, P ≤ 0.050). Refraction, baseline IOP, mean blood pressure (mBP), and body mass index (BMI) correlated with peak PCT-IOP (0.23, 0.52, 0.097, and 0.32, respectively, P ≤ 0.038). PCT-IOP difference correlated with refraction and mBP (0.31 and 0.093, P ≤ 0.016) and negatively with age (-0.069, P = 0.003). Central corneal thickness, baseline IOP, age, and BMI correlated with peak WDT-IOP (0.030, 0.40, 0.088, and 0.26, P ≤ 0.050). Age and BMI correlated with WDT-IOP difference (0.086 and 0.20, P < 0.032). Positive correlation was found among the peaks of H24h-, PCT-, and WDT-IOP. A worse visual field was associated with higher peak and greater fluctuation of H24h-IOP in NTG. Several ocular/systemic factors were important in interpreting H24h-, PCT-, and WDT-IOP.

  8. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  9. Predictive values of early rest/24 hour delay Tl-201 perfusion SPECT for wall motion improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, In Young; Kwan, June

    1998-01-01

    We studied early rest/24 hour delay Tl-201 perfusion SPECT for prediction of wall motion improvement after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Among 17 patients (male/female=11/6, age: 59±13) with acute myocardial infarction, 15 patients were treated with percutaneous transcoronary angioplasty (direct:2, delay:11) and intravenous urokinase (2). Spontaneous resolution occurred in infarct related arteries of 2 patients. We confirmed TIMI 3 flow of infarct-related artery after reperfusion in all patients with coronary angiography. We performed rest Tl-201 perfusion SPECT less then 6 hours after reperfusion and delay Tl-201 perfusion SPECT next day. Tl-201 uptake was visually graded as 4 point score from normal (0) to severe defect (3). Rest Tl-201 uptake ≤2 or combination of rest Tl-201 uptake ≤2 or late reversibility were considered to be viable. Myocardial wall motion was graded as 5 point score from normal (1) to dyskinesia (5). Myocardial wall motion was considered to be improved when a segment showed an improvement ≥1 grade in follow up echo compared with the baseline values. Among 98 segments with wall motion abnormality, the severity of myocardial wall motion decrease was as follow: mild hypokinesia: 18/98 (18%), severe hypokinesia: 28/98 (29%), akinesia: 51/98 (52%), dyskinesia: 1/98 (1%). The wall motion improved in 85%. Redistribution (13%), and reverse redistribution (4%) were observed in 24 hour delay SPECT. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of combination of late reversibility and rest Tl-201uptake were 99%, and 54%.PPV and NPV of rest Tl-201 uptake were 100% and 52% respectively. Predictive values of comibination of rest Tl-201 uptake and late reversibility were not significantly different compared with predictive values of rest Tl-201 uptake only. We conclude that early Tl-201 perfusion SPECT predict myocardial wall motion improvement with excellent positive but relatively low negative

  10. The limitations of seedling growth and drought tolerance to novel soil substrates in arid systems: Implications for restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Amber; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Stevens, Jason; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Introduction With the limited knowledge available regarding the impact of drought on seedling growth, an understanding of seedling tolerance to arid conditions is crucial for restoration success (James et al., 2013; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014). However, restoration in semi-arid areas faces the challenge of re-establishing plant communities on altered soil substrates (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). These substrates are a result of anthropogenic disturbances such as mining which have altered the plant-soil-water dynamics of the ecosystem (Machado et al., 2013). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mining on the plant-soil-water dynamics of an arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara region, North Western Australia) and the implications these altered relationships have on seedling growth and their responses to drought. Methods Drought responses of native plant species were assessed through a series of glasshouse experiments. Firstly, 21 species dominant to the Pilbara region were subjected to drought in a topsoil growth media to assess variation in responses (leaf water potential at the time of stomatal closure) across species and identify traits associated with drought tolerance. Secondly, four species ranging in their drought tolerance identified previously, were grown to two leaf stages (second and fourth leaf stage) in three mining substrates (topsoil, a topsoil and waste mix and waste) to assess seedling drought responses to various potential restoration substrates and how that varied with plant development stage. Results and discussion Four morphological traits were found to be significantly associated with drought indicators (leaf mass ratio, stem area, stem length, stem weight), however, these were weak correlations. Waste substrate and its addition to topsoil reduced plant total biomass but did not alter species responses to drought. However, the soil physical properties of the waste reduced water retention and water availability for plant uptake

  11. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Toso Carlos A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months and aged (18–20 months rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats.

  12. Associations between the intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend soup (psoup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.

  13. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation.

  14. Diagnostic of annual cycle and effects of the ENSO about the maximum intensity of duration rains between 1 and 24 hours at the Andes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Mesa, Oscar; Toro, Vladimir; Agudelo, Paula; Alvarez, Juan F; Arias, Paola; Moreno, Hernan; Salazar, Luis; Vieira, Sara

    2002-01-01

    We study the distribution of maximum rainfall events during the annual cycle, for storms ranging from 1 to 24-hour in duration; by using information over 51 rain gauges locate at the Colombian Andes. Also, the effects of both phases of ENSO (El Nino and La Nina) are quantified. We found that maximum rainfall intensity events occur during the rainy periods of march-may and September-November. There is a strong similarity between the annual cycle of mean total rainfall and that of the maximum intensities of rainfall over the tropical Andes. This result is quite consistent throughout the three ranges of the Colombian Andes. At inter annual timescales, we found that both phases of ENSO are associated with disturbances of maximum rainfall events; since during La Nina there are more intense precipitation events than during El Nino, overall, for durations longer than 3 hours, rainfall intensity gets reduced by one order of magnitude with respect to shorter durations (1-3 hours). The most extreme recorded rainfall events are apparently not associated with the annual and inter annual large scales forcing and appear to be randomly generated by the important role of the land surface atmosphere in the genesis and dynamics of intense storm over central Colombia

  15. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  16. Comparison of diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire with measures from repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lund, Eiliv

    2007-10-01

    To compare diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs). The participants answered an FFQ after completing four, repeated 24HDRs during a year. Norway, nationwide. Of 500 women randomly selected from The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (the Norwegian arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), 286 agreed to participate and 238 completed the study. On the group level, the FFQ overestimated absolute intake in seven and underestimated intake in six of 21 food groups. Intakes of energy, fat, added sugar and alcohol were lower in the FFQ than in the 24HDRs, whereas intake of fibre was higher. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranged from 0.13 (desserts) to 0.82 (coffee) for foods, and from 0.25 (beta-carotene) to 0.67 (alcohol) for nutrients. Three per cent of the observations on nutrient intake fell in the opposite quintile when classified according to the FFQ as compared with the 24HDR. The median calibration coefficient, calculated by regression of the 24HDR data on the FFQ data, was 0.57 for foods and 0.38 for nutrients. The FFQ's ability to rank subjects was good for foods eaten frequently and fairly good for macronutrients in terms of energy percentages. Weaker ranking abilities were seen for foods eaten infrequently and for some micronutrients. The results underline the necessity of performing measurement error corrections.

  17. EXTRAPOLATION TECHNIQUES EVALUATING 24 HOURS OF AVERAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMITTED BY RADIO BASE STATION INSTALLATIONS: SPECTRUM ANALYZER MEASUREMENTS OF LTE AND UMTS SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Stefano; de Bartolo, Daniela; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina; Nava, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Correlation of the glomerular filtration rate by the Gates scintigraphy method and by the creatinine purification in urine of 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez A, E.

    2003-01-01

    The kidney is an important organ that makes that exist equilibrium inside the organism. In it' s multiple functions, one that interests us to know is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To know this, exist laboratory and scintigraphy studies like the scintigraphy with technique of Gates and the creatinine purification in urine of 24 hours. The files of 44 patients were studied, which were clinically candidates to kidney donors healthy (25 women and 19 men) with ages that varied from the 18 years to the 54 years ( 35.1 years), with a weight of 43 kilograms to 94 kilograms (68.95 Kg) and with a corporal surface of 1.29 to 2.08 m 2 (1.70 m 2 ). These patients underwent study protocols with creatinine purification and with renal scintigraphy. The glomerular filtration rate obtained by creatinine purification varied from 51.9 ml/min. to 156 ml/min. and the GFR obtained by scintigraphy varied from 3.6 ml/min. to 155.2 ml/min. Once obtained the gathering of data the test of Student was applied to compare the averages of both distributions and the analysis of lineal regression to determine the coefficients of correlation of the complete group. (Author)

  19. Extrapolation techniques evaluating 24 hours of average electromagnetic field emitted by radio base station installations: spectrum analyzer measurements of LTE and UMTS signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossetti, Stefano; Bartolo, Daniela de; Nava, Elisa; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures. (authors)

  20. Identifying conservation and restoration priorities for saproxylic and old-growth forest species: a case study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Thibault; Bütler, Rita

    2009-07-01

    Saproxylic (dead-wood-associated) and old-growth species are among the most threatened species in European forest ecosystems, as they are susceptible to intensive forest management. Identifying areas with particular relevant features of biodiversity is of prime concern when developing species conservation and habitat restoration strategies and in optimizing resource investments. We present an approach to identify regional conservation and restoration priorities even if knowledge on species distribution is weak, such as for saproxylic and old-growth species in Switzerland. Habitat suitability maps were modeled for an expert-based selection of 55 focal species, using an ecological niche factor analyses (ENFA). All the maps were then overlaid, in order to identify potential species' hotspots for different species groups of the 55 focal species (e.g., birds, fungi, red-listed species). We found that hotspots for various species groups did not correspond. Our results indicate that an approach based on "richness hotspots" may fail to conserve specific species groups. We hence recommend defining a biodiversity conservation strategy prior to implementing conservation/restoration efforts in specific regions. The conservation priority setting of the five biogeographical regions in Switzerland, however, did not differ when different hotspot definitions were applied. This observation emphasizes that the chosen method is robust. Since the ENFA needs only presence data, this species prediction method seems to be useful for any situation where the species distribution is poorly known and/or absence data are lacking. In order to identify priorities for either conservation or restoration efforts, we recommend a method based on presence data only, because absence data may reflect factors unrelated to species presence.

  1. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan P. Cliff

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii 10–13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Methods Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC and Theory of Mind (ToM. Parents reported on children’s screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i individual guidelines, ii combinations of two guidelines, or iii all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. Results High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1% and sleep (88.7% guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%. Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.36, 2.47. Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41 and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05, respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05, while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p < 0.02 and To

  2. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  3. Consumption of added fats and oils in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) centres across 10 European countries as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linseisen, J; Bergström, E; Gafá, L; González, C A; Thiébaut, A; Trichopoulou, A; Tumino, R; Navarro Sánchez, C; Martínez Garcia, C; Mattisson, I; Nilsson, S; Welch, A; Spencer, E A; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kesse, E; Miller, A B; Schulz, M; Botsi, K; Naska, A; Sieri, S; Sacerdote, C; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Charrondière, U R; Slimani, N

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the consumption of added fats and oils across the European centres and countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 24-Hour dietary recalls were collected by means of standardised computer-guided interviews in 27 redefined EPIC centres across 10 European countries. From an initial number of 36 900 subjects, single dietary recalls from 22 924 women and 13 031 men in the age range of 35-74 years were included. Mean daily intake of added fats and oils varied between 16.2 g (Varese, Italy) and 41.1 g (Malmö, Sweden) in women and between 24.7 g (Ragusa, Italy) and 66.0 g (Potsdam, Germany) in men. Total mean lipid intake by consumption of added fats and oils, including those used for sauce preparation, ranged between 18.3 (Norway) and 37.2 g day-1 (Greece) in women and 28.4 (Heidelberg, Germany) and 51.2 g day-1 (Greece) in men. The Mediterranean EPIC centres with high olive oil consumption combined with low animal fat intake contrasted with the central and northern European centres where fewer vegetable oils, more animal fats and a high proportion of margarine were consumed. The consumption of added fats and oils of animal origin was highest in the German EPIC centres, followed by the French. The contribution of added fats and oils to total energy intake ranged from 8% in Norway to 22% in Greece. The results demonstrate a high variation in dietary intake of added fats and oils in EPIC, providing a good opportunity to elucidate the role of dietary fats in cancer aetiology.

  4. Impact of Delayed Whole Blood Processing Time on Plasma Levels of miR-1 and miR-423-5p up to 24 Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Danielle Pazzotti; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Bocchi, Edimar A; Rigaud, Vagner Oliveira Carvalho

    2018-03-21

    Circulating cell-free miRNAs hold great promise as a new class of biomarkers due to their high stability in body fluids and association with disease stages. However, even using sensitive and specific methods, technical challenges are associated with miRNA analysis in body fluids. A major source of variation in plasma and serum is the potential cell-derived miRNA contamination from hemolysis. To evaluate the effect of the delayed whole blood processing time on the concentrations of miR-1 and -423-5p. Ten blood samples were incubated for 0, 3 and 24 hours at room temperature prior processing into plasma. For each time point, hemolysis was assessed in plasma by UV spectrophotometry at 414nm wavelength (λ414). Circulating levels of miR-1 and -423-5p were measured by RT-qPCR; miR-23a and -451 were also analyzed as controls. A significant hemolysis was observed only after 24h (λ414 0.3±0.02, plevels were observed up to 24h of storage at room temperature (Ct 31.5±0.5 to 31.8±0.6for miR-1, p=0.989; and 29.01±0.3 to 29.04±0.3, p=0.614 for -423-5p). No correlation was observed between hemolysis and levels of miR-1 and -423-5p. Our data indicate the storage of whole blood samples at room temperature for up to 24h prior their processing into plasma does not appear to have a significant impact on miR-1 and -423-5p concentrations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristbjornsdottir Oddny K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data is available on sodium (Na and potassium (K intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality. Methods The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76. Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake. Results Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD, 1.64 (0.54 g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h and 1.22 (0.43 g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06 per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1–4 while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29. Conclusions Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.

  6. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subar, Amy F; Crafts, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Wilson, Michael; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi G; McNutt, Suzanne; Potischman, Nancy; Buday, Richard; Hull, Stephen G; Baranowski, Tom; Guenther, Patricia M; Willis, Gordon; Tapia, Ramsey; Thompson, Frances E

    2010-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, serving themselves portions of nine foods representing five forms (eg, amorphous, pieces). Serving containers were weighed unobtrusively before and after selection as was plate waste. The next day, participants used a computer software program to select photographs representing portion sizes of foods consumed the previous day. Preference information was also collected. In Study 1 (n=29), participants were presented with four different types of images (aerial photographs, angled photographs, images of mounds, and household measures) and two types of screen presentations (simultaneous images vs an empty plate that filled with images of food portions when clicked). In Study 2 (n=20), images were presented in two ways that varied by size (large vs small) and number (4 vs 8). Convenience sample of volunteers of varying background in an office setting. Repeated-measures analysis of variance of absolute differences between actual and reported portions sizes by presentation methods. Accuracy results were largely not statistically significant, indicating that no one image type was most accurate. Accuracy results indicated the use of eight vs four images was more accurate. Strong participant preferences supported presenting simultaneous vs sequential images. These findings support the use of aerial photographs in the automated self-administered 24-hour recall. For some food forms, images of mounds or household measures are as accurate as images of food and, therefore, are a cost-effective alternative to photographs of foods. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges in converting an interviewer-administered food probe database to self-administration in the National Cancer Institute Automated Self-administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Hull, Stephen G; McNutt, Suzanne; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi; Guenther, Patricia M; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy A; Subar, Amy F

    2009-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an automated, self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) application to collect and code dietary intake data. The goal of the ASA24 development is to create a web-based dietary interview based on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) instrument currently used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The ASA24 food list, detail probes, and portion probes were drawn from the AMPM instrument; portion-size pictures from Baylor College of Medicine's Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) were added; and the food code/portion code assignments were linked to the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). The requirements that the interview be self-administered and fully auto-coded presented several challenges as the AMPM probes and responses were linked with the FNDDS food codes and portion pictures. This linking was accomplished through a "food pathway," or the sequence of steps that leads from a respondent's initial food selection, through the AMPM probes and portion pictures, to the point at which a food code and gram weight portion size are assigned. The ASA24 interview database that accomplishes this contains more than 1,100 food probes and more than 2 million food pathways and will include about 10,000 pictures of individual foods depicting up to 8 portion sizes per food. The ASA24 will make the administration of multiple days of recalls in large-scale studies economical and feasible.

  8. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Adamo, Kristi B; Aubert, Salomé; Barnes, Joel D; Choquette, Louise; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Goldfield, Gary S; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Janssen, Xanne; Jaramillo Garcia, Alejandra; Kuzik, Nicholas; LeBlanc, Claire; MacLean, Joanna; Okely, Anthony D; Poitras, Veronica J; Rayner, Mary-Ellen; Reilly, John J; Sampson, Margaret; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, combined behaviours) examining the relationships within and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by a Guideline Development Panel. The systematic reviews that were conducted to inform the development of the guidelines, and the framework that was applied to develop the recommendations, followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and indicators of adiposity. A review of the evidence on the cost effectiveness and resource use associated with the implementation of the proposed guidelines was also undertaken. A stakeholder survey (n = 546), 10 key informant interviews, and 14 focus groups (n = 92 participants) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines and their dissemination. The guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations as to the combinations of light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep that infants (guidelines. These guidelines represent a sensible evolution of public health guidelines whereby optimal health is

  9. Risk stratification of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakurai, Kenzo; Kato, Bunta; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the utility of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for the risk stratification of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts. A total of 175 hypertensive patients with MRI evidence of asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts (92 men, mean age of 69±11 years old) were studied. Patients with symptomatic infarctions were included whose events occurred more than 6 months after the onset. ABPM was performed in all patients in the outpatient clinic. Parameters obtained from ABPM were related to the composite outcome which consisted of all death and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events by using the Cox proportional hazard model. Mean follow-up period was 4.8 years and the composite outcome was recorded in 38 patients. 34 of them (89%) had recurrence of lacunar infarcts. Significant association between sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure and composite outcome was demonstrated by multivariate Cox hazard analyses (heart rate (HR) 1.025, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.011-1.039, p<0.001). The risk for composite outcome in patients with the highest tertile of sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure (≥133 mmHg) was significantly elevated when compared to the lowest tertile (<132 mmHg, HR 3.93, 95% CI 1.57-9.86, p=0.004). Sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure in ABPM may be a useful parameter for the risk stratification of future cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts, especially for the recurrence of these events. (author)

  10. Forest restoration at Redwood National Park: exploring prescribed fire alternatives to second-growth management: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engber, Eamon; Teraoka, Jason; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of Redwood National Park is comprised of second-growth forests characterized by high stand density, deficient redwood composition, and low understory biodiversity. Typical structure of young redwood stands impedes the recovery of old-growth conditions, such as dominance of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), distinct canopy layers and diverse understory vegetation. Young forests are commonly comprised of dense, even-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and redwood stump sprouts, with simple canopy structure and little understory development. Moreover, many of these young stands are believed to be vulnerable to disturbance in the form of drought, disease and fire. Silvicultural practices are increasingly being employed by conservation agencies to restore degraded forests throughout the coast redwood range; however, prescribed fire treatments are less common and potentially under-utilized as a restoration tool. We present an early synthesis from three separate management-scale prescribed fire projects at Redwood National Park spanning 1to 7 years post-treatment. Low intensity prescribed fire had minimal effect on overstory structure, with some mortality observed in trees smaller than 30 cm diameter. Moderate to high intensity fire may be required to reduce densities of larger Douglas-fir, the primary competitor of redwood in the Park’s second growth forests. Fine woody surface fuels fully recovered by 7 years post-burn, while recruitment of larger surface fuels was quite variable. Managers of coastal redwood ecosystems will benefit by having a variety of tools at their disposal for forest restoration and management.

  11. Studies on the T sub 3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial sup 123 I uptake in Graves' disease; Comparison of 24-hour and 3-hour uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-06-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T{sub 3} suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal {sup 123}I uptake after T{sub 3} administration (75 {mu}g/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T{sub 3} uptake). In 38 patients whose post T{sub 3} uptake was below 35% in post T{sub 3} 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T{sub 3} suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of {sup 123}I after T{sub 3} administration (r=0.847, p<0.001). In 38 patients who showed positive T{sub 3} suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T{sub 3} 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T{sub 3} suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author).

  12. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE) could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid). To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left), randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity) using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher ( P =0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant ( P =0.0001) increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours) in comparison with both baseline ( P =0.0001) and non-treated control site ( P =0.001). TEWL after 24 hours was significantly lower ( P =0.049; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site (13±4 arbitrary units [AU] vs 16±6 AU). JCS fluid

  13. Meaning making and psychological adjustment following cancer: the mediating roles of growth, life meaning, and restored just-world beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Edmondson, Donald; Fenster, Juliane R; Blank, Thomas O

    2008-10-01

    Cancer survivors' efforts at meaning making may influence the extent to which they successfully make meaning from their experience (i.e., experience posttraumatic growth, find life meaningful, and restore beliefs in a just world), which may, in turn, influence their psychological adjustment. Previous research regarding both meaning making processes and meanings made as determinants of adjustment has shown inconsistent effects, partly because of the lack of clearly articulated theoretical frameworks and problematic research strategies. In a 1-year longitudinal study, the authors distinguished the meaning making process from the outcomes of that process (meanings made), employing specific measures of both. The authors tested pathways through which meaning making efforts led to 3 different meanings made (growth, life meaning, and restored just-world belief) in a sample of 172 young to middle-age adult cancer survivors, and they explored whether those meanings made mediated the effect of meaning making efforts on psychological adjustment. Cross-sectional and longitudinal path models of the meaning making process indicate that meaning making efforts are related to better adjustment through the successful creation of adaptive meanings made from the cancer experience. The authors conclude with clinical implications and suggestions for future research. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Spot Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio to 24-Hour Proteinuria to Identify Important Change Over Time in Proteinuria in Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rosas, Jorge; Su, Jiandong; Cook, Richard J; Sabapathy, Arthy; Touma, Zahi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) accurately measures the change in proteinuria compared with 24-hour proteinuria (24H-P). This was a retrospective analysis on patients' paired visits and paired urine samples for PCR and 24H-P. Patients with both abnormal 24H-P (>0.5 g/d) and PCR (>0.05 g/mmol) or both normal 24H-P (≤0.5 g/d) and PCR (≤0.05 g/mmol) at baseline visit were identified.The first follow-up visit with partial recovery (50% decrease in proteinuria) or complete recovery (≤0.5 g/d) was identified for those with abnormal baseline 24H-P, and new proteinuria (>0.5 g/d) was identified for those with normal 24H-P. Twenty-four-hour urine collection and PCR end-point frequencies were compared. Twenty-four-hour urine collection results were converted to 24H-PCR. Twenty-four-hour PCR and PCR were utilized to measure the magnitude of change (by standardized response mean [SRM]) in patients who achieved the end points. Of 230 patients, at baseline, 95 patients had abnormal and 109 had normal 24H-P and PCR. On follow-up, 57 achieved partial recovery, and 53 achieved complete recovery by 24H-P. Standardized response mean was -1.03 and -1.10 for 24H-PCR and PCR, respectively. By PCR, 53 patients had partial recovery, and 27 had complete recovery. Standardized response mean was -1.25 and -0.86 by 24H-PCR and PCR, respectively.For new proteinuria, 28 patients were identified by 24H-P and 21 by PCR. Twenty-four-hour PCR SRM was 0.80, and PCR SRM was 0.68. Protein-to-creatinine ratio does not have sufficient accuracy compared with 24H-P for improvement and worsening to be used in lieu of 24H-P.

  15. COMBINED 24-HOURS ESOPHAGEAL PH MONITORING AND MULTICHANNEL INTRALUMINAL IMPEDANCE FOR COMPARISON OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL VERSUS ATYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Nasri, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    - Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common esophageal disorder in pediatrics. - The aim of this study was to compare reflux parameters of typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease using 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance in pediatric population. - In this prospective study, 43 patients aged less than 18 year with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups based on the main presenting symptoms (typical versus atypical). Twenty four-hour pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance were performed in all the patients for comparing these two group regarding association of symptoms and reflux. Number of refluxes, pH related reflux, total reflux time, reflux more than 5 minutes, longest time of the reflux, lowest pH at reflux, reflux index were recorded and compared. Data comparison was done using SPSS. - The mean age of the patients was 5.7±3.4 years and 65.1% were male. Out of 43 patients 24 cases had typical symptoms and 19 had atypical symptoms. The mean reflux events detected by multichannel intraluminal impedance was more than mean reflux events detected by pH monitoring (308.4±115.8 vs 69.7±66.6) with P value of 0.037, which is statistically significant. The mean symptom index and symptom association probability were 35.01% ± 20.78% and 86.42% ± 25.79%, respectively in multichannel intraluminal impedance versus 12.73% ± 12.48% and 45.16% ± 42.29% in pH monitoring (P value reflux was 46.26±47.16 and 30.9±22.09 for atypical and typical symptoms respectively. The mean symptom index was 18.12% ± 13.101% and 8.30% ± 10.301% in atypical and typical symptoms respectively (P=0.034). Bolus clearance was longer in atypical symptoms compared typical symptoms(Preflux was found in children with atypical symptoms of reflux. Longer duration of bolus clearance was found in group with atypical symptoms of reflux.

  16. [Esophageal motility characteristics of refractory heartburn: a study based on high resolution manometry and 24 hour pH-impedance monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Duan, Liping; Xia, Zhiwei; Xu, Zhijie; Ge, Ying

    2014-09-16

    To analyze the esophageal motility characteristics of refractory heartburn with different reflux patterns and preliminarily clarify the roles of esophageal disorder in refractory heartburn. A total of 176 refractory heartburn patients were enrolled from 2009 to 2013. After gastroscopy and 24 hour pH-impedance monitoring, they were divided into 4 groups of reflux esophagitis (RE, n = 29), non-erosive reflux disease with acid reflux (NERD-acid, n = 51), NERD with weakly acidic reflux (NERD-weakly acid, n = 51) and non-reflux associated heartburn (n = 45). All subjects undertake high resolution manometry test and their esophageal motility functions were analyzed by the Chicago classification criteria 2012. Among them, 60.23% (106/176) patients presented esophageal motility disorders. And 42.61% (75/176) fulfilled the criteria of weak peristalsis, 7.39% (13/176) distal esophageal spasm, 4.55% (8/176) rapid contraction, 3.98% (7/176) EGJ outflow obstruction, 1.14% (2/176) hiatus hernia and 1 Jackhammer esophagus. The detection rates of esophageal motility disorder were similar among 4 groups and weak peristalsis was the most common disorder in all groups (41.38% in RE, 37.25% in NERD-acid patients, 54.90% in NERD-weakly acid and 35.56% in non-reflux associated heartburn patients). However, hypertensive motility disorders in non-reflux associated heartburn group (31.11%, 14/45) were more than GERD subgroups (11.45%, 15/131) (P heartburn patients. And the relax ratio of NERD-weakly acid was significantly higher than that in non-reflux associated heartburn patients (65% (50%-80%) vs 58% (42%-67%) , P heartburn patients without significant differences (P > 0.05). Esophageal weak peristalsis is one of the most common motility disorders in refractory heartburn patients, and esophageal hypertensive motility disorders are common in non-reflux associated heartburn patients. Esophageal manometry is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of refractory heartburn.

  17. Special Features of a 24-hour Arterial Blood Pressure Profile in Healthy Children During the Period of Adaptation to Studying at Different School Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension in children is a serious socially important problem, because it holds a position within the top of cardiovascular diseases, beginning from the adolescent age. A timely start of preventive measures based on appropriate forecast assessment in children from risk groups will make it possible to reduce the disease burden in elder age groups. Research purpose. Based on comprehensive assessment of clinic-anamnestic, genealogic, psychologic data, peculiarities of daily profile of arterial tension in the course of adaptation to education in educational institutions, to characterize the markers and single out the factors associated with AT increase in children that are considered relatively healthy.Patients. On a voluntary basis, 199 children of 1–2 health groups were included in the research at the age of 10–12 years (11.3 ± 0.02 years who had just started their education at a cadet educational institution or middle school. The children did not have any complaints by the time of the research, nor did they have the necessity of taking medicines which could have an effect on the cardiovascular system and acute infectious diseases during the previous month.Methods. The research was carried out during the period from September 2013 until May 2014 in 2 successive stages corresponding to the first and second academic terms. The examination included clinic-anamnestic and genealogic methods, anthropometry, three-fold measuring of arterial pressure by Korotkoff’s method, 24-hour ECG and AP monitoring, monitoring of motion activity volume, study of general and school levels of anxiety and psychic tension, assessment of the vegetative nervous system condition, nature of exercise tolerance and volume of additional sports load, volume of additional academic load.Results. The most important predictors of AH development and elevated AP persistence in children aged 10–12 years of 1 and 2 health groups are: values of SAP and

  18. Is there any advantage to the acquisition of 24-hour thallium images, in the presence of persistent perfusion defects at 4 h after reinjection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobba, K.; Botvinick, E.H.; Sciammarella, M.G.; Starsken, N.F.; Zhu, Y.Y.; Lapidus, A.; Dae, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    We determined the incidence of delayed 24-h reversibility post thallium-201 reinjection and imaging at 4 h, as well as the prognostic and significance of such delayed reversibility. We studied 46 consecutive patients with persistent thallium-201 perfusion or incompletely reversible SPET perfusion defects acquired within 10 min after reinjection performed 4 h after stress. In 38 of 46 patients 24-h images showed no further reversibility beyond the post-reinjection 4-h study (group A). Eight of 46 patients demonstrated reversibility on 24-h imaging (group B). Of these eight, three patients showed no improvement compared with the post-stress images, with a mean perfusion score of the abnormal segments of 1.25±0.50 on the 4-h images, and of 3.00 on the 24-h images. Four patients presented with nine mixed regions. Four of these regions showed an improvement in the mean perfusion score of 2.50±0.58 on 4- and 24-h images. Two of them, with moderate/severe defects, demonstrated complete reversibility at 4-h post-reinjection imaging. In addition, five other regions presented no improvement at 4-h imaging, but showed an improvement in the mean perfusion score from 0.80±0.84 at 4-h to 3.30±0.89 at 24-h imaging. Two of these regions in one patient showed a severe perfusion score of 0 at 4 h, and complete reversibility at 24 hours. Another patient had three severe perfusion defects; two of them redistributed partially at 4 h and completely at 24 h. The remaining segment with a perfusion score of 0 at 4 h, presented complete reversibility at 24 h. Two patients revealed significant reversibility at 24 h in a region that was severely underperfused after post-reinjection imaging at 4 h. Among group B patients, 75% had recent acute ischemic syndrome, compared with only 13% in group A. Among 11 patients with unstable angina, six had evidence of delayed 24-h reversibility, compared with 2 of 35 patients without clinically acute ischemia. On follow-up, there were seven cardiac

  19. Is there any advantage to the acquisition of 24-hour thallium images, in the presence of persistent perfusion defects at 4 h after reinjection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobba, K.; Botvinick, E.H.; Sciammarella, M.G.; Starsken, N.F.; Zhu, Y.Y.; Lapidus, A.; Dae, M.W. [Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, and the Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    1998-05-01

    We determined the incidence of delayed 24-h reversibility post thallium-201 reinjection and imaging at 4 h, as well as the prognostic and significance of such delayed reversibility. We studied 46 consecutive patients with persistent thallium-201 perfusion or incompletely reversible SPET perfusion defects acquired within 10 min after reinjection performed 4 h after stress. In 38 of 46 patients 24-h images showed no further reversibility beyond the post-reinjection 4-h study (group A). Eight of 46 patients demonstrated reversibility on 24-h imaging (group B). Of these eight, three patients showed no improvement compared with the post-stress images, with a mean perfusion score of the abnormal segments of 1.25{+-}0.50 on the 4-h images, and of 3.00 on the 24-h images. Four patients presented with nine mixed regions. Four of these regions showed an improvement in the mean perfusion score of 2.50{+-}0.58 on 4- and 24-h images. Two of them, with moderate/severe defects, demonstrated complete reversibility at 4-h post-reinjection imaging. In addition, five other regions presented no improvement at 4-h imaging, but showed an improvement in the mean perfusion score from 0.80{+-}0.84 at 4-h to 3.30{+-}0.89 at 24-h imaging. Two of these regions in one patient showed a severe perfusion score of 0 at 4 h, and complete reversibility at 24 hours. Another patient had three severe perfusion defects; two of them redistributed partially at 4 h and completely at 24 h. The remaining segment with a perfusion score of 0 at 4 h, presented complete reversibility at 24 h. Two patients revealed significant reversibility at 24 h in a region that was severely underperfused after post-reinjection imaging at 4 h. Among group B patients, 75% had recent acute ischemic syndrome, compared with only 13% in group A. Among 11 patients with unstable angina, six had evidence of delayed 24-h reversibility, compared with 2 of 35 patients without clinically acute ischemia. On follow-up, there were seven

  20. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period. Methods The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II instrument. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, combined behaviours examining the relationships within and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by a Guideline Development Panel. The systematic reviews that were conducted to inform the development of the guidelines, and the framework that was applied to develop the recommendations, followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE methodology. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and indicators of adiposity. A review of the evidence on the cost effectiveness and resource use associated with the implementation of the proposed guidelines was also undertaken. A stakeholder survey (n = 546, 10 key informant interviews, and 14 focus groups (n = 92 participants were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines and their dissemination. Results The guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations as to the combinations of light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep that infants (<1 year, toddlers (1–2 years and preschoolers (3–4

  1. Portion Sizes from 24-Hour Dietary Recalls Differed by Sex among Those Who Selected the Same Portion Size Category on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Park, Song-Yi; Boushey, Carol J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P; Paik, Hee-Young

    2018-05-08

    Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. Participants (n=319) were members of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who completed three 24HDRs and a QFFQ in a calibration study conducted in 2010 and 2011. Portions of individual foods reported from 24HDRs served as the outcome measures. Mean food portions from 24HDRs were compared between men and women who reported the same portion size on the QFFQ, after adjustment for race/ethnicity using a linear regression model. Actual amount and the assigned amount of the selected portion size in the QFFQ were compared using one-sample t test for men and women separately. Of 163 food items with portion size options listed in the QFFQ, 32 were reported in 24HDRs by ≥20 men and ≥20 women who selected the same portion size in the QFFQ. Although they chose the same portion size on the QFFQ, mean intake amounts from 24HDRs were significantly higher for men than for women for "beef/lamb/veal," "white rice," "brown/wild rice," "lettuce/tossed salad," "eggs cooked/raw," "whole wheat/rye bread," "buns/rolls," and "mayonnaise in sandwiches." For men, mean portions of 14 items from the 24HDRs were significantly different from the assigned amounts for QFFQ items (seven higher and seven lower), whereas for women, mean portions of 14 items were significantly lower from the assigned amounts (with five significantly higher). These sex differences in reported 24HDR food portions-even among participants who selected the same portion size on the QFFQ-suggest that the use of methods that account for differences in the portions consumed by men and women when QFFQs are

  2. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A; Howard, Steven J; Santos, Rute; Batterham, Marijka; Melhuish, Edward; Okely, Anthony D; de Rosnay, Marc

    2017-11-20

    The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys) participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry) and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC) and Theory of Mind (ToM)). Parents reported on children's screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i) individual guidelines, ii) combinations of two guidelines, or iii) all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1%) and sleep (88.7%) guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%). Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36, 2.47). Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41) and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05), respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05), while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p children are warranted. Supporting preschool children to meet

  3. Evaluation of the indications and arrhythmic patterns of 24 hour Holter electrocardiography among hypertensive and diabetic patients seen at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Amanze N Ikwu,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Anthony O Akintomide,1 Tuoyo O Mene-Afejuku,1 Victor O Adeyeye,1 Olaniyi J Bamikole,1 Luqman A Bisiriyu,2 Olufemi E Ajayi,1 Suraj A Ogunyemi,1 Omolola A Oketona1 1Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, 2Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria Background: There are very limited published studies in Nigeria on the use of 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (Holter ECG in the arrhythmic evaluation of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Objective: To evaluate indications, arrhythmic pattern of Holter ECG, and heart rate variability (HRV among patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD with or without heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM seen in our cardiac care unit. Methods: Seventy-nine patients (32 males and 47 females were studied consecutively over a year using Schiller type (MT-101 Holter ECG machine. Results: Out of the 79 patients, 17 (21.5% had HHD without heart failure, 33 (41.8% had HHD with hypertensive heart failure (HHF, while 29 (36.7% were T2DM patients. The mean (standard deviation ages of HHD without heart failure, HHF and T2DM patients were 59.65 (±14.38, 65.15 (±14.30, and 54.66 (±8.88 respectively. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation (38%, followed by syncope (20.3%. Premature ventricular contraction was the commonest arrhythmic pattern among the 79 patients, especially among HHF patients. The HRV, using standard deviation of all normal-normal intervals was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (81.03±26.33, confidence interval [CI] =71.02–91.05 compared to the HHD without heart failure (119.65±29.86, CI =104.30–135.00 and HHF (107.03±62.50, CI =84.00–129.19. There was a negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and HRV (r=−0.613. Conclusion: Palpitation was the commonest Holter ECG indication and

  4. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H

    2015-10-31

    Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non

  5. Is there any advantage to the acquisition of 24-hour thallium images, in the presence of persistent perfusion defects at 4 h after reinjection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, K; Botvinick, E H; Sciammarella, M G; Starsken, N F; Zhu, Y Y; Lapidus, A; Dae, M W

    1998-05-01

    We determined the incidence of delayed 24-h reversibility post thallium-201 reinjection and imaging at 4 h, as well as the prognostic and significance of such delayed reversibility. We studied 46 consecutive patients with persistent thallium-201 perfusion or incompletely reversible single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion defects acquired within 10 min after reinjection performed 4 h after stress. In 38 of 46 patients (82%) 24-h images showed no further reversibility beyond the post-reinjection 4-h study (group A). Eight of 46 patients (17%) demonstrated reversibility on 24-h imaging (group B). Of these eight, three patients showed no improvement compared with the post-stress images, with a mean perfusion score of the abnormal segments of 1. 25+/-0.50 on the 4-h images, and of 3.00 on the 24-h images, where normal is 4. Four patients presented with nine mixed regions. Four of these regions showed an improvement in the mean perfusion score of 2.50+/-0.58 on 4- and 24-h images. Two of them, with moderate/severe defects, demonstrated complete reversibility at 4-h post-reinjection imaging. In addition, five other regions presented no improvement at 4-h imaging, but showed an improvement in the mean perfusion score from 0.80+/-0.84 at 4-h to 3.30+/-0.89 at 24-h imaging. Two of these regions in one patient showed a severe perfusion score of 0 at 4 h, and complete reversibility at 24 hours, with a mean score improvement of 4. Another patient had three severe perfusion defects; two of them redistributed partially at 4 h and completely at 24 h. The remaining segment with a perfusion score of 0 at 4 h, presented complete reversibility with a score of 4 at 24 h. Two (4%) patients revealed significant reversibility at 24 h in a region that was severely underperfused after post-reinjection imaging at 4 h. Among group B patients, 75% (6/8) had recent acute ischemic syndrome, compared with only 13% (5/38) in group A (P = 0. 001). Among 11 patients with unstable angina

  6. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  7. Intraspecific variation in growth of marsh macrophytes in response to salinity and soil type: Implications for wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity within plant populations can influence plant community structure along environmental gradients. In wetland habitats, salinity and soil type are factors that can vary along gradients and therefore affect plant growth. To test for intraspecific growth variation in response to these factors, a greenhouse study was conducted using common plants that occur in northern Gulf of Mexico brackish and salt marshes. Individual plants of Distichlis spicata, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus californicus, and Schoenoplectus robustus were collected from several locations along the coast in Louisiana, USA. Plant identity, based on collection location, was used as a measure of intraspecific variability. Prepared soil mixtures were organic, silt, or clay, and salinity treatments were 0 or 18 psu. Significant intraspecific variation in stem number, total stem height, or biomass was found in all species. Within species, response to soil type varied, but increased salinity significantly decreased growth in all individuals. Findings indicate that inclusion of multiple genets within species is an important consideration for marsh restoration projects that include vegetation plantings. This strategy will facilitate establishment of plant communities that have the flexibility to adapt to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, are capable of persisting over time. ?? Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2009.

  8. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  9. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  10. Reference conditions for old-growth redwood restoration on alluvial flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christa M. Dagley; John-Pascal. Berrill

    2012-01-01

    We quantified structural attributes in three alluvial flat old-growth coast redwood stands. Tree size parameters and occurrences of distinctive features (e.g., burls, goose pens) were similar between stands. Occurrence of distinctive features was greater among larger trees. Tree sizefrequency distributions conformed to a reverse-J diameter distribution. The range of...

  11. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  12. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  13. Adaptive mutations in sugar metabolism restore growth on glucose in a pyruvate decarboxylase negative yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Guodong; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying deletions in all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes (also called Pdc negative yeast) represents a non-ethanol producing platform strain for the production of pyruvate derived biochemicals. However, it cannot grow on glucose as the sole...... DNA sequencing. Among these genetic changes, 4 genes were found to carry point mutations in at least two of the evolved strains: MTH1 encoding a negative regulator of the glucose-sensing signal transduction pathway, HXT2 encoding a hexose transporter, CIT1 encoding a mitochondrial citrate synthase...... further increased the maximum specific growth rate to 0.069 h-1. Conclusions: In this study, possible evolving mechanisms of Pdc negative strains on glucose were investigated by genome sequencing and reverse engineering. The non-synonymous mutations in MTH1 alleviated the glucose repression by repressing...

  14. D-Tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases hydrogen production in humans without affecting 24-hour energy expenditure or respiratory exchange ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-09-01

    In growth studies on rats, the ketohexose D-tagatose has been shown to contribute no net metabolizable energy, and a pronounced thermic effect of the sugar has been suggested to account for the absence of energy. In a double-blind and balanced cross-over design, we measured 24-h energy expenditure in eight normal weight humans in a respiration chamber during the consumption of 30 g D-tagatose or 30 g sucrose/d. Metabolic measurements were performed before and after a 2-wk adaptation period with a 30-g daily intake of the test sugar. Total 24-h energy expenditure and hour-by-hour profile were unaffected by the test sugar. The nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RERnp) was similar during consumption of D-tagatose and sucrose. However, the effect on RERnp due to CO2 produced by fermentation of D-tagatose could not be quantified in this study. A significant increase in 24-h H2 production (35%) during D-tagatose administration suggests a substantial malabsorption of the sugar. We found no effects of the 2-wk adaptation period on the measured gas exchange variables. Significantly lower fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were observed during D-tagatose administration compared with the sucrose period. No effects of D-tagatose on body weight and composition were seen, but the perception of fullness 2.5 h after the sugar load was greater with D-tagatose. In conclusion, this study does not suggest a pronounced thermic effect of D-tagatose, and other mechanisms seem to be required to explain its lack of net energy.

  15. The 24-hour intraocular pressure control by tafluprost/timolol fixed combination after switching from the concomitant use of tafluprost and timolol gel-forming solution, in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Nakamoto,1 Masahiko Takeshi,2 Toshihiko Hiraoka,2,3 Mayuko Eguchi,2,4 Yuichiro Nakano,1,2 Naomi Otsuka,5 Hiroko Hizaki,5 Hiromi Akai,5 Masayo Hashimoto5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Shinanozaka Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Hiraoka Eye Clinic, Saitama, Japan; 4Musashiurawa Eye Clinic, Saitama, Japan; 5Japan Medical Affairs, Global R&D, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP-control effect of the tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TAF/TIM-FC in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma after they switched from the concomitant use of tafluprost and timolol gel-forming solution. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (12 male and 8 female; mean ± SD age, 57.0±7.1 years were included in this study. The patients were treated for 8 weeks with the concomitant administration of tafluprost and timolol gel-forming solution (evening dosing. At the end of this period, the patients underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring (measured at 21:00, 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00 and 17:00. IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT and Icare PRO at sitting position at all timepoints and additionally, at supine position with Icare PRO tonometer at 01:00 and 05:00. The patients were then all switched to TAF/TIM-FC treatment (evening dosing. After 8 weeks, the 24-hour IOP monitoring was repeated. Results: Nineteen patients completed the study. The mean 24-hour IOPs in the concomitant and TAF/TIM-FC phases were 13.8±2.7 vs 13.3±2.8 mmHg (P=0.0033 with the GAT in the sitting position and 13.96±2.56 vs 13.48±2.56 mmHg (P=0.0120 with the Icare PRO in habitual positions. In comparison with the concomitant phase, significantly lower IOP was observed for the TAF/TIM-FC phase at 21:00 and 01:00 with the GAT and at 01:00 with the Icare PRO. In addition, the maximum IOP and fluctuations in IOP in

  16. Sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, natriúria e pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sperb Antonello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo avalia sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, excreção urinária de sódio e pressão arterial (PA em normotensos. A hipótese foi de que limiar de sensibilidade gustativa ao sal (LSGS aumentado se associasse a maior natriúria em 24 horas e níveis aumentados de PA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 voluntários sem diagnóstico de HA. Para avaliar LSGS, usou-se soluções de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em diferentes concentrações. Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas e coleta de urina de 24 horas para dosagem de sódio (NaU. Para análise, foram agrupados de acordo com o LSGS, aumentado ou normal. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram para idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, variáveis demográficas, uso de álcool, fumo e PA. NaU foi significativamente maior no grupo com LSGS aumentado. Utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com significância determinada pelo teste t, houve correlação de forte intensidade entre médias de PA sistólica e diastólica com IMC, de regular intensidade entre LSGS e NaU, assim como para PA sistólica e NaU. CONCLUSÃO: Natriúria de 24 horas foi maior em indivíduos com LSGS aumentado, sugerindo que esta maior avidez ao sal determine maior ingestão de sódio. Houve forte associação entre PA e IMC. Não foi evidenciada associação entre LSGS e PA, diferente do já documentado em pacientes com PA aumentada. Aumentando-se o número de pessoas, faixa etária e pacientes com níveis pressóricos aumentados, talvez se respondam outras perguntas a respeito da relação entre LSGS, natriúria e PA.OBJECTIVE: The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. METHODS: Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To

  17. Prediction of improvement of myocardial wall motion after coronary artery bypass surgery using rest Tl-201/dipyridamole stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI/24 hour delay Tl-201 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Yeo, Jeong Yeo; Kim, Seok Ki; Kim, Ki Bong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1998-01-01

    Using rest Tl-201/ dipyridamole stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI/24 hour delay Tl-201 SPECT, we investigated the predictive values of the markers of the stress-rest reversibility (Rev), Tl-201 rest perfusion (Rest), Tl-201 24 hour redistribution (Del) and Tc-99m-MIBI gated systolic thickening (Thk) for wall motion improvement after coronary artery bypass surgery. In 39 patients (M:F=34:5, age 58±8), preoperative and postoperative (3 months) SPECT were compared. 24 hour delayed SPECT was done in 16 patients having perfusion defects at rest. Perfusion or wall motion was scored from 0 to 3 (0: normal to 3: defect or dyskinesia). Wall motion was abnormal in 142 segments among 585 segments of 99 artery territories which were surgically revascularized. After bypass surgery, ejection fraction increased from 37.8±9.0% to 45.5±12.3% in 22 patients who had decreased ejectin fraction preoperatively. Wall motion improved in 103 (72.5%) segments among 142 dysfunctional segments. Positive predictive values (PPV) of Rev, Rest, Del, and Thk were 83%, 76%, 43%, and 69% respectively. Negative predictive values (NPV) of Rev, Rest, Del, and Thk were 48%, 44%, 58%, and 21%, respectively. Rest/gated stress/delay SPECT had PPV of 74% and NPV of 46%. Through univariate logistic regression analysis revealed Rev( p=0.0008) and Rest (p=0.024) as significant predictors, stepwise multivariate test found Rev as the only good predictor (p=0.0008). Among independent predictors obtained by rest Tl-201/stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI/delayed Tl-201 myocardial SPECT for wall motion improvement after bypass surgery, stress-rest reversibility was the single most useful predictor

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREEMPTIVE USE OF 0.2% ROPIVACAINE AND 0.125% BUPIVACAINE ALONG WITH FENTANYL AND FENTANYL INCREMENTS TO PROVIDE POSTOPERATIVE EPIDURAL ANALGESIA UP TO 24 HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranji Lal Khedia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The present study was carried out to compare duration of analgesia, haemodynamic changes (Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, total incremental doses of epidural fentanyl required to maintain VAS 3 up to 24 hours in each group and total required incremental fentanyl doses were compared between both the groups. Once the data were collected from all the patients, they were compared using, chi-square test, two sample t-test. The p-value was calculated and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The duration of analgesia was more with Group BF (245+17.58 min. than Group RF (217.6+22.41 min., thus it is concluded that difference in duration of analgesia was statistically significant between the groups (P<0.05. In this study, it was noticed that patients of Group RF required much more incremental doses of epidural fentanyl (218+31.88 μg to maintain VAS<3 up to 24 hours than group BF (170+32.27 μg, and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Haemodynamic parameters like SBP, DBP, HR and RR were comparable in both the groups. Hypotension and bradycardia were noted in two patients of group BF. CONCLUSION Duration of analgesia was longer and comparatively better in group BF and less incremental doses were required to maintain VAS <3 up to 24 hours as compared to group RF, but haemodynamic stability was more in group RF as compared to group BF.

  19. Drug delivery system of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel for restoration of acute vocal fold scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    There continue to be therapeutic challenges in the management of vocal fold scarring. We previously showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection has therapeutic potential for vocal fold scarring. However, the working time of bFGF is relatively short, and multiple injections were required in many cases to obtain the regenerative effect. An efficacious delivery system for bFGF has yet to be established. We designed a method of sustained drug delivery system (DDS) of bFGF by using a gelatin hydrogel. Hydrogel has been developed for targeted delivery and controlled release of bFGF. Hydrogel of the particle type is also injectable and commercially available. The current study aims to investigate the effects of a single injection of bFGF-DDS on acute vocal fold scarring using a canine model. Vocal folds from eight beagles were unilaterally scarred by stripping the lamina propria. One month later, hydrogels (0.5ml) containing 10μg of bFGF were injected into the scarred vocal folds of four beagles (FGF-hydrogel group). Saline (0.5ml) was injected into the other four beagles (sham group). Vibratory and histological examination of excised larynges was performed 5 months after treatment. Comparative analysis between the current data and our previous data with repeated injection of bFGF solution was also completed. Vibratory examination demonstrated significantly improved vibration in the bFGF hydrogel-treated group. Histological examination of the bFGF hydrogel group showed restoration of hyaluronic acid in the lamina propria as compared to sham. Comparison between the DDS system and our previous bFGF solution injection indicated better effects of the DDS system on vibratory amplitude. A single injection of bFGF hydrogel has regenerative effects on acute vocal fold scarring, which is at least similar to repeated injection of bFGF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosterone - urine; Addison disease - urine aldosterone; Cirrhosis - serum aldosterone ... Laxative abuse Lower than normal levels may indicate Addison disease , a disorder in which the adrenal glands do ...

  1. WordPress 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2011-01-01

    The eagerly anticipated second edition, completely updated for WordPress 3.1 As an open source content management system, WordPress allows users to easily build feature-rich web sites with no programming experience. This unique book-and-video package is a friendly, self-paced beginners guide to the latest release of WordPress. Lessons are focused on practical, everyday tasks that users will need to create and maintain their sites: entering new content, creating new pages, managing menus, making content search-engine friendly. Plus you'll find lots of tips based on years of experience teaching

  2. The 24-hour economy not widespread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some 74% of workers in the Netherlands usually work standard hours, while 15% normally work at weekends, 14% in the evening and 4% at night. Weekend work is frequently carried out by younger people. The sectors most associated with weekend work are: policing, nursing and elder care, hotels and

  3. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  4. Assessment of femoral head vascularity by technetium-99m antimony colloid bone marrow imaging within 24 hours of subcapital fracture: a prospective study of 30 patients followed for 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The rationale of preoperative imaging of bone marrow was based upon the demonstration of histochemical abnormalities secondary to ischaemia which first become apparent in marrow cells of the femoral head following interruption of the blood supply by subcapital fracture. These marrow abnormalities predate changes in bone cells by several days and may explain the absence of abnormality on conventional bone scans performed on avascular femoral heads within 24 hours of subcapital fracture. The use of an endoprosthesis for fresh femoral neck fractures in unselected patients results in high mortality, high infection rate, high incidence of thromboembolic disease and poor long term results. The successful prediction of avascular necrosis in 92% of 28 patients with active bone marrow in the femoral head in this study is sufficiently accurate to allow appropriate selection of patients for internal fixation or primary prosthetic replacement on the basis of preoperative Tc-99m antimony colloid imaging

  5. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (0-4 years): exploring the perceptions of stakeholders and end users regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Negin; Ramanathan, Subha; O'Neill, Meghan; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2017-11-20

    It is important to engage stakeholders and end users in the development of guidelines for knowledge translation purposes. The aim of this study was to examine stakeholders' (experts in pediatric and family medicine, physical activity knowledge translation, and research) and end users' (parents and early childhood educators) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years). Stakeholders (n = 10) engaged in telephone interviews and end users (n = 92) participated in focus groups (n = 14) to discuss perceived clarity and need for the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, identification of credible messengers, and methods for dissemination of the guidelines. A thematic analysis was conducted. The proposed guidelines were very well received by both stakeholders and end users. A clear need for such guidelines was identified, and most believed the guidelines were achievable. Stakeholders and end users identified several potential barriers to uptake, including low awareness of current guidelines; 'daily challenges' such as allure of screen time, lack of time, and competing priorities; and challenges in the context of shifting social norms. A range of methods and messengers of dissemination were identified. Medical and child care settings were the most frequently cited places for dissemination, and physicians and early childhood educators were the most common suggestions for messengers. There was consistent support for the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) from both stakeholders and end users. Moving forward, it is important to dedicate appropriate support and funding toward dissemination efforts in order to reach end users, particularly parents and early childhood educators.

  6. Restoring silvopastures with oak saplings: Effects of mulch and diameter class on survival, growth, and annual leaf-nutrient patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. N. Jimenez; J. R. Pinto; M. A. Ripoll; A. Sanchez-Miranda; F. B. Navarro

    2014-01-01

    In Southwestern Spain, multifunctional silvopastoral systems consisting of pastureland and open oak woodlands are known as Dehesas. These, and other similar systems of the Mediterranean basin, are currently threatened by increasing intensive land use. As a consequence, oak regeneration is declining and is in need of adequate management and active restoration....

  7. Restoration of eroded soil in the Sonoran Desert with native leguminous trees using plant growth-promoting microorganisms and limited amounts of compost and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Salazar, Bernardo G; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Blanca R; Linderman, Robert G

    2012-07-15

    Restoration of highly eroded desert land was attempted in the southern Sonoran Desert that had lost its natural capacity for self-revegetation. In six field experiments, the fields were planted with three native leguminous trees: mesquite amargo Prosopis articulata, and yellow and blue palo verde Parkinsonia microphylla and Parkinsonia florida. Restoration included inoculation with two of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and small quantities of compost. Irrigation was applied, when necessary, to reach a rainy year (300 mm) of the area. The plots were maintained for 61 months. Survival of the trees was marginally affected by all supplements after 30 months, in the range of 60-90%. This variation depended on the plant species, where all young trees were established after 3 months. Plant density was a crucial variable and, in general, low plant density enhanced survival. High planting density was detrimental. Survival significantly declined in trees 61 months after planting. No general response of the trees to plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost was found. Mesquite amargo and yellow palo verde responded well (height, number of branches, and diameter of the main stem) to inoculation with PGPB, AM fungi, and compost supplementation after three months of application. Fewer positive effects were recorded after 30 months. Blue palo verde did not respond to most treatments and had the lowest survival. Specific plant growth parameters were affected to varying degrees to inoculations or amendments, primarily depending on the tree species. Some combinations of tree/inoculant/amendment resulted in small negative effects or no response when measured after extended periods of time. Using native leguminous trees, this study demonstrated that restoration of severely eroded desert lands was possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment abrogates 17 beta-estradiol-induced cell growth and restores expression of DNA repair genes in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaleshwar P; Treas, Justin; Tyagi, Tulika; Gao, Weimin

    2012-03-01

    Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of estrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer. Though increased cell growth and loss of DNA repair capacity is one of the proposed mechanisms for estrogen-induced cancers, the mechanism through which estrogen induces cell growth and decreases DNA repair capacity is not clear. DNA hypermethylation is known to inactivate DNA repair genes and apoptotic response in cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of DNA hypermethylation in estrogen-induced cell growth and regulation of DNA repair genes expression in breast cancer cells. To achieve this objective, the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells either pretreated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or untreated (as control) were exposed to 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and its effect on cell growth and expression of DNA repair genes were measured. The result revealed that 5-aza-dC abrogates the E2-induced growth in MCF-7 cells. An increased expression of OGG1, MSH4, and MLH1 by 5-aza-dC treatment alone, suggest the DNA hypermethylation as a potential cause for decreased expression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. The decreased expression of ERCC1, XPC, OGG1, and MLH1 by E2 alone and its restoration by co-treatment with 5-aza-dC further suggest that E2 reduces the expression of these DNA repair genes potentially through promoter hypermethylation. Reactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 and abrogation of E2-induced cell growth by 5-aza-dC treatment suggest that estrogen causes increased growth in breast cancer cells potentially through the inhibition of MMR-mediated apoptotic response. In summary, this study suggests that estrogen increases cell growth and decreases the DNA repair capacity in breast cancer cells, at least in part, through epigenetic mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adesão ao tratamento e controle da pressão arterial por meio da monitoração ambulatorial de 24 horas Blood pressure treatment adherence and control through 24-hour ambulatory monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS é um importante fator de risco cardiovascular, no entanto os níveis de controle pressórico persistem inadequados. A avaliação da adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo com a utilização da monitoração ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas pode representar um importante auxílio na busca de metas de controle da HAS. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo e a sua relação com os valores de PA obtidos pela MAPA de 24 horas entre pacientes hipertensos de centros de atenção primária à saúde (APS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 143 pacientes hipertensos de amostra representativa de serviço de APS do município de Antônio Prado, RS. Foi realizada aplicação do teste de Morisky e Green para avaliar a aderência ao tratamento e a verificação do número de medicamentos utilizados, seguida pela aplicação da MAPA de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 65,7% da amostra foram considerados aderentes ao tratamento proposto, 20,3% eram moderadamente aderentes, enquanto somente 14% foram classificados como não aderentes. Do total de 143 pacientes avaliados, 79 (55,2% foram identificados como HAS controlada (130/80 mmHg, 103 (72% apresentaram ausência de descenso noturno da PA e 60 (41,9% não estavam controlados durante o período de vigília. CONCLUSÃO: Verificamos, no presente estudo, que não há um controle adequado da HAS, com consequente perda de oportunidade dos profissionais envolvidos na APS de ajuste adequado das metas de PA preconizados. Esse fato ocorre a despeito de apropriada adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo dos pacientes vinculados ao ambulatório de APS.BACKGROUND: Although systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is an important cardiovascular risk factor, blood pressure level control often remains inadequate. Assessment of adherence to antihypertensive treatment through 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM may

  10. Adrenomedullin and angiopoietin-1 additively restore erectile function in diabetic rats: comparison with the combination therapy of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Etsu; Nomiya, Akira; Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Homma, Yukio

    2013-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major health problem. We have shown that adrenomedullin (AM) restores erectile function in diabetic rats. The aim of this study is to explore a better treatment for ED, we examined whether combination of AM and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) was more effective to treat ED than treatment with AM alone or Ang-1 alone. We also compared the effect of the combination therapy with that of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Adenoviruses expressing AM (AdAM), Ang-1 (AdAng-1), and VEGF-A (AdVEGF-A) were injected into the penis 6 weeks after STZ administration. Erectile function, penile histology, and protein expression were analyzed 4 weeks after the injection of the adenoviruses. Intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured to evaluate erectile function. The morphology of the penis was analyzed by Elastica van Gieson stain and immunohistochemistry. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), VE-cadherin and type I collagen was assessed by Western blot analysis. Infection with AdAM plus AdAng-1 more effectively restored erectile function than infection with AdAM alone or AdAng-1 alone. This combination therapy restored erectile function to a level similar to that observed in the age-matched Wistar rats. Expression of SMA and VE-cadherin increased more significantly in the AdAM plus AdAng-1-treated group than in the AdAM- or AdAng-1-treated group. Although AdVEGF-A infection restored erectile function significantly, it also caused enlargement of the trabeculae of the cavernous body, aberrant angiogenesis, and overproduction of type I collagen. These results suggested that combination therapy with AM and Ang-1 potently restored erectile function and normal morphology of the cavernous body compared with VEGF-A administration. This combination therapy will be useful to treat ED patients with a severely damaged cavernous body.

  11. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  12. Mortality and need of surgical treatment in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a one year study in a tertiary center with a 24 hours / day-7 days / week endoscopy call. Has anything changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botianu, Am; Matei, D; Tantau, M; Acalovschi, M

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, previously often a surgical problem, is now the most common gastroenterological emergency. To evaluate the current situation in terms of mortality and need of surgery. Retrospective non-randomised clinical study performed between 1st January-31st December 2011, at "Professor Dr. Octavian Fodor" Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Cluj Napoca. 757 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding were endoscopically examined within 24 hours from presentation in the emergency unit. Data were collected from admission charts and Hospital Manager programme. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad 2004, using the following tests: chi square, Spearman, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, area under receiver operating curve. Non-variceal etiology was predominant, the main cause was bleeding being peptic ulcer. In hospital global mortality was of 10.43%, global rebleeding rate was 12.02%, surgery was performed in 7.66% of patients. Urgent haemostatic surgery was needed in 3.68% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding. The need for surgery correlated with the postendoscopic Rockall score (p=0.0425). In peptic ulcer, the need for surgery was not influenced by time to endoscopy or type of treatment (p=0.1452). Weekend (p=0.996) or night (p=0.5414) admission were not correlated with a higher need for surgery. Over the last decade, the need for urgent surgery in upper gastrointestinal bleeding has decreased by half, but mortality has remained unchanged. Celsius.

  13. Refluxo laringofaringeano: estudo prospectivo correlacionando achados laringoscópicos precoces com a phmanometria de 24 horas de 2 canais Laringopharingeal reflux: prospective study that compare early laryngoscopic finds and 2 channel and 24 hours esophageal testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marambaia

    2002-08-01

    de suspeição do especialista.Introduction: Laryngeal symptoms from the gastroesophageal reflux are increasing and being more common. Studies have shown high association with e "globus", cronic hoarseness and cronic cough. The diagnosis and treatment are different from the well known gastroesophageal reflux disease. Laryngeal endoscopy is the first exam to be done in laryngeal pacients. Laryngeal redness, thickness of space between arytenoids, granuloma, polyp, Reinke's swelling, subglottic's stenosis need a complete clinical investigation. 24 hour pHmetry and manometry are the choice, because its sensibility and espicificity. Aim: compare early clinical and laryngeal finds of laringopharingeal reflux with 24 hours pHmetry and manometry results. Evaluate responses to clinical terapy and dietary. Study design: Clinical prospective: Material and Method: adults with those cronic complaints: dry cough, "globus", to hawk, sialorrhoea, hoarseness, halitosis and choking. Pacients with another patology from airways were excluded. The laryngoscopy was important to select only recent lesions to do 24 hour pHmetry and manometry, and after if necessary try clinical treatment. Results: 83,6% had patologic reflux. More frequent symptoms were: hoarseness (72,5%, to hawk (60,8%, to cough (29,4%, "globus" (23,5% and sialorrhoea (19,6%. Frequency of associated symptoms: two (67,4%; three (41,2% and four (21,5%. 49 pacients have begun treatment with omeprazole and diet: 83,7% became better after 6 months. 95,9% of the treated patients had improved in laryncoscopy. Conclusions: Laryngeal endoscopy and clinical history had good correlation with 24 hour pHmetry and manometry results. Other studies would estabilsh rules to diagnosis and follow patients with laryngeal endoscopy. Working with other professionals is important to solve problems at this pathology.

  14. Refluxo laringofaringeano: estudo prospectivo correlacionando achados laringoscópicos precoces com a pHmanometria de 24 horas de 2 canais Laringopharingeal reflux: prospective study that compare early laryngoscopic finds and 2 channel and 24 hours esophageal testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marambaia

    grau de suspeição do especialista.Introduction: Laryngeal symptoms from the gastroesophageal reflux are increasing and being more common. Studies have shown high association with e "globus", cronic hoarseness and cronic cough. The diagnosis and treatment are different from the well known gastroesophageal reflux disease. Laryngeal endoscopy is the first exam to be done in laryngeal pacients. Laryngeal redness, thickness of space between arytenoids, granuloma, polyp, Reinke's swelling, subglottic's stenosis need a complete clinical investigation. 24 hour pHmetry and manometry are the choice, because its sensibility and espicificity. Aim: compare early clinical and laryngeal finds of laringopharingeal reflux with 24 hours pHmetry and manometry results. Evaluate responses to clinical terapy and dietary. Study design: clinical prospective randomized. Method: 61 adults with those cronic complaints: dry cough, "globus", to hawk, sialorrhoea, hoarseness, halitosis and choking. Pacients with another patology from airways were excluded. The laryngoscopy was important to select only recent lesions to do 24 hours pHmetry and manometry, and after if necessary try clinical treatment. Result: 83,6% had patologic reflux. More frequent symptoms were: hoarseness (72,5%, to hawk (60,8%, to cuugh (29,4%, "globus" (23,5% and sialorrhoea (19,6%. Frequency of associated symptoms: two (67,4%; three (41,2% and four (21,5%. 49 pacients have begun treatment with omeprazole and diet: 83,7% became better after 6 months. 95,9% of the treated patients had improved in laryncoscopy. Conclusions: Laryngeal endoscopy and clinical history had good correltions with 24 hours pHmetry and manometry results. Other studies would estabilsh rules to diagnosis and follow patients with laryngeal endoscopy. Working with other professionals is important to solve problems at this pathology.

  15. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  16. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines - The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Ghersi, Davina; Hesketh, Kylie D; Santos, Rute; Loughran, Sarah P; Cliff, Dylan P; Shilton, Trevor; Grant, David; Jones, Rachel A; Stanley, Rebecca M; Sherring, Julie; Hinkley, Trina; Trost, Stewart G; McHugh, Clare; Eckermann, Simon; Thorpe, Karen; Waters, Karen; Olds, Timothy S; Mackey, Tracy; Livingstone, Rhonda; Christian, Hayley; Carr, Harriette; Verrender, Adam; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Downing, Katherine L; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-11-20

    In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0-5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework. Referred to as the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach, it allows guideline developers to follow a structured and transparent process in a more efficient manner, potentially avoiding the need to unnecessarily repeat costly tasks such as conducting systematic reviews. The purpose of this paper is to outline the process and outcomes for adapting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years to develop the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT framework. The development process was guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach. A Leadership Group and Consensus Panel were formed and existing credible guidelines identified. The draft Canadian 24-h integrated movement guidelines for the early years best met the criteria established by the Panel. These were evaluated based on the evidence in the GRADE tables, summaries of findings tables and draft recommendations from the Canadian Draft Guidelines. Updates to each of the Canadian systematic reviews were conducted and the Consensus Panel reviewed the evidence for each behaviour separately and made a decision to adopt or adapt the Canadian recommendations for each behaviour or create de novo recommendations. An online survey was then conducted (n = 302) along with five focus groups (n = 30) and five key informant interviews (n = 5) to obtain feedback from stakeholders on

  17. Apolo-Prometeu e Dioniso: dois perfis mitológicos do "homem das 24 horas" de Gaston Bachelard Apollo-Prometheus and Dionysus: two mythological profiles of Gaston Bachelard's "24-hour man"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander de Freitas

    2006-04-01

    relationship between the epistemology of science and the metaphysics of poetic imagination, two opposed, competing, and complementary traits of Bachelard's philosophy, often expressed by the epithets of "diurnal" and "nocturnal". To study the relationship between these two directions in Bachelard's thought, we start from the analysis of the ambivalence of the following pairs of concepts: epistemological obstacle & material imagination, and psychoanalysis of knowledge & phenomenological method, which structure, theoretically in the case of the former pair, and methodologically in the case of the latter pair, his epistemology of science and his metaphysics of poetic imagination. The results allow us to say that the joining of Bachelard's scientific epistemology and poetical metaphysics is represented in his concept of the "24-hour man". This complex, androgynous man, reader and thinker of the scientific ideas and of the poetical genesis, seems to be an image of the reconciliation of the antinomies expressed by the diurnal and nocturnal facets of the Bachelardian philosophy. Expanding on the imagetic analysis of the "24-hour man" through a myth-analytical hermeneutics, we find the two semblances of Bachelard's philosophy configured, respectively, in the myths of Apollo-Prometheus and Dionysus.

  18. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines - The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Okely

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0–5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework. Referred to as the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach, it allows guideline developers to follow a structured and transparent process in a more efficient manner, potentially avoiding the need to unnecessarily repeat costly tasks such as conducting systematic reviews. The purpose of this paper is to outline the process and outcomes for adapting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years to develop the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT framework. Methods The development process was guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach. A Leadership Group and Consensus Panel were formed and existing credible guidelines identified. The draft Canadian 24-h integrated movement guidelines for the early years best met the criteria established by the Panel. These were evaluated based on the evidence in the GRADE tables, summaries of findings tables and draft recommendations from the Canadian Draft Guidelines. Updates to each of the Canadian systematic reviews were conducted and the Consensus Panel reviewed the evidence for each behaviour separately and made a decision to adopt or adapt the Canadian recommendations for each behaviour or create de novo recommendations. An online survey was then conducted (n = 302 along with five focus groups (n = 30 and five key informant interviews (n

  19. Comparison of a Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey with Nationally Representative Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour Dietary Recall Data for Assessing Consumption of Fortifiable Foods by Women and Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-06-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are potential sources of data on dietary patterns for planning fortification programs, but they rarely have been compared with individual-level dietary assessment methods. To compare apparent consumption of fortifiable foods estimated from the Third Cameroon Household Survey (ECAM3) with the results of a national dietary survey using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) methods among women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 12 to 59 months. We estimated coverage and frequency of consumption in the previous week (ECAM3 and FFQ) and coverage and amount consumed on the previous day (ECAM3 and 24HR) of refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cubes. Coverage in the past week as measured by the ECAM3 and FFQ, respectively, was 64% vs. 54% for oil, 60% vs. 92% for flour, 69% vs. 78% for sugar, and 85% vs. 96% for bouillon cubes. The different methods identified similar patterns of coverage among subgroups for oil, but patterns for other foods were variable. Frequency of consumption and previous-day coverage were lower with the ECAM3 than with the FFQ and 24HR, likely reflecting infrequent acquisition relative to intake. For women, the mean amounts consumed on the previous day (among consumers) were 43 vs. 29 g of oil, 71 vs. 83 g of flour, 42 vs. 32 g of sugar, and 5.0 vs. 2.4 g of bouillon cubes (ECAM and 24HR, respectively). HCES provide useful information on patterns of food access but inadequate information on individual consumption amounts to estimate appropriate food fortification levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children.

  1. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  2. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  3. Detection of myocardial viability by means of Single Proton Emission Computed Tomography (Perfused SPECT) dual 201 Tl (rest of 15 minutes, 24 late hours and 24 hours reinjection) and gated-SPECT 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI in effort or stimulation of the coronary reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza V, R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if the images of SPECT 201 TI in rest of 15 minutes, 24 late hours and Gated-SPECT 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI in effort or stimulation of coronary reservation correlate with the study of 24 hours post reinjection of 201 TI to determine the presence of having knitted viable myocardium. Material and methods: 29 patients were studied with coronary arterial illness (EAC) to who are carried out SPECT 201 TI in rest with images of 15 minutes, 24 late hours and 24 hours reinjection, by means of the administration of 201 TI to dose of 130 MBq and reinjection with 37 MBq. and Gated-SPECT 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI in effort or stimulation of coronary reservation, later to the administration of 1110 MBq. Results: 29 patients were included according to inclusion approaches and exclusion, of those which 22 (75.86%) they correspond at the masculine sex and 7 (24.13%) to the feminine one, with an average of 62.1 year-old age, 2320 segments myocardial were analysed so much it is phase post-effort as rest; they were diagnosed a total of 264 segments with heart attack, of which viability myocardium was observed in 174 segments. The statistical tests are analysis of frequencies. The non parametric test of Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney. Conclusions: the viability myocardial at the 24 late hours and 24 hours reinjection was similar; significant difference exists between the study of 15 minutes and 24 hours reinjection, ischemic illness was also demonstrated in territories different to the heart attack area in the studies of 15 minutes, late 24 hours and 24 hours reinjection. (Author)

  4. Central insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) restores whole-body insulin action in a model of age-related insulin resistance and IGF-1 decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Farias Quipildor, Gabriela; Mao, Kai; Zhang, Xueying; Wan, Junxiang; Apontes, Pasha; Cohen, Pinchas; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-02-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is associated with improved longevity, but is paradoxically linked with several age-related diseases in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-1 has proven to be particularly beneficial to the brain, where it confers protection against features of neuronal and cognitive decline. While aging is characterized by central insulin resistance in the face of hyperinsulinemia, the somatotropic axis markedly declines in older humans. Thus, we hypothesized that increasing IGF-1 in the brain may prove to be a novel therapeutic alternative to overcome central insulin resistance and restore whole-body insulin action in aging. Utilizing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we show that old insulin-resistant rats with age-related declines in IGF-1 level demonstrate markedly improved whole-body insulin action, when treated with central IGF-1, as compared to central vehicle or insulin (P IGF-1, but not insulin, suppressed hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal rates in aging rats (P IGF-1 action in the brain and periphery provides a 'balance' between its beneficial and detrimental actions. Therefore, we propose that strategies aimed at 'tipping the balance' of IGF-1 action centrally are the optimal approach to achieve healthy aging and longevity in humans. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the embolic effect of polyvinyl alcohol foam particles according to particle size on the cerebral artery of a cat, focusing on T2 weighted MR images and pathologic study after 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Man Soo; Woo, Don Hee; Chung, Haingsub R.; Kang Gil Hyun; Lee, Sang Youl; Ryu, Dae Sik; Lee, Yong Chul

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the embolic effect of PVA particles of various sizes on the cerebral artery of a cat and to determine the appropriate particle size for embolization. A total of 21 cats were divided into three groups according to the PVA particle size injected: group I (n=3D7), embolized with 45-150μm PVA; group II (n=3D7), with 150-250μm PVA; and group III (n=3D7), with 350-500μm PVA. PVA particles were slowly injected into the left common carotid artery of each cat, and T2-weighted coronal MR images were obtained 24 hours after injection. During histologic examination of brain sections we analyzed the size, number of occluded vessels, and the ischemic changes caused by the particles. On T2 weighted images, areas of high signal intensity (infarction) were observed in four of the seven cats (57%) in group I and in two of the seven (29%) II. High signal intensity was not found in group III. The mean percentage of areas of high signal intensity was 11.86 ± 1.37% in group I and 5.18 ± 1.77% in group II (P less than 0.05). During histologic examination, occlusion of the distal branches of the anterior cerebral (ACA) and/or the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by PVA particles was observed in all seven cats (100%) in group I, and in four of the seven cats (57%) in group II, No group III cat showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ACA and/or MCA. The mean caliber of occluded vessels was 175μm in Group I and 258μm in Group II. The mean number of occluded vessels seen on all slide sections was 14 in Group I and 5 in Group II. Small PVA particles has a greater cerebral embolic effect than did those which were medium or large. For the induction of embolic infarction in cat brain, PVA particles 45-150μm in size are appropriate. (author)

  6. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P{sub 4}) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P{sub 4}, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 1}), and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E{sub 2}. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P{sub 4}, A, T, and E{sub 1} that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis

  7. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P 4 ) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P 4 , androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E 1 ), and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E 2 . Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P 4 , A, T, and E 1 that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis in mono-OH MXC

  8. Decreased expression of connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with clinicopathological variables and can be restored by epigenetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Hanna; Gałęcki, Bartłomiej; Jarmołowska-Jurczyszyn, Donata; Kluk, Andrzej; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the development of many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the functional role and regulation of CTGF expression during tumorigenesis remain elusive. Our goal was to determine CTGF transcript and protein levels in tumoral and matched control tissues from 98 NSCLC patients, to correlate the results with clinicopathological features and to investigate whether the CTGF expression can be epigenetically regulated in NSCLC. We used quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate CTGF expression in lung cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues. We tested the impact of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) and trichostatin A (TSA) on CTGF transcript and protein levels in NSCLC cells (A549, Calu-1). DNA methylation status of the CTGF regulatory region was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells viability and proliferation was monitored by the trypan blue assay. We found significantly decreased levels of CTGF mRNA and protein (both p cancerous tissues of NSCLC patients. Down-regulation of CTGF occurred regardless of gender in all histological subtypes of NSCLC. Moreover, we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA were able to restore CTGF mRNA and protein contents in NSCLC cells. However, no methylation within CTGF regulatory region was detected. Both compounds significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation. Decreased expression of CTGF is a common feature in NSCLC; however, it can be restored by the chromatin-modifying agents such as 5-dAzaC or TSA and consequently restrain cancer development.

  9. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  10. Antenatal phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition restores postnatal growth and pulmonary development in a model of chorioamnionitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, L; Launay, E; Joram, N; Jacqueline, C; Jarreau, P-H; Caillon, J; Moyon, T; Branger, B; Potel, G; Roze, J C; Méhats, C; Gras-Leguen, C

    2012-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is implicated in the pathophysiology of bronchopulmonary disease, and the associated inflammatory response is responsible for adverse effects on alveolar development. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4)-selective inhibitor, rolipram (a modulator of the inflammatory response), in an experimental model of chorioamnionitis on pulmonary development and on the processes of infection and inflammation. Rabbit mothers were assigned to four groups: 1) saline serum inoculation (controls); 2) Escherichia coli intrauterine inoculation (C+); 3) rolipram infusion (R+); and 4) E. coli inoculation + rolipram infusion (C+R+). High rates of morbility and mortality were noticed in mothers and pups (5 of 13 pregnant rabbits in groups with rolipram). Alveolar development, inflammation, and infection were analyzed in pups at day 0 and day 5. At day 0, in the context of chorioamnionitis, rolipram significantly decreased birth weight (p demise and growth retardation.

  11. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  12. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  13. Sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor and parathyroid hormone restores lost cancellous bone mass and strength in the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, T.J.; Ratkus, A.M.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) can restore lost cancellous bone mass and strength at a severely osteopenic skeletal site in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were...... intravenously (iv) daily with bFGF for 14 days at a dose of 200 microg/kg body weight. At the end of bFGF treatment, one group was killed whereas the other group was subjected to 8 weeks of treatment with synthetic human PTH 1-34 [hPTH(1-34)] consisting of subcutaneous (sc) injections 5 days/week at a dose...... of 80 microg/kg. Another group of OVX rats was treated iv with vehicle for 2 weeks followed by treatment with PTH alone for 8 weeks. Other groups of sham-operated control rats and OVX rats were treated iv and sc with vehicle alone. The right proximal tibia from each rat was processed undecalcified...

  14. Metabolic engineering of an ATP-neutral Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum: growth restoration by an adaptive point mutation in NADH dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komati Reddy, Gajendar; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis and gains 2 mol of ATP per mol of glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). To engineer glycolysis without net ATP formation by SLP, endogenous phosphorylating NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was replaced by nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN) from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which irreversibly converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) without generating ATP. As shown recently (S. Takeno, R. Murata, R. Kobayashi, S. Mitsuhashi, and M. Ikeda, Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7154-7160, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01464-10), this ATP-neutral, NADPH-generating glycolytic pathway did not allow for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum with glucose as the sole carbon source unless hitherto unknown suppressor mutations occurred; however, these mutations were not disclosed. In the present study, a suppressor mutation was identified, and it was shown that heterologous expression of udhA encoding soluble transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli partly restored growth, suggesting that growth was inhibited by NADPH accumulation. Moreover, genome sequence analysis of second-site suppressor mutants that were able to grow faster with glucose revealed a single point mutation in the gene of non-proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-II) leading to the amino acid change D213G, which was shared by these suppressor mutants. Since related NDH-II enzymes accepting NADPH as the substrate possess asparagine or glutamine residues at this position, D213G, D213N, and D213Q variants of C. glutamicum NDH-II were constructed and were shown to oxidize NADPH in addition to NADH. Taking these findings together, ATP-neutral glycolysis by the replacement of endogenous NAD-dependent GAPDH with NADP-dependent GapN became possible via oxidation of NADPH formed in this pathway by mutant NADPH

  15. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  16. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  17. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  18. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  19. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  20. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  1. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  2. SALIVARY PH CHANGES AFTER GIC RESTORATION ON DECIDUOUS TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nila Sukma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC is the most widely used material in pediatric dentistry. The purpose of this study was to analyze pH changes of saliva after GIC restoration on primary teeth. For this purpose, 20 primary canines which were restored with GIC 24 hours previously were plunged into 20 tubes containing each 1,5 ml pH 6,8 Fusayama artificial saliva and then stored in incubator at the temperature of 37°C. The pH changes were measured at 30, 60, and 90 minutes later with digital pH meter PH-201. It was revealed that the highest pH acceleration was at 30 minutes exposure an decrease thereafter and the lowest pH acceleration was at 90 minutes exposure. Statistical analysis was performed by Anova and Tukey HSD.

  3. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  4. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  5. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  6. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  7. An epithelial marker promoter induction screen identifies histone deacetylase inhibitors to restore epithelial differentiation and abolishes anchorage independence growth in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H M; Kuay, K T; Koh, P F; Asad, M; Tan, T Z; Chung, V Y; Lee, S C; Thiery, J P; Huang, Ry-J

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial mechanism in development, mediates aggressiveness during carcinoma progression and therapeutic refractoriness. The reversibility of EMT makes it an attractive strategy in designing novel therapeutic approaches. Therefore, drug discovery pipelines for EMT reversal are in need to discover emerging classes of compounds. Here, we outline a pre-clinical drug screening platform for EMT reversal that consists of three phases of drug discovery and validation. From the Phase 1 epithelial marker promoter induction (EpI) screen on a library consisting of compounds being approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Vorinostat (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is identified to exert EMT reversal effects by restoring the expression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin. An expanded screen on 41 HDACi further identifies 28 compounds, such as class I-specific HDACi Mocetinosat, Entinostat and CI994, to restore E-cadherin and ErbB3 expressions in ovarian, pancreatic and bladder carcinoma cells. Mocetinostat is the most potent HDACi to restore epithelial differentiation with the lowest concentration required for 50% induction of epithelial promoter activity (EpIC-50).The HDACi exerts paradoxical effects on EMT transcriptional factors such as SNAI and ZEB family and the effects are context-dependent in epithelial- and mesenchymal-like cells. In vitro functional studies further show that HDACi induced significant increase in anoikis and decrease in spheroid formation in ovarian and bladder carcinoma cells with mesenchymal features. This study demonstrates a robust drug screening pipeline for the discovery of compounds capable of restoring epithelial differentiation that lead to significant functional lethality.

  8. The evaluation of the establishment and growth of indigenous trees to restore deforested riparian areas in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa / Theo Scholtz

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtz, Theo

    2007-01-01

    The deforestation of riparian areas is a major concern in southern Africa. These areas are characterized as fragile ecosystems which contribute largely to the regional and global biodiversity of the world. It is therefore important to restore these degraded areas along the natural rivers of South Africa to ensure the sustainability and biodiversity of riparian corridors. Riparian areas inside the National Parks of South Africa, and especially in Mapungubwe National Park, have a high esthetica...

  9. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  10. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  11. Exogenous Restoration of TUSC2 Expression Induces Responsiveness to Erlotinib in Wildtype Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR Lung Cancer Cells through Context Specific Pathways Resulting in Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Dai

    Full Text Available Expression of the tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 is reduced or absent in most lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. In this study, we restored TUSC2 gene expression in several wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines resistant to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib and analyzed their sensitivity to erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. A significant inhibition of cell growth and colony formation was observed with TUSC2 transient and stable expression. TUSC2-erlotinib cooperativity in vitro could be reproduced in vivo in subcutaneous tumor growth and lung metastasis formation lung cancer xenograft mouse models. Combination treatment with intravenous TUSC2 nanovesicles and erlotinib synergistically inhibited tumor growth and metastasis, and increased apoptotic activity. High-throughput qRT-PCR array analysis enabling multi-parallel expression profile analysis of eighty six receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinase genes revealed a significant decrease of FGFR2 expression level, suggesting a potential role of FGFR2 in TUSC2-enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib. Western blots showed inhibition of FGFR2 by TUSC2 transient transfection, and marked increase of PARP, an apoptotic marker, cleavage level after TUSC2-erlotinb combined treatment. Suppression of FGFR2 by AZD4547 or gene knockdown enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib in some but not all tested cell lines. TUSC2 inhibits mTOR activation and the latter cell lines were responsive to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin combined with erlotinib. These results suggest that TUSC2 restoration in wild type EGFR NSCLC may overcome erlotinib resistance, and identify FGFR2 and mTOR as critical regulators of this activity in varying cellular contexts. The therapeutic activity of TUSC2 could extend the use of erlotinib to lung cancer patients with wildtype EGFR.

  12. Nuclear propulsion: to go to the moon in 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion is a necessary step to give to man the opportunity of developing activities in space. This technique enables rockets to go farther, more quickly and to transport more load than the classical chemical propulsion. Space travel requires huge quantities of energy. An equivalent quantity of energy can be extracted from 13 tons of liquid hydrogen-oxygen, from 20 g of uranium (fission), from 0.5 g of deuterium (fusion) and from 0.02 g of anti-hydrogen-hydrogen (annihilation). The concept of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is based on an embarked nuclear reactor whose purpose is to heat hydrogen to 3000 K temperature. The thrust can be increased by injecting liquid oxygen in the nozzle to react with supersonic hydrogen. (A.C.)

  13. Standard 12 Lead and 24 hour holter electrocardiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the cardiovascular responses to perinatal stress between two ethnic groups of newborns. Study population: 23 Nigerians and 14 Dutch perinally asphyxiated newborns together with their respective control of 12 healthy Nigerian and 16 Dutch newborns. Method: The study subjects and their controls were ...

  14. SharePoint 2010 Business Intelligence 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Knight, Devin; LeBlanc, Patrick; Schacht, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Learn to build and deliver SharePoint BI applications Written by a team of leading SharePoint and Business Intelligence (BI) experts, this unique book-and-DVD package shows you how to successfully build and deliver BI applications using SharePoint 2010. Assuming no previous SharePoint experience, the authors deliver a clear explanation of what SharePoint will do for your BI and information management capabilities. Each lesson in the book is reinforced with a helpful tutorial on the DVD and cover topics such as interactive reporting with Excel, document sharing for collaborative reporting, and

  15. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase diagnostic yield in children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circadian mechanisms of 24-hour blood pressure regulation and patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Hermida, Ramón C; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    In most persons, blood pressure (BP) rises slowly during late sleep, increases rapidly upon morning awakening and commencement of diurnal activity, exhibits two - morning and afternoon/early evening - daytime peaks, shows a minor midday nadir, and undergoes a decline during nighttime sleep by 10-20% in systolic BP and somewhat lesser amount in diastolic BP relative to wake-time means. Nyctohemeral cycles of ambient temperature, light, noise and behaviorally driven temporal patterns in food, liquid, salt, and stimulant consumption, mental/emotional stress, posture, and physical activity intensity plus circadian rhythms of wake/sleep, pineal gland melatonin synthesis, autonomic and central nervous, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, renal hemodynamic, endothelial, vasoactive peptide, and opioid systems constitute the key regulators and determinants of the BP 24 h profile. Environmental and behavioral cycles are believed to be far more influential than circadian ones. However, the facts that the: i) BP 24 h pattern of secondary hypertension, e.g., diabetes and renal disease, is characterized by absence of BP fall during sleep, and ii) scheduling of conventional long-acting medications at bedtime, rather than morning, results in much better hypertension control and vascular risk reduction, presumably because highest drug concentration coincides closely with the peak of most key circadian determinants of the BP 24 h profile, indicate endogenous rhythmic influences are of greater importance than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  18. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: Is 24 hours necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornovitsky, Michael; McClintic, Benjamin R; Beck, G Ronald; Bisognano, John D

    2013-01-01

    The variability of blood pressure (BP) makes any single measurement a poor indicator of a patient's true BP. Multiple studies have confirmed the superiority of ambulatory BP measurements over clinic BP measurements in predicting cardiovascular risk; however, this method presents the problem of patient acceptance as it causes frequent arm discomfort and sleep disturbance. We hypothesized that 6 h of daytime BP measurements would result in slightly higher BP readings, yet reveal similar clinical decision making when compared to 24 h of BP measurements. The source for writing this article was a retrospective analysis of 30 patients who underwent ambulatory BP monitoring. Data obtained included: age, sex, ethnicity, baseline medical problems, medications, laboratory values, reason given for ordering 24-h ambulatory BP measurements, ambulatory BP measurements, and a subsequent decision to change medication. The average BP of the 24-h measurements was 127/75 mm Hg and the average BP of the 6-h daytime measurements was 131/79 mm Hg (SD 15, p = 0.009). Twenty-six out of 30 patients were at goal or pre-hypertensive. Two out of 30 patients had stage 1 hypertension and 2 out of 30 patients had stage 2 hypertension. Thirteen out of 30 patients had nocturnal dipping. Twelve out of 30 patients had a change in medication, but those changes were not associated with the presence or absence of nocturnal dipping (p = 0.5) or other factors beyond mean BP. Although there was a statistically significant, 4 mm Hg systolic difference between 24-h and 6-h average BP readings, there was no evidence that this difference led to changes in clinical management. The presence or absence of nocturnal dipping was not associated with a change in medication. We conclude that 6-h daytime ambulatory BP measurements provide sufficient information to guide clinical decision making without the problems of patient acceptance, arm discomfort, and sleep disturbance associated with 24-h BP measurements.

  19. Assessment of discharge after 24 hours following elective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Readmission was needed for 41(2.8%), 15(1.1%) from study group and 26(1.8%) from control group. The reason in 24(1,7%) was wound infection, 5(0.3%) DVT, two with endometritis and eight (0.6%) due to non- pregnancy related infection. Although, there is slight increase in rate of readmission due to wound infection and ...

  20. SharePoint Server 2010 Administration 24 Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Crider, Bill; Richardson, Clint

    2012-01-01

    Get quickly up to speed on SharePoint Server 2010! Covering all aspects of the SharePoint technology, this unique book-and-DVD combination provides expert guidance within each lesson in the book, which is then supplemented on the instructional DVD. The authors expose you to a variety of SharePoint Server 2010 topics, from organization concerns to training plans to programmer best practices, all aimed at helping you effortlessly find your way around SharePoint without a deep knowledge of the technology. You’ll quickly learn to configure and administer a site or site collection using this

  1. Humalog Mix25 improves 24-hour plasma glucose profiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) administer insulin twice daily, yet many use premixed insulin preparations (Lilly, data on file). Premixtures of short- or rapid- acting and intermediate-acting insulins twice daily are commonly used, offering convenience and increased dosing accuracy compared with insulins ...

  2. Duplicate 24-hour diet study 1994 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann RA; Hoogerbrugge R; van Zoonen P; LOC

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 namen 123 respondenten deel aan een duplicaat 24-uurs voedingsonderzoek. De verzamelde duplicaat voeding monsters werden geanalyseerd op macro parameters, nutrieten, mineralen, sporenelementen en contaminanten. Bij aanvang van het onderzoek werd een inschatting gemaakt of de aanwezigheid

  3. 24-hour secretory pattern of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, R.S.; Rosenberg, B.J.; Fukushima, D.K.; Hellman, L.

    1975-01-01

    Dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA) and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay and protein binding techniques respectively in plasma from blood taken at 20-min intervals over 24-h periods in 3 normal men, 2 women with Stein-Leventhal syndrome, and a man with a benign adrenocortical adenoma. In all subjects but the latter, DHA and cortisol were episodic and synchronous throughout the entire day; in this patient, continuous secretion of cortisol by the tumor apparently abolished stimulation of the contralateral adrenal, and DHA production was negligible. Dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate analyses in plasma displayed a pattern which, probably because of its origin both by secretion and sulfation and its long half-life, showed less synchronicity with DHA and cortisol and less fluctuation than did the free hormones. (U.S.)

  4. Multi-sensory stimulation in 24-hour dementia care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis starts with a review of relevant literature with regard to the effects of psychosocial interventions, including snoezelen, on apathetic, depressed and aggressive behaviour of demented persons. Then, a study with a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design is described, comparing

  5. PHP and MySQL 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Tarr, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Step-by-step lessons for using PHP and MySQL in a unique book-and-video combination Assuming no previous experience with PHP or MySQL, this book-and-video package is ideal reading for anyone who wants to go beyond HTML/CSS in order to provide clients with the most dynamic web sites possible. The approachable tone breaks down the basics of programming and PHP and MySQL in individual lessons starting with the installation of the programs necessary to run PHP. You begin with a static web site and then watch and learn as PHP functionality is added as you work through the lessons. When working w

  6. Supplementation of serum free media with HT is not sufficient to restore growth properties of DHFR-/- cells in fed-batch processes - Implications for designing novel CHO-based expression platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Lore; Lipske, Carolin; Becker, Eric; Kaufmann, Hitto

    2011-04-10

    DHFR-deficient CHO cells are the most commonly used host cells in the biopharmaceutical industry and over the years, individual substrains have evolved, some have been engineered with improved properties and platform technologies have been designed around them. Unexpectedly, we have observed that different DHFR-deficient CHO cells show only poor growth in fed-batch cultures even in HT supplemented medium, whereas antibody producer cells derived from these hosts achieved least 2-3 fold higher peak cell densities. Using a set of different expression vectors, we were able to show that this impaired growth performance was not due to the selection procedure possibly favouring fast growing clones, but a direct consequence of DHFR deficiency. Re-introduction of the DHFR gene reproducibly restored the growth phenotype to the level of wild-type CHO cells or even beyond which seemed to be dose-dependent. The requirement for a functional DHFR gene to achieve optimal growth under production conditions has direct implications for cell line generation since it suggests that changing to a selection system other than DHFR would require another CHO host which - especially for transgenic CHO strains and tailor-suited process platforms - this could mean significant investments and potential changes in product quality. In these cases, DHFR engineering of the current CHO-DG44 or DuxB11-based host could be an attractive alternative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma: embolization and surgery for restoration of function. Work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.M.; Becker, G.J.; Rabe, F.E.; Holden, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.; Wass, J.L.; Sequeira, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Five patients underwent preoperative embolization of osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma. The group consisted of four men and one woman who ranged in age from 46 to 79 years. The lesions were located in the pubic ramus and acetabulum, proximal femur, femoral midshaft, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. All embolizations were performed within 24 hours of surgery. The internal fixation and tumor curettage was accomplished with estimated perioperative blood loss ranging from 10 ml to 1,250 ml. All patients had significant restoration of function following surgery. The authors suggest that preoperative embolization is an important and efficacious adjunct in the management of hypervascular renal cell osseous metastases

  8. The Use of Restoring Resources of the Survival Roles and Reflex Patterns in MNRI® (Reflex Integration Interactive Training of Personality Growth and Interpersonal Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masgutova S.K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality growth as a socio-psychological problem is a multi-complex phenomenon that targets Self-identity, Self-actualization, and other areas. During the last decade scientists started studying other factors limiting the personality growth, such as stress and post-trauma. However, the Survival Roles, the socio-individual patterns based on neurophysiological and psychological defense mechanisms blocking the personality Self-actualization, social interaction and professional business qualities, are rarely discussed. Thus this study based on Survival Roles may extend the personality growth oriented concepts and therapy modality tools. This study showed a correlation between Survival Role patterns, stress resilience, and survival reflexes (integrative units of the nervous system functions. Comparative data on 464 business professionals from high management jobs (Study Group — n=340, and Control Group — n=124 participated in this research which found 70.9 % (n=329 of the total group was in stress. This stress activated socio-individual Survival Roles and protective reflex patterns which responded with reactivity, over-protection, non-constructive interactions with others and limited business strategies. The MNRI® reflex integrative training used in this study demonstrated improvement of functions of the protective reflex patterns effected positively the survival mechanisms including increased stress resilience, and decreased negative effect of Survival Roles. MNRI® proposes a new paradigm in the realm of personality growth and socio-interpersonal activity, and supports the neurophysiological aspects to optimize the overall quality of life of business professionals from a variety of high management business areas.

  9. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  10. Taxa de concepção de cabras inseminadas com sêmen caprino resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 ou 24 horas, em meio diluidor à base de gema de ovo Conception rate of goats inseminated with semen cooled in egg yolk diluent at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Siqueira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade fecundante do sêmen caprino resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 (TI ou 24 horas (TII, em container especial. Para tanto, utilizaram-se 62 fêmeas e dois reprodutores (B1 e B2 da raça Toggenburg, distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois reprodutores e dois períodos de estocagem do sêmen. Após a coleta, o sêmen foi diluído em Tris-frutose-gema de ovo a 2,5%, envasado em palhetas de 0,25mL, com 150x10(6 espermatozoides móveis e resfriado a 5ºC. As fêmeas receberam duas doses de 22,5µg de PGF2α, em intervalos de 10 dias para a sincronização do estro. A partir da primeira aplicação de PGF2α, as fêmeas foram monitoradas para ocorrência de estro, três vezes ao dia. Realizou-se uma única inseminação, pela técnica de fixação da cérvice, 12 horas após o início do estro. A motilidade e o vigor, após 12 ou 24 horas de resfriamento, foram de 66,14±0,11% e 62,50±0,05%, e 3,46±0,61 e 3,27±0,50, respectivamente. Não houve influência (P>0,05 do reprodutor, nem do período de armazenamento do sêmen sobre a taxa de concepção das cabras, que foi de 49,1%.The fertilizing capacity of goat semen cooled in egg yolk diluent at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours was evaluated. Sixty-two Toggenburg does and two sexually mature Toggenburg bucks were used in a fatorial treatment combination (two bucks and two storage periods. The semen was diluted in 2.5% Tris-frutose-egg yolk; envased in 0.25mL plastic straws, with 150x10(6 mobile spermatozoa; and cooled at 5ºC for 12 or 24 hours. The females received two doses of 22.5µg of prostaglandine F2α, at each 10-day intervals in order to synchronize the estrous. From the first PGF2α injection, estrous occurrence was monitored three times per day. Only one insemination was used, using the cervix fixation method, 12 hours after the estrous onset. The means of motility and strength, 12 (TI and 24 hours (TII after semen cooling at 5ºC, were 66.14±0.11% and 62.50±0.05%, and 3.46±0

  11. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  12. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  13. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  14. Correlation of the glomerular filtration rate by the Gates scintigraphy method and by the creatinine purification in urine of 24 hours; Correlacion de la tasa de filtracion glomerular por el metodo gamagrafico de Gates y por la depuracion de creatinina en orina de 24 horas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez A, E

    2003-07-01

    The kidney is an important organ that makes that exist equilibrium inside the organism. In it' s multiple functions, one that interests us to know is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To know this, exist laboratory and scintigraphy studies like the scintigraphy with technique of Gates and the creatinine purification in urine of 24 hours. The files of 44 patients were studied, which were clinically candidates to kidney donors healthy (25 women and 19 men) with ages that varied from the 18 years to the 54 years ( 35.1 years), with a weight of 43 kilograms to 94 kilograms (68.95 Kg) and with a corporal surface of 1.29 to 2.08 m{sup 2} (1.70 m{sup 2}). These patients underwent study protocols with creatinine purification and with renal scintigraphy. The glomerular filtration rate obtained by creatinine purification varied from 51.9 ml/min. to 156 ml/min. and the GFR obtained by scintigraphy varied from 3.6 ml/min. to 155.2 ml/min. Once obtained the gathering of data the test of Student was applied to compare the averages of both distributions and the analysis of lineal regression to determine the coefficients of correlation of the complete group. (Author)

  15. Androgen-dependent somatotroph function in a hypogonadal adolescent male: evidence for control of exogenous androgens on growth hormone release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauras, N.; Blizzard, R.M.; Rogol, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    A 14(10/12)-year-old white male with primary gonadal failure following testicular irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia was evaluated for poor growth. He had received 2400 rad of prophylactic cranial irradiation. The growth velocity had decelerated from 7 to 3.2 cm/yr over 3 years. His bone age was 12(0/12) years (by TW2-RUS), and his peak growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli was 1.4 ng/mL. The 24-hour GH secretion was studied by drawing blood every 20 minutes for 24 hours. The resulting GH profile was analyzed by a computerized pulse detection algorithm, CLUSTER. Timed serum GH samples were also obtained after a 1 microgram/kg IV bolus injection of the GH releasing factor (GRH). The studies showed a flat 24-hour profile and a peak GH response to GRH of 3.9 ng/ml. Testosterone enanthate treatment was started, 100 mg IM every 4 weeks. Ten months after the initiation of therapy the calculated growth rate was 8.6 cm/yr. The 24-hour GH study and GRH responses were repeated at the time, showing a remarkably normal 24-hour GH secretory pattern and a peak GH response to GRH of 14.4 ng/mL. Testosterone therapy was discontinued, and 4 months later similar studies were repeated. A marked decrease in the mean 24-hour GH secretion and mean peak height occurred, but with maintenance of the GH pulse frequency. The GH response to GRH was intermediate, with a peak of 8 ng/mL. There was no further growth during those 4 months despite open epiphyses

  16. [Effect of saliva contamination on microleakage around class-5 cavities restored with three different types of adhesive materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, Gianina; Stoleriu, Simona; Andrian, S; Dia, V; Căruntu, Irina Draga

    2004-01-01

    The recent improvement of adhesive materials should decrease the risk related to saliva contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of saliva contamination on the microleakage within class V cavities restored with three different types of materials: conventional glass ionomer cement, composite resin and compomer. 30 human extracted teeth were randomly divided in 3 equal groups. In each group, class V cavities were prepared on both facial and lingual surfaces (but joint for glass ionomer cement and bevelled incisal margin for composite resin and compomer). The lingual cavities were contaminated with saliva prior to restoration, while the facial cavities were not contaminated, serving as control. After water storage for 24 hours, teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The axial sections were viewed under an optical microscope and the extent of dye penetration along cervical, axial and incisal margins was measured in millimetres. Statistic analysis showed that under salivary contamination, microleakage increased along the cervical margin of restoration for all three tested materials. Saliva contamination resulted in microleakage within the axial wall of the cavity only for the conventional glass ionomer cement. These data indicate that composite resin and compomer used together with new adhesives seem to be less sensitive to saliva contamination compared to conventional materials. However, under saliva contamination, cervical microleakage cannot be completely prevented and proper isolation should still be mandatory.

  17. Role of pH Changes on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Release and on the Fibrin Architecture of Platelet-rich Fibrin When Layered with Biodentine, Glass Ionomer Cement, and Intermediate Restorative Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaguri, Harish; Suresh, Nandini; Surendran, Smitha; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Chitra, Selvarajan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH that is due to setting reaction of Biodentine, glass ionomer cement (GIC), and intermediate restorative material (IRM) on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) release and on the fibrin architecture of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). PRF was obtained from 8 volunteers and layered over the freshly prepared GIC, IRM, and Biodentine mixtures. TGF-β1 release was estimated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fibrin structure of PRF was analyzed by using scanning electron microscope at 1 and 5 hours. Biodentine, GIC, and IRM increased the TGF-β1 release in comparison with that of control group (PRF alone) at both 1 and 5 hours. Biodentine released significantly more TGF-β1 than GIC and IRM at 1 hour. At 5 hours both GIC and Biodentine released significantly more TGF-β1 than IRM. The fibrin architecture of the Biodentine group was similar to that of control group at both 1 and 5 hours. In GIC and IRM groups the fibrillar structure of fibrin was collapsed, ill-defined, and cloudy with very thick fibers and irregularly reduced porosities. Biodentine induces larger amount of TGF-β1 release and also maintains the integrity of fibrin structure when compared with GIC and IRM when layered over PRF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Magnetic Resonance Imaging Affect the Microleakage of Amalgam Restorations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Polat, Gunseli Guven; Turan Illca, Ahmet; Yildirim, Ceren; Demir, Pervin; Basak, Feridun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of MRI on microleakage of amalgam restorations is an important health issue that should be considered. If MRI application causes increase of microleakage, amalgam fillings should be reassessed after MRI and replaced if necessary. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on microleakage of class II bonded amalgam versus classical amalgam restorations. Class II cavities (3 mm width × 1.5 mm depth) with gingival margins ending 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were prepared in 40 permanent molar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Cavities in the first and second groups were restored with dentin adhesive and amalgam (bonded amalgam), and those in the third and fourth groups with amalgam only. MRI was performed with the teeth specimens from the first and third groups. All specimens were then thermocycled at 5° to 55° C with a 30-second dwell time for 1000 cycles. The samples were then immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned longitudinally. Dye penetration at the occlusal and gingival margins was quantified by 15× stereomicroscopy. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 (IBM Corp., Released 2012., IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and MS-Excel 2007 programs were used for statistical analyses and calculations. “nparLD” module was used for F2-LD-F1 design analysis at R program. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. In teeth with amalgam filling, there were no significant differences of occlusal and gingival surface microleakage after MRI exposure. Occlusal and gingival surface microleakages were also similar with and without MRI in teeth with bonded amalgam filling. The results of this study suggest that MRI does not increase microleakage of amalgam restorations

  20. Protocolo de actuación preventiva para riesgo debido a alteraciones del ritmo circadiano en médicos de urgencias que trabajan en turnos de 24 horas Preventive action protocol for risk due to circadian rhythm disturbances in emergency physicians working in 24 hours shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Fillat de Acosta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La autora analiza la situación patológica de los médicos de urgencias con turnos de 24 horas que alteran el ritmo circadiano, el estudio describe las condiciones de trabajo que afectan el ritmo biológico sueño-vigilia y las tareas intelectuales y de habilidades mecánicas desempeñadas por este personal, los daños a prevenir (accidentes in itinere, accidentes por manipulación de material biológico, enfermedades somáticas y psíquicas y el riesgo para los pacientes. Se propone un protocolo de actuación preventiva que abarca la mayor parte del trabajo, cuándo actuar, revisión de recursos, actuaciones a realizar en una unidad de salud laboral y sistema de comunicación al resto del hospital, Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales y Sistema Nacional de Salud.The author analyzes the pathological situation concerning to emergency physicians with 24-hour shifts which disturb their circadian rhythms, the study describes the working conditions that affect the biological sleep-wake rhythm and intellectual tasks and mechanical skills performed by these staff, damage to be prevented (commuting accidents, accidents caused by handling of biological material, somatic and psychic diseases and the risk to patients. After that, it's developed a proposal of preventive action protocol covering most of the work and finally when to act, available resources and actions to be taken in an occupational health unit, in addition to the communication system to the rest of the hospital, Occupational and Hazard Preventive Service and the National Health System.

  1. Application of chitosan scaffolds on vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 expressions in tissue engineering principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyati Retno Pratiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue engineering has given satisfactory results as biological tissue substitutes to restore, replace, or regenerate tissues that have a defect. Chitosan is an organic biomaterial often used in the biomedical field. Chitosan has biocompatible, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Chitosan is osteoconductive, suitable for bone regeneration applications. Bone defect healing begins with inflammatory phase as a response to the presence of vascular injury, so new vascularization is required. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 are indicators of the beginning of bone regeneration process, playing an important role in angiogenesis. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effects of chitosan scaffold application on the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in tissue engineering principles. Method: Chitosan was dissolved in CH3COOH and NaOH to form a gel. Chitosan gel was then printed in mould to freeze dry for 24 hours. Those rats with defected bones were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group which defected bones were not administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Group 2 was the treatment group which defected bones were administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Those rats were sacrificed on day 14. Tissue preparations were made, and then immunohistochemical staining was conducted. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted using Kruskal Wallis test. Result: There was no significant difference in the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 between the control group and the treatment group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Chitosan scaffolds do not affect the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 during bone regeneration process on day 14 in tissue engineering principles

  2. Wetland restoration: a survey of options for restoring peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lode, Elve

    1999-01-01

    In spite of increased attention to wetland conservation following the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, the peat-harvesting industry in many countries is still interested in the further exploitation of peatlands. In some of the most industrialised countries, all natural peatlands have already been lost. In others, only small areas of native peatland remain. Among other possible uses for cut-over peatlands, peatland restoration is one: there is an urgent need for the development of measures for regenerating peat-accumulation processes. The redevelopment of a fen or bog peat landscape is a long-term process, which will probably take centuries. The restoration of any peatland may therefore be considered successful if the outcome is the development and growth of plant communities able to produce peat. The renewal of the hydrological regime of such areas is a major factor which determines the re-colonisation of cut-over peat fields by peat-forming plants. The aim of this paper is to give a brief survey of wetlands, and especially of peatland restoration options, for use in terminated peat-cuttings. It aims to show how peatland management may be made sustainable by means of existing and tried methods and principles, with the goal of returning cut-over peat fields to their former peat-accumulating state. A glossary of peat and peatland terminology is included 105 refs, 5 figs

  3. 24 h多通道腔内阻抗联合pH监测诊断咽喉反流的初步应用%Application of 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance in combination with pH monitoring for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux: a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉森; 李进让; 李晓雨; 马宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic characteristics of 24 hours multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).Methods Patients who were suspected to have laryngopharyngeal reflux (LRP) between February and December 2014 were included.The frequency of pH < 4 waveform,artifacts,numbers of acid reflux events,weakly acidic reflux events,weakly alkaline reflux events,time of acid exposure,time of acid clearance,acid reflux events in upright position and supine position,reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux findings score (RFS) were analyzed.Results Forty-five times pH < 4 reflux waveform were identified according to software analysis.140 pH drops of 4 were observed according to manual analysis,in which 78 times were caused by reflux and 62 artifacts.The consistency of manual analysis and software automatically analysis was general (κ =0.234).The positive rate of 60 patients was 28.3% (17/60).In the 17 LPR patients,the median number[P25,P75] of acid reflux events was 5.0[4.0,8.8],weakly acidic reflux events was 6.5 [5.3,10.3],weakly alkaline reflux events was 1.0 [0.0,2.0],time of acid exposure was 3.8 [2.3,7.2] min,time of acid clearance was 36.0 [21.5,57.6] s,acid reflux events in upright position was 4.0[3.0,4.8] and in supine position was 1.5 [0.0,2.3].All the data were approximately identical with the domestic and foreign literature.24 hours MII-pH monitoring and RSI + RFS had medium consistency (κ =0.590).Conclusions 24 hours MII-pH monitoring has ideal repeatability,but false positive and false negative can not be avoided completely.The diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux shoull be combined with medical history and laryngoscopy.%目的 研究24 h多通道腔内阻抗联合pH监测(multichannel intraluminal impedance,MII-pH)在诊断咽喉反流中的特点和问题.方法 对2014年2-12月怀疑存在咽喉反流的60例患者行24 h MII-pH监测,统计pH<4的波形次数、伪像、酸反

  4. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  5. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  6. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  7. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  8. Detection of myocardial viability by means of Single Proton Emission Computed Tomography (Perfused SPECT) dual {sup 201} Tl (rest of 15 minutes, 24 late hours and 24 hours reinjection) and gated-SPECT {sup 99m} Tc-SESTAMIBI in effort or stimulation of the coronary reserves; Deteccion de viabilidad miocardica mediante tomografia por emision de foton unico (SPECT perfusorio) dual {sup 201} Talio (Reposo de 15 minutos, 24 horas tardio y 24 horas reinyeccion) y gated-SPECT {sup 99m} Tc-SESTAMIBI en esfuerzo o estimulo de reserva coronaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza V, R

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if the images of SPECT {sup 201} TI in rest of 15 minutes, 24 late hours and Gated-SPECT {sup 99m} Tc-SESTAMIBI in effort or stimulation of coronary reservation correlate with the study of 24 hours post reinjection of {sup 201}TI to determine the presence of having knitted viable myocardium. Material and methods: 29 patients were studied with coronary arterial illness (EAC) to who are carried out SPECT {sup 201} TI in rest with images of 15 minutes, 24 late hours and 24 hours reinjection, by means of the administration of {sup 201}TI to dose of 130 MBq and reinjection with 37 MBq. and Gated-SPECT {sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI in effort or stimulation of coronary reservation, later to the administration of 1110 MBq. Results: 29 patients were included according to inclusion approaches and exclusion, of those which 22 (75.86%) they correspond at the masculine sex and 7 (24.13%) to the feminine one, with an average of 62.1 year-old age, 2320 segments myocardial were analysed so much it is phase post-effort as rest; they were diagnosed a total of 264 segments with heart attack, of which viability myocardium was observed in 174 segments. The statistical tests are analysis of frequencies. The non parametric test of Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney. Conclusions: the viability myocardial at the 24 late hours and 24 hours reinjection was similar; significant difference exists between the study of 15 minutes and 24 hours reinjection, ischemic illness was also demonstrated in territories different to the heart attack area in the studies of 15 minutes, late 24 hours and 24 hours reinjection. (Author)

  9. In vitro Comparison of Microleakage of Nanofilled and Flowable Composites in Restoring Class V Cavities in Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resins undergo microleakage due to polymerization shrinkage particularly when located in cementum or dentin. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of flowable and nanofilled composites in Class V cavities extending on to the root in primary molars. Materials and Methods: Forty eight class V cavities in the cervical part of buccal and lingual surfaces of 24 intact mandibular second primary molars were prepared, with occlusal margins on enamel and gingival margins on cementum. After restoring cavities randomly with nanofilled or flowable composite by incremental technique, specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours, thermocycled, immersed in a basic Fuchsin solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually. Microleakage was evaluated according to the depth of dye penetration along the restoration wall using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Mann- Whitney U test at a significance level of 0.05.Results Microleakage of flowable and nanofilled composites at the cervical margin showed no statistically significant difference, however occlusal margin in nanofilled composite exhibited significantly less microleakage than flowable composite (p=0.013.Conclusion: In contrast to occlusal margin, there was no statistically significant difference in microleakage between the 2 composites on the gingival margin. Microleakage on the gingival wall was greater compared to occlusal wall for both composites.

  10. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  11. Weaver Bottoms Wildlife Habitat Restoration: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Mary M; Damberg, Carol

    1994-01-01

    .... The Weaver Bottoms Rehabilitation Project is a large scale wetland restoration project that is directed at regaining lost habitat by creating hydrological and energy conditions conducive to marsh growth and production. Davis et al. (1993...

  12. International Conference on Crystal Growth (10th) (ICCG-10) Held in San Diego, California on August 16 - 21, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-21

    wcre subsequently [4] K. Terashima, M. Kawachi and M. Takena, J. Crystal investigated using positron annihilation technique [6]. It has Growth 102(1990... TiO2 and Rb2CO 3. The mixture was put in plati- (KDP), where d31 is smaller than of KTP, whereas d32 and num crucible and held for 24 hours at about 1000

  13. Pressão arterial de 24 horas em mulheres idosas normotensas e com hipertensão do avental branco Presión arterial de 24 horas en mujeres mayores normotensas y con hipertensión de la bata blanca 24-hour blood pressure in normotensive elderly women and elderly women with white-coat hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério W. Hekman

    2010-04-01

    álisis estadístico, se utilizó el test t de Student, el test de chi-cuadrado, el test exacto de Fisher y el test de correlación lineal de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Las mujeres mayores con HABB presentaron niveles más elevados de PAS que las normotensas, entre 8-12 horas (133 ± 8,0 mmHg vs 123 ± 9,0 mmHg, respectivamente, p BACKGROUND: Changes in the behavior of the circadian rhythm can be deleterious, leading to target-organ damage, which suggests that they can have a prognostic significance and, eventually, can also demand therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP in normotensive elderly women and in those with white-coat hypertension (WCH. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in sample of 36 patients, aged 60-83 years, submitted to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM for a period of 24 hours. Nineteen normotensive elderly women and 17 with WHC were compared regarding the nocturnal dipping and the BP variability, morning increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP, pulse pressure, post-prandial hypotension and correlation of 24-hour BP means. The statistical analysis used the Student's t test, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's linear correlation. RESULTS: The elderly women with WCH presented higher levels of SBP than the normotensive ones, between 8 am-12 pm (133 ± 8.0 mmHg vs 123 ± 9.0 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.001. The BP variability was higher in the WCH group only during the wakefulness period (between 7 am-11 pm, p = 0.02. A positive correlation was observed between the BMI and the SBP means at night, only in the elderly women with WCH (r = 0.578; p = 0.015 and r = 0.488; p = 0.055, respectively. CONCLUSION: The elderly women with WCH presented higher SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP means during the wakefulness period. In the early hours of the morning, the elderly women with WCH presented significantly higher SBP means.

  14. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  15. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  16. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  17. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  18. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  19. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  20. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    Full Text Available Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1 in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business linkages and increased household spending.

  1. [Effect of "Xingnao Kaiqiao Zhenfa" (Acupuncture Technique for Restoring Consciousness) Combined with Rehabilitation Training on Nerve Repair and Expression of Growth-associated Protein-43 of Peri-ischemic Cortex in Ischemic Stroke Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yan, Xing-Zhou; Li, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Min

    2017-06-25

    To observe the effect of "Xingnao Kaiqiao Zhenfa" (acupuncture technique for restoring consciousness) combined with enriched rehabilitation training on motor function and expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) of peri-ischemic cortex in ischemic stroke rats, so as to investigate its mechanism underlying improvement of ischemic stroke. SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation, model, rehabilitation and comprehensive rehabilitation groups, which were further divided into 3 time-points:7, 14 and 21 d ( n =6 in each). Cerebral ischemia(CI) model was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with heat-coagulation. The rehabilitation group was treated by enriched rehabilitation training, once a day. The comprehensive rehabilitation group was treated by acupuncture combined with enriched rehabilitation training. Acupuncture was applied to bilateral "Neiguan"(PC 6) and "Shuigou"(GV 26) for 30 min, once a day. The neurological function score, balance-beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were evaluated at the end of the corresponding treatment time. The expression of GAP-43 in peri-ischemic cortex was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the sham operation group, the scores of neurological function, beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly higher in the model group ( P beam walking and rotating-rod walking tests in the rehabilitation group compared with the model group on day 7 ( P >0.05). Compared with the model group at the other time points, the scores of neurological function, balance-beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly lower in the rehabilitation and comprehensive rehabilitation groups ( P beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly lower in the comprehensive rehabilitation group ( P <0.05). In comparison with the sham operation group, the number of GAP-43 positive cells of peri-ischemic cortex was significantly higher in the

  2. Halofuginone has anti-proliferative effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia by modulating the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena L de Figueiredo-Pontes

    Full Text Available Promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα expression in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL impairs transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling, leading to cell growth advantage. Halofuginone (HF, a low-molecular-weight alkaloid that modulates TGFβ signaling, was used to treat APL cell lines and non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice subjected to transplantation with leukemic cells from human chorionic gonadotrophin-PML-RARα transgenic mice (TG. Cell cycle analysis using incorporated bromodeoxyuridine and 7-amino-actinomycin D showed that, in NB4 and NB4-R2 APL cell lines, HF inhibited cellular proliferation (P<0.001 and induced apoptosis (P = 0.002 after a 24-hour incubation. Addition of TGFβ revealed that NB4 cells were resistant to its growth-suppressive effects and that HF induced these effects in the presence or absence of the cytokine. Cell growth inhibition was associated with up-regulation of TGFβ target genes involved in cell cycle regulation (TGFB, TGFBRI, SMAD3, p15, and p21 and down-regulation of MYC. Additionally, TGFβ protein levels were decreased in leukemic TG animals and HF in vivo could restore TGFβ values to normal. To test the in vivo anti-leukemic activity of HF, we transplanted NOD/SCID mice with TG leukemic cells and treated them with HF for 21 days. HF induced partial hematological remission in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen. Together, these results suggest that HF has anti-proliferative and anti-leukemic effects by reversing the TGFβ blockade in APL. Since loss of the TGFβ response in leukemic cells may be an important second oncogenic hit, modulation of TGFβ signaling may be of therapeutic interest.

  3. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  4. Evaluation of microleakage occurred in class V restoration prepared with Er:YAG laser and also with high speed, restored using composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Angelo Maercio Finochio

    2002-01-01

    The microleakage is one of the great problems found in restoring dentistry. In spite of adhesive system evolution, several materials have been studied intending to minimize or to eliminate the microleakage occurred between the tooth and restorative material. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal microleakage in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or high speed and restored with composite resin. One of the groups received the sodium bicarbonate jet while the other group have not received. Twenty teeth third extracted molars were sectioned in the sense medial-distal being obtained forty samples that were divided in four groups: Group I (G1): prepared with Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), E= 350 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 112,5 J/cm 2 . Preparing occlusion margin slice with 250 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 80,3 J/cm 2 . The prepared total area was irradiated with E=80 mJ/p, F=2 Hz and fluency of 25,75 J/cm 2 . Every prepared area was finally submitted to sodium bicarbonate jet. Group 2 (G2): it was employed the same parameters used on group 1, except the sodium carbonate jet application. Group 3 (G3): the cavities' prepare were executed with high speed rotation using diamond cylindrical point. The slice confection has been made with the same point with 45 degrees inclined, utilizing also the sodium carbonate jet in all prepared area. Group 4 (G4): it was executed similarly prepared to group 3, without the sodium bicarbonate jet. In all the groups the cavities were washed with water spray and drought with air jet. Dentin and enamel surfaces have been conditioned with phosphoric acid at 35%. All the samples of all groups were restored using the single bond system adhesive and composite resin Z250, kept at 37 deg C in stove during 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in silver nitrate solution at 50% for 24 hours while kept in darkness. The specimens were soaked in photo developing solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 6 hours

  5. Survey and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  6. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  7. A comparison between new dentinal adhesives (fifth generation and traditional varnish in microleakage reduction of amalgam restorations in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi M. Associate Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Microleakage presents the major cause for restorations failure in the oral cavity resulting in postoperative sensitivity, pulp irritation and secondary caries formation."nAim: The aim of this study was to compare two dentinal adhesive systems of fifth generation and copalite varnish in reducing microleakage of amalgam restorations in primary teeth."nMaterials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 100 class V amalgam restorations were prepared on the buccal or lingual surfaces of primary molar and canine teeth. Samples were randomly divided into four groups (25 samples each. No liner was used for the first group and the second group restorations were lined with copalite varnish. Two dentin adhesives, called Syntac C and Single Bond, were used for the third and fourth groups, respectively. At the next stage, the samples were immersed in 5% fuschin solution for 24 hours, then sectioned buccolingually, and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage evaluation."nResults: There was a significant difference between four groups statistically (PO.000I, Comparing"nfour groups, the first and fourth ones, demonstrated the most and the least microleakage, respectively."nConclusion: The present study showed that new dentinal adhesive systems caused microleakage"nreduction in amalgam restorations of primary teeth.

  8. Atropine and glycopyrrolate do not support bacterial growth-safety and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittzes, Balazs; Weiling, Zsolt; Batai, Istvan Zoard; Kerenyi, Monika; Batai, Istvan

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of bacterial growth in atropine and glycopyrrolate. Laboratory investigation. Standard microbiological methods were used to evaluate the impact of atropine and glycopyrrolate on the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Bacterial count was checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours. Atropine or glycopyrrolate did not support the growth of the above bacteria at any examined time at room temperature. Glycopyrrolate killed all of the examined strains (P < .05), whereas in atropine, only the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter were killed (P < .05). Drawing up atropine or glycopyrrolate at the beginning of the operating list and use within 24 hours if needed are a safe practice and do not pose infection hazard. We can also reduce hospital costs if we do not throw away these unused syringes following each case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  10. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  11. Effect of Different Prophylaxis Methods on Microleakage of Microfilled Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Kimyai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of different prophylaxis methods on microleakage of microfilled composite restorations. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, class V cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of 84 bovine teeth. The teeth were restored with Tetric N-Bond adhesive and Heliomolar composite resin. Subsequent to a thermocycling procedure and three months of storage in distilled water, the teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n=21: (1 prophylaxis with a rubber cup and pumice; (2 prophylaxis with a brush and pumice; (3 prophylaxis with air/powder polishing device; and (4 no prophylaxis (the control group. Then the teeth were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and sectioned for microleakage evaluation under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in occlusal and gingival microleakage between the groups (p=0.996 and p=0.860, respectively. In all the groups gingival margins exhibited significantly higher microleakage values compared to occlusal margins (p<0.0005. Conclusion. Prophylaxis methods had no adverse effect on marginal leakage of microfilled composite resin restorations.

  12. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P 0.05. In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003. AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05. Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite.

  13. Influence of restored koa in supporting bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben H.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation of Hawaiian forests has adversely impacted native wildlife, including forest birds, bats and arthropods. Restoration activities have included reforestation with the native koa (Acacia koa), a dominant canopy tree species that is easy to propagate, has high survivorship, and has fast growth rates. We review recent research describing the ecological benefits of koa restoration on wildlife colonization/use, plant dispersal, and native plant recruitment. In general, planting monotypic koa stands can provide forest habitats for species that need them but does not automatically lead to natural regeneration of a diverse forest species assemblage and may require additional restoration activities such as outplanting of other native plants and alien grass control to achieve more natural forest systems. Although early signs of forest and wildlife recovery have been encouraging, the goals of restoration for wildlife conservation versus commercial grade harvesting require different restoration methods.

  14. Regional restoration benchmarks for Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopmeyer, Stephanie A.; Lirman, Diego; Bartels, Erich; Gilliam, David S.; Goergen, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Sean P.; Johnson, Meaghan E.; Lustic, Caitlin; Maxwell, Kerry; Walter, Cory S.

    2017-12-01

    Coral gardening plays an important role in the recovery of depleted populations of threatened Acropora cervicornis in the Caribbean. Over the past decade, high survival coupled with fast growth of in situ nursery corals have allowed practitioners to create healthy and genotypically diverse nursery stocks. Currently, thousands of corals are propagated and outplanted onto degraded reefs on a yearly basis, representing a substantial increase in the abundance, biomass, and overall footprint of A. cervicornis. Here, we combined an extensive dataset collected by restoration practitioners to document early (1-2 yr) restoration success metrics in Florida and Puerto Rico, USA. By reporting region-specific data on the impacts of fragment collection on donor colonies, survivorship and productivity of nursery corals, and survivorship and productivity of outplanted corals during normal conditions, we provide the basis for a stop-light indicator framework for new or existing restoration programs to evaluate their performance. We show that current restoration methods are very effective, that no excess damage is caused to donor colonies, and that once outplanted, corals behave just as wild colonies. We also provide science-based benchmarks that can be used by programs to evaluate successes and challenges of their efforts, and to make modifications where needed. We propose that up to 10% of the biomass can be collected from healthy, large A. cervicornis donor colonies for nursery propagation. We also propose the following benchmarks for the first year of activities for A. cervicornis restoration: (1) >75% live tissue cover on donor colonies; (2) >80% survivorship of nursery corals; and (3) >70% survivorship of outplanted corals. Finally, we report productivity means of 4.4 cm yr-1 for nursery corals and 4.8 cm yr-1 for outplants as a frame of reference for ranking performance within programs. Such benchmarks, and potential subsequent adaptive actions, are needed to fully assess the

  15. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  16. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  17. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  18. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  19. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  1. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  2. Effectiveness of an infiltrant on sealing of composite restoration margins with/without artificial caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunoglu, Ozlem; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim Fevzi; Antonson, Sibel A; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Antonson, Donald; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a resin infiltrant (ICON) on marginal sealing ability of class II resin restorations with/without-caries. Forty-eight noncarious human pre-molar teeth were embedded and MO and DO preparations of standard dimensions were prepared. The left side of dentin margins of the cavities were left nonbonded (UB) while the right side were bonded using total etch-bonding agent and all restored with a Nanohybrid composite. The teeth were thermocycled and half of the specimens in the UB and B groups were subjected to an artificial caries process. ICON was applied to caries and noncaries subgroups following the manufacturer's directions. Impressions were made at each step: after the restorations were completed, thermocycling, artificial caries procedures, and infiltrant application and the silicone tag lengths were measured with a stereomicroscope. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37° C for 24 hours, sectioned and microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Selected samples and their replicas were assessed for marginal quality under a stereomicroscope and SEM. Statistical evaluation of the data were made using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests. While bonding application did not create a meaningful difference, the thermocycling and artificial caries significantly increased the gap length and microleakage (p < 0.05). ICON application was decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps which were previously occurred at the same cavities (p < 0.05). A resin infiltrant (ICON) application decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps, which previously occurred at the same cavities. Approximal application of resin infiltrant may increase the success of the class II composite restorations also reduced the risk of needing more complex restoration therapy.

  3. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  4. A Hoseus Banjo Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Intrigued by the sound of another recently restored example, I attempted to bring a sadly abused, bottom-of-the-line, Hoseus-equipped banjo up to playable condition. Reminders, lessons learned, and the joy of (albeit crude) handiwork made it well- worth the purchase price. The actual sound and physics of the Hoseus contraption remain hidden in the complex interaction of the various parts, as demonstrated by the accompanying sound samples.

  5. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  6. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  7. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  8. Land restoration after strip mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Recent legislation requires that lands surface mined for coal be returned to approximate original topography and vegetative cover be restored. Spoils provide poor rooting habitat because of extreme stoniness or excessive slope steepness which provide few niches for seeds to become lodged and also spoil may provide poor mineral nutrition, poor water retention and sometimes the spoil may even have chemical properties detrimental to plant growth (acidity, alkalinity or even unusually large amounts of toxic mineral elements i.e., copper, sodium). To provide a substrate better suited for plant growth, recommendations for restoration call for deep burial of unfavorable substrate components i.e., rocks and materials of unusual chemistry and the dressing of reshaped spoil with topsoil i.e., material with the most favorable properties for plant growth. Even though all the substrate requirements for healthy plant growth may be met, such as adding a form of available nitrogen as fertilizer, plants will not grow if weather conditions are extreme. For example, in very dry (desert) climates precipitation may be too scanty or too erratic to permit the successful establishment of many kinds of plants. Even under the most favorable conditions plant productivity averaged over a period of years is low. Also in very cold climates the growing season may be limited to only a few weeks in summer e.g., arctic and alpine tundra regions. This shortens the time available for photosynthesis and keeps plant productivity low.

  9. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1988-01-01

    in 0.1 ml isotonic saline injected into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot. The detector is connected to a memory unit allowing for storage of data. Due to the short distance, the recorded elimination rate constant must be corrected for combined convection and diffusion of the radioactive...... within normal range. SBF during day-time activities decreased by up to 50% postoperatively. This is caused by the reappearance of the local, sympathetic, veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response. During sleep SBF increased by 71%. The term postreconstructive hyperaemia seems improper, at least in a long-term...

  10. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  11. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ 18 O-H 2 O) as well as those of nitrate (δ 15 N-NO 3 − and δ 18 O-NO 3 − ) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal

  12. Response of pine hypocotyl sections to growth regulators and related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zakrzewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth response of Pinus silvestris hypocotyl sections to some synthetic growth regulators and related substances was studied. Elongation of hypocotyl sections was stimulated by naphtaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, in-dole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleaoetic amide, indoleacetic nitrile and coumarin. Indole-3-acetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid extended period of growth up to 16 and 24 hours, respectively. Growth was inhibited by kinetin, trans-cinnamic acid and 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid. No effect of gibberellic acid, tryptophan and biotin was observed.

  13. Landscape context mediates avian habitat choice in tropical forest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Leighton Reid

    Full Text Available Birds both promote and prosper from forest restoration. The ecosystem functions birds perform can increase the pace of forest regeneration and, correspondingly, increase the available habitat for birds and other forest-dependent species. The aim of this study was to learn how tropical forest restoration treatments interact with landscape tree cover to affect the structure and composition of a diverse bird assemblage. We sampled bird communities over two years in 13 restoration sites and two old-growth forests in southern Costa Rica. Restoration sites were established on degraded farmlands in a variety of landscape contexts, and each included a 0.25-ha plantation, island treatment (trees planted in patches, and unplanted control. We analyzed four attributes of bird communities including frugivore abundance, nectarivore abundance, migrant insectivore richness, and compositional similarity of bird communities in restoration plots to bird communities in old-growth forests. All four bird community variables were greater in plantations and/or islands than in control treatments. Frugivore and nectarivore abundance decreased with increasing tree cover in the landscape surrounding restoration plots, whereas compositional similarity to old-growth forests was greatest in plantations embedded in landscapes with high tree cover. Migrant insectivore richness was unaffected by landscape tree cover. Our results agree with previous studies showing that increasing levels of investment in active restoration are positively related to bird richness and abundance, but differences in the effects of landscape tree cover on foraging guilds and community composition suggest that trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and bird-mediated ecosystem functioning may be important for prioritizing restoration sites.

  14. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  15. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  16. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  17. Ammonia lowering reverses sarcopenia of cirrhosis by restoring skeletal muscle proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avinash; Davuluri, Gangarao; Silva, Rafaella Nascimento E; Engelen, Marielle P K J; Ten Have, Gabrie A M; Prayson, Richard; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss is a frequent, potentially reversible complication in cirrhosis that adversely affects clinical outcomes. Hyperammonemia is a consistent abnormality in cirrhosis that results in impaired skeletal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown (proteostasis). Despite the availability of effective ammonia-lowering therapies, whether lowering ammonia restores proteostasis and increases muscle mass is unknown. Myotube diameter, protein synthesis, and molecular responses in C2C12 murine myotubes to withdrawal of ammonium acetate following 24-hour exposure to 10 mM ammonium acetate were complemented by in vivo studies in the hyperammonemic portacaval anastomosis rat and sham-operated, pair-fed Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ammonia-lowering therapy by l-ornithine l-aspartate and rifaximin orally for 4 weeks. We observed reduced myotube diameter, impaired protein synthesis, and increased autophagy flux in response to hyperammonemia, which were partially reversed following 24-hour and 48-hour withdrawal of ammonium acetate. Consistently, 4 weeks of ammonia-lowering therapy resulted in significant lowering of blood and skeletal muscle ammonia, increase in lean body mass, improved grip strength, higher skeletal muscle mass and diameter, and an increase in type 2 fibers in treated compared to untreated portacaval anastomosis rats. The increased skeletal muscle myostatin expression, reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 function, and hyperammonemic stress response including autophagy markers normally found in portacaval anastomosis rats were reversed by treatment with ammonia-lowering therapy. Despite significant improvement, molecular and functional readouts were not completely reversed by ammonia-lowering measures. Ammonia-lowering therapy results in improvement in skeletal muscle phenotype and function and molecular perturbations of hyperammonemia; these preclinical studies complement previous studies on ammonia-induced skeletal muscle

  18. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  19. Fracture Resistance of Premolars Restored by Various Types and Placement Techniques of Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horieh Moosavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the fracture resistance of premolars with mesioocclusodistal preparations restored by different resin composites and placement techniques. Sixty premolars were randomly divided into two groups based on type of composite resin: Filtek P60 or Nulite F, and then each group was separated into three subgroups: bulk, centripetal, and fiber insert according to the type of placement method (n=10. Single-bond adhesive system was used as composite bonding according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were restored in Groups 1, 2, and 3 with Filtek P60 and in Groups 4, 5, and 6 with Nulite F. After being stored 24 hours at 37∘C, a 4 mm diameter steel sphere in a universal testing machine was applied on tooth buccal and lingual cusps at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Groups 3 and 6 showed higher fracture resistance than Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5. Among the placement techniques, the fiber insert method had a significant effect, but the type of composite was ineffective. The insertion technique in contrast to the type of material had a significant influence on the fracture resistance of premolar teeth.

  20. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  1. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The ecological - Societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Fred H.; Chimney, M.J.; Newman, S.; McCormick, P.; Gawlik, D.; Miao, S.; McVoy, C.; Said, W.; Newman, J.; Coronado, C.; Crozier, G.; Korvela, M.; Rutchey, K.

    2005-01-01

    The biotic integrity of the Florida Everglades, a wetland of immense international importance, is threatened as a result of decades of human manipulation for drainage and development. Past management of the system only exacerbated the problems associated with nutrient enrichment and disruption of regional hydrology. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) now being implemented by Federal and State governments is an attempt to strike a balance between the needs of the environment with the complex management of water and t