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Sample records for restored systemic accumulation

  1. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  2. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  3. Power system restoration: planning and simulation

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering Coll., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Assam (India); Sinha, A.K. [Inidan Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a restoration guidance simulator, which allows power system operator/planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. It also provides in an interactive mode the list of events, which becomes possible as the system grows during restoration. Further, the selected event is validated through a load flow and other analytical tools to show the consequences of implementing the planned event. (Author)

  4. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  5. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  6. 75 FR 71625 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    2010-11-24

    ... to start operating and delivering electric power without assistance from the electric system... and system restoration and reporting following disturbances. \\3\\ North American Electric Reliability... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System and determined that the proposed requirements are necessary to...

  7. 76 FR 16277 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    2011-03-23

    ... electric system. Blackstart units are essential to restart generation and restore power to the grid in the... Standard EOP-007-0. \\2\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, 72 FR... = $5,894,624. Title: Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System. Action: FERC 725A...

  8. Environmental Restoration Project - Systems Engineering Management Plan

    Anderson, T.D.

    1998-06-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes relevant Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) management processes and shows how they implement systems engineering. The objective of this SEMP is to explain and demonstrate how systems engineering is being approached and implemented in the ER Project. The application of systems engineering appropriate to the general nature and scope of the project is summarized in Section 2.0. The basic ER Project management approach is described in Section 3.0. The interrelation and integration of project practices and systems engineering are outlined in Section 4.0. Integration with sitewide systems engineering under the Project Hanford Management Contract is described in Section 5.0

  9. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  10. Advanced Protection & Service Restoration for FREEDM Systems

    Singh, Urvir

    A smart electric power distribution system (FREEDM system) that incorporates DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), SSTs (Solid State Transformers - that can limit the fault current to two times of the rated current) & RSC (Reliable & Secure Communication) capabilities has been studied in this work in order to develop its appropriate protection & service restoration techniques. First, a solution is proposed that can make conventional protective devices be able to provide effective protection for FREEDM systems. Results show that although this scheme can provide required protection but it can be quite slow. Using the FREEDM system's communication capabilities, a communication assisted Overcurrent (O/C) protection scheme is proposed & results show that by using communication (blocking signals) very fast operating times are achieved thereby, mitigating the problem of conventional O/C scheme. Using the FREEDM System's DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence) capability, an automated FLISR (Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration) scheme is proposed that is based on the concept of 'software agents' & uses lesser data (than conventional centralized approaches). Test results illustrated that this scheme is able to provide a global optimal system reconfiguration for service restoration.

  11. Ecosystem restoration: a systems approach to exotic plant control

    Karl D. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration is a systems approach because it relates to all of the thousands of interrelated and interacting systems within the ecosystem. Ecosystem restoration also changes your role in the forest from observer to participant. Some of the goals of ecosystem restoration are to improve the health, vigor, and diversity of the ecosystem--and these goals can and...

  12. Management systems for environmental restoration projects

    Harbert, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the success fo large environmental restoration projects depends on sound management systems to guide the team of organizations and individuals responsible for the project. Public concern about and scrutiny of these environmental projects increase the stakes for those involved in the management of projects. The Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) uses a system approach to performing and improving the work necessary to meet FUSRAP objectives. This approach to preforming and improving the work necessary to meet FUSRAP objectives. This approach is based upon management criteria embodied in DOE cost and schedule control system and the quality assurance requirements. The project team used complementary criteria to develop a system of related parts and processes working together to accomplish the goals of the project

  13. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  14. Anterior provisional restorations used to determine form, function, and esthetics for complex restorative situations, using all-ceramic restorative systems.

    Reshad, Mamaly; Cascione, Domenico; Kim, Tae

    2010-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the restoration of a large and visible maxillary anterior defect. The importance of proper diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication is emphasized. Irreversible treatment should only be rendered once patient approval has been obtained through objective evaluation with provisional restorations. The techniques presented in this article use a combination of ceramic systems currently available to satisfy functional demands while achieving acceptable esthetics. A controlled series of steps, where the provisional restorative components are being replaced by the definitive ones is planned. The only difference between the provisional and definitive restorative components is the material used. The definitive restorations consisted of an implant-supported zirconium oxide framework. Individual pressed porcelain restorations were luted to the framework and a natural tooth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Provisional restorations allow an objective form of communication. Vertical and horizontal transitional lines can be effectively masked with appropriate treatment planning and a skilled ceramist. Many traditional dental laboratory steps may be eliminated or simplified without compromising the definitive restorations.

  15. Examining the peat-accumulating potential of fen vegetation in the context of fed restoration of harvested peatlands

    Graf, M.; Rochefort, L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie, Peatland Ecology and Research Group

    2009-07-01

    The return of peat-accumulating function is an important long-term goal in peatland restoration. However, researchers do not yet know which vegetation groups increase the ability of ecosystems to accumulate peat in fens. This study assessed the decomposition rates of 3 vegetation species typical to undisturbed fen regions, and 3 species that spontaneously colonize harvested fens. All species were incubated in a harvest fen restoration site as well as at an undisturbed fen in order to compare decomposition rates according to different environmental conditions. The study showed that the average exponential decay coefficient for all species was higher at the harvested fen site. The decay coefficient varied only slightly between undisturbed and harvested fens, despite wide variations in hydrological conditions. Litter type had the most significant impact on decomposition rates. Annual primary production of the species was also measured in order to estimate the peat accumulating capacity of each species. Results showed that Scirpus cyperinus primary annual production rates were 3 times higher than the other studied species. It was concluded that the harvested fen sites have a higher peat-accumulating potential than undisturbed fens. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Evidence accumulation in the magnitude system.

    Anna Lambrechts

    Full Text Available Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively or after (retrospectively a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules.

  17. Aquifer restoration system improvement using an acid fluid purge

    Hodder, E.A.; Peck, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of a water pump acid purge procedure at a free-phase liquid hydrocarbon recovery site has increased water pump operational run times and improved the effectiveness of the aquifer restoration effort. Before introduction of this technique, pumps at some locations would fail within 14 days of operation due to CaSO 4 .2H 2 O (calcium sulfate) precipitate fouling. After acid purge implementation at these locations, pump operational life improved to an average of over 110 days. Other locations, where pump failures would occur within one month, were improved to approximately six months of operation. The increase in water pump run time has also improved the liquid hydrocarbon recovery rate by 2,000 gallons per day; representing a 20% increase for the aquifer restoration system. Other concepts tested in attempts to prolong pump life included: specially designed electric submersible pumps, submersible pump shrouds intended to reduce the fluid pressure shear that enhances CaSO 4 .2H 2 O precipitation, and high volume pneumatic gas lift pumps. Due to marginal pump life improvement or other undesirable operational features, these concepts were primarily ineffective. The purge apparatus utilizes an acid pump, hose, and discharge piping to deliver the solution directly into the inlet of an operating water pump. The water pumps used for this activity require stainless steel construction with Teflon or other acid resistant bearings and seals. Purges are typically conducted before sudden discharge pressure drops (greater than 15 psig) occur for the operating water pump. Depending on volume of precipitate accumulation and pump type, discharge pressure is restored after introduction of 10 to 40 gallons of hydrochloric acid solution. The acid purge procedure outlined herein eliminates operational downtime and does not require well head pump removal and the associated costs of industry cleaning procedures

  18. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  19. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  20. Bio-accumulation of lanthanum from lanthanum modified bentonite treatments in lake restoration

    Waajen, G.; Van Oosterhout, F.; Lürling, M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) is one of the available mitigating agents used for the reduction of the phosphorus (P) recycling in eutrophic lakes. The potential toxicity of the La from LMB to aquatic organisms is a matter of concern. In this study the accumulation of La was

  1. INDICTORS OF RESTORATION OF PROGRAM FACILITY OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM

    V. Frolov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of reliability indictors of program facilities of mechatronic systems are offered. The defaillance modes of program facilities are represent. A short review of model reliability of program facility is presented. The indictors of restoration, their mathematical determinations and application for the characteristics of program facility restoration are offered.

  2. Robustness Area Technique Developing Guidelines for Power System Restoration

    Paulo Murinelli Pesoti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy based technique called the Robustness Area (RA technique that measures power system robustness levels, as a helper for planning Power System Restorations (PSRs. The motivation is on account of the latest blackouts in Brazil, where the local Independent System Operator (ISO encountered difficulties related to circuit disconnections during the restoration. The technique identifies vulnerable and robust buses, pointing out system areas that should be firstly reinforced during PSR, in order to enhance system stability. A Brazilian power system restoration area is used to compare the guidelines adopted by the ISO with a more suitable new plan indicated by the RA tool. Active power and reactive power load margin and standing phase angle show the method efficiency as a result of a well balanced system configuration, enhancing the restoration performance. Time domain simulations for loop closures and severe events also show the positive impact that the proposed tool brings to PSRs.

  3. A systems approach to restoring degraded drylands

    Jeremy J. James; Roger L. Sheley; Todd Erickson; Kimberly S. Rollins; Michael H. Taylor; Kingsley W. Dixon

    2013-01-01

    Drylands support over 2 billion people and are major providers of critical ecosystem goods and services across the globe. Drylands, however, are one of the most susceptible biomes to degradation. International programmes widely recognize dryland restoration as key to combating global dryland degradation and ensuring future global sustainability. While the need to...

  4. Intelligent decision support algorithm for distribution system restoration.

    Singh, Reetu; Mehfuz, Shabana; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-01-01

    Distribution system is the means of revenue for electric utility. It needs to be restored at the earliest if any feeder or complete system is tripped out due to fault or any other cause. Further, uncertainty of the loads, result in variations in the distribution network's parameters. Thus, an intelligent algorithm incorporating hybrid fuzzy-grey relation, which can take into account the uncertainties and compare the sequences is discussed to analyse and restore the distribution system. The simulation studies are carried out to show the utility of the method by ranking the restoration plans for a typical distribution system. This algorithm also meets the smart grid requirements in terms of an automated restoration plan for the partial/full blackout of network.

  5. Bio-accumulation of lanthanum from lanthanum modified bentonite treatments in lake restoration.

    Waajen, G; van Oosterhout, F; Lürling, M

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) is one of the available mitigating agents used for the reduction of the phosphorus (P) recycling in eutrophic lakes. The potential toxicity of the La from LMB to aquatic organisms is a matter of concern. In this study the accumulation of La was investigated in the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, in chironomid larvae and in several fish species during periods up to five years following in situ LMB applications. The application of LMB increased the La concentration of exposed plants and animals. During the first growing season following LMB applications, the La content of E. nuttallii increased 78 fold (3.98-310.68 μg La g -1 DW) to 127 fold (2.46-311.44 μg La g -1 ). During the second growing season following application, the La content decreased but was still raised compared to plants that had not been exposed. The La content of chironomids was doubled in the two years following LMB application, although the increase was not significant. Raised La concentrations in fish liver, bone, muscle and skin were observed two and five years following to LMB application. Liver tissues showed the highest La increase, ranging from 6 fold (0.046-0.285 μg La g -1 DW) to ∼20 fold (0.080-1.886 μg La g -1 , and 0.122-2.109 μg La g -1 ) two years following application and from 6 fold (0.046-0.262 μg La g -1 ) to 13 fold (0.013-0.167 μg La g -1 ) after five years in pelagic and littoral fish. The La content of the liver from Anguilla anguilla (eel) had increased 94 fold (0.034-3.176 μg La g -1 ) two years and 133 fold (0.034-4.538 μg La g -1 ) five years following LMB application. No acute and chronic effects of La accumulation were observed and human health risks are considered negligible. We advocate the long-term study of effects of La accumulation following future LMB applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vulnerability of damage-accumulating systems

    Lind, Niels C.

    1996-01-01

    Disastrous failures have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. Quantified vulnerability can help designers and regulators to decide how much vulnerability is tolerable. Vulnerability of a system to a specified disturbance is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of the disturbed system to the probability of failure of the undisturbed system. This vulnerability can be specialized to particular system types. It is adapted here to systems that are expected to deteriorate while in service due to processes such as fatigue, creep, corrosion, aging, neglect or insufficient maintenance. Application is illustrated by vulnerability to fatigue under constant and variable stress

  7. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  8. Sequential Service Restoration for Unbalanced Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Butler-Purry, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    The resilience and reliability of modern power systems are threatened by increasingly severe weather events and cyber-physical security events. An effective restoration methodology is desired to optimally integrate emerging smart grid technologies and pave the way for developing self-healing smart grids. In this paper, a sequential service restoration (SSR) framework is proposed to generate restoration solutions for distribution systems and microgrids in the event of large-scale power outages. The restoration solution contains a sequence of control actions that properly coordinate switches, distributed generators, and switchable loads to form multiple isolated microgrids. The SSR can be applied for three-phase unbalanced distribution systems and microgrids and can adapt to various operation conditions. Mathematical models are introduced for three-phase unbalanced power flow, voltage regulators, transformers, and loads. Furthermore, the SSR problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model, and its effectiveness is evaluated via the modified IEEE 123 node test feeder.

  9. Use of the Empress all-ceramic restoration system.

    Goulet, M K

    1997-01-01

    New dental materials and techniques have been introduced in the past few years to fabricate aesthetic ceramic restorations with improved strength, biocompatibility, resistance to wear, and better fit. Aesthetic concerns and increasing demand for tooth-colored posterior restorations have led to a number of all-ceramic restorations such as IPS Empress (Ivoclar-Williams, Amherst, NY). The Empress system offers superior aesthetics and physical properties. New generation ceramics along with the current adhesive techniques have resulted in the ability to provide higher strength, therefore indicating crowns for posterior restorations as well. These materials are being used more frequently and in more extensive oral prosthetic rehabilitations such as the case that will be presented. We discuss the different properties and advantages of IPS Empress.

  10. Reliabitity study of the accumulator system for Angra-1 reactor

    Santos Maciel, C.C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The realibility of the Accumulator System of Angra 1 reactor is studied. The fault tree techniques is use for identification and evaluation of the probability of occurrence of the possible failure modes of the system. The study has as a guide the report WASH 1400 in which the analysis of the reliability of a Tipical PWR reactor of USA. Comparisons between results obtained for Accumulator System of Angra 1 and that published in the report WASH 1400 for the Accumulator System of the Typical Reactor are done. Critiques to the methodology used in the reportd WASH 1400 and an analysis of the sensitivity of the system in relation with its components are also done. (author) [pt

  11. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-10-13

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

  12. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M.

    1992-01-01

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides

  13. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Kinzey, Bruce R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  14. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DALAM SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA ANAK / Restorative Justice In Juvenile Justice System

    Randy Pradityo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anak sebagai generasi penerus bangsa sudah selayaknya mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Hal tersebut bertujuan dalam rangka pembinaan anak untuk mewujudkan sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu, diperlukan pula sarana dan prasarana hukum yang mengantisipasi segala permasalahan yang timbul. Sarana hukum ini bertujuan untuk mengantisipasi stigma atau cap jahat yang ditimbulkan ketika anak berhadapan dengan hukum, sekaligus memulihkan dan memasyarakatkan kembali anak tersebut. Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan mengalihkan atau menempatkan pelaku tindak pidana anak keluar dari sistem peradilan pidana serta memberikan alternatif bagi penyelesaian dengan pendekatan keadilan demi kepentingan terbaik bagi anak, yang kemudian dikenal dengan pendekatan restorative justice. Restorative justice yang merupakan implementasi konsep dari diversi telah dirumuskan dalam sistem peradilan pidana anak, namun sistem yang baik haruslah diiringi dengan suatu sikap yang dijiwai kehendak untuk memandang dan berkeyakinan bahwa dunia ini selalu menjadi lebih baik. Selain itu, hendaknya prinsip the best interest of the children selalu diutamakan ketika menangani anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum.   Children as the nation's next generation is already deserve special attention. It aims in order to develop the child to realize the quality of human resources. Therefore, it is also necessary legal infrastructure to anticipate any problems that arise. The legal means to anticipate stigma or stamp evil inflicted when the child against the law, as well as restoring and re-socialize the child. One solution is to divert or placing the offender children out of the criminal justice system as well as providing an alternative to the settlement with justice approach in the best interests of the child, who was then known as restorative justice approach. Restorative justice which is the implementation of the concept of diversion has been formulated in the juvenile justice system

  15. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  16. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2001-01-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable methodology. (author)

  17. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology] [and others

    2001-12-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable

  18. A New Power System Restoration Technique based on WAMS Partitioning

    N. V. Phanendra Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of a Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS is the ability to recover data during a communication failure. This paper presents a novel scheme of partitioning a PMU installed power network into a number of WAMS regions in order to make the power system restoration process simpler. This algorithm also proposes the optimal placement of Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs in each region to record the data from PMUs. This paper considers the restoration constraints like transformer equivalent bus, generation-load balance and the observability of region for the partitioning of power system. The proposed scheme is demonstrated with an IEEE-30 bus system. It is then applied on IEEE-39, IEEE-118 bus systems and on a Northern Regional Grid of the Indian Power Grid.

  19. Reliability of accumulators systems for Angra-I: a reavaluation

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    A new evaluation of reliability analysis for accumulators systems of Angra-1, based on a study done in 1979/80 is done the methodology used is the same (WASH-1400). An additional point, a computer program was used to obtain the minimum cuts. (author) [pt

  20. Enthalpy restoration in geothermal energy processing system

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1983-01-01

    A geothermal deep well energy extraction system is provided of the general type in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a relatively low temperature geothermal source by transferring thermal energy from the hot water to a working fluid for driving a primary turbine-motor and a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface. The superheated expanded exhaust from the primary turbine motor is conducted to a bubble tank where it bubbles through a layer of sub-cooled working fluid that has been condensed. The superheat and latent heat from the expanded exhaust of the turbine transfers thermal energy to the sub-cooled condensate. The desuperheated exhaust is then conducted to the condenser where it is condensed and sub-cooled, whereupon it is conducted back to the bubble tank via a barometric storage tank. The novel condensing process of this invention makes it possible to exploit geothermal sources which might otherwise be non-exploitable.

  1. An approach to evaluate switching overvoltages during power system restoration

    Sadeghkhani Iman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformer switching is one of the important stages during power system restoration. This switching can cause harmonic overvoltages that might damage some equipment and delay power system restoration. Core saturation on the energisation of a transformer with residual flux is a noticeable factor in harmonic overvoltages. This work uses artificial neural networks (ANN in order to estimate the temporary overvoltages (TOVs due to transformer energisation. In the proposed methodology, the Levenberg-Marquardt method is used to train the multilayer perceptron. The developed ANN is trained with the worst case of switching condition, and tested for typical cases. Simulated results for a partial 39-bus New England test system, show the proposed technique can accurately estimate the peak values and durations of switching overvoltages.

  2. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-01-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  3. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    restore complete fertility of a certain CMS line by various restorer lines (Tan et ... Keywords. rice; heterosis; three-way test cross; fertility restoration genetics. Journal of ..... plants indicating a strong genetic load of maintenance in. DE2. Table 8.

  4. The kicker magnet system for TRISTAN Accumulation Ring injection

    Sakamoto, Y.; Satoh, K.; Nakayama, H.

    1994-12-01

    The injection of electron beams to TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) was started in November 1983 and the positron injection started in November 1985. For the injection of electron and positron beams to AR, the unique kicker system was developed. In the kicker power supply the charging to the main capacitor was done with the resonant charge system together with the auxiliary charging unit. The impedance matching circuit was added to the kicker magnet for getting the required current form with least reflecting oscillation. In this paper we report the performance of this kicker system. (author)

  5. Coulomb Stress Accumulation along the San Andreas Fault System

    Smith, Bridget; Sandwell, David

    2003-01-01

    Stress accumulation rates along the primary segments of the San Andreas Fault system are computed using a three-dimensional (3-D) elastic half-space model with realistic fault geometry. The model is developed in the Fourier domain by solving for the response of an elastic half-space due to a point vector body force and analytically integrating the force from a locking depth to infinite depth. This approach is then applied to the San Andreas Fault system using published slip rates along 18 major fault strands of the fault zone. GPS-derived horizontal velocity measurements spanning the entire 1700 x 200 km region are then used to solve for apparent locking depth along each primary fault segment. This simple model fits remarkably well (2.43 mm/yr RMS misfit), although some discrepancies occur in the Eastern California Shear Zone. The model also predicts vertical uplift and subsidence rates that are in agreement with independent geologic and geodetic estimates. In addition, shear and normal stresses along the major fault strands are used to compute Coulomb stress accumulation rate. As a result, we find earthquake recurrence intervals along the San Andreas Fault system to be inversely proportional to Coulomb stress accumulation rate, in agreement with typical coseismic stress drops of 1 - 10 MPa. This 3-D deformation model can ultimately be extended to include both time-dependent forcing and viscoelastic response.

  6. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  7. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study.

    Hossam, A Eid; Rafi, A Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani Cr

    2013-06-01

    This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities. Nanofilled, hybrid, silorane and flowable composites were tested. Forty extracted teeth served as specimen and were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens, with each group receiving a different treatment and were examined by a Field emission scanning electron microscope. Bacterial suspension was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and then bacterial adhesion was analyzed by using image analyzing program. Flowable and silorane-based composites showed considerably smoother surfaces and lesser bacterial count in comparison to other types, proving that bacterial adhesion is directly proportional to surface roughness. The use of ultrasonic scalers affects the surfaces of composite restorative materials. Routine periodontal scaling should be carried out very carefully, and polishing of the scaled surfaces may overcome the alterations in roughness, thus preventing secondary caries, surface staining, plaque accumulation and subsequent periodontal inflammation. How to cite this article: Eid H A, Togoo R A, Saleh A A, Sumanth C R. Surface Topography of Composite Restorative Materials following Ultrasonic Scaling and its Impact on Bacterial Plaque Accumulation. An In-Vitro SEM Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):13-19.

  8. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment

  9. Resilience assessment of interdependent infrastructure systems: With a focus on joint restoration modeling and analysis

    Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience

  10. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microleakage of hydrophilic adhesive systems in Class V composite restorations.

    Amaral, C M; Hara, A T; Pimenta, L A; Rodrigues, A L

    2001-02-01

    To investigate the microleakage of four hydrophilic adhesive systems: one "multiple-bottles" (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus); two "one-bottle" (Single Bond, Stae); and one self-etching (Etch & Prime 3.0). 120 bovine incisor teeth were divided into four groups (n = 30) and Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction. The cavities were restored with the adhesive systems and with Z100 composite. The teeth were thermocycled 1,000 times between 5+/-2 degrees C and 55+/-2 degrees C with a dwell time of 1 min, and then placed in a 2% methylene blue dye (pH 7.0) for 4 hrs, washed and sectioned vertically through the center of the restorations. The qualitative evaluation was made by three examiners who distributed pre-established scores (0-4) for each tooth using a stereomicroscope at x30 magnification. In enamel margins little microleakage was observed and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis did not show differences. In dentin margins the Kruskal-Wallis and multiple comparison analyses were applied: microleakage was significantly greater with Stae (median 3) and Scotchbond MP Plus (median 4). Single Bond (median 1) and Etch & Prime 3.0 (median 2) showed the best results in dentin margins, and the statistical analysis did not demonstrate differences in microleakage among these groups.

  12. Development of Multi-Functional Voltage Restore System

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Koganezawa, Takehisa; Ogihara, Yoshinori; Mori, Kenjiro; Fukazu, Naoaki

    Recently, with the dawn of the electric deregulation, the installation of distributed generation with power electronics device has grown. This current causes a greater concern of power quality, primarily voltage disturbance for power companies, and their interest in power quality is peaking. Utilities are also interested in keeping their customers satisfied, as well as keeping them on-line and creating more revenue for the utility. As a countermeasure against the above surroundings, a variety type of devices based on power electronics has been developed to protect customers' load from power line voltage disturbance. One of them is the series type voltage restore. The series device is an active device, designed to provide a pure sinusoidal load voltage at all times, correcting voltage disturbance. Series type device compensates for voltage anomalies by inserting the ‘missing’ voltage onto the line through insertion transformer and inverter. This paper shows the setting guideline of target level to compensate voltage disturbance, that is, voltage dip, voltage harmonics, voltage imbalance and voltage flicker, and the design approach of the prototype of series voltage restores to accomplish the required compensation level. The prototype system gives satisfactory compensation performance through evaluation tests, which confirm the validity and effectiveness of the system.

  13. Peat-accumulating depositional systems of Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Staub, James R.; Esterle, Joan S.

    1994-02-01

    Many coal deposits originate in deltaic, estuarine, and coastal plain settings and a knowledge of interrelationships between the tectonic and depositional elements active at the time of sediment deposition is necessary to formulate basin scale models. The prograding coastal depositional systems of Sarawak all contain domed peat-accumulating environments in which low-ash, low-sulfur peats are being deposited in areas of active clastic siliciclastic sedimentation. These depositional systems are as large as 11,400 km 2 and individual peat deposits within systems are in excess of 20 m thick and 1000 km 2 in area. The geographic positions and drainage basin areas of each depositional system are controlled by fault and fold systems. Although prograding into the same receiving basin, individual system geomorphology is variable and ranges from a wave-dominated microtidal delta, to a wave-dominated meso- to macro-tidal delta/coastal plain system, to a tide-dominated macrotidal estuarine embayment along a 450 km stretch of coastline. System variation is a function of sediment supply, shelf and embayment geometry, wave climate, and tidal range. These factors, which control depositional system geomorphology, also control the resulting long axis orientation of the thick, domed peat deposits. The surface vegetation and internal characteristics of most domed peat deposits, however, are similar. Internal characteristics consist of basal high-ash, high-sulfur, degraded peats overlain by low-ash, low-sulfur, well preserved peats in vertical profile. These systems demonstrate variable responses to late Pleistocene/Holocene sea-level rise and, in these instances, the variation is most attributable to local differences in siliciclastic sediment supply, which is a function of the drainage basin area.

  14. Standing phase angle reduction for power system restoration

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering College (India). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Sinha, A.K. [IIT Khargpur (India). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a methodology for the reduction of standing phase angle (SPA) difference between two buses of a power system, which is essential before interconnecting a line between two buses. This problem is encountered normally during restoration operations of a power system. For this purpose, the standing phase angle difference between two specific buses is represented in terms of sensitivity factors associated with the change in real power injections at the buses. To arrive at the desired standing phase angle difference between two buses, the modified contribution at generation/load buses have been evaluated based on 'higher the sensitivity higher the participation' logic. This methodology acts as a direct help to reduce excessive SPA difference between two buses to an acceptable limit, which otherwise requires regulation of various generation levels on a trial and error basis. (author)

  15. Hydrological characteristics and problems of Calma hydro accumulation system

    Dolinaj Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Srem, as traditional farming, orchard and wine-growing region, faces the problem of shortage of water needed for agriculture. During the seventies of the last century brook valleys in the southern part of Fruska Gora loess plateau were intended to be dammed. Thus, artificial lakes could have been formed. It took long period of time to put these projects into practice and numerous projects have not started yet. After the dams had been built and lakes filled with water, planners faced hydro-geological problems at many locations. Nevertheless, these accumulations fulfill their primary function, i.e. they ensure water for irrigation and protect agricultural land from floods. There is a hydroaccumulation system, Calma lakes, near the village of Calma. Its primary function was to ensure water supplies for agriculture, but eventually it got new significance which can be noticed in fish raising and sport fishing development.

  16. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modeling and simulation of dynamic voltage restorer in power system

    Abdel Aziz, M.A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many loads subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, unbalance, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. These loads encompass a wide range of equipment which are very sensitive to voltage disturbances. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances in addition to this, it mitigates current harmonics distortion. It is a series connected power electronic based device. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to disturbances. This work describes a proposal of the DVR to improve power quality distribution (medium voltage) system. The control of the compensation voltage and harmonics cancellation in the DVR is based on Adaptive Noise Canceling (ANC) technique. Simulation results carried out by PSCAD/EMTDC to investigate the performance of the proposed method.

  18. Preliminary design of a priority system for DOE environmental restoration

    Longo, T.P.; Whitfield, R.P.; Cotton, T.A.; Merkhofer, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    For over 40 yr, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies have managed the production of nuclear materials and weapons for national defense. Operations at facilities in ∼20 states have produced hundreds, perhaps thousands, of contaminated sites. The DOE is committed to cleaning up these sites over a 30-yr period. The cleanup will cost tens of billions of dollars. To assist in the process of formulating and allocating the budget for cleaning up these sites, DOE is developing a risk-based priority system. The system will be a formal decision-aiding tool addressing health and safety risks as well as social, technical, economic, and policy issues. It will ensure that funding decisions reflect the primary goals of protecting public health and the environment and complying with regulatory requirements and agreements. The system also will ensure that decisions are made in a technically defensible and even-handed manner. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information useful for two types of DOE budgetary decisions. One is identifying desirable budget levels and formulating DOE's annual budget request. The other is allocating in the most effective way the funds appropriated by Congress. The priority system will initially apply to DOE's environmental restoration (ER) program, which involves assessing, cleaning up, and closing inactive waste sites and surplus facilities

  19. Joint image restoration and location in visual navigation system

    Wu, Yuefeng; Sang, Nong; Lin, Wei; Shao, Yuanjie

    2018-02-01

    Image location methods are the key technologies of visual navigation, most previous image location methods simply assume the ideal inputs without taking into account the real-world degradations (e.g. low resolution and blur). In view of such degradations, the conventional image location methods first perform image restoration and then match the restored image on the reference image. However, the defective output of the image restoration can affect the result of localization, by dealing with the restoration and location separately. In this paper, we present a joint image restoration and location (JRL) method, which utilizes the sparse representation prior to handle the challenging problem of low-quality image location. The sparse representation prior states that the degraded input image, if correctly restored, will have a good sparse representation in terms of the dictionary constructed from the reference image. By iteratively solving the image restoration in pursuit of the sparest representation, our method can achieve simultaneous restoration and location. Based on such a sparse representation prior, we demonstrate that the image restoration task and the location task can benefit greatly from each other. Extensive experiments on real scene images with Gaussian blur are carried out and our joint model outperforms the conventional methods of treating the two tasks independently.

  20. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component report for the Ground Demonstration System Accumulator

    Brainard, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Model Number ORC1A3A01 System Accumulator for the Kilowatt Isotope Power System was expulsion tested and demonstrated to be in compliance with the requirements of Sundstrand Explusion Test Procedure, TP 400. Test requirements of TP 400 were extracted from the Kilowatt Isotope Power System, Ground Demonstration System Test Plan

  1. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Zhihong Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  2. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  3. Construction of vacuum system for Tristan accumulation ring

    Ishimaru, H.; Horikoshi, G.; Kobayashi, M.; Kubo, T.; Mizuno, H.; Momose, T.; Narushima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, H.

    1983-01-01

    An all aluminum-alloy vacuum system for the TRISTAN accumulation ring is now under construction. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are preferred materials for ultrahigh vacuum systems of large electron storage rings because of their good thermal conductivity, extremely low outgassing rate, and low residual radioactivity. Vacuum beam chambers for the dipole and quadrupole magnets are extruded using porthole dies. The aluminum alloy 6063-T6 provides superior performance in extrusion. For ultrahigh vacuum performance, a special extrusion technique is applied which, along with the outgassing procedure used, is described in detail. Aluminum alloy 3004 seamless elliptical bellows are inserted between the dipole and quadrupole magnet chambers. These bellows are produced by the hydraulic forming of a seamless tube. The seamless bellows and the beam chambers are joined by fully automatic welding. The ceramic chambers for the kicker magnets, the fast bump magnets, and the slow beam intensity monitor are inserted in the aluminum alloy beam chambers. The ceramic chamber (98% alumina) and elliptical bellows are brazed with brazing sheets (4003-3003-4003) in a vacuum furnace. The brazing technique is described. The inner surface of the ceramic chamber is coated with a TiMo alloy by vacuum evaporation to permit a smooth flow of the RF wall current. Other suitable aluminum alloy components, including fittings, feedthroughs, gauges, optical windows, sputter ion pumps, turbomolecular pumps, and valves have been developed; their fabrication is described

  4. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  5. Inhibitory interneuron progenitor transplantation restores normal learning and memory in ApoE4 knock-in mice without or with Aβ accumulation.

    Tong, Leslie M; Djukic, Biljana; Arnold, Christine; Gillespie, Anna K; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Wang, Max M; Zhang, Olivia; Knoferle, Johanna; Rubenstein, John L R; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Huang, Yadong

    2014-07-16

    Excitatory and inhibitory balance of neuronal network activity is essential for normal brain function and may be of particular importance to memory. Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, two major players in Alzheimer's disease (AD), cause inhibitory interneuron impairments and aberrant neuronal activity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in AD-related mouse models and humans, leading to learning and memory deficits. To determine whether replacing the lost or impaired interneurons rescues neuronal signaling and behavioral deficits, we transplanted embryonic interneuron progenitors into the hippocampal hilus of aged apoE4 knock-in mice without or with Aβ accumulation. In both conditions, the transplanted cells developed into mature interneurons, functionally integrated into the hippocampal circuitry, and restored normal learning and memory. Thus, restricted hilar transplantation of inhibitory interneurons restores normal cognitive function in two widely used AD-related mouse models, highlighting the importance of interneuron impairments in AD pathogenesis and the potential of cell replacement therapy for AD. More broadly, it demonstrates that excitatory and inhibitory balance are crucial for learning and memory, and suggests an avenue for investigating the processes of learning and memory and their alterations in healthy aging and diseases. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349506-10$15.00/0.

  6. The Proprioceptive System Regulates Morphologic Restoration of Fractured Bones

    Ronen Blecher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful fracture repair requires restoration of bone morphology and mechanical integrity. Recent evidence shows that fractured bones of neonatal mice undergo spontaneous realignment, dubbed “natural reduction.” Here, we show that natural reduction is regulated by the proprioceptive system and improves with age. Comparison among mice of different ages revealed, surprisingly, that 3-month-old mice exhibited more rapid and effective natural reduction than newborns. Fractured bones of null mutants for transcription factor Runx3, lacking functional proprioceptors, failed to realign properly. Blocking Runx3 expression in the peripheral nervous system, but not in limb mesenchyme, recapitulated the null phenotype, as did inactivation of muscles flanking the fracture site. Egr3 knockout mice, which lack muscle spindles but not Golgi tendon organs, displayed a less severe phenotype, suggesting that both receptor types, as well as muscle contraction, are required for this regulatory mechanism. These findings uncover a physiological role for proprioception in non-autonomous regulation of skeletal integrity.

  7. Impact of SONET digital cross-connect system architecture on distributed restoration

    Wu, Tsong-ho; Kobrinski, H.; Lakshman, T.V.

    1994-01-01

    The viability of distributed control restoration using Digital Cross-Connect Systems (DC's) depends on its capability for restoring services within specified time requirements, and its economics for providing restoration compared to other alternatives. In this paper, we report a Bellcore study for the impact of the DCS architecture on distributed restoration. This study concludes that currently proposed distributed control DCS self-healing schemes may not meet the 2-s restoration objective for large metropolitan Local Exchange Carrier's networks, regardless of the distributed algorithm used, if the present DCS system architecture which uses serial message processing and serial path cross-connection remains unchanged. This paper also discusses several DCS architecture enhancement options, including a parallel processing/cross-connect DCS architecture, which may improve the service restoration time. 20 refs

  8. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    Shin, J K; Lorenz, J

    2010-01-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor

  9. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    Shin, J K [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lorenz, J [Chair of Systems Design, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2010-06-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor.

  10. On the restoration of symmetry in paired Fermion systems

    Flocard, H.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of symmetry restoration as treated by the method of variation after projection (VAP) on good quantum numbers. We show that for compact groups, the convergence of the connected-linked expansion of the VAP kernels over the physically relevant interval of integration of the pairing gauge angle is not guaranteed. We propose instead a method which generates approximations of increasing precision which are periodic with respect to the gauge angle while differing from truncations of the Fourier expansion of the VAP kernels. For the projection on good particle number in paired fermion systems, this new approach is shown to be equivalent to an expansion in powers of the pairing tensor. For the lowest order approximation, an analytical integration over the gauge angle is performed explicitly. It provides the algebraic forms of the single particle Hamiltonian and of the pairing field entering generalized Hartree endash Fock endash Bogoljubov equations. Contrary to most approximations, the validity of the expressions for the energy and mean values of operators thus obtained is not a priori restricted where the fluctuation of the operator associated with the broken symmetry is large. We also derive the first-order correction to the pairing-order parameter. We test the quality of the proposed method on a non-trivial soluble model. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  11. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...... distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can...

  12. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  13. Modernizing Distribution System Restoration to Achieve Grid Resiliency Against Extreme Weather Events: An Integrated Solution

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Ton, Dan

    2017-07-07

    Recent severe power outages caused by extreme weather hazards have highlighted the importance and urgency of improving the resilience of the electric power grid. As the distribution grids still remain vulnerable to natural disasters, the power industry has focused on methods of restoring distribution systems after disasters in an effective and quick manner. The current distribution system restoration practice for utilities is mainly based on predetermined priorities and tends to be inefficient and suboptimal, and the lack of situational awareness after the hazard significantly delays the restoration process. As a result, customers may experience an extended blackout, which causes large economic loss. On the other hand, the emerging advanced devices and technologies enabled through grid modernization efforts have the potential to improve the distribution system restoration strategy. However, utilizing these resources to aid the utilities in better distribution system restoration decision-making in response to extreme weather events is a challenging task. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated solution: a distribution system restoration decision support tool designed by leveraging resources developed for grid modernization. We first review the current distribution restoration practice and discuss why it is inadequate in response to extreme weather events. Then we describe how the grid modernization efforts could benefit distribution system restoration, and we propose an integrated solution in the form of a decision support tool to achieve the goal. The advantages of the solution include improving situational awareness of the system damage status and facilitating survivability for customers. The paper provides a comprehensive review of how the existing methodologies in the literature could be leveraged to achieve the key advantages. The benefits of the developed system restoration decision support tool include the optimal and efficient allocation of repair crews

  14. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  15. Application of Science-Based Restoration Planning to a Desert River System

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  16. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to Conceptualize and Model Wetlands Restoration

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and orga...

  17. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    and relatively low cost. Thus, many countries are increasing the wind power penetration in their power system step by step, such as Denmark, Spain and Germany. The incremental wind power penetration brings a lot of new issues in operation and programming. The power system sometimes will operate close to its...... stable limits. Once the blackout happens, a well-designed restoration strategy is significant. This paper focuses on how to ameliorate the power system restoration procedures to adapt the high wind power penetration and how to take full advantages of the wind power plants during the restoration....... In this paper, the possibility to exploit the stochastic wind power during restoration was discussed, and a Dynamic Programming (DP) method was proposed to make wind power contribute in the restoration rationally as far as possible. In this paper, the method is tested and verified by a modified IEEE 30 Buses...

  18. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  19. APPLICATION OF 3D DIGITAL SCANNING AND CAD/CAM SYSTEMS FOR ZIRCONIA INDIRECT RESTORATIONS

    Mariela Tsanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Object: To study the CAD/CAM systems’ possibilities for manufacturing Zirconia indirect restorations for restoring vital, vastly devastated teeth. Material and methods: Five patients with vital, heavily destroyed molars were included in the clinical study. The teeth were prepared according to requirements for Zirconia restorations. The impressions were taken with 3D intraoral scanner. The acquired data is transmitted electronically for designing the future restoration by the CAD software. After designing, the restoration is milled by the CAM module and sintered, according to a specially projected programme in accordance with the manufacturing demands. After clinical check-up, the restorations are glazed, air-blasted and cemented. Results: Setting up an individual protocol for working with CAD/CAM systems for restoring vital, severely devastated teeth with Zirconia indirect restorations. A research is made on 3D digital scanning, occlusal and proximal modeling, virtual articulation, analyzing the incline of the cavity walls, the thickness of the restoration and the possibilities for restoring the anatomy of the tooth according to patient’s individual characteristics of the teeth’s arch. Conclusion: The scanning and design process should be evaluated with the same quality control as when using traditional methods. The CAD software requires excellent preparation of the tooth cavity and digital scanning. This is the reason why these systems require a thorough understanding of CAD/CAM calibration and parameters of the product to be clinically acceptable. Once understood, CAD/CAM dentistry can create detailed and accurate restorations that function and perform with great success and longevity.

  20. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer restorative system: a 6-year evaluation.

    Gurgan, Sevil; Kutuk, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Oztas, Sema Seval; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a glass ionomer (GI) restorative system in the restoration of posterior teeth compared with a micro-filled hybrid posterior composite. A total of 140 (80 Cl1 and 60 Cl2) lesions in 59 patients were restored with a GI system (Equia) or a micro hybrid composite (Gradia Direct). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and yearly during 6 years according to the modified-USPHS criteria. Negative replicas at each recall were observed under SEM to evaluate surface characteristics. Data were analyzed with Cohcran's Q and McNemar's tests (p evaluated in 47 patients with a recall rate of 79.6% at 6 years. Significant differences were found in marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration for both restorative materials for Cl1 and Cl2 restorations (p  0.05). A significant decrease in color match was observed in Equia restorations (p performance after 6 years. SEM evaluations were in accordance with the clinical findings. Both materials showed a good clinical performance for the restoration of posterior teeth during the 6-year evaluation. The clinical effectiveness of Equia and Gradia Direct Posterior was acceptable in Cl1 and Cl2 cavities subsequent to 6-year evaluation.

  1. Heuristic method for restoration of the service in electric power distribution systems

    Lemoine, Cesar Arango; Lopez Lezama, Jesus Maria; Gonzalez Londono, Monica Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    When there is an outage in a radial electrical distribution system, the isolation of the faulted section will result in the isolation of some portions of the feeder downstream from the affected area. Therefore, the next step will be to restore the service to the affected users. This restoration must be done as quickly as possible considering topology and feeder capacity restrictions. This paper describes an algorithm for service restoration via feeder reconfiguration. Results are shown under a distribution system with 11 buses and 3 main feeders

  2. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    Intan Karangan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine how the application of the concept of restorative justice in accordance with Law No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Child has provided a new concept in the criminal justice system, especially those in the juvenile justice system. Related to the concept of Restorative Justice or restorative justice is a resolution processes involving perpetrators, victims, families, and other relevant parties in a criminal act, jointly seek solutions to the offense and its implications by emphasizing restoration and not retribution

  3. Coastal data accumulation potentials for operational systems using airplanes

    Kuhner, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Potential users of SEASAT for remote sensing of coastal zone phenomena have established a need for resolutions beyond those attainable with SEASAT-A. One method of obtaining higher resolutions would be to fly the instruments aboard airplanes rather than a satellite. The number of aircraft that would be required is estimated along with the rate at which data would be accumulated. Only the East Coast from Maine to Key West is considered. Three different coverage widths are used. The narrowest area is wide enough to cover all bay and estuary regions along the coast; a wider area includes all ocean out to twelve nautical miles from the coast; the maximum size area considered extends out to 200 nautical miles from the coast.

  4. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  5. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  6. Microgrids for Service Restoration to Critical Load in a Resilient Distribution System

    Xu, Yin; Liu, Chen-Ching; Schneider, Kevin P.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Ton, Dan T.

    2018-01-01

    icrogrids can act as emergency sources to serve critical loads when utility power is unavailable. This paper proposes a resiliency-based methodology that uses microgrids to restore critical loads on distribution feeders after a major disaster. Due to limited capacity of distributed generators (DGs) within microgrids, dynamic performance of the DGs during the restoration process becomes essential. In this paper, the stability of microgrids, limits on frequency deviation, and limits on transient voltage and current of DGs are incorporated as constraints of the critical load restoration problem. The limits on the amount of generation resources within microgrids are also considered. By introducing the concepts of restoration tree and load group, restoration of critical loads is transformed into a maximum coverage problem, which is a linear integer program (LIP). The restoration paths and actions are determined for critical loads by solving the LIP. A 4-feeder, 1069-bus unbalanced test system with four microgrids is utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The method is applied to the distribution system in Pullman, WA, resulting in a strategy that uses generators on the Washington State University campus to restore service to the Hospital and City Hall in Pullman.

  7. Optimization of hybrid imaging systems based on maximization of kurtosis of the restored point spread function

    Demenikov, Mads

    2011-01-01

    to optimization results based on full-reference image measures of restored images. In comparison with full-reference measures, the kurtosis measure is fast to compute and requires no images, noise distributions, or alignment of restored images, but only the signal-to-noise-ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America.......I propose a novel, but yet simple, no-reference, objective image quality measure based on the kurtosis of the restored point spread function. Using this measure, I optimize several phase masks for extended-depth-of-field in hybrid imaging systems and obtain results that are identical...

  8. HEIS: An integrated information system for environmental restoration and monitoring at Hanford

    Tzemos, S.; Kissinger, B.

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has about 1500 waste sites that contain a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive contaminants. After many years of environmental monitoring to assess the impact of Hanford operations to the environment, the Site`s mission is shifting to environmental restoration. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is being developed to provide advanced tools to (1) support environmental restoration and routine site-wide monitoring, and (2) aid the scientists in understanding and conducting the restoration efforts. This paper describes some of the highlights and distinctive features of HEIS.

  9. HEIS: An integrated information system for environmental restoration and monitoring at Hanford

    Tzemos, S.; Kissinger, B.

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has about 1500 waste sites that contain a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive contaminants. After many years of environmental monitoring to assess the impact of Hanford operations to the environment, the Site's mission is shifting to environmental restoration. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is being developed to provide advanced tools to (1) support environmental restoration and routine site-wide monitoring, and (2) aid the scientists in understanding and conducting the restoration efforts. This paper describes some of the highlights and distinctive features of HEIS.

  10. Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els). In the second cavity a 1-step HEMA......Objective: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. Material and methods: 139 Class II restorations were placed in 67 patients......-free self-etch adhesive was used (AdheSe One F). The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 6 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. Results: Three molar teeth showed mild post-operative sensitivity...

  11. Information system analysis of an e-learning system used for dental restorations simulation.

    Bogdan, Crenguţa M; Popovici, Dorin M

    2012-09-01

    The goal of using virtual and augmented reality technologies in therapeutic interventions simulation, in the fixed prosthodontics (VirDenT) project, is to increase the quality of the educational process in dental faculties, by assisting students in learning how to prepare teeth for all-ceramic restorations. Its main component is an e-learning virtual reality-based software system that will be used for the developing skills in grinding teeth, needed in all-ceramic restorations. The complexity of the domain problem that the software system dealt with made the analysis of the information system supported by VirDenT necessary. The analysis contains the following activities: identification and classification of the system stakeholders, description of the business processes, formulation of the business rules, and modelling of business objects. During this stage, we constructed the context diagram, the business use case diagram, the activity diagrams and the class diagram of the domain model. These models are useful for the further development of the software system that implements the VirDenT information system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Systems Thinking approach to post-disaster restoration of maritime transportation systems

    Lespier, Lizzette Pérez; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    A Systems Thinking approach is used to examine elements of a maritime transportation system that are most likely to be impacted by an extreme event. The majority of the literature uses a high-level view that can fail to capture the damage at the sub-system elements. This work uses a system dynamics simulation for a better view and understanding of the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, as a whole system and uses Hurricane Georges (1998), as a representative disruptive event. The model focuses on the impacts of natural disasters at the sub-system level with a final goal of determining the sequence needed to restore an ocean-going port to its pre-event state. This work in progress details model development and outlines steps for using real-world information to assist maritime port manager planning and recommendations for best practices to mitigate disaster damage.

  13. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  14. Use of digital impression systems with intraoral scanners for fabricating restorations and fixed dental prostheses.

    Takeuchi, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Furuchi, Mika; Sato, Yohei; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2018-01-01

    Accurate impressions are essential in fabri-cating dental restorations and fixed dental prostheses. During the last decade, digital impression systems have improved substantially. This review discusses the accuracy of digital impression systems for fabrication of dental restorations and fixed dental prostheses. A literature search in PubMed was performed for the period from July 2010 through June 2017. The search keywords were Cerec, digital impression, direct digitalization, indirect digitalization, and intraoral scanner. Only relevant studies are summarized and discussed in this review. In general, the latest systems have considerably reduced the time required for impression making, and the accuracy and marginal fit of digital impression systems have recently improved. Restorations and fixed dental prostheses fabricated with currently available digital impression systems and intraoral scanners exhibit clinically acceptable ranges of marginal gap in both direct and indirect procedures.

  15. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF ARSENIC FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  16. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF CONTAMINANTS FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  17. Role of native and exotic woody vegetation in soil restoration in active gully systems (southern Ecuador)

    Borja Ramon, Pablo; Alvarado Moncayo, Dario; Vanacker, Veerle; Cisneros, Pedro; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Revegetation projects in degraded lands have the potential to recover essential soil functions. If vegetation restoration is combined with bioengineering techniques, such as the construction of retention dams in active gully systems, soil restoration could be enhanced. One important aspect of this process is the role of vegetation on restoration of soil chemical and physical properties. There is currently a lack of knowledge on the potential of soil restoration in active badland systems, as most studies have concentrated on the direct and visible effect of revegetation on erosion control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of revegetation and bioengineering works on the restoration of soil physical and chemical properties. The analyses are realized in a highly degraded area of 3 km2, located in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). First, the soil physical and/or chemical parameters that are most sensitive to track environmental change were evaluated. Second, the role of vegetation on soil restoration was quantified. . Soil samples were taken in sites with different vegetation cover, land use and physiographic position. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: volumetric water content (θsat, θact), bulk density, pH, texture, organic matter, C and N content. Our first results do not show a clear relationship between volumetric water content at saturation (θsat), bulk density, or C content. The saturation water content does not vary significantly between different sites, or land use types. However, significant differences are found between sites at different stages of restoration; and this for most chemical and physical soil properties. Vegetation cover (%) appears to exert a strong control on the C content in the mineral soils. The highest C values are found in soils of forest plantations with Eucalyptus and Pinus species. These plantations are located in areas that were previously affected by active

  18. Towards a decision support system for stream restoration in the Netherlands: an overview of restoration projects and future needs

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Stream restoration is one of the answers to the lowland stream deterioration. For making proper choices in stream restoration, one firstly needs to understand the complex spatial and temporal interactions between physical, chemical and biological components in the stream ecosystem. Several

  19. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  20. Selection of Non-Restorable Reserved Energy Process Control and Management Systems

    V. A. Anischenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to selection of non-restorable continuously reserved discrete control and management systems of electric and heat and power processes. Two problems concerning system optimization on the basis of the following criteria – their reliability and cost have been solved in the paper. 

  1. The Relevance of the Doctrine on Restorative Justice in the Indonesian Sentencing System

    Bambang Waluyo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Referring on the development of criminal law recently, it is inevitable to reform the criminal law through changes on the Indonesian Criminal Code (KUHP. Being derived from the foreign law (relic of the colonial era, the Criminal Code has been obsolete, injustice, outmoded and unrealistic irrelevant for the present reality. The type of research employed in this paper is normative research, reviewing the restorative justice principle from the perspective of the criminal law system, with the aim of constructing a restorative justice concept which is ideal to be applied in the Indonesian criminal law system. The concept of restorative justice is an approach of problem solving that emphasizes the recovery of victims and to restore the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim and to their respective communities. By using such approach, the parties are expected to reach a mutual agreement related to the settlement of disputes which expected to harmonize the relationship of the parties prior the occurrence of the crime. On the practical level, the principles on restorative justice for the settlement of criminal case may need to be implemented imminently as part of the criminal system in Indonesia.

  2. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study

    Hossam, A. Eid; Rafi, A. Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani CR

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities.

  3. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  4. Fast digital zooming system using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration.

    Kang, Wonseok; Jeon, Jaehwan; Yu, Soohwan; Paik, Joonki

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast digital zooming system for mobile consumer cameras using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration methods. The proposed interpolation algorithm performs edge refinement along the initially estimated edge orientation using directionally steerable filters. Either the directionally weighted linear or adaptive cubic-spline interpolation filter is then selectively used according to the refined edge orientation for removing jagged artifacts in the slanted edge region. A novel image restoration algorithm is also presented for removing blurring artifacts caused by the linear or cubic-spline interpolation using the directionally adaptive truncated constrained least squares (TCLS) filter. Both proposed steerable filter-based interpolation and the TCLS-based restoration filters have a finite impulse response (FIR) structure for real time processing in an image signal processing (ISP) chain. Experimental results show that the proposed digital zooming system provides high-quality magnified images with FIR filter-based fast computational structure.

  5. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  6. Steroids accumulate in the rearing water of commercial recirculating aquaculture systems

    Mota, V.C.; Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Canário, A.V.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on steroid concentrations in the rearing water of aquaculture systems and whether they accumulate in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Therefore this study aimed at determining (1) the concentrations and variation of cortisol and sex steroids in RAS, (2) the

  7. Functional evolution and accumulation of technological innovation systems: the case of renewable energy in East Africa

    Tigabu, A.D.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; van Beukering, P.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the historical development of innovation systems related to biogas and improved cooking stove technologies in Rwanda and Kenya by applying the 'functions approach'. It argues that the accumulation of functions in these four renewable energy technological innovation systems (TISs)

  8. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. The objective of the GISC development project is to support these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs

  9. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks, such as the cleanup of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. In addition, hazardous operations, which in the past have been completed by technicians, are under scrutiny because of the high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Traditional remote operations have, unfortunately, proven to also have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. However, recent advances in the integration of sensors and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment has shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems by providing faster and safer remote systems. The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the generic intelligent system controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. The GISC employs a highly modular architecture employing distributed real-time computing resources for speed and efficiency of computation. Currently, the graphics interface of GISC has been implemented on a Unix-based Silicon Graphics computer using commercial animation graphics software modified for real-time updating from sensory systems. A first implementation of GISC has been completed and is currently in use at Hanford, Washington, as part of the underground storage tank robotics technology development program

  10. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil-crop systems: a review for wheat and corn.

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Liao, Renkuan; Hu, Yaqi

    2017-06-01

    The health risks arising from heavy metal pollution (HMP) in agricultural soils have attracted global attention, and research on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil-plant systems is the basis for human health risk assessments. This review studied the accumulation of seven typical heavy metals-Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn-in soil-corn and soil-wheat systems. The findings indicated that, in general, wheat was more likely to accumulate heavy metals than corn. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the seven heavy metals in wheat and corn grains decreased exponentially with their average concentrations in soil. The seven heavy metals were ranked as follows, in ascending order of accumulation in corn grains: Pb < Cr < Zn < As < Cu < Cd accumulation in wheat grains, their ranking was as follows: Zn < Pb < Cr < Cu < As < Hg

  12. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  13. FUEL SUPPLY IN ACCUMULATOR DIESEL SYSTEMS WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROL AT STARTING REGIME

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains review and analysis of fuel supply process in accumulator diesel systems with electronic control at starting regime. The necessity has been shown to  develop and use programs of mathematic simulation pertaining to fuel supply processes with the purpose to decrease number of bench tests and time period required for a fuel system adaptation. The paper cites results of practical investigations on starting engines  equipped with the mentioned-above systems.

  14. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  15. Shells, orbit bifurcations, and symmetry restorations in Fermi systems

    Magner, A. G., E-mail: magner@kinr.kiev.ua; Koliesnik, M. V. [NASU, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Arita, K. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The periodic-orbit theory based on the improved stationary-phase method within the phase-space path integral approach is presented for the semiclassical description of the nuclear shell structure, concerning themain topics of the fruitful activity ofV.G. Soloviev. We apply this theory to study bifurcations and symmetry breaking phenomena in a radial power-law potential which is close to the realistic Woods–Saxon one up to about the Fermi energy. Using the realistic parametrization of nuclear shapes we explain the origin of the double-humped fission barrier and the asymmetry in the fission isomer shapes by the bifurcations of periodic orbits. The semiclassical origin of the oblate–prolate shape asymmetry and tetrahedral shapes is also suggested within the improved periodic-orbit approach. The enhancement of shell structures at some surface diffuseness and deformation parameters of such shapes are explained by existence of the simple local bifurcations and new non-local bridge-orbit bifurcations in integrable and partially integrable Fermi-systems. We obtained good agreement between the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the level density and energy for several surface diffuseness and deformation parameters of the potentials, including their symmetry breaking and bifurcation values.

  16. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  17. Optimal mechanical design of anatomical post-systems for endodontic restoration.

    Maceri, Franco; Martignoni, Marco; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyses the mechanical behaviour of a new reinforced anatomical post-systems (RAPS) for endodontic restoration. The composite restorative material (CRM) completely fills the root canal (as do the commonly used cast metal posts) and multiple prefabricated composite posts (PCPs) are employed as reinforcements. Numerical simulations based on 3D linearly elastic finite element models under parafunctional loads were performed in order to investigate the influence of the stiffness of the CRM and of the number of PCPs. Periodontal ligament effects were taken into account using a discretised anisotropic nonlinearly elastic spring system, and the full discrete model was validated by comparing the resulting stress fields with those obtained with conventional restorations (cast gold-alloy post, homogeneous anatomical post and cemented single PCP) and with the natural tooth. Analysis of the results shows that stresses at the cervical/middle region decrease as CRM stiffness increases and, for large and irregular root cavities that apical stress peaks disappear when multiple PCPs are used. Accordingly, from a mechanical point of view, an optimal RAPS will use multiple PCPs when CRM stiffness is equal to or at most twice that of the dentin. This restorative solution minimises stress differences with respect to the natural tooth, mechanical inhomogeneities, stress concentrations on healthy tissues, volumes subject to shrinkage phenomena, fatigue effects and risks of both root fracture and adhesive/cohesive interfacial failure.

  18. Paradigms for restoration of somatosensory feedback via stimulation of the peripheral nervous system.

    Pasluosta, Cristian; Kiele, Patrick; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb. The refinement of stimulation patterns to deliver natural feedback that can be interpreted intuitively such to prescind from long-learning sessions is crucial to function restoration. For this review, we collected state-of-the-art knowledge on the evolution of stimulation paradigms from single fiber stimulation to the eliciting of multisensory sensations. Data from the literature are structured into six sections: (a) physiology of the somatosensory system; (b) stimulation of single fibers; (c) restoral of multisensory percepts; (d) closure of the control loop in hand prostheses; (e) sensory restoration and the sense of embodiment, and (f) methodologies to assess stimulation outcomes. Full functional recovery demands further research on multisensory integration and brain plasticity, which will bring new paradigms for intuitive sensory feedback in the next generation of limb prostheses. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydraulic pitch control system for wind turbines: Advanced modeling and verification of an hydraulic accumulator

    Irizar, Victor; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic pitch systems provide robust and reliable control of power and speed of modern wind turbines. During emergency stops, where the pitch of the blades has to be taken to a full stop position to avoid over speed situations, hydraulic accumulators play a crucial role. Their efficiency...... and capability of providing enough energy to rotate the blades is affected by thermal processes due to the compression and decompression of the gas chamber. This paper presents an in depth study of the thermodynamical processes involved in an hydraulic accumulator during operation, and how they affect the energy...

  20. A cost/schedule and control system for the environmental restoration program Albuquerque Field Office

    Fiske, Wanda S.; Bischoff, Edward L.; Rea, Kenneth H.; Dwain Farley, P.; Biedermann, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office Albuquerque (AL), Environmental Restoration Project Office (ERPO), has developed a project management system used to plan, document, and control Environmental Restoration (ER) work at eight installations and one superfund site managed by AL. This system emphasizes control of the cost, schedule, and technical elements of the Program. It supports programmatic documentation such as the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Five-Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, and budget requests. The System provides information used to manage the ER Program at all levels of management (i.e., from low-level day-to-day activities to high-level upper management). The System requires substantial effort to ensure reliability; however, the benefit to ERPO is an effective, proactive project management tool. This paper provides an overview of the ERPO System, an explanation of how it is implemented, and lessons learned from this process. Application of the System to cost estimating, annual and five-year budget preparation, resource projections, scheduling, and cost/schedule performance measurement is discussed. Also discussed are cost/schedule review procedures, along with variance identification and resolution. Examples are taken from the Pinellas ER Program. (author)

  1. Comparison of Two Models for Damage Accumulation in Simulations of System Performance

    Youngblood, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive simulation study of system performance needs to address variations in component behavior, variations in phenomenology, and the coupling between phenomenology and component failure. This paper discusses two models of this: 1. damage accumulation is modeled as a random walk process in each time history, with component failure occurring when damage accumulation reaches a specified threshold; or 2. damage accumulation is modeled mechanistically within each time history, but failure occurs when damage reaches a time-history-specific threshold, sampled at time zero from each component’s distribution of damage tolerance. A limiting case of the latter is classical discrete-event simulation, with component failure times sampled a priori from failure time distributions; but in such models, the failure times are not typically adjusted for operating conditions varying within a time history. Nowadays, as discussed below, it is practical to account for this. The paper compares the interpretations and computational aspects of the two models mentioned above.

  2. SYSTEMIC APPROACH AND ROUGHNESS APPLICATION TO CAUSE EMERGING PROPERTIES IN THE RESTORATION OF DEGRADED SOILS

    Juarês José Aumond

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815737Based on the general systems theory, an ecological model for the restoration of ecosystems has been developed, which soils are highly degraded, and treating the ecosystem as a complex dynamic system, hyper-sensitive to initial conditions of soil preparation. Assuming that degraded ecosystems are sensitive to initial conditions of soil preparation, the technique of roughness was evaluated (relief variations alternating between concave and convex surfaces to trigger over time emergent properties that accelerate the process of ecological restoration. The degraded ecosystems can be understood as organizationally open systems, as a dissipative structure, in which irreversibly matter and energy flow. The main task in ecological restoration in areas that had the soil degraded is to achieve the internalization of matter and energy to induce the system to organizational closure. The roughness, represented by soil micro-topography is an effective technique in the internalization of matter, retaining water, sediment, organic matter, nutrients and seeds. Variations of relief trigger environmental changes over time in a dynamic and heterogeneous way, which influence the interactions between solar radiation, moisture and nutrients, creating different opportunities for plants and animal species. There must be an oriented concentration to flow structures and processes between the degraded ecosystem (system and the environment (neighborhood. In this approach, a particular concentration on the interrelationships between the system and the environment is dedicated. For ecological restoration, whose area is with degraded soil, such as mining and ranching, a new integrative degraded systemic approach is proposed, in which the roughness of the soil might trigger spatial and temporal patterns and emergent environmental properties due to the hyper-sensitivity to initial conditions of the land preparation.

  3. Electronic document management system analysis report and system plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Frappaolo, C.

    1995-09-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) has established and maintains Document Management Centers (DMCs) to support Environmental Restoration Program (ER) activities undertaken at three Oak Ridge facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and two sister sites: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky. The role of the DMCs is to receive, store, retrieve, and properly dispose of records. In an effort to make the DMCs run more efficiently and to more proactively manage the records' life cycles from cradle to grave, ER has decided to investigate ways in which Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) technologies can be used to redefine the DMCs and their related processes. Specific goals of this study are tightening control over the ER documents, establishing and enforcing record creation and retention procedures, speeding up access to information, and increasing the accessibility of information. A working pilot of the solution is desired within the next six months. Based on a series of interviews conducted with personnel from each of the DMCs, key management, and individuals representing related projects, it is recommended that ER utilize document management, full-text retrieval, and workflow technologies to improve and automate records management for the ER program. A phased approach to solution implementation is suggested starting with the deployment of an automated storage and retrieval system at Portsmouth. This should be followed with a roll out of the system to the other DMCs, the deployment of a workflow-enabled authoring system at Portsmouth, and a subsequent roll out of this authoring system to the other sites

  4. Model-based restoration using light vein for range-gated imaging systems.

    Wang, Canjin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Tingfeng; Wang, Rui; Guo, Jin; Tian, Yuzhen

    2016-09-10

    The images captured by an airborne range-gated imaging system are degraded by many factors, such as light scattering, noise, defocus of the optical system, atmospheric disturbances, platform vibrations, and so on. The characteristics of low illumination, few details, and high noise make the state-of-the-art restoration method fail. In this paper, we present a restoration method especially for range-gated imaging systems. The degradation process is divided into two parts: the static part and the dynamic part. For the static part, we establish the physical model of the imaging system according to the laser transmission theory, and estimate the static point spread function (PSF). For the dynamic part, a so-called light vein feature extraction method is presented to estimate the fuzzy parameter of the atmospheric disturbance and platform movement, which make contributions to the dynamic PSF. Finally, combined with the static and dynamic PSF, an iterative updating framework is used to restore the image. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can effectively suppress ringing artifacts and achieve better performance in a range-gated imaging system.

  5. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Laura A Struzyna; James P Harris; Kritika S Katiyar; H Isaac Chen; D KacyCullen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following ner-vous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways – the long-distance ifbers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals – is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regenera-tion rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engi-neered “living scaffolds”, which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a deifned, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration – mimicking key developmental mechanisms– or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  6. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Laura A Struzyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following nervous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways - the long-distance fibers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals - is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regeneration rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engineered "living scaffolds", which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a defined, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration - mimicking key developmental mechanisms- or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  7. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  8. The development of a thermoelectric power generator dedicated to stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems

    Sornek, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Rzepka, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of thermoelectric generators in the stove-fireplace with accumulation. • Construction of the thermoelectric generator is limited by the heat accumulation. • Variants of the heat exchanger’s construction are discussed. • The control method is related on velocity of flue gas and water cooling. • The power limit of 30 W for self-sufficient operation is sufficient. - Abstract: A significant part of the world’s population (about 40%) cooks their meals and provides heating for their homes using wood-burning heating devices. Due to the relatively low cost of fuel and their aesthetic design, solid fuel stoves capable of heat accumulation are convenient and common. The use of dedicated small-scale power generators provides also additional benefits. This paper presents the results of a study conducted to verify the possibility of generating power using stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems. In such units, the temperature of the flue gas should be kept at a certain level for the purposes of storing heat, which results from certain limitations of the thermoelectric generators. To verify the possibility of applying thermoelectric modules in such heating devices, a dedicated system with thermoelectric generators was selected from among various microcogeneration systems and implemented. Three types of heat exchangers were studied and the most efficient unit was selected for further testing. Two types of generators, with maximum operating temperatures of 320 and 175 °C, were compared. Subsequently, the characteristics of the latter were determined. The conducted tests allowed to determine the performance and the total efficiency of the generators that were used. It has been demonstrated that the maximum power of the generator would not exceed ca. 30 W e and that there is no economic justification for such a device. However, providing a self-powered and self-sufficient operation of stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems

  9. Mutation accumulation and fitness effects in hybridogenetic populations: a comparison to sexual and asexual systems

    Bagheri Homayoun C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female only unisexual vertebrates that reproduce by hybridogenesis show an unusual genetic composition. They are of hybrid origin but show no recombination between the genomes of their parental species. Instead, the paternal genome is discarded from the germline prior to meiosis, and gametes (eggs only contain solely unrecombined maternal genomes. Hence hybridogens only transmit maternally inherited mutations. Hybridity is restored each generation by backcrossing with males of the sexual parental species whose genome was eliminated. In contrast, recombining sexual species propagate an intermixed pool of mutations derived from the maternal and paternal parts of the genome. If mutation rates are lower in female gametes than males, it raises the possibility for lower mutation accumulation in a hybridogenetic population, and consequently, higher population fitness than its sexual counterpart. Results We show through Monte-Carlo simulations that at higher male to female mutation ratios, and sufficiently large population sizes, hybridogenetic populations can carry a lower mutation load than sexual species. This effect is more pronounced with synergistic forms of epistasis. Mutations accumulate faster on the sexual part of the genome, and with the purifying effects of epistasis, it makes it more difficult for mutations to be transmitted on the clonal part of the genome. In smaller populations, the same mechanism reduces the speed of Muller's Ratchet and the number of fixed mutations compared to similar asexual species. Conclusion Since mutation accumulation can be less pronounced in hybridogenetic populations, the question arises why hybridogenetic organisms are so scarce compared to sexual species. In considering this, it is likely that comparison of population fitnesses is not sufficient. Despite competition with the sexual parental species, hybrid populations are dependent on the maintenance of – and contact with – their

  10. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  11. Multi-Time Step Service Restoration for Advanced Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Butler-Purry, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Modern power systems are facing increased risk of disasters that can cause extended outages. The presence of remote control switches (RCSs), distributed generators (DGs), and energy storage systems (ESS) provides both challenges and opportunities for developing post-fault service restoration methodologies. Inter-temporal constraints of DGs, ESS, and loads under cold load pickup (CLPU) conditions impose extra complexity on problem formulation and solution. In this paper, a multi-time step service restoration methodology is proposed to optimally generate a sequence of control actions for controllable switches, ESSs, and dispatchable DGs to assist the system operator with decision making. The restoration sequence is determined to minimize the unserved customers by energizing the system step by step without violating operational constraints at each time step. The proposed methodology is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model and can adapt to various operation conditions. Furthermore, the proposed method is validated through several case studies that are performed on modified IEEE 13-node and IEEE 123-node test feeders.

  12. Semi-Markov models control of restorable systems with latent failures

    Obzherin, Yuriy E

    2015-01-01

    Featuring previously unpublished results, Semi-Markov Models: Control of Restorable Systems with Latent Failures describes valuable methodology which can be used by readers to build mathematical models of a wide class of systems for various applications. In particular, this information can be applied to build models of reliability, queuing systems, and technical control. Beginning with a brief introduction to the area, the book covers semi-Markov models for different control strategies in one-component systems, defining their stationary characteristics of reliability and efficiency, and uti

  13. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  14. System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.

    Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

    2013-05-15

    Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  16. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism.

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F A; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Heemstra, Karen A; Smit, Johannes W A; Schoemaker, Rik C; Romijn, Johannes A; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the long-term effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system and the potential effects of restoration of euthyroidism. This was a prospective single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The study was performed at a university hospital. A total of 25 patients who were on more than 10-yr TSH suppressive therapy after thyroidectomy was examined. Patients were studied at baseline and subsequently randomized to a 6-month thyroid hormone substitution regimen to obtain either euthyroidism or maintenance of the subclinical hyperthyroid state. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and heart rate variability were measured. Baseline data of the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients were compared with data obtained in patients with hyperthyroidism and controls. Urinary excretion of norepinephrine and vanillylmandelic acid was higher in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared with controls and lower compared with patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Heart rate variability was lower in patients with hyperthyroidism, intermediate in subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, and highest in the healthy controls. No differences were observed after restoration of euthyroidism. Long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has effects on the autonomic nervous system measured by heart rate variability and urinary catecholamine excretion. No differences were observed after restoration to euthyroidism. This may indicate the occurrence of irreversible changes or adaptation during long-term exposure to excess thyroid hormone that is not remedied by 6-month euthyroidism.

  17. Methodology for decision making in environmental restoration after nuclear accidents: temas system (version 2.1)

    Montero, M.; Moraleda, M.; Claver, F.; Vazquez, C.; Gutierrez, J.

    2001-01-01

    TEMAS is an user-friendly decision aiding computerised system to help in the selection of the best local strategy of restoration when a post-accidental environmental contamination with long lived radionuclides (''137 Cs and ''90 Sr) must be faced TEMAS provides answer for complex scenarios on whichever place of the European Community territory ( urban agricultural and forest) with different specific levels of contamination, uses and dimensions. The initial version was the result of the TEMAS project (Techniques and Management Strategies for Environmental Restoration) supported by the EU during the 4th Framework Program. Some Aspects of the methodology are at present being improved. This document applies to the computerised version 2.1 (VAZ01). (Author)

  18. Restoration of Low-Voltage Distribution Systems with Inverter-Interfaced DG Units

    Dietmannsberger, Markus; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    -area voltage collapse. This paper proposes a restoration strategy from zero voltage conditions for inverter-interfaced DG under islanded conditions. In the approach, a flexible and scalable Master DG inverter concept is introduced for distributed generations, where no communication is needed and an outage......The increasing share of distributed generation (DG) offers new chances in grid restoration of low-voltage distribution grids. Instead of relying on the transmission or high- and medium-voltage levels, establishing islanding operation in low-voltage grids might be a good option after a wide...... of the Master can be balanced by other DG inverters. The control strategy ensures the tracking of nominal values of the system voltage and frequency without zero steady-state error. The influences of non-controllable DG are also taken into account in the strategy with an effective countermeasure developed...

  19. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A.; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-06-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation.

  20. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  1. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  2. Modeling and simulation of hydrostatic transmission system with energy regeneration using hydraulic accumulator

    Ho, Triet Hung; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2010-01-01

    A new hydraulic closed-loop hydrostatic transmission (HST) energy-saving system is proposed in this paper. The system improves the efficiency of the primary power source. Furthermore, the system is energy regenerative, highly efficient even under partial load conditions. It can work in either a flow or pressure coupling configuration, allowing it to avoid the disadvantages of each configuration. A hydraulic accumulator, the key component of the energy regenerative modality, can be decoupled from or coupled to the HST circuit to improve the efficiency of the system in low-speed, high-torque situations. The accumulator is used in a novel way to recover the kinetic energy without reversion of fluid flow. Both variable displacement hydraulic pump /motors are used when the system operates in the flow coupling configuration so as to enable it to meet the difficult requirements of some industrial and mobile applications. Modeling and a simulation were undertaken with regard to testing the primary energy sources in the two configurations and recovering the energy potential of the system. The results indicated that the low efficiency of traditional HSTs under partial load conditions can be improved by utilizing the pressure coupling configuration. The round-trip efficiency of the system in the energy recovery testing varied from 32% to 66% when the losses of the load were taken into account

  3. The 12-foot pressure wind tunnel restoration project model support systems

    Sasaki, Glen E.

    1992-01-01

    The 12 Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel is a variable density, low turbulence wind tunnel that operates at subsonic speeds, and up to six atmospheres total pressure. The restoration of this facility is of critical importance to the future of the U.S. aerospace industry. As part of this project, several state of the art model support systems are furnished to provide an optimal balance between aerodynamic and operational efficiency parameters. Two model support systems, the Rear Strut Model Support, and the High Angle of Attack Model Support are discussed. This paper covers design parameters, constraints, development, description, and component selection.

  4. Stability of the Supply Chain Using System Dynamics Simulation and the Accumulated Deviations from Equilibrium

    Luis Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a new methodology to stabilize systems with complex dynamics like the supply chain. This method is based on the accumulated deviations from equilibrium (ADE. It is most beneficial for controlling system dynamic models characterized by multiple types of delays, many interacting variables, and feedback processes. We employ the classical version of particle swarm optimization as the optimization approach due to its performance in multidimensional space, stochastic properties, and global reach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method based on ADE using a manufacturing-supply-chain case study.

  5. Accumulation Systems of Electric Energy Solved by Multicriteria Analysis Methods IPA and Topsis

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with utilization of multicriteria analysis methods IPA and TOPSIS to assess three storage systems (Fuel Cells, Lead Acid Batteries and Pumped Storage Hydro Plants. Procedures of IPA and TOPSIS methods are described here as like as calculation of mentioned problem. Storage systems are assessed in terms of four criteria (Start up Time, Efficiency of Accumulation, Lifetime and Specific Costs/ kW of Power Output. Weights of criteria are also focused here. They are suggested by experts and statistically calculated.

  6. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry

    Arbaz Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  7. Information management systems for integrating the technical data and regulatory requirements of environmental restoration activities

    Geffen, C.A.; Garrett, B.A.; Walter, M.B.

    1990-03-01

    Current environmental regulations require that comprehensive planning be conducted before remediating a hazardous waste site to characterize the nature and extent of site contamination, calculate the risk to the public, and assess the effectiveness of various remediation technologies. Remediation of Department of Energy (DOE) sites contaminated with hazardous or mixed wastes will require the effective integration of scientific and engineering data with regulatory and institutional requirements. The information management challenge presented by waste site cleanup activities goes beyond merely dealing with the large quantity of data that will be generated. The information must be stored, managed, and presented in a way that provides some consistency in approach across sites, avoids duplication of effort, and facilitates responses to requests for information from the regulators and the public. This paper provides background information on the regulatory requirements for data gathering and analysis for environmental restoration activities, and outlines the data and information management requirements for completing the pre-remediation phases of an environmental restoration project. Information management systems for integrating the regulatory and institutional requirements of the environmental restoration process with the technical data and analysis requirements are also described. 7 refs

  8. Restorative neuroscience

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  9. Current algebras, measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphism groups, and infinite quantum systems with accumulation points

    Sakuraba, Takao

    The approach to quantum physics via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group is established. This thesis studies possible infinite Bose gas systems using this approach. Systems of locally finite configurations and systems of configurations with accumulation points are considered, with the main emphasis on the latter. In Chapter 2, canonical quantization, quantization via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group are reviewed. In Chapter 3, a new definition of the space of configurations is proposed and an axiom for general configuration spaces is abstracted. Various subsets of the configuration space, including those specifying the number of points in a Borel set and those specifying the number of accumulation points in a Borel set are proved to be measurable using this axiom. In Chapter 4, known results on the space of locally finite configurations and Poisson measure are reviewed in the light of the approach developed in Chapter 3, including the approach to current algebra in the Poisson space by Albeverio, Kondratiev, and Rockner. Goldin and Moschella considered unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of the line based on self-similar random processes, which may describe infinite quantum gas systems with clusters. In Chapter 5, the Goldin-Moschella theory is developed further. Their construction of measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphisms is reviewed, and a rigorous proof of their conjectures is given. It is proved that their measures with distinct correlation parameters are mutually singular. A quasi-invariant measure constructed by Ismagilov on the space of configurations with accumulation points on the circle is proved to be singular with respect to the Goldin-Moschella measures. Finally a generalization of the Goldin-Moschella measures to the higher-dimensional case is studied, where the notion of covariance matrix and the notion of condition number play important roles. A

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ACCUMULATION SYSTEMS AND DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL APPLICATION AREAS FOR MODERN SUPER FLYWHEELS

    M. A. Sokolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review and comparative analysis of late years native and foreign literature on various energy storage devices: state of the art designs, application experience in various technical fields. Comparative characteristics of energy storage devices are formulated: efficiency, quality and stability. Typical characteristics are shown for such devices as electrochemical batteries, super capacitors, pumped hydroelectric storage, power systems based on compressed air and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. The advantages and prospects of high-speed super flywheels as means of energy accumulation in the form of rotational kinetic energy are shown. High output power of a super flywheels energy storage system gives the possibility to use it as a buffer source of peak power. It is shown that super flywheels have great life cycle (over 20 years and are environmental. A distinctive feature of these energy storage devices is their good scalability. It is demonstrated that super flywheels are especially effective in hybrid power systems that operate in a charge/discharge mode, and are used particularly in electric vehicles. The most important factors for space applications of the super flywheels are their modularity, high efficiency, no mechanical friction and long operating time without maintenance. Quick response to network disturbances and high power output can be used to maintain the desired power quality and overall network stability along with fulfilling energy accumulation needs.

  11. Research and development on super heat pump energy accumulation system. Final report

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system, which has been carried out from FY 1985 to 1992. It describes outline of the research and development program, R and D results, final evaluation methodology, evaluation of the R and D, proposals for the commercialization, and so on. The super high performance compression heat pumps are technically evaluated for highly efficient type (for heating, and cooling and heating), high temperature type (utilizing high temperature heat source, and low temperature heat source), working fluids (alcohol-based and nonalcohol-based), stainless steel plate fin type heat exchanger, EHD heat exchanger, and so on. The other techniques evaluated include those for chemical heat storage, combined systems, plant simulation, and systemization. The evaluation works are also directed to the economic and environmental aspects. Finally, the R and D themes are proposed to leap over various hurdles, e.g., reliability and economic viability, for the eventual commercialization of the energy accumulation system. (NEDO)

  12. Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Mota, Vasco C.; Martins, Catarina I.M.; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Steroids accumulate in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), although explanatory factors for such accumulation are still poorly explored. This study investigated the effect of water exchange rate and pH in six replicated RAS on the concentration of the stress hormone cortisol in rainbow trout

  13. EnviroTRADE: An International Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Information System

    Johnson, S.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Harrington, M.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; Rehorn, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has collected, and will continue to collect, large amounts of information on its environmental waste sites and associated technology development efforts. This information is being gathered in a variety of formats for various purposes. Integration and delivery of this information WW benefit decision makers, waste site managers, technology developers, regulators, and the private sector. No computer system currently exists that acts as an easy-to-use computer umbrella over all of the DOE's environmental information. The EnviroTRADE Information System, currently under development for the DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's (EM's) Office of Technology Development, provides access to a wide variety of information within a single architecture. Ongoing system development is expected to result in an extensive, networked interface to EM's diverse data benefiting a variety of users. This paper discusses the present status of the EnviroTRADE Information System as well as current and future development activities

  14. Restoration and recovery of damaged eco-epidemiological systems: application to the Salton Sea, California, USA.

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Raw, S N; Roy, P; Rai, Vikas

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed and analysed a mathematical model to figure out possible ways to rescue a damaged eco-epidemiological system. Our strategy of rescue is based on the realization of the fact that chaotic dynamics often associated with excursions of system dynamics to extinction-sized densities. Chaotic dynamics of the model is depicted by 2D scans, bifurcation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponent and basin boundary calculations. 2D scan results show that μ, the total death rate of infected prey should be brought down in order to avoid chaotic dynamics. We have carried out linear and nonlinear stability analysis and obtained Hopf-bifurcation and persistence criteria of the proposed model system. The other outcome of this study is a suggestion which involves removal of infected fishes at regular interval of time. The estimation of timing and periodicity of the removal exercises would be decided by the nature of infection more than anything else. If this suggestion is carefully worked out and implemented, it would be most effective in restoring the health of the ecosystem which has immense ecological, economic and aesthetic potential. We discuss the implications of this result to Salton Sea, California, USA. The restoration of the Salton Sea provides a perspective for conservation and management strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials.

    Gracis, Stefano; Thompson, Van P; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2015-01-01

    Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.

  16. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels.

    Morin, Manon; Ropers, Delphine; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Portais, Jean-Charles; Enjalbert, Brice; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2017-10-31

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli , the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation. IMPORTANCE Glycogen is a polysaccharide and the main storage form of glucose from bacteria such as Escherichia coli to yeasts and mammals. Although its function as a sugar reserve in mammals is well documented, the role of glycogen in bacteria is not as clear. By studying the role of posttranscriptional regulation during metabolic adaptation, for the first time, we demonstrate the role of sugar reserve played by glycogen in E. coli Indeed, glycogen not only makes it possible to maintain sufficient energy during metabolic transitions but is also the key component in the capacity of cells to resume growth. Since the essential posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr is a major regulator of glycogen accumulation, this work also sheds light on the central role of posttranscriptional regulation in metabolic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Morin et al.

  17. Effect of Dental Restorative Material Type and Shade on Characteristics of Two-Layer Dental Composite Systems

    Atefeh Karimzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of shade and material type and shape in dental polymer composites on the hardness and shrinkage stress of bulk and two-layered restoration systems. For this purpose, some bulk and layered specimens from three different shades of dental materials were prepared and light-cured. The experiments were carried out on three types of materials: conventional restorative composite, nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite. Micro-indentation experiment was performed on the bulk and also on each layer of layered restoration specimens using a Vicker's indenter. The interface between the two layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results revealed significant differences between the values of hardness for different shades in the conventional composite and also in the nanohybrid composite. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the hardness values for different shades in the nanocomposite samples. The layered restoration specimens of different restorative materials exhibited lower hardness values with respect to their bulk specimens. The reduction in the hardness value of the layered conventional composite samples was higher than those of the nanocomposite and nanohybrid composite specimens indicating more shrinkage stresses generated in the conventional composite restorations. According to the SEM images, a gap was observed between the two layers in the layered restorations.

  18. Advanced Control of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigating Voltage Sags in Power Systems

    Dung Vo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vector control with two cascaded loops to improve the properties of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR to minimize Voltage Sags on the grid. Thereby, a vector controlled structure was built on the rotating dq-coordinate system with the combination of voltage control and the current control. The proposed DVR control method is modelled using MATLAB-Simulink. It is tested using balanced/unbalanced voltage sags as well as fluctuant and distorted voltages. As a result, by using this controlling method, the dynamic characteristics of the system have been improved significantly. The system performed with higher accuracy, faster response and lower distortion in the voltage sags compensation. The paper presents real time experimental results to verify the performance of the proposed method in real environments.

  19. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  20. A framework for back-up and restore under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    Karonis, N.T.

    1992-12-01

    EPICS is a system that allows one to design and implement a controls system. At its foundation, i.e., the level closest to the devices being controlled, are autonomous computers, each called an Input/Output Controller or IOC. In EPICS, devices controlled by an IOC are represented by software entities called process variables. All devices are monitored/controlled by reading/writing values from/to their associated process variables. Under this schema, distributing processing over a number of IOCs and representing devices with process variables, there are a variety of ways one can view or group the information in the control system. Two of the more common groupings are by IOC (location) and by devices (function). Simply stated, the authors require a system capable of restoring the state of the machine, in their case the Advanced Photon Source, to a known desired state from somewhere in the past. To that end, they propose a framework which describes a system that periodically records and preserves the values of key process variables so that later on, those values can be written to the machine in an attempt to restore it to that same state. One of the more powerful notions that must be preserved in any system that solves this problem is the independence between the specification of what is monitored and the specification of what is written. In other words, grouping process variables for monitoring must be kept independent of the number of different ways to group process variables (e.g., by IOC, by device, etc.) when they are written

  1. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  2. A Real-Time Data Monitoring and Accumulation System for Dynamic Studies with Radionuclides

    Ammann, W.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W. J.; Ostertag, H.; Adam, W. E.; Scheer, K. E. [German Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1971-02-15

    A multipurpose digital data monitoring and accumulation system is described. The central unit of the system is a PDP-8 computer with a 12K memory. The system contains furthermore a multipurpose digital input/output register for low data rates, a fourfold and a twofold ADC connected to the high-speed multiplexor unit of the PDP-8 and a digital timet. Data from various process peripheries are recorded on a nine-track IBM compatible Ampex tape recorder. When two co-ordinates are recorded the system is used in the ''add-one-to-storage'' mode. In the case of more than two co-ordinates the data are stored in the sequential mode, event by event. A dialogue real-time monitor program in assembler language was developed to control the process peripheries. The 4K-Fortran operating system was modified in such a way that monitor subroutines were called into the Fortran program without loss of the real-time properties of the monitor system during a Fortran run. The use of the system for lung function studies with an Anger-type scintillation camera and {sup 133}Xe is discussed as an example of the application of the system. (author)

  3. CCR1+/CCR5+ mononuclear phagocytes accumulate in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Trebst, C; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Kivisäkk, P

    2001-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5...

  4. Corrective actions to gas accumulation in safety injection system pipings of PWRs and gas void detection method

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    In the US, gas accumulation events of safety injection systems of PWRs during plant operation are continuously reported. As the events may result in loss of safety function, the USNRC is alerting licensees by Information Notices. The cause of the events is coolant leakage to interfacing systems with lower pressure, or gas dissolution of primary coolant by partial pressure drop. In this study, it was clarified by the evaluation of the cause of the events of US plants, gas accumulation in piping between an accumulator and Residual Heat Removal System should be quantitatively investigated regarding Japanese plants. Also, effectiveness of ultrasonic testing which is used for monthly gas accumulation surveillance in US plants was demonstrated using a model loop. In addition, the method was confirmed applicable by an experiment carried out at INSS to detect cavitation voids in piping systems. (author)

  5. Impact of particles on sediment accumulation in a drinking water distribution system.

    Vreeburg, J H G; Schippers, D; Verberk, J Q J C; van Dijk, J C

    2008-10-01

    Discolouration of drinking water is one of the main reasons customers complain to their water company. Though corrosion of cast iron is often seen as the main source for this problem, the particles originating from the treatment plant play an important and potentially dominant role in the generation of a discolouration risk in drinking water distribution systems. To investigate this thesis a study was performed in a drinking water distribution system. In two similar isolated network areas the effect of particles on discolouration risk was studied with particle counting, the Resuspension Potential Method (RPM) and assessment of the total accumulated sediment. In the 'Control Area', supplied with normal drinking water, the discolouration risk was regenerated within 1.5 year. In the 'Research Area', supplied with particle-free water, this will take 10-15 years. An obvious remedy for controlling the discolouration risk is to improve the treatment with respect to the short peaks that are caused by particle breakthrough.

  6. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    Jihong Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a decision support system (DSS to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS. This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers during river restoration and management in Zhejiang Province, China. Our RHD-DSS is composed of four main elements: the graphical user interface (GUI, the database, the model base, and the knowledge base. It has five functional components: the input module, the database management, the diagnostic indicators management, the assessment and diagnosis, and the visual result module. The system design is illustrated with particular emphasis on the development of the database, model schemas, diagnosis and analytical processing techniques, and map management design. Finally, the application of the prototype RHD-DSS is presented and implemented for Xinjiangtang River of Haining County in Zhejiang Province, China. This case study is used to demonstrate the advantages gained by the application of this system. We conclude that there is great potential for using the RHD-DSS to systematically manage river basins in order to effectively mitigate environmental issues. The proposed approach will provide river managers and designers with improved insight into river degradation conditions, thereby strengthening the assessment process and the administration of human activities in river management.

  7. Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative Project Achievements for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    Hohman, E.H.; Lohrstorfer, C.L.; Venedam, R.J.; Weeks, S.J.; Fannin, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) project has been in existence since 2002. In this short time period, AMSI has successfully developed, tested and/or demonstrated over 30 advanced sensors and monitoring systems for applications in environmental restoration, waste management and other areas of national interest. This presentation summarizes the AMSI project, and gives examples of recent successes. The purpose of the presentation is to make Symposium attendees aware of AMSI's capabilities and experience, for possible use in the future. Example successes include the following: - Automated hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) monitoring in wells alongside the Columbia River; - Atmospheric chemical sensor array for remote, real-time plume tracking; - Wireless sensor platform for long-term monitoring of subsurface moisture; - Embedded piezo-resistive micro-cantilever (EPM) units for carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection; - 'iHistorian' for efficient, real-time data management of chemical releases. (authors)

  8. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials

    Andreas Hellak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™ on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n=30 were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2 and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3 were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test (P≤0.05. Results. Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions. Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain, with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended.

  9. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials.

    Hellak, Andreas; Ebeling, Jennifer; Schauseil, Michael; Stein, Steffen; Roggendorf, Matthias; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond ™ and Scotchbond ™ ) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT ™ . Materials and Methods . A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n = 30) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2) and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3) were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120 ™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test ( P ≤ 0.05). Results . Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions . Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain), with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended.

  10. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels

    Manon Morin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation.

  11. Peculiar features of the Chernobyl release plutonium and americium accumulation by macrophytes of water systems in Gomel region

    Kudryashov, V.P.; Gaponenko, V.I.; Zubareva, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of transuranian elements 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, as well as 137Cs and 90Sr after Chernobyl accident release adsorption and accumulation by the macrophytes of water systems in Gomel region of the Republic of Belarus was realized. Noted biological diversity in accumulation of radionuclides by the terrain flora was also typical for the higher aquatic plants. Research results showed that the degree of accumulation depended on the morphophysiological peculiarities of each plant body. Various indices of radionuclide accumulation coefficient for each analysed transuranian element were stated in one and the same aquatic media with the equal physical and chemical properties. Accumulation of transuranian elements by macrophytes was determined by the peculiar properties of radionuclides as chemical elements and by the forms of their existence in the aqueous media. In one and the same analysed plant of the certain water system the accumulation coefficients of different radionuclides differed. Similarity in concentrations of different radionuclides in all studied water systems was analysed. Research results showed that accumulation indices of comparatively easity determined 137Cs could help to determine the relative concentration of other radionuclides which could be analyzed with more difficulties (90 Sr, and especially 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am)

  12. Vacuum system for the test accumulation ring for the NUMATRON project (TARN)

    Mizobuchi, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The vacuum system for the test accumulation ring for the NUMATRON project (TARN) being constructed in the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, for the purpose of accumulating fundamental data on high energy, heavy ion acceleration is presented. The main specifications of TARN are as follows: repetition rate 1 Hz, average radius 5.06 m, the radius of curvature 1.333 m, circumference 31.795 m, the length of a unit cell 3.974 m, the length of a long straight section 1.8 m, the number of unit cells 8, superperiodicity 8, and the structure of a unit cell FODO. The vacuum level of TARN lower than 1 x 10 -10 Torr is necessary. The preliminary test apparatuses, number one and two, for obtaining the basic data on superhigh vacuum were constructed. The characteristics of a molecular vacuum pump and the high temperature baking effect were tested with the number one test apparatus. The glow discharge cleaning effect of the model vacuum chamber for deflecting magnets was tested, utilizing the number two test apparatus. The pressure curve in course of time during pump down, the residual gas components, the residual gas spectrum in vacuum state and the change of residual gas components before and after the glow discharge cleaning are shown as these testing results. The vacuum gauges, which are used for TARN for measuring both the total pressure and the partial pressure of gas, are explained. The vacuum system, the vacuum chamber, the vacuum pumps, the expected exhausting speed and the partial functional test results for the vacuum system are introduced. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Particle Based Alloying by Accumulative Roll Bonding in the System Al-Cu

    Mathias Göken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of alloys by particle reinforcement during accumulative roll bonding (ARB, and subsequent annealing, is introduced on the basis of the binary alloy system Al-Cu, where strength and electrical conductivity are examined in different microstructural states. An ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 430 MPa for Al with 1.4 vol.% Cu was reached after three ARB cycles, which almost equals UTS of the commercially available Al-Cu alloy AA2017A with a similar copper content. Regarding electrical conductivity, the UFG structure had no significant influence. Alloying of aluminum with copper leads to a linear decrease in conductivity of 0.78 µΩ∙cm/at.% following the Nordheim rule. On the copper-rich side, alloying with aluminum leads to a slight strengthening, but drastically reduces conductivity. A linear decrease of electrical conductivity of 1.19 µΩ∙cm/at.% was obtained.

  14. DNA accumulation on ventilation system filters in university buildings in Singapore.

    Luhung, Irvan; Wu, Yan; Xu, Siyu; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W

    2017-01-01

    Biological particles deposit on air handling system filters as they process air. This study reports and interprets abundance and diversity information regarding biomass accumulation on ordinarily used filters acquired from several locations in a university environment. DNA-based analysis was applied both to quantify (via DNA fluorometry and qPCR) and to characterize (via high-throughput sequencing) the microbial material on filters, which mainly processed recirculated indoor air. Results were interpreted in relation to building occupancy and ventilation system operational parameters. Based on accumulated biomass, average DNA concentrations per AHU filter surface area across nine indoor locations after twelve weeks of filter use were in the respective ranges 1.1 to 41 ng per cm2 for total DNA, 0.02 to 3.3 ng per cm2 for bacterial DNA and 0.2 to 2.0 ng DNA per cm2 for fungal DNA. The most abundant genera detected on the AHU filter samples were Clostridium, Streptophyta, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Ktedonobacter for bacteria and Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Rigidoporus and Lentinus for fungi. Conditional indoor airborne DNA concentrations (median (range)) were estimated to be 13 (2.6-107) pg/m3 for total DNA, 0.4 (0.05-8.4) pg/m3 for bacterial DNA and 2.3 (1.0-5.1) pg/m3 for fungal DNA. Conditional airborne concentrations and the relative abundances of selected groups of genera correlate well with occupancy level. Bacterial DNA was found to be more responsive than fungal DNA to differences in occupancy level and indoor environmental conditions.

  15. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

    Yibing Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP. As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome

  16. A Study on the Establishment of Radiation Dose Estimation Procedure for Accumulated Radioactive Ions for RAON ISOL System

    KIM Do Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For purposes of various experiments, RAON heavy ion accelerator facility has been designed in Korea. ISOL is one system of RAON accelerators to generate and separate rare isotopes. Radioactive ions generated from target-proton reactions are separated and accumulated at separation devices. The accumulated isotopes release the gamma radiations; therefore, the radiation safety must be clearly estimated. In this study, a process to evaluate radiations from the accumulated ions was proposed by modifying FISPACT code. The proposed process was validated by comparing a solution of single element decay problem. Using the process, a preliminary study for radiation doses were performed in a virtual separation devise.

  17. Dengue Virus Uses a Non-Canonical Function of the Host GBF1-Arf-COPI System for Capsid Protein Accumulation on Lipid Droplets.

    Iglesias, Nestor G; Mondotte, Juan A; Byk, Laura A; De Maio, Federico A; Samsa, Marcelo M; Alvarez, Cecilia; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2015-09-01

    Dengue viruses cause the most important human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. In recent years, a great deal has been learned about molecular details of dengue virus genome replication; however, little is known about genome encapsidation and the functions of the viral capsid protein. During infection, dengue virus capsid progressively accumulates around lipid droplets (LDs) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we examined the process by which the viral capsid is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, where the protein is synthesized, to LDs. Using different methods of intervention, we found that the GBF1-Arf1/Arf4-COPI pathway is necessary for capsid transport to LDs, while the process is independent of both COPII components and Golgi integrity. The transport was sensitive to Brefeldin A, while a drug resistant form of GBF1 was sufficient to restore capsid subcellular distribution in infected cells. The mechanism by which LDs gain or lose proteins is still an open question. Our results support a model in which the virus uses a non-canonical function of the COPI system for capsid accumulation on LDs, providing new ideas for antiviral strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Study of Cycling Air-Cooling System with a Cold Accumulator for Micro Gas-Turbine Installations

    Ochkov, V. F.; Stepanova, T. A.; Katenev, G. M.; Tumanovskii, V. A.; Borisova, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    Using the cycling air-cooling systems of the CTIC type (Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling) with a cold accumulator in a micro gas-turbine installation (micro-GTI) to preserve its capacity under the seasonal temperature rise of outside air is described. Water ice is used as the body-storage in the accumulators, and ice water (water at 0.5-1.0°C) is used as the body that cools air. The ice water circulates between the accumulator and the air-water heat exchanger. The cold accumulator model with renewable ice resources is considered. The model contains the heat-exchanging tube lattice-evaporator covered with ice. The lattice is cross-flowed with water. The criterion heat exchange equation that describes the process in the cold accumulator under consideration is presented. The calculations of duration of its active operation were performed. The dependence of cold accumulator service life on water circulation rate was evaluated. The adequacy of the design model was confirmed experimentally in the mock-up of the cold accumulator with a refrigerating machine periodically creating a 200 kg ice reserve in the reservoir-storage. The design model makes it possible to determine the weight of ice reserve of the discharged cold accumulator for cooling the cycle air in the operation of a C-30 type micro- GTI produced by the Capstone Company or micro-GTIs of other capacities. Recommendations for increasing the working capacity of cold accumulators of CTIC-systems of a micro-GTI were made.

  19. TINDAK PIDANA KEKERASAN DALAM RUMAH TANGGA MENURUT SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA DALAM PERSPEKTIF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE / The Act Of Domestic Violence In Criminal Justice System In Restorative Justice Perspective

    Ridwan Mansyur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banyak penyelesaian perkara kekerasan dalam rumah tangga yang tidak memenuhi rasa keadilan, terutama bagi korban dan subordinat dalam rumah tangga. Dalam disertasi ini disampaikan hasil yaitu pertama, penyelesaian perkara kekerasan dalam rumah tangga pada kenyataannya diselesaikan melalui Undang-Undang No. 23 Tahun 2004 sebagai lex specialis. Penyelesaian kasus kekerasan dalam rumah tangga berdasarkan aturan tersebut, secara empiris lebih menekankan pada pemidanaannya, sehingga terlihat tujuan preventif, protektif, dan konsolidatif tidak terpenuhi. Kedua, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa kekerasan dalam rumah tangga merupakan perkara dengan multi dimensi penyelesaian karena terdapat sisi lingkup perdata dan di sisi lain lingkup pidana. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan suatu media di dalam sistem yang dapat mengakomodasi penyelesaian perkara tersebut, yang salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan pendekatan restorative justice.   There are many domestic violence settlements that do not satisfy the sense of justice, especially for the victims and subordinate in the household. The dissertation results: first, the settlement of domestic violence in fact settled by Act No. 23 of 2004 as lex special. The settlements of domestic violence cases based on that rule, empirically emphasis on the criminal sanction, so that the purpose of preventive, protective and consolidative was not rise. Second, the research concluded that domestic violence is a case with the multi-dimensional settlement because there is the scope of the civil and criminal sphere on the other side. Therefore, it needs a medium in the system that can accommodate the completion of the case, which one of them is restorative justice approach.

  20. Morrowan stratigraphy, depositional systems, and hydrocarbon accumulation, Sorrento field, Cheyenne County, Colorado

    Orchard, D.M.; Kidwell, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    The Sorrento field, located on the western flank of the present-day Las Animas arch in western Cheyenne County, Colorado, has approximately 29 million bbl of oil and 12 bcf of gas in place in sandstones of the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow units. The sandstones were deposited in a fluvially dominated deltaic system, and the trap for the hydrocarbon accumulation is formed by pinch-out of this deltaic system onto regional dip. The primary reservoirs are point-bar deposits. At the Sorrento field, the basal Keyes limestone member of the Morrow formation rests unconformably on the Mississippian St. Louis Formation. Above the Keyes limestone, the Morrow shale is 180 to 214 ft (55 to 65 m) thick, and locally contains reservoir sands. Gas/oil and oil/water contacts are not uniform through the field owing to discontinuities between separate point bars. One such discontinuity is formed by an apparent mud plug of an abandoned channel separating two point bars on the southeastern end of the field. In a well 7000 ft (2100 m) from the edge of the meander belt, the regressive sequence is represented by a shoreline siltstone unit 8 ft (2 m) thick with flaser bedding, graded bedding, load structures, and rare wave-ripple cross-bedding overlain by 3 ft (1 m) of flood-plain mudstone and coal with no indication of proximity to a nearby sand system.

  1. Current bonding systems for resin-bonded restorations and fixed partial dentures made of silver–palladium–copper–gold alloy

    Hideo Matsumura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article describes about the bonding systems for noble metal alloys, bonding techniques of restorations and fixed partial dentures (FPDs made of Ag–Pd–Cu–Au alloys, and their clinical performance. Thione monomers, 6-(4-vinylbenzyl-n-propyl amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithione (VTD, 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl-2-thiouracil-5-carboxylate (MTU-6, and 10-methacryloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (MDDT, has been proved effective for bonding noble metal alloys. An acrylic adhesive consists of the tri-n-butylborane (TBB initiator, methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer liquid with 5% 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META, and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, is being used for bonding metallic restorations to abutment surfaces. Clinical performance of restorations and FPDs made of Ag–Pd–Cu–Au alloys is overall excellent when they are seated with the currently available noble metal bonding systems.

  2. Image restoration for civil engineering structure monitoring using imaging system embedded on UAV

    Vozel, Benoit; Dumoulin, Jean; Chehdi, Kacem

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, civil engineering structures are periodically surveyed by qualified technicians (i.e. alpinist) operating visual inspection using heavy mechanical pods. This method is far to be safe, not only for civil engineering structures monitoring staff, but also for users. Due to the unceasing traffic increase, making diversions or closing lanes on bridge becomes more and more difficult. New inspection methods have to be found. One of the most promising technique is to develop inspection method using images acquired by a dedicated monitoring system operating around the civil engineering structures, without disturbing the traffic. In that context, the use of images acquired with an UAV, which fly around the structures is of particular interest. The UAV can be equipped with different vision system (digital camera, infrared sensor, video, etc.). Nonetheless, detection of small distresses on images (like cracks of 1 mm or less) depends on image quality, which is sensitive to internal parameters of the UAV (vibration modes, video exposure times, etc.) and to external parameters (turbulence, bad illumination of the scene, etc.). Though progresses were made at UAV level and at sensor level (i.e. optics), image deterioration is still an open problem. These deteriorations are mainly represented by motion blur that can be coupled with out-of-focus blur and observation noise on acquired images. In practice, deteriorations are unknown if no a priori information is available or dedicated additional instrumentation is set-up at UAV level. Image restoration processing is therefore required. This is a difficult problem [1-3] which has been intensively studied over last decades [4-12]. Image restoration can be addressed by following a blind approach or a myopic one. In both cases, it includes two processing steps that can be implemented in sequential or alternate mode. The first step carries out the identification of the blur impulse response and the second one makes use of this

  3. Restoring oak ecosystems on national forest system lands in the eastern region: an adaptive management approach

    Gregory Nowacki; Michael Ablutz; Dan Yaussy; Thomas Schuler; Dan Dey

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service has recently completed an ecosystem restoration framework and enacted accompanying policy to help guide its nationwide efforts. The Eastern Region is in the midst of translating the general guidance set forth in these documents to actual on-the-ground restoration. We envision a set of coordinated field demonstrations that will initially focus on...

  4. Functional components of the bacterial CzcCBA efflux system reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Nesler, Andrea; DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Manara, Anna; Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Argese, Emanuele; Furini, Antonella

    2017-03-25

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed. Plants expressing PpCzcC showed no differences in Cd accumulation, whereas those expressing PpCzcB or PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots, but more Cd in the roots. Plants expressing both PpCzcB and PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots and roots compared to controls, whereas plants expressing all three genes showed a significant reduction in Cd levels only in shoots. These results show that components of the CzcCBA system can be expressed in plants and may be useful for developing plants with a reduced capacity to accumulate Cd in the shoots, potentially reducing the toxicity of food/feed crops cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA-GC/MS system for the determination of halocarbon fluxes

    K. E. Hornsby

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Very short lived halocarbons (VSLH play an important role in the transport of halogen atoms to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Here we describe the development of a relaxed eddy accumulation system using gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (REA-GC/MS to determine surface fluxes of VSLH with a time resolution of about 0.5 h. Laboratory tests showed that use of a common inlet for upward, downward and deadband flow paths resulted in mixing of upward and downward moving air masses, therefore we recommend the use of separate inlets. The modified system underwent field trials at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland, where there are dense kelp beds known to emit a range of halocarbons. Over a 16 h period in mid-September 2007, the mean fluxes obtained were 16.1±1.8, 4.0±0.54 and 1.2±0.2 nmol m−2 day−1 for CH2Br2 CH2ICl and CH2IBr, respectively.

  6. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of composite restorations using fifth and seventh generations of adhesive systems

    Mitra Tabari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simultaneous etching of enamel and dentin using the novel generation of adhesive systems with contracted operational steps, has shown a good clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of composite restorations using the V and VII generations of adhesive systems on primary teeth. Methods: This study was performed on 45 human intact extracted primary teeth. Following class V cavity preparation, the samples were randomly divided into three groups included 15 teeth based on the type of bonding agent Single Bond 2, Clearfil S3 Bond or G Bond. After applying the bonding agents, the teeth filled with composite Z250. The microleakage values of incisal and gingival margins were separately scored by 2% basic fuchsine staining based on a 0-3 ordinal ranking system. The data were analyzed by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann_whitney U tests. Results: In overall, the score of microleakage at incisal (0.58±0.94 and gingival (1.06±0.19 edges did not have significant difference. Also, there was no significant difference between incisal and gingival microleakage considering the different types of bonding. Conclusion: Regarding to less operational steps and lower risk of salivary contamination, the VII generation of dentin bonding agents can be applied for filling the class V cavities of primary teeth.

  7. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  8. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  9. Programs for data accumulation and storage from the multicrate CAMAC systems basing on the M-6000 computer

    Antonichev, G.M.; Shilkin, I.P.; Bespalova, T.V.; Golutvin, I.A.; Maslov, V.V.; Nevskaya, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Programs for data accumulation and storage from multicrate CAMAC systems organized in parallel into a branch and connected with the M-6000 computer via the branch interface are described. Program operation in different modes of CAMAC apparatus is described. All the programs operate within the real time disk operation system

  10. Unravel lipid accumulation mechanism in oleaginous yeast through single cell systems biology study

    Ding, Shiyou; Xiaoliang, Xie

    2017-12-18

    transcriptional profiles at the single-cell level, as follows: 1) We developed hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering (hsSRS) microscope tailored for fast chemical imaging in complex biological systems. It features high numerical aperture of 1.4 for better spatial resolution and reduced cross-phase modulation. The femtosecond infrared laser was selected for deeper penetration and less photodamage for longer in-situ imaging time. hsSRS was achieved through spectral focusing where two femtosecond laser beams were linearly chirped to create overlapping pulses in time domain. We achieved transformed limited spectral resolution of ~15cm for superior clarity in identifying different types of lipids. A set of sophisticated algorithms based on Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) was developed to analyze yeast images and track droplets. 2) Lipid production was carried out on selected oleaginous yeast strains. Lipid accumulation was studied in R. glutinis and Y. lipolytica grown in regular and nitrogen starvation media. hsSRS imaging of lipid droplets showed considerable variation among individual Y. lipolytica cells regarding volume and composition, while the R. glutins lipid droplet showed similar Raman response representing more homogenous lipid production. hsSRS analysis revealed the spatial distribution of two major lipids-TAG and sterol ester (SE)- where TAG formed cores were surrounded by SE shells. Significantly elevated level of SE/TAG was observed at cellular and sub-cellular levels which could be attributed to epigenetic variation in cell development. 3) Yeast growth conditions were studied based on their lipid droplets formation. Optimal condition was found in two-stage grown media where the yeast was grown in regular YEPD and transferred to nitrogen starvation media after maturation. The volume and composition of lipid droplets vary significantly depending on the availability of nitrogen source. Large number of cells have been fast screened and analyzed by custom

  11. A relaxed eddy accumulation system for measuring vertical fluxes of nitrous acid

    X. Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system combined with a nitrous acid (HONO analyzer was developed to measure atmospheric HONO vertical fluxes. The system consists of three major components: (1 a fast-response sonic anemometer measuring both vertical wind velocity and air temperature, (2 a fast-response controlling unit separating air motions into updraft and downdraft samplers by the sign of vertical wind velocity, and (3 a highly sensitive HONO analyzer based on aqueous long path absorption photometry that measures HONO concentrations in the updrafts and downdrafts. A dynamic velocity threshold (±0.5σw, where σw is a standard deviation of the vertical wind velocity was used for valve switching determined by the running means and standard deviations of the vertical wind velocity. Using measured temperature as a tracer and the average values from two field deployments, the flux proportionality coefficient, β, was determined to be 0.42 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The REA system was deployed in two ground-based field studies. In the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex study in Bakersfield, California in summer 2010, measured HONO fluxes appeared to be upward during the day and were close to zero at night. The upward HONO flux was highly correlated to the product of NO2 and solar radiation. During the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX 2009 at Blodgett Forest, California in July 2009, the overall HONO fluxes were small in magnitude and were close to zero. Causes for the different HONO fluxes in the two different environments are briefly discussed.

  12. Design of Accumulators and Liquid/Gas Charging of Single Phase Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection Systems

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to

  13. The role of social learning for social-ecological systems in Korean village groves restoration

    Eunju Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, social learning has been recognized as a means to foster adaptation to changing conditions, and more broadly, social-ecological systems resilience. However, the discussion of social learning and social-ecological resilience in different cultural contexts is limited. In this study we introduce the Korean Village Groves Restoration Project (VGRP through the lens of social learning, and discuss implications of the VGRP for resilience in villages impacted by industrialization and decline of traditional forest resources. We conducted open-ended interviews with VGRP leaders, government and NGO officials, and residents in four villages in South Korea, and found that villages responded to ecosystem change in ways that could be explained by the characteristics of social learning including interaction, integration, systems orientation, and reflection. However, the processes of learning varied among the four villages, and were associated with different levels of learning and different learning outcomes related to changes in village grove management and governance. The cultural and historical context can be used to help understand social learning processes and their outcomes in the Korean cases.

  14. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised and normal endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: An in vitro study

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of developing methods that could increase the fracture resistance of structurally compromised endodontically treated teeth, this study was conducted to compare the effect of three esthetic post systems on the fracture resistance and failure modes of structurally compromised and normal roots. Materials and Methods: Forty five extracted and endodontically treated maxillary central teeth were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n=9. In two groups, the post spaces were prepared with the corresponding drills of the post systems to be restored with double taper light posts (DT.Light-Post (group DT.N and zirconia posts (Cosmopost (group Zr.N. In other 3 groups thin wall canals were simulated to be restored with Double taper Light posts (DT.W, double taper Light posts and Ribbond fibers (DT+R.W and Zirconia posts (Zr.W. After access cavity restoration and thermocycling, compressive load was applied and the fracture strength values and failure modes were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher exact tests (P<0.05. Results: The mean failure loads (N were 678.56, 638.22, 732.44, 603.44 and 573.67 for groups DT.N, Zr.N, DT.W, DT+R.W and Zr.w respectively. Group DT+R.W exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture compared to groups Zr.N, DT.W and Zr.w (P<0.05. A significant difference was detected between groups DT.N and Zr.W (P=0.027. Zirconia posts showed significantly higher root fracture compared to fiber posts (P=0.004. Conclusion: The structurally compromised teeth restored with double taper light posts and Ribbond fibers showed the most fracture resistance and their strengths were comparable to those of normal roots restored with double taper light posts. More desirable fracture patterns were observed in teeth restored with fiber posts.

  15. Proposal of an intelligent wayside monitoring system for detection of critical ice accumulations on railway vehicles

    Michelberger, Frank; Wagner, Adrian; Ostermann, Michael; Maly, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    At railway lines with ballasted tracks, under unfavourable conditions, the so-called flying ballast can occur predominantly for trains driving at high speeds. Especially in wintertime, it is highly likely that the causes are adhered snow or ice deposits, which are falling off the vehicle. Due to the high kinetic energy, the impact can lead to the removal of ballast stones from the structure of the ballasted track. If the stones reach the height of vehicles underside, they may be accelerated significantly due to the collision with the vehicle or may detach further ice blocks. In the worst case, a reinforcing effect occurs, which can lead to considerable damage to railway vehicles (under-floor-area, vehicle exteriors, etc.) and infrastructure (signal masts, noise barriers, etc.). Additionally the flying gravel is a significant danger to people in the nearby area of the tracks. With this feasibility study the applicability and meaningfulness of an intelligent monitoring system for identification of the critical ice accumulation to prevent the ballast fly induced by ice dropping was examined. The key findings of the research are that the detection of ice on railway vehicles and the development of an intelligent monitoring seem to be possible with existing technologies, but a proof of concept in terms of field tests is necessary.

  16. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Complementary and Competitive Regimes of Accumulation: Natural Resources and Development in the World-System

    Astra Bonini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the post-war period, natural resource production has often been associated withperipheralization in the world-economy. This paper seeks to demonstrate that this associationdoes not hold when examined from a long-term perspective, and explains the conditions underwhich natural resource production can support upward economic mobility in the world-system.First, this paper provides evidence that the production of cash crops and resource extraction hasnot always equaled peripheralization in the world-economy, as demonstrated by, among otherthings, the upward economic mobility of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealandduring the nineteenth century. It then puts forth a new hypothesis that the existence ofopportunities for raw material producing countries depends on whether the hegemonic regime ofaccumulation at a given time structures the economy in a way that is either complementary orcompetitive to the economic development of raw material producing countries. By examining theBritish centered regime of accumulation during the nineteenth century, we find that it wascomparatively complementary to economic development in raw material producing countrieswhereas the twentieth century United States centered regime was comparatively competitive withraw material producers. Based on a comparison with Britain and the United States, the paperalso suggests that China’s increasingly central role in the world-economy may be comparativelycomplementary to economic development in raw material producing countries.

  18. Interseismic strain accumulation and the earthquake potential on the southern San Andreas fault system.

    Fialko, Yuri

    2006-06-22

    The San Andreas fault in California is a mature continental transform fault that accommodates a significant fraction of motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The two most recent great earthquakes on this fault ruptured its northern and central sections in 1906 and 1857, respectively. The southern section of the fault, however, has not produced a great earthquake in historic times (for at least 250 years). Assuming the average slip rate of a few centimetres per year, typical of the rest of the San Andreas fault, the minimum amount of slip deficit accrued on the southern section is of the order of 7-10 metres, comparable to the maximum co-seismic offset ever documented on the fault. Here I present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation across the southern San Andreas fault system using a well-populated catalogue of space-borne synthetic aperture radar data. The data reveal a nearly equal partitioning of deformation between the southern San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, with a pronounced asymmetry in strain accumulation with respect to the geologically mapped fault traces. The observed strain rates confirm that the southern section of the San Andreas fault may be approaching the end of the interseismic phase of the earthquake cycle.

  19. Geomorphic Approach to Regional Sediment Management in Engineered and Restored Fluvial Systems

    Thorne, Colin

    2001-01-01

    This document reviews contemporary practice in regional sediment management. It examines whether catchment wide sediment issues have been considered in the design of engineering and restoration/rehabilitation projects...

  20. a Restoration Oriented Hbim System for Cultural Heritage Documentation: the Case Study of Parma Cathedral

    Bruno, N.; Roncella, R.

    2018-05-01

    The need to safeguard and preserve Cultural Heritage (CH) is increasing and especially in Italy, where the amount of historical buildings is considerable, having efficient and standardized processes of CH management and conservation becomes strategic. At the time being, there are no tools capable of fulfilling all the specific functions required by Cultural Heritage documentation and, due to the complexity of historical assets, there are no solution as flexible and customizable as CH specific needs require. Nevertheless, BIM methodology can represent the most effective solution, on condition that proper methodologies, tools and functions are made available. The paper describes an ongoing research on the implementation of a Historical BIM system for the Parma cathedral, aimed at the maintenance, conservation and restoration. Its main goal was to give a concrete answer to the lack of specific tools required by Cultural Heritage documentation: organized and coordinated storage and management of historical data, easy analysis and query, time management, 3D modelling of irregular shapes, flexibility, user-friendliness, etc. The paper will describe the project and the implemented methodology, focusing mainly on survey and modelling phases. In describing the methodology, critical issues about the creation of a HBIM will be highlighted, trying to outline a workflow applicable also in other similar contexts.

  1. Effect of EDTA Conditioning on Microleakage of Four Adhesive Systems in Composite Restorations

    F. Shafiei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of dentin conditioning with EDTA on microleakage of composite resin restorations, using two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesives.Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty extracted molars received class V cavity preparations right under the CEJ and were randomly divided into eight groups of 20, usingfour different adhesive systems. These adhesives included Adper Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP, Adper Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB, and Adper Prompt L-Pop (PLP. In the SBMP and SB experimental groups, EDTA was applied instead of phosphoric acid. In the CSEB and PLP experimental groups, EDTA conditioning was added to the bonding process. After thermocycling, the amount of dye penetration was evaluated using stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests.Results: Two etch and rinse adhesives (SBMP, SB showed a significantly lower micro-leakage than the two self-etch adhesives, CSEB and PLP, (P<0.05. No significant differ-ence was observed among the experimental groups. PLP and CSEB showed significantly less microleakage using EDTA conditioning (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for SBMP and SB when applying either phosphoric acid or EDTA.Conclusion: In the cases of SBMP and SB, EDTA conditioning is as effective as phos-phoric acid in preventing microleakage. In cases of CSEB and PLP, EDTA conditioning can significantly improve the sealing ability.

  2. Laboratory Performance of Universal Adhesive Systems for Luting CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Siqueira, Fabiana; Cardenas, Andres Millan; Gutierrez, Mario Felipe; Malaquias, Pâmela; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Perdigão, Jorge

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of several universal adhesive systems applied on five different indirect restorative materials. Five CAD/CAM materials were selected: 1) indirect resin composite (LAV); 2) feldspathic glass ceramic (VTR); 3) leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (EMP); 4) lithium disilicate ceramic (EMX); 5) yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide (CZI). For each material, 15 blocks were cut into 4 rectangular sections (6 × 6 × 6 mm) (n = 60 per group), and processed as recommended by the respective manufacturer. For each indirect material, the following adhesive systems were applied according to the respective manufacturer's instructions: 1) AdheSE Universal [ADU]; 2) All-Bond Universal (ABU); 3) Ambar Universal (AMB); 4) Clearfil Universal (CFU); 5) Futurabond U (FBU); 6) One Coat 7 Universal (OCU); 7) Peak Universal Bond (PUB); 8) Prime&Bond Elect (PBE); 9) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU); 10) Xeno Select (XEN, negative control). After the application of the adhesive system, cylinder-shaped transparent matrices were filled with a dual-curing resin cement (NX3) and light cured. Specimens were stored in water (37°C for 24 h) and tested in shear mode at 1.0 mm/min (mSBS). The failure pattern and μSBS were statistically evaluated (a = 0.05). LAV, VTR, and EMP showed a greater number of cohesive fractures than EMX and CZI (p materials. There was a wide variability in mean μSBS when different universal adhesives were applied to the several CAD/CAM indirect materials. Most universal adhesives bonded well to air-abraded zirconia.

  3. EVALUATION OF MICROLEAKAGE DEGREE IN COMPOSITE RESIN RESTORATIONS BY COMPARING TWO ADHESIVES SYSTEMS AFTER DIFFERENT AGING PERIODS

    Falconí-Borja, Gabriela Marina; Molina-Pule, Carla Grimaneza; Velásquez-Ron, Byron Vinicio; Armas-Vega, Ana del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the clinical success of adhesive systems is based on the use of a responsible for creating microporosity in the dental structure acid and arises assess in vitro the degree of microfiltration in direct restorations with cavities class V where two adhesive systems differently used composition and at different periods of time. Methods: in the cervical third of 60 third molars extracted by therapeutic indication performed by diamond instruments, two cavities one on the ...

  4. Evaluation of bond strength of silorane and methacrylate based restorative systems to dentin using different cavity models

    Stephano Zerlottini Isaac

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS to dentin of two different restorative systems: silorane-based (P90, and methacrylate-based (P60, using two cavity models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Occlusal enamel of 40 human third molars was removed to expose flat dentin surface. Class I cavities with 4 mm mesial-distal width, 3 mm buccal-lingual width and 3 mm depth (C-factor=4.5 were prepared in 20 teeth, which were divided into two groups (n=10 restored with P60 and P90, bulk-filled after dentin treatment according to manufacturer's instructions. Flat buccal dentin surfaces were prepared in the 20 remaining teeth (C-factor=0.2 and restored with resin blocks measuring 4x3x3 mm using the two restorative systems (n=10. The teeth were sectioned into samples with area between 0.85 and 1.25 mm2 that were submitted to µTBS testing, using a universal testing machine (EMIC at speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fractured specimens were analyzed under stereomicroscope and categorized according to fracture pattern. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Kramer tests. RESULTS: For flat surfaces, P60 obtained higher bond strength values compared with P90. However, for Class I cavities, P60 showed significant reduction in bond strength (p0.05, or between Class I Cavity and Flat Surface group, considering P90 restorative system (p>0.05. Regarding fracture pattern, there was no statistical difference among groups (p=0.0713 and 56.3% of the fractures were adhesive. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that methacrylate-based composite µTBS was influenced by cavity models, and the use of silorane-based composite led to similar bond strength values compared to the methacrylate-based composite in cavities with high C-factor.

  5. Distributed Processing System for Restoration of Electric Power Distribution Network Using Two-Layered Contract Net Protocol

    Kodama, Yu; Hamagami, Tomoki

    Distributed processing system for restoration of electric power distribution network using two-layered CNP is proposed. The goal of this study is to develop the restoration system which adjusts to the future power network with distributed generators. The state of the art of this study is that the two-layered CNP is applied for the distributed computing environment in practical use. The two-layered CNP has two classes of agents, named field agent and operating agent in the network. In order to avoid conflicts of tasks, operating agent controls privilege for managers to send the task announcement messages in CNP. This technique realizes the coordination between agents which work asynchronously in parallel with others. Moreover, this study implements the distributed processing system using a de-fact standard multi-agent framework, JADE(Java Agent DEvelopment framework). This study conducts the simulation experiments of power distribution network restoration and compares the proposed system with the previous system. We confirmed the results show effectiveness of the proposed system.

  6. Niche accumulation and hybridisation strategies in transition processes towards a sustainable energy system: An assessment of differences and pitfalls

    Raven, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses two patterns in transition processes for using them as strategies towards a sustainable energy system, i.e., niche accumulation and hybridisation. Both play important but different roles in transitions. The expected success of these strategies depends on the innovation's history and the innovation context. The different strategies are illustrated with several examples from the energy domain

  7. Functional bacteria and process metabolism of the Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR) system: An investigation by operating the system from deterioration to restoration.

    Guo, Gang; Wu, Di; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish Robert; Wei, Li; Wang, Haiguang; Chen, Guanghao

    2016-05-15

    A sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus (P) Removal (EBPR) system is being developed to cater for the increasing needs to treat saline/brackish wastewater resulting from seawater intrusion into groundwater and sewers and frequent use of sulfate coagulants during drinking water treatment, as well as to meet the demand for eutrophication control in warm climate regions. However, the major functional bacteria and metabolism in this emerging biological nutrient removal system are still poorly understood. This study was thus designed to explore the functional microbes and metabolism in this new EBPR system by manipulating the deterioration, failure and restoration of a lab-scale system. This was achieved by changing the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration to monitor and evaluate the relationships among sulfur conversion (including sulfate reduction and sulfate production), P removal, variation in microbial community structures, and stoichiometric parameters. The results show that the stable Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated EBPR (DS-EBPR) system was enriched by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). These bacteria synergistically participated in this new EBPR process, thereby inducing an appropriate level of sulfur conversion crucial for achieving a stable DS-EBPR performance, i.e. maintaining sulfur conversion intensity at 15-40 mg S/L, corresponding to an optimal sludge concentration of 6.5 g/L. This range of sulfur conversion favors microbial community competition and various energy flows from internal polymers (i.e. polysulfide or elemental sulfur (poly-S(2-)/S(0)) and poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) for P removal. If this range was exceeded, the system might deteriorate or even fail due to enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs). Four methods of restoring the failed system were investigated: increasing the sludge concentration, lowering the salinity or doubling the COD

  8. Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 and 2 Verification for the Environmental Restoration Contractor Volumes 1 and 2

    CARTER, R.P.

    2000-04-04

    DOE Policy 450.4 mandates that safety be integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. The goal of an institutionalized Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and the federal property over the life cycle of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The purpose of this Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) ISMS Phase MI Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes were institutionalized within the ER Project, whether these programs and processes were implemented, and whether the system had promoted the development of a safety conscious work culture.

  9. Ecological benefits of passive wetland treatment systems designed for acid mine drainage: With emphasis on watershed restoration

    McCleary, E.C.; Kepler, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Western Pennsylvania has been a large source of coal for much of the US since the late 1800's. During the extraction of the coal resources, acid mine drainage (AMD) often resulted. AMD from abandoned discharges has effectively rendered thousands of kilometers of streams lifeless in the Appalachian coal region. Restoration of these streams has been limited in previous years primarily because of the lack of cost-effective treatment for AMD. Conventional treatment can treat AMD effectively but is costly to operate and maintain and is effective only when receiving human attention. Passive wetland treatment systems have proven to be the only realistic AMD treatment strategy, in terms of watershed restoration activities. If ecosystem health is the reason for implementing effluent standards then it can be reasonably argued that passive wetland treatment systems supply the most effective overall treatment, even if they do not meet one or more of the current effluent standards. Recent advancements in passive wetland treatment system technology have provided a management tool that could be used to treat the majority of AMD discharges cost-effectively, and when used strategically could reasonably be employed to restore the thousands of kilometers of AMD-affected streams in the coal regions of Appalachia. Secondary benefits that have been observed with passive wetland treatment systems suggest that these systems may be providing for accelerated ecological recovery independent of regulated effluent standards

  10. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  11. Systemic Growth of F. graminearum in Wheat Plants and Related Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol

    Antonio Moretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae. This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON, a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at

  12. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Kay, Steve A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Objectives: Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass Brachypodium distachyon also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation. Description: The project is divided in three main parts: 1) Performing time-lapse imaging and growth measurement in B. distachyon and S. bicolor to determine growth rate dynamic during the day/night cycle. Identifying growth-associated genes whose expression patterns follow the observed growth dynamics using deep sequencing technology, 2) identifying regulators of these genes by screening for DNA-binding proteins interacting with the growth-associated gene promoters identified in Aim 1. Screens will be performed using a validated yeast-one hybrid strategy paired with a specifically designed B. distachyon and S. bicolor transcription factor libraries (1000 clones each), and 3) Selecting 50 potential growth regulators from the screen for downstream characterization. The selection will be made by using a sytems biology approach by calculating the connectivity between growth rate, rhythmic gene expression profiles and TF expression profile and determine which TF is likely part of a hub

  13. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  14. Ecological restoration [book review

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  15. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Brown, Lee E.; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  16. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  17. Dose accumulation of multiple high dose rate prostate brachytherapy treatments in two commercially available image registration systems.

    Poder, Joel; Yuen, Johnson; Howie, Andrew; Bece, Andrej; Bucci, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether deformable image registration (DIR) is required for dose accumulation of multiple high dose rate prostate brachytherapy (HDRPBT) plans treated with the same catheter pattern on two different CT datasets. DIR was applied to 20 HDRPBT patients' planning CT images who received two treatment fractions on sequential days, on two different CT datasets, with the same implant. Quality of DIR in Velocity and MIM image registration systems was assessed by calculating the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement (MDA) for the prostate, urethra and rectum contours. Accumulated doses from each system were then calculated using the same DIR technique and dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters compared to manual addition with no DIR. The average DSC was found to be 0.83 (Velocity) and 0.84 (MIM), 0.80 (Velocity) and 0.80 (MIM), 0.80 (Velocity) and 0.81 (MIM), for the prostate, rectum and urethra contours, respectively. The average difference in calculated DVH parameters between the two systems using dose accumulation was less than 1%, and there was no statistically significant difference found between deformably accumulated doses in the two systems versus manual DVH addition with no DIR. Contour propagation using DIR in velocity and MIM was shown to be at least equivalent to inter-observer contouring variability on CT. The results also indicate that dose accumulation through manual addition of DVH parameters may be sufficient for HDRPBT treatments treated with the same catheter pattern on two different CT datasets. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 2, Interim business systems guidance

    1994-09-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program at Martin Marietta, IEM (Information Engineering Methodology) was developed as part of a complete and integrated approach to the progressive development and subsequent maintenance of automated data sharing systems. This approach is centered around the organization's objectives, inherent data relationships, and business practices. IEM provides the Information Systems community with a tool kit of disciplined techniques supported by automated tools. It includes seven stages: Information Strategy Planning; Business Area Analysis; Business System Design; Technical Design; Construction; Transition; Production. This document focuses on the Business Systems Architecture

  19. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke.

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources.

  20. The use of earth observation and decision support systems for the restoration of open-cast nickel mines in Evia, central Greece

    Ganas, A.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Astaras, T.; de Vente, J.; Frogoudakis, E.; Labrinos, N.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a decision support system (DSS) for open mining areas which reflects and simulates the major decision steps of a mining expert (engineer, manager) during the formulation of a restoration plan. The software supports the mining expert to structure the various restoration alternatives

  1. Restoration of active gully systems following the implementation of bioengineering techniques.

    Borja, Pablo; Vanacker, Veerle; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Intensive land use in the central parts of the Andean basin has led to widespread land degradation. The formation of badlands dates back from the 1950s and 1960s. Several studies indicate that human activities have accelerated mountain erosion rates by up to 100 times. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of bio-engineering works aiming to stabilize degraded catchments. Five micro-catchments (0.2 up to 5 ha) have been selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The five micro-catchments differ in vegetation cover and implementation of bio-engineering works. The experimental design consisted of three micro-catchments: (1) DI with conservation works, (2) DF with reforestation by Eucalyptus sp and (3) DT with no conservation works. Two micro-catchments have been monitored in an agricultural area: with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering works in the active gullies. Small checkdams were constructed in the gully floors of two of the micro-catchments in the badland area (DI) and the agricultural area (AI). The checkdams are made of wood and tires. Water flow has been measured in every micro-catchment, while sediment traps were constructed to monitor sediment transport. Results show that bio-engineering techniques are effective to stabilize active gullies. Deposition of sediments in manmade dams is strongly dependent on previous rainfall events, as well as gully channel slope, and its vegetation cover. From the experimental data, an I30 max threshold value was determined. Above this threshold value, all micro-catchments are actively contributing sediment to the main river system. The checkdams built with wood and tires have an efficiency of 70%, and were shown to be very effective to stabilize active gullies in bad lands through significant reduction (about 62%) of the amount of sediment exported from the micro-catchments. Key words: degraded soils, erosion, sediment, restoration, reforestation

  2. [Capital accumulation patterns: capital and services in the current transformations of the health system].

    de Andreazzi, Maria de Fátima Siliansky; Kornis, George Edward Machado

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce elements of the capitalist society economic reproduction to the discussion around the current dynamics of health accumulation. It identifies the direction and significance of capital accumulation in the health area as well as the characteristics of the economic environment where the competition currently takes place. The hypothetic hypertrophy of the financial sphere is seen as a means for structuring the capitalist economy since the late twentieth century. The former delimitations between industrial production and service delivery are blurred and weakened; the competition process shows new features and the contradictions - internally between the different elements of the health industry and externally with other sectors - are changing. This article aggregates elements for a contemporary analysis of the "medical-industrial complex" on the basis of a theoretical-historical-conceptual approach. We identify changes in the capital dynamics of this complex at international and national level and stress the increasing role of the health services as a forefront of capital accumulation. The new approach is based on the economic thinking of Marx in addition to the current discussions about the theory of financial capital accumulation and the new productive configurations of the large corporations.

  3. Developing a System for Fish Fauna Migration Restoration Above the Spillway Sill Near the City Hall of Oradea (Romania

    Voicu Răzvan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The channel of the river Crișul Repede inside the town affects both the biodiversity and implicit functionality of Crișul Repede River, therefore, this article aims to provide a solution for fish fauna migration in a system designed to restore longitudinal connectivity. The proposed migration system is based on the gravitational fall of water and will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of Crişul Repede River near the weir selected as the study case. It will reconnect approximately three kilometers of habitat that will contribute to ensuring the optimal conditions for the development of migratory fish species present in the area.

  4. Studies on the male sterility-fertility restoration system of AE. Kotschyi 19

    Cheng Junyuan; Sun Guoqing; Liu Luxiang; Zhao Linshu; Lu Xiuxia

    1996-01-01

    Sterile plants were obtained from the distant hybridization between Ae. Kotschyi 19 as the female parent and the Chinese Spring and T. yunnanense King as the male parent. Common wheat lines were used to testcross and backcross with the F 1 sterile plants successively. Male sterile line K-19 with Ae. Kotschyi cytoplasm and common wheat nucleus was bred. Over 10 K-19 MS lines were obtained. They are steady without monoploid. 7 restorers were obtained with the restoring ability from 88.2% to 96.9% according to the domestic method, from 116.4% to 150.4% according to the international method

  5. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  6. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  7. Accumulated damage evaluation for a piping system by the response factor on non-stationary random process, 2

    Shintani, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    This paper shows that the average and variance of the accumulated damage caused by earthquakes on the piping system attached to a building are related to the seismic response factor λ. The earthquakes refered to in this paper are of a non-stationary random process kind. The average is proportional to λ 2 and the variance to λ 4 . The analytical values of the average and variance for a single-degree-of-freedom system are compared with those obtained from computer simulations. Here the model of the building is a single-degree-of-freedom system. Both average of accumulated damage are approximately equal. The variance obtained from the analysis does not coincide with that from simulations. The reason is considered to be the forced vibraiton by sinusoidal waves, and the sinusoidal waves included random waves. Taking account of amplitude magnification factor, the values of the variance approach those obtained from simulations. (author)

  8. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  9. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  10. Provision of frequency restoration reserves by possible energy storage systems in Germany and the Netherlands

    Strassheim, A.; Haan, de J.E.S.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in generation portfolios and market design urge the need to attract additional balancing services in the form of frequency restoration reserves (FRR). This work elaborates on the opportunities and constraints of current balancing markets in the Netherlands and Germany to harness

  11. Modelling the Longevity of Dental Restorations by means of a CBR System

    Ignacio J. Aliaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of dental restorations is limited. Longevity depends on the material used and the different characteristics of the dental piece. However, it is not always the case that the best and longest lasting material is used since patients may prefer different treatments according to how noticeable the material is. Over the last 100 years, the most commonly used material has been silver amalgam, which, while very durable, is somewhat aesthetically displeasing. Our study is based on the collection of data from the charts, notes, and radiographic information of restorative treatments performed by Dr. Vera in 1993, the analysis of the information by computer artificial intelligence to determine the most appropriate restoration, and the monitoring of the evolution of the dental restoration. The data will be treated confidentially according to the Organic Law 15/1999 on 13 December on the Protection of Personal Data. This paper also presents a clustering technique capable of identifying the most significant cases with which to instantiate the case-base. In order to classify the cases, a mixture of experts is used which incorporates a Bayesian network and a multilayer perceptron; the combination of both classifiers is performed with a neural network.

  12. A decision support system for restoration planning of stream valley ecosystems

    Pieterse, N.M.; Verkroost, A.W.M.; Wassen, M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Kwakernaak, C.

    2002-01-01

    Despite efforts that have been put into conservation, there is a continuing loss of species and ecosystems in Western Europe. There is a growing awareness that restoration is an essential step to stop this tide. Unfortunately, there is lack of understanding about the multitude of functions and the

  13. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in Echinochloa polystachya grown within a hydroponic system

    Solis-Dominguez, F.A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Dpto. de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C. [Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, IRENAT, Carr. Mex-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Carrillo-Gonzalez, R. [Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, IRENAT, Carr. Mex-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Vazquez, R. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Dpto. de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rerovaz@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-03-22

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants. Echinochloa polystachya [(H.B.K.) Hitchcock] (Poaceae) is a fast-growing perennial grass that is common in tropical areas and is often found in oil-polluted soils that contain high concentrations of heavy metals. However, its tolerance to heavy metals, and its ability to accumulate them, has yet to be investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that E. polystachya is able to accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd). Plants were grown hydroponically with different levels of Cd{sup 2+} (0, 0.25, 1, 2, 10, 50, and 100 mg L{sup -1}), and were found to be tolerant to Cd{sup 2+} at all levels. No metal-toxicity symptoms were observed at any Cd{sup 2+} level. Root and leaves Cd concentrations were 299 {+-} 13.93 and 233 {+-} 8.77 mg kg{sup -1} (on a dry weight basis), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed the inclusion of Cd within the xylem; this result was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Leaf tissues also accumulated Cd, especially within the bulliform cells of the epidermis. We conclude that E. polystachya is a hyperaccumulator of Cd. While data for other metals are not yet available, E. polystachya shows promise in the phytoextraction of Cd from polluted tropical sites.

  14. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in Echinochloa polystachya grown within a hydroponic system

    Solis-Dominguez, F.A.; Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants. Echinochloa polystachya [(H.B.K.) Hitchcock] (Poaceae) is a fast-growing perennial grass that is common in tropical areas and is often found in oil-polluted soils that contain high concentrations of heavy metals. However, its tolerance to heavy metals, and its ability to accumulate them, has yet to be investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that E. polystachya is able to accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd). Plants were grown hydroponically with different levels of Cd 2+ (0, 0.25, 1, 2, 10, 50, and 100 mg L -1 ), and were found to be tolerant to Cd 2+ at all levels. No metal-toxicity symptoms were observed at any Cd 2+ level. Root and leaves Cd concentrations were 299 ± 13.93 and 233 ± 8.77 mg kg -1 (on a dry weight basis), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed the inclusion of Cd within the xylem; this result was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Leaf tissues also accumulated Cd, especially within the bulliform cells of the epidermis. We conclude that E. polystachya is a hyperaccumulator of Cd. While data for other metals are not yet available, E. polystachya shows promise in the phytoextraction of Cd from polluted tropical sites

  15. Effects of dust accumulation and module cleaning on performance ratio of solar rooftop system and solar power plants

    Sakarapunthip, Nattakarn; Chenvidhya, Dhirayut; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kirtikara, Krissanapong; Chenvidhya, Tanokkorn; Onreabroy, Wandee

    2017-08-01

    Thailand is an agricultural country, with rice, sugar, and cassava as the major export products. Production of rice, sugar cane, and cassava entails agricultural activities that give rise to significant airborne dusts. In this work, five photovoltaic (PV) units (one solar rooftop and four power plants) are selected for the study. From the study of dust accumulation on glass surface located near rice farms, it was found that opaque areas due to the deposition of dust are 11-14% after 1-2-week exposure. As a consequence, PV system performance is affected. Performance ratio was calculated to determine these effects. Overall results reveal that during the dry and hot seasons, dust deposition significantly affects the performance ratio. The performance ratio reduces by 1.6-3% for 1-month dust accumulation and reduces by 6-8% for 2-month dust accumulation. After cleaning the dust accumulated, the performance ratio greatly increases, resulting in the increase in the energy output by 10%. This increase provides economic and cost benefits of PV cleaning. The performance ratio is not significantly changed during the rainy season, which PV modules are relatively clean as the dust is washed away by rain. It was also found that most of the solar power plants in Thailand still rely on manual cleaning of PV modules with washing water followed by wiping. However, only one power plant, employs a machine for cleaning, resulting in lower cleaning costs.

  16. Restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit with the thoracodorsal artery system of flaps in patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    Chanowski, Eric J P; Casper, Keith A; Eisbruch, Avraham; Heth, Jason A; Marentette, Lawrence J; Prince, Mark E; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the advantages of the thoracodorsal artery scapular tip autogenous transplant (Tdast) for patients requiring restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit. Design Prospective case series. Setting Tertiary center. Participants Ten patients (M:F,6:4) with a mean age of 56 years (range, 21 to 78 years) underwent restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit and radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. Main Outcome Measures The two reconstructive advantages of the thoracodorsal artery system of flaps for orbital reconstruction are a long pedicle and the suitability of the scapula tip to meet the three-dimensional requirements of the orbit. Patients were assessed 1 year or more after treatment for cosmetic outcome, work status, and socialization. Results Eight of 10 patients benefited from the three-dimensional nature of the scapula tip bone and 7 of 10 avoided vein grafting. Four of five evaluable patients reported "frequently" socializing outside their home. Four of five evaluable patients working before undergoing their treatment were able to return to work posttreatment. Seven of nine patients with postoperative photographs had minimal or no facial contour deformity. Conclusions The Tdast can restore orbital contour without osteotomy, and the thoracodorsal artery system of flaps has a long vascular pedicle that reduces vein grafting. Patients have an acceptable cosmetic result and return to preoperative work status and socialization.

  17. MOIRA: a computerised decision support system for the restoration of radionuclide contaminated freshwater ecosystems

    Gallego, Eduardo; Brittain, J.E.; Hakanson, Lars; Heling, Rudie; Hofman, Dmitry; Monte, Luigi

    2000-01-01

    The radiation dose resulting from contamination of freshwater ecosystems due to the release of radioactive substances into the environment may be reduced by applying suitable countermeasures. The options for intervention are wide-ranging and can be broadly grouped into three main categories: chemical, physical and social countermeasures. In some cases, a combination of actions -or even the no action- may be the optimal strategy. Despite their benefits, intervention strategies may have detrimental effects of economic, ecological and social nature. Thus, it is of paramount importance to assess, by objective criteria, the global cost-benefit balance of different options. The MOIRA project (A MOdel based computerised system for management support to Identity optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems, European Commission contract FI4P-CT96-0036) has developed a user-friendly, computerised tool that will allow decision makers to choose optimal intervention strategies for freshwater ecosystems with different contamination scenarios. To achieve that goal, the MOIRA software system -apart from a user-friendly interface- incorporates several innovative aspects: - eographical information system (GIS) and databases to get to get the values of the model parameters at different locations in Europe. - redictive ecosystem models for the behaviour of radionuclides (namely Cs-137 and Sr-90) in catchments, lakes and rivers, complemented with models of the effect of the countermeasures on the environmental contamination levels. These models are based on an extensive use of aggregate parameters' that summarise, in single quantities, the effects of a variety of environmental processes. Methods for critical model testing, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been applied to them getting a high reliability. - cosystem index (EI) to handle the influence chemical remedial measures may have on the structure, reproduction and biomass of key

  18. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Kay, Steve A. [Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Hazen, Samuel [Scripps Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States); Mullet, John [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Critical to the development of renewable energy sources from biofuels is the improvement of biomass from energy feedstocks, such as sorghum and maize. The specific goals of this project include 1) characterize the growth and gene expression patterns under diurnal and circadian conditions, 2) select transcription factors associated with growth and build a cis-regulatory network in yeast, and 3) perturb these transcription factors in planta using transgenic Brachypodium and sorghum, and characterize the phenotypic outcomes as they relate to biomass accumulation. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield.

  19. [Effects of N application on wheat powdery mildew occurrence, nitrogen accumulation and allocation in intercropping system].

    Zhu, Jin Hui; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Jing Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this field experiment was to study the effects of wheat and faba bean intercropping on occurrence of wheat powdery mildew, nitrogen content, accumulation and allocation of wheat plant at 4 nitrogen levels of N 0 (0 kg·hm -2 ), N 1 (112.5 kg·hm -2 ), N 2 (225 kg·hm -2 ), N 3 (337.5 kg·hm -2 ), and to explore the relationship between N content, accumulation, allocation and the occurrence of wheat powdery mildew. The results showed that both monocropped and intercropped wheat yields increased with nitrogen application, with the highest yields of monocropped and intercropped wheat being 4146 kg·hm -2 and 4679 kg·hm -2 at N 2 le-vel, respectively. The occurrence and development of wheat powdery mildew become more severe with the increase of N application and area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) were averagely increased by 39.6%-55.6%(calculated with disease incidence, DI) and 92.5%-217.0% (calculated with disease severity index, DSI) with N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments. The disease severity index was more affected by nitrogen regulation than by disease incidence. The nitrogen content and accumulation of wheat plant were significantly increased by 8.4%-51.6% and 19.7%-133.7% with nitrogen application, but there was no significant effect on N allocation ratio. Compared with monocropped wheat, yield of intercropped wheat was averagely increased by 12%, whereas, the AUDPC(DI) and AUDPC(DSI) of intercropped wheat were averagely decreased by 11.5% and 30.7%, respectively. The control effect of the disease severity index by intercropping was better than disease incidence. The nitrogen content, accumulation and nitrogen allocation ratio in intercropped wheat leaves were significantly decreased by 6.6%-12.5%, 1.4%-6.9% and 9.0%-15.5% respectively at the peak infection stage of powdery mildew. Overall findings showed that the maximum rate of nitrogen application for wheat should not exceed 225 kg·hm -2 when taking into account both disease

  20. Superstorm Sandy: Implications For Designing A PostCyber Attack Power Restoration System

    2016-03-31

    transmission organization ( RTO ) retains more than two hundred personnel to meet its estimate of its own post-cyber attack restoration requirements...being adopted or developed by high-voltage transmission companies, RTOs , and other BES entities. 54 NERC, Severe Impact Resilience, 35. THE JOHNS...CIP) reliability standards in response to cyber threats.55 RTOs and other components of the BES also have long-established principles to sustain

  1. Comparison of Four Nitrate Removal Kinetic Models in Two Distinct Wetland Restoration Mesocosm Systems

    Tiffany L. Messer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the kinetic model that best fit observed nitrate removal rates at the mesocosm scale in order to determine ideal loading rates for two future wetland restorations slated to receive pulse flow agricultural drainage water. Four nitrate removal models were investigated: zero order, first order decay, efficiency loss, and Monod. Wetland mesocosms were constructed using the primary soil type (in triplicate at each of the future wetland restoration sites. Eighteen mesocosm experiments were conducted over two years across seasons. Simulated drainage water was loaded into wetlands as batches, with target nitrate-N levels typically observed in agricultural drainage water (between 2.5 and 10 mg L−1. Nitrate-N removal observed during the experiments provided the basis for calibration and validation of the models. When the predictive strength of each of the four models was assessed, results indicated that the efficiency loss and first order decay models provided the strongest agreement between predicted and measured NO3-N removal rates, and the fit between the two models were comparable. Since the predictive power of these two models were similar, the less complicated first order decay model appeared to be the best choice in predicting appropriate loading rates for the future full-scale wetland restorations.

  2. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated permanent anterior teeth restored with three different esthetic post systems: An in vitro study

    Ameet J Kurthukoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esthetic coronal reconstruction of fractured anterior teeth is often performed using intra radicular posts. Most of the commonly used commercially esthetic post systems do not exhibit similar physical properties as dentin resulting in failures. Aim: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance and mode of failure of simulated traumatized permanent central incisors restored with three different post systems including biologic dentin posts. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 recently extracted human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions were decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Ten specimens were randomly selected as the Group I - Control group (core built teeth without intraradicular posts. The remaining 30 teeth were equally divided and restored with zirconia (Group II, n = 10, fiber re-inforced composite (FRC (Group III, n = 10 and biologic dentin posts (Group IV, n = 10 using resin bonded cement and their cores built-up. These samples were embedded in acrylic resin and then secured in a Universal Testing Machine and subjected to fracture resistance testing. The location of failure in the specimens was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results: Intergroup comparison revealed that the control group and zirconia post group (522 ± 110 N demonstrated the least fracture resistance, while dentin post group (721 ± 127 N the highest. There was no statistically significant difference between fiber post and dentin post groups. Fractures that were repairable were observed in fiber post and dentin post groups, whereas mostly unrestorable, catastrophic fractures were observed in the zirconia post group. Conclusion: Teeth restored with the biologic dentin post system demonstrated the highest fracture resistance and repairable fractures, closely followed by FRC post system. The least fracture resistance and most catastrophic fractures were demonstrated by the zirconia post system.

  3. Establishment of an Arabidopsis callus system to study the interrelations of biosynthesis, degradation and accumulation of carotenoids

    Schaub, Patrick; Rodriguez-Franco, Marta; Cazzonelli, Christopher Ian; Álvarez, Daniel; Wüst, Florian

    2018-01-01

    The net amounts of carotenoids accumulating in plant tissues are determined by the rates of biosynthesis and degradation. While biosynthesis is rate-limited by the activity of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), carotenoid losses are caused by catabolic enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation. We established a system based on non-green Arabidopsis callus which allowed investigating major determinants for high steady-state levels of β-carotene. Wild-type callus development was characterized by strong carotenoid degradation which was only marginally caused by the activity of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases. In contrast, carotenoid degradation occurred mostly non-enzymatically and selectively affected carotenoids in a molecule-dependent manner. Using carotenogenic pathway mutants, we found that linear carotenes such as phytoene, phytofluene and pro-lycopene resisted degradation and accumulated while β-carotene was highly susceptible towards degradation. Moderately increased pathway activity through PSY overexpression was compensated by degradation revealing no net increase in β-carotene. However, higher pathway activities outcompeted carotenoid degradation and efficiently increased steady-state β-carotene amounts to up to 500 μg g-1 dry mass. Furthermore, we identified oxidative β-carotene degradation products which correlated with pathway activities, yielding β-apocarotenals of different chain length and various apocarotene-dialdehydes. The latter included methylglyoxal and glyoxal as putative oxidative end products suggesting a potential recovery of carotenoid-derived carbon for primary metabolic pathways. Moreover, we investigated the site of β-carotene sequestration by co-localization experiments which revealed that β-carotene accumulated as intra-plastid crystals which was confirmed by electron microscopy with carotenoid-accumulating roots. The results are discussed in the context of using the non-green calli carotenoid assay system for approaches targeting high

  4. The limitations of seedling growth and drought tolerance to novel soil substrates in arid systems: Implications for restoration success

    Bateman, Amber; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Stevens, Jason; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    resulting in seedling mortality at less negative soil water potential. Finally, no significant differences in drought tolerance were observed between the two leaf stages across the four species tested. Analysis of plant desiccation curves found the advanced leaf stage to be less tolerant of drought as shown by a decrease in soil water potential at the time of stomatal closure. Species possess a range of morphological traits, some of which are associated with drought tolerance. However, these traits on their own may not be main drivers for drought resilience and other factors play a role, for example soil nutrient availability. Materials tested in this study that may be available to create novel restoration substrates hinder plant growth but not necessarily plant responses to drought. These findings go a long way to defining some of the limitations of seedling growth and the degree of drought tolerance which will assist in the management of post-mining restoration. References James, J.J., Sheley, R.L., Erickson,T., Rollins, K.S., Taylor, M.H., Dixon, K.W. (2013) A systems approach to restoring degraded drylands. Journal of Applied Ecology 50:730-739. Machado, N. A. M., Leite, M. G. P., Figueiredo, M. A., Kozovits, A. R. (2013) Growing Ereman-thus erythropappus in crushed laterite: A promising alternative to topsoil for baux¬ite-mine revegetation. Journal of Environmental Management 129: 149-156. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T., Merritt, D., Dixon, K. (2014) Optimising post-mining soil conditions to maximise restoration success in a biodiverse semiarid environment. Geophysical Research. Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-2069-1, EGU General Assembly. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T., Merritt, D., Dixon, K. (2015) Applying soil science for restoration of post mining degraded landscapes in semi-arid Australia: challenges and opportunities. Geophysical Research. Abstracts Vol. 17, EGU2015-3967-1, EGU General Assembly.

  5. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  7. Post-Disaster Supply Chain Interdependent Critical Infrastructure System Restoration: A Review of Data Necessary and Available for Modeling

    Varun Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national 'supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems' (SCICI. These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government

  8. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  9. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (adjust. This dynamic switching between alternative stable states, we postulate will maintain a diversity of habitat types, and support increased steelhead production. In the short-term, we have a host of explicit design hypotheses about the physical and biotic response and a multi-scalar monitoring program geared to test each of these. We will present findings from a preliminary pilot project on three of the study creeks, which was subjected to a major flood, and tests many of these hypotheses

  10. Cervical microleakage in Class II cavities restored with the Sonicsys approx system.

    Rominu, Mihai; Florita, Zeno; Lakatos, Sorin; Rominu, Roxana Otilia

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the cervical microleakage in Class II cavities restored with Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts and four resin-based materials. Forty noncarious and crack-free mandibular third molars were used. These teeth were randomly assigned to four groups each containing 10 teeth. No control group was created. On each tooth, one mesial boxlike cavity was prepared using the active head Sonicsys approx no. 3. The cervical margin of each cavity was in enamel about 1 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction. According to manufacturer's instructions, the prepared cavities were restored using a Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts no.3 and four resin-based materials as follows: group 1, Tetric Flow; group 2, Admira Flow; group 3, Nexus 2; group 4, X-Flow. After finishing and polishing, all specimens were stored in distilled water for 7 days at 37 degrees C, thermocycled 1,000 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C, and stored for 24 hours in basic fuchsine 2%. All specimens were then embedded in clear acrylic resin and sectioned along a mesial-distal plane through the middle of the cervical margin. The cervical areas of the resulting sections were examined using an optical microscope to assess the dye penetration. The registered scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Microleakage was detected in each experimental group. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed statistically significant differences among groups (P = .009, alpha = .01). The Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between Admira Flow group and Tetric Flow (P = .011, alpha = .05), Nexus 2 (P = .001, alpha = .01), and X-Flow (P = .004, alpha = .01), respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the extent of microleakage in the cervical area (enamel) of Class II cavities restored with Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts depends on the material used for luting. The highest leakage occurred when Admira flow was used.

  11. In a Spirit of Restoration: A Phenomenology of Nursing Practice and the Criminal Justice System.

    Gorman, Geraldine; Singer, Rebecca M; Christmas, Erin; Herbstritt, Catherine; Miller, Layne; Murphy, Mary; Shannon, Cailan; Wyss, Katrina

    Conditions within jails and prisons are a public health crisis, necessitating critical reform measures. An innovative collaboration between a Midwestern College of Nursing and Cook County Department of Corrections provides students with the opportunity to develop health education for both those detained in the jail and the corrections officers. A phenomenological approach, recognizing the importance of intuitive and cognitive understanding, is offered as a framework for practice in complex environments. Principles of restorative justice provide a bridge between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and the nursing practice possible within these institutions of incarceration and the communities to which people return.

  12. Interim restorations.

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  13. Restoring forests

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  14. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  15. Active and reactive power sharing and frequency restoration in a distributed power system consisting of two UPS units

    Parlak, Koray Sener; Oezdemir, Mehmet [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Firat University, Elazig, 23119 (Turkey); Aydemir, M. Timur [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Gazi University, Maltepe-Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    A distributed power system consisting of two uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) is investigated in this paper. Parallel operation of the two sources increases the established power rating of the system. One of the sources can supply the system even when the other system is disconnected due to some faults, and this is an important feature. The control algorithm makes sure that the total load is shared between the supplies in accordance with their rated power levels, and the frequency of the supplies are restored to the rated values after the transitions. As the UPSs operate at an optimum power level, losses and faults due to overloading are prevented. The units safely operate without any means of communication between each other. The focus of the work is on the inverter stages of the UPSs. Simulations performed in Matlab Simulink environment have been verified with experimental work via DS1103 controller card. (author)

  16. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems.

    T T Yen Le

    Full Text Available Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation

  17. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  18. Hotspots for selected metal elements and microbes accumulation and the corresponding water quality deterioration potential in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system

    Liu, Gang; Tao, Yu; Zhang, Ya Ping; Lut, Maarten; Knibbe, Willem Jan; Wielen, van der Paul; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; Meer, van der Walter

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation, loose deposit accumulation and water quality deterioration in drinking water distribution systems have been widely reported. However, the accumulation and distribution of harbored elements and microbes in the different niches (loose deposits, PVC-U biofilm, and HDPE biofilm) and

  19. Hotspots for selected metal elements and microbes accumulation and the corresponding water quality deterioration potential in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system

    Liu, G.; Tao, Yu; Zhang, Ya; Lut, M.C.; Knibbe, Willem Jan; van der Wielen, Paul; Liu, Wentso; Medema, G.; van der Meer, W.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation, loose deposit accumulation and water quality deterioration in drinking water distribution systems have been widely reported. However, the accumulation and distribution of harbored elements and microbes in the different niches (loose deposits, PVC-U biofilm, and HDPE biofilm)

  20. 3-D subsurface modeling within the framework of an environmental restoration information system: Prototype results using earthvision

    Goeltz, R.T.; Zondlo, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) placement on the EPA Superfund National Priorities List in December of 1989, all remedial activities, including characterization, remedial alternatives selection, and implementation of remedial measures, must meet the combined requirements of RCRA, CERCLA, and NEPA. The Environmental Restoration Program, therefore, was established with the mission of eliminating or reducing to prescribed safe levels the risks to the environment or to human health and safety posed by inactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. In accordance with an established Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), waste sites and facilities across the DOE-ORR have been inventoried, prioritized, and are being systematically investigated and remediated under the direction of Environmental Restoration. EarthVision, a product of Dynamic Graphics, Inc., that provides three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and visualization, was exercised within the framework of an environmental restoration (ER) decision support system. The goal of the prototype was to investigate framework integration issues including compatibility and value to decision making. This paper describes the ER program, study site, and information system framework; selected EarthVision results are shown and discussed. EarthVision proved effective in integrating complex data from disparate sources and in providing 3-D visualizations of the spatial relationships of the data, including contaminant plumes. Work is under way to expand the analysis to the full site, covering about 1600 acres, and to include data from new sources, particularly remote-sensing studies

  1. Thorax irradiation triggers a local and systemic accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells

    Wirsdörfer, Florian; Cappuccini, Federica; Niazman, Muska; Leve, Simone de; Westendorf, Astrid M; Lüdemann, Lutz; Stuschke, Martin; Jendrossek, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocyte infiltration is a common feature of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis, but their contribution to the pathogenic processes is still unclear. Here, we addressed the impact of thorax irradiation on the T cell compartment with a focus on immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg). C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT) received anesthesia only (sham controls, 0 Gy) or were exposed to a single dose of whole thorax irradiation (15 Gy). Immune cells from lung tissue, spleen, and cervical lymph nodes were collected 10 to 84 days post-irradiation and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. Whole thorax irradiation provoked an increased influx of CD3+ T cells at 42 and 84 days post-irradiation. In contrast, local irradiation caused a sustained reduction in CD3+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, we observed a significant local and systemic increase in the fraction of CD4+ T cells expressing the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), the phenotypic marker for murine Treg, at day 21 post-irradiation. The accumulation of Treg was associated with increased levels of T cells expressing surface proteins characteristic for recruitment and immunosuppressive activity, e.g. CD103, CTLA-4 and CD73. Importantly, Treg isolated at this time point were able to suppress CD4+ effector T cells to a similar extent as Treg isolated from control mice. The response of the adaptive immune system to whole thorax irradiation is characterized by local immunoactivation and systemic immunosuppression. The transient accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ Treg may be required to protect the lung against excessive inflammation-induced tissue damage. Further investigations shall define the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of Treg and their role for the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung disease

  2. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated aquatic ecosystems: the project MOIRA

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U.; Brittain, J.; Monte, L.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems

  3. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  4. Restoration of orbicularis oculi muscle function in rabbits with peripheral facial paralysis via an implantable artificial facial nerve system.

    Sun, Yajing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Keyong; Zhang, Qunfeng; Geng, Liang; Liu, Xundao; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to restore orbicularis oculi muscle function using the implantable artificial facial nerve system (IAFNS). The in vivo part of the IAFNS was implanted into 12 rabbits that were facially paralyzed on the right side of the face to restore the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle, which was indicated by closure of the paralyzed eye when the contralateral side was closed. Wireless communication links were established between the in vivo part (the processing chip and microelectrode) and the external part (System Controller program) of the system, which were used to set the working parameters and indicate the working state of the processing chip and microelectrode implanted in the body. A disturbance field strength test of the IAFNS processing chip was performed in a magnetic field dark room to test its electromagnetic radiation safety. Test distances investigated were 0, 1, 3 and 10 m, and levels of radiation intensity were evaluated in the horizontal and vertical planes. Anti-interference experiments were performed to test the stability of the processing chip under the interference of electromagnetic radiation. The fully implanted IAFNS was run for 5 h per day for 30 consecutive days to evaluate the accuracy and precision as well as the long-term stability and effectiveness of wireless communication. The stimulus intensity (range, 0-8 mA) was set every 3 days to confirm the minimum stimulation intensity which could indicate the movement of the paralyzed side was set. Effective stimulation rate was also tested by comparing the number of eye-close movements on both sides. The results of the present study indicated that the IAFNS could rebuild the reflex arc, inducing the experimental rabbits to close the eye of the paralyzed side. The System Controller program was able to reflect the in vivo part of the artificial facial nerve system in real-time and adjust the working pattern, stimulation intensity and frequency, range of wave

  5. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  6. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  7. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  8. Accumulation of gentisic acid as associated with systemic infections but not with the hypersensitive response in plant-pathogen interactions.

    Bellés, José M; Garro, Rafael; Pallás, Vicente; Fayos, Joaquín; Rodrigo, Ismael; Conejero, Vicente

    2006-02-01

    In the present work we have studied the accumulation of gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, a metabolic derivative of salicylic acid, SA) in the plant-pathogen systems, Cucumis sativus and Gynura aurantiaca, infected with either prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) or the exocortis viroid (CEVd), respectively. Both pathogens produced systemic infections and accumulated large amounts of the intermediary signal molecule gentisic acid as ascertained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled on line with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compound was found mostly in a conjugated (beta-glucoside) form. Gentisic acid has also been found to accumulate (although at lower levels) in cucumber inoculated with low doses of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, producing a nonnecrotic reaction. In contrast, when cucumber was inoculated with high doses of this pathogen, a hypersensitive reaction occurred, but no gentisic-acid signal was induced. This is consistent with our results supporting the idea that gentisic-acid signaling may be restricted to nonnecrotizing reactions of the host plant (Bellés et al. in Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 12:227-235, 1999). In cucumber and Gynura plants, the activity of gentisic acid as inducing signal was different to that of SA, thus confirming the data found for tomato. Exogenously supplied gentisic acid was able to induce peroxidase activity in both Gynura and cucumber plants in a similar way as SA or pathogens. However, gentisic-acid treatments strongly induced polyphenol oxidase activity in cucumber, whereas pathogen infection or SA treatment resulted in a lower induction of this enzyme. Nevertheless, gentisic acid did not induce other defensive proteins which are induced by SA in these plants. This indicates that gentisic acid could act as an additional signal to SA for the activation of plant defenses in cucumber and Gynura plants.

  9. In vitro evaluation of marginal discrepancy of monolithic zirconia restorations fabricated with different CAD-CAM systems.

    Hamza, Tamer A; Sherif, Rana M

    2017-06-01

    Dental laboratories use different computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems to fabricate fixed prostheses; however, limited evidence is available concerning which system provides the best marginal discrepancy. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal fit of 5 different monolithic zirconia restorations milled with different CAD-CAM systems. Thirty monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated on a custom-designed stainless steel die and were divided into 5 groups according to the type of monolithic zirconia crown and the CAD-CAM system used: group TZ, milled with an MCXL milling machine; group CZ, translucent zirconia milled with a motion milling machine; group ZZ, zirconia milled with a dental milling unit; group PZ, translucent zirconia milled with a zirconia milling unit; and group BZ, solid zirconia milled using an S1 VHF milling machine. The marginal fit was measured with a binocular microscope at an original magnification of ×100. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and post hoc surface range test, and pairwise multiple comparisons were made using Bonferroni correction (α=.05). The type of CAD-CAM used affected the marginal fit of the monolithic restoration. The mean (±SD) highest marginal discrepancy was recorded in group TZI at 39.3 ±2.3 μm, while the least mean marginal discrepancy was recorded in group IZ (22.8 ±8.9 μm). The Bonferroni post hoc test showed that group TZI was significantly different from all other groups tested (Pmarginal discrepancies; however, the CAD-CAM system with the 5-axis milling unit produced the best marginal fit. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Astro-Wise system: a federated information accumulator for astronomy

    Valentijn, Edwin A.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2007-01-01

    The Astro-Wise consortium has designed a new paradigm, ‘Awe‘, and implemented a fully scalable and distributed information system to overcome the huge information avalanche in wide-field astronomical imaging Surveys.

  11. A VME-based accumulation, control and supervising system for neutron texture measurements

    Kirilov, A.S.; Heinitz, J.; Korobchenko, M.L.; Rezaev, V.E.; Sirotin, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays VME-based systems to control neutron measurement instruments are forcing out those built with PC and CAMAC. One of several alternative solutions is presented here. Its main feature is the implementation of the entire system on the VME site. Both the hardware and the software parts are considered. The instrument can be controlled locally or remotely via local network (even from PCs) with a modern-styled graphical user interface

  12. ramic restorations

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  13. Hair restoration.

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  14. Contribution to restoration of degraded images by a space-variant system: use of an a priori model of the image

    Barakat, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Imaging systems often present shift-variant point spread functions which are usually approximated by shift-invariant ones, in order to simplify the restoration problem. The aim of this thesis is to show that, if this shift-variant degradation is taken into account, it may increase strongly the quality of restoration. The imaging system is a pinhole, used to acquire images of high energy beams. Three restoration methods have been studied and compared: the Tikhonov-Miller regularization, the Markov-fields and the Maximum-Entropy methods. These methods are based on the incorporation of an a priori knowledge into the restoration process, to achieve stability of the solution. An improved restoration method is proposed: this approach is based on the Tikhonov-Miller regularization, combined with an a priori model of the solution. The idea of such a model is to express local characteristics to be reconstructed. The concept of parametric models described by a set of parameters (shape of the object, amplitude values,...) is used. A parametric optimization is used to find the optimal estimation of parameters close to the correct a priori information data of the expected solution. Several criteria have been proposed to measure the restoration quality. (author) [fr

  15. Organic amendments as restoration techniques in degraded arid and semiarid systems: A review

    Hueso-González, Paloma; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing concern at the global scale about interrelated environmental problems such as soil degradation, desertification, erosion, and climate change impacts (Hueso-Gonzalez et al., 2014). Indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals, excessive and deep tillage, excessive irrigation, among many others factors, have largely contributed to soil degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas (Lal, 2008). Soil is an essential non-renewable resource with extremely slow formation and regeneration potential (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016a and c, Martínez-Murillo et al., 2016). The decline in organic matter content of many soils is becoming a major cause of soil degradation, particularly in dryland regions (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016b) where low soil fertility cannot maintain sustainable production in many cases (Hueso-González et al., 2015). The use of soil organic amendments is a common practice in agricultural management and land restoration that can help to improve physical and chemical soil properties, soil structure, temperature and humidity conditions, as well as nutrient contents which are essential for plant growth (Guerrero et al., 2001). Under degraded conditions, several studies have shown their benefits for improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Jordan et al., 2010 and 2011). However, there are many research gaps in the knowledge of the effects of climatic conditions on their application, as well as the adequate types of amendment and doses and decomposition rates, (Hueso-Gonzalez,2016). All these factors are crucial for the success in their application. Here, we review long-term experiments worldwide studying the benefits associated with the application of organic materials, particularly, in restoration of arid and semiarid ecosystems together with the possible threats and risks that can result from their use. We will specifically adress: (1) type of amended and benefits arising from their use, (2) application methods and more

  16. Evolvement of transgenic male-sterility and fertility-restoration system in rice for production of hybrid varieties.

    Rao, Gundra Sivakrishna; Deveshwar, Priyanka; Sharma, Malini; Kapoor, Sanjay; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a unique male-sterility and fertility-restoration system in rice by combining Brassica napus cysteine-protease gene (BnCysP1) with anther-specific P12 promoter of rice for facilitating production of hybrid varieties. In diverse crop plants, male-sterility has been exploited as a useful approach for production of hybrid varieties to harness the benefits of hybrid vigour. The promoter region of Os12bglu38 gene of rice has been isolated from the developing panicles and was designated as P12. The promoter was fused with gusA reporter gene and was expressed in Arabidopsis and rice systems. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity in tapetal cells and pollen of the developing anthers indicating anther/pollen-specific expression of the promoter. For engineering nuclear male sterility, the coding region of Brassica napus cysteine protease1 (BnCysP1) was isolated from developing seeds and fused to P12 promoter. Transgenic rice plants obtained with P12-BnCysP1 failed to produce functional pollen grains. The F 1 seeds obtained from BnCysP1 male-sterile plants and untransformed controls showed 1:1 (tolerant:sensitive) ratio when germinated on the MS medium supplemented with phosphinothricin (5 mg/l), confirming that the male sterility has been successfully engineered in rice. For male fertility restoration, transgenic rice plants carrying BnCysP1Si silencing system were developed. The pollination of BnCysP1 male-sterile (female-fertile) plants with BnCysP1Si pollen resulted in normal grain filling. The F 1 seeds of BnCysP1 × BnCysP1Si when germinated on the MS basal medium containing PPT (5 mg/l) and hygromycin (70 mg/l) exhibited 1:1 (tolerant:sensitive) ratio and the tolerant plants invariably showed normal grain filling. The overall results clearly suggest that the customized male-sterility & fertility-restoration system can be exploited for quality hybrid seed production in various crops.

  17. 18 CFR 367.30 - Cost accumulation system for associate companies.

    2010-04-01

    ... to the types of services performed and chargeable to the associate companies served. Service company... system for associate companies. 367.30 Section 367.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY...

  18. Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens

    Min Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm−2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were Ct = 0.0227e0.0566t (R2 = 0.9154 and Ct = 0.0298e−0.0306t (R2 = 0.7156, and were Ct = 3.8435e0.055t (R2 = 0.9698 and Ct = 1.5627e−0.048t (R2 = 0.9634 for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.

  19. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of 137 Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ''hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

  20. The accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in water-fish compartment system

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana; Eko Susanto

    2012-01-01

    In relation with nuclear safety assessment, the parameter of radionuclide transfer in the environment is significantly needed for internal doses estimation received by public trough environment - food product - human pathways. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published the transfer parameter data for temperate zone in Technical Report Series 472. In order to complete the IAEA data, especially for tropical region, the accumulation and distribution of 60 Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) was experimentally studied based on the water-fish compartment system. The carp were cultured in 500L water containing 60 Co of about 30 Bq.mL -1 in a water tank. The 60 Co concentration in fish and water were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 60 Co was accumulated and distributed in the fish tissues with the concentration ratio (CR) of 3.08 mL.g -1 1.55 mL.g -1 and 1.14 mL.g -1 for internal organs, bones, and muscle, respectively. The CR of 60 Co in the fish will be useful in internal radiation dose estimation to human trough water-fish-human pathway, and will also complete the IAEA transfer parameter data for tropical region. (author)

  1. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  2. A Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm with System Reduction and Restoration for Rapid and Reliable Power Flow Solution of Power Systems

    Hassan Abdullah Kubba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a highly accurate power flow solution, reducing the possibility of ending at local minima, by using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA with system reduction and restoration. The proposed method (RCGA is modified to reduce the total computing time by reducing the system in size to that of the generator buses, which, for any realistic system, will be smaller in number, and the load buses are eliminated. Then solving the power flow problem for the generator buses only by real-coded GA to calculate the voltage phase angles, whereas the voltage magnitudes are specified resulted in reduced computation time for the solution. Then the system is restored by calculating the voltages of the load buses in terms of the calculated voltages of the generator buses, after a derivation of equations for calculating the voltages of the load busbars. The proposed method was demonstrated on 14-bus IEEE test systems and the practical system 362-busbar IRAQI NATIONAL GRID (ING. The proposed method has reliable convergence, a highly accurate solution and less computing time for on-line applications. The method can conveniently be applied for on-line analysis and planning studies of large power systems.

  3. Sulfate accumulation in a sea breeze/land breeze circulation system

    Cass, Glen R.; Shair, Frederick H.

    1984-01-01

    An atmospheric tracer study using SF_6 was conducted on July 22, 1977, to examine the origin of the high particulate sulfate concentrations observed in coastal Los Angeles County. It was found that the sea breeze/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles Basin both increases the retention time for sulfate formation in the marine environment and causes individual air parcels to make multiple passes over large coastal emissions sources. Day-old sulfur oxides emissions advected out to se...

  4. Accumulation of Domain-Specific Physical Inactivity and Presence of Hypertension in Brazilian Public Healthcare System.

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system. 963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis. Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]). The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

  5. Transparent Restoration

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  6. Site Restoration

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  7. Site Restoration

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  8. Environmental Restoration

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  9. Justifying a Set of Basic Characteristics of High Temperature Cold Accumulators in Their Designing for the Ground-Based Systems

    E. S. Khromov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ground-based systems use a wide variety of heat-emitting equipment. For temperature control of equipment and facilities, the thermal management systems (TMS are included in the ground-based systems. However, in operation, the off-nominal situations with increased heat emission are possible. To avoid overheating of equipment or environment in facilities, where equipment is placed, is possible through completing a set of TMS by high-temperature cold accumulators (CA.When filling CA by thermal accumulating materials (TAM with change in phase at the temperature level exceeding the ambient temperature, CA integration in TMS is simplified and the need to increase the cooling capacity of the sources of its cold is eliminated. Among the known multiple-cycle TAMs with change in phase "melting-solidification" in a set of characteristics, the most promising are crystal hydrates of salts and their systems, as well as paraffin, especially clean. However, advantages and disadvantages of these classes of TAM are different and disable us to develop a generic version of the CA design.The objective of this work is to identify a set of the main characteristics that significantly affect the CA efficiency. To achieve the goal is used a mathematical simulation of heat exchange and phase change processes, using CA with intermediate coolant as an example. Simulation is based on generation and solution of the system of equations of a thermal balance for the coolant circulating through the inner tube of CA container. The system of equations is solved using Excel tools.Varying values of studied characteristics and generalization of results allowed to us define a following set: TAM thermal conductivity, temperature difference in the coolant – TAM system, TAM container dimensions. The results can be applied when developing a CA, as a part of the "TMS-CA heat generation facility" of the ground-based systems with a specified heat absorption capacity at given temperature

  10. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  11. Restorative Justice Conferencing: Not a Panacea for the Overrepresentation of Australia's Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System.

    Little, Simon; Stewart, Anna; Ryan, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Restorative justice conferencing is a police diversionary strategy used extensively in Australian jurisdictions to channel young offenders away from formal court processing. Advocates view conferencing as culturally appropriate and a means to reduce the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people because it is rooted in Indigenous justice traditions. However, whether conferencing is effective at reducing recidivism by Indigenous young people compared with non-Indigenous young people remains unknown. We examine this using a longitudinal cohort of youth offenders from Australia. Propensity score matching was used to match Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people at their first conference and examined reoffending outcomes to explore its efficacy at reducing recidivism ( n = 394). Results indicate that, despite statistically controlling for factors related to reoffending, recidivism levels postconference were significantly higher for Indigenous young people. These results suggest that conferencing is unlikely to address the problem of Indigenous overrepresentation within Australia's youth justice system.

  12. Imaging and image restoration of an on-axis three-mirror Cassegrain system with wavefront coding technology.

    Guo, Xiaohu; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Jia, Wei; Kong, Lingqin; Wu, Yijian; Li, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Wavefront coding (WFC) technology is adopted in the space optical system to resolve the problem of defocus caused by temperature difference or vibration of satellite motion. According to the theory of WFC, we calculate and optimize the phase mask parameter of the cubic phase mask plate, which is used in an on-axis three-mirror Cassegrain (TMC) telescope system. The simulation analysis and the experimental results indicate that the defocused modulation transfer function curves and the corresponding blurred images have a perfect consistency in the range of 10 times the depth of focus (DOF) of the original TMC system. After digital image processing by a Wiener filter, the spatial resolution of the restored images is up to 57.14 line pairs/mm. The results demonstrate that the WFC technology in the TMC system has superior performance in extending the DOF and less sensitivity to defocus, which has great value in resolving the problem of defocus in the space optical system.

  13. Restoration of Natural and Semi-Natural Wetland Systems in Central Europe: Progress and Predictability of Developments

    Klötzli, Frank; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2001-01-01

    After almost 40 years of experience in wetland restoration in Central Europe in which vegetation changes have been monitored by means of permanent plots or vegetation maps, some light can be shed on the intrinsic dynamics of such ecosystems, showing the limits of restoration and constraints in its manipulation. Sometimes such constraints in the restoration process can be identified, mostly being constraints in nutrient availability or in the water regime, but unexpected changes can also be th...

  14. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long

  15. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  16. Sulfate accumulation in a sea breeze/land breeze circulation system

    Cass, G.R.; Shair, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    An atmosphere tracer study using SF 6 was conducted on July 22, 1977, to examine the origin of the high particulate sulfate concentrations observed in coastal Los Angeles County. It was found that the sea breeze/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles Basin both increases the retention time for sulfate formation in the marine environment and causes individual air parcels to make multiple passes over large coastal emissions sources. Day-old sulfur oxides emissions advected out to sea by the land breeze at night were estimated to be the largest single contributor to 24-hour average sulfate air quality over land the next day. In contrast, 24-hour average SO 2 concentrations were dominated by fresh emissions from nearby sources. The overall rate of SO 2 transformation to form particular sulfur oxides along some trajectories that spent a considerable time over the ocean at night probably exceeds the rate that can be explained by known photochemical processes acting during the daylight portion of these trajectories. This suggests that appreciable aerosol formation may occur in a polluted marine environment at night

  17. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  18. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  19. PI2 controller based coordinated control with Redox Flow Battery and Unified Power Flow Controller for improved Restoration Indices in a deregulated power system

    R. Thirunavukarasu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of power system restoration problem involves status assessment, optimization of generation capability and load pickup. This paper proposes the evaluation of Power System Restoration Indices (PSRI based on the Automatic Generation Control (AGC assessment of interconnected power system in a deregulated environment. The PSRI are useful for system planners to prepare the power system restoration plans and to improve the efficiency of the physical operation of the power system with the increased transmission capacity in the network. The stabilization of frequency and tie-line power oscillations in an interconnected power system becomes challenging when implemented in the future competitive environment. This paper also deals with the concept of AGC in two-area reheat power system having coordinated control action with Redox Flow Battery (RFB and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC are capable of controlling the network performance in a very fast manner and improve power transfer limits in order to have a better restoration. In addition to that a new Proportional–Double Integral (PI2 controller is designed and implemented in AGC loop and controller parameters are optimized through Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO algorithm. Simulation results reveal that the proposed PI2 controller is that it has good stability during load variations, excellent transient and dynamic responses when compared with the system comprising PI controller. Moreover the AGC loop with RFB coordinated with UPFC has greatly improved the dynamic response and it reduces the control input requirements, to ensure improved PSRI in order to provide the reduced restoration time, thereby improving the system reliability.

  20. Development of expert system for fault diagnosis and restoration at substations

    Choo, Jin Boo; Kwon, Tae Won; Yoon, Yong Beum; Park, Sung Taek [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Park, Young Moon; Lee, Heung Jae [Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    When a fault occurs in power systems, the operators have to make precise judgements on the situation and take appropriate actions rapidly to protect the system and minimize the black-out area. However, the larger and the more complex the power systems become, the more difficult it becomes to expect the effective actions of human operators. Therefore, it is a very important issue to support the operators of the local power systems in the case of various faults. We develop an expert system for fault diagnosis and reconfiguration of local power system. The expert system has a capability of identifying the location and the type of faults, the black-out area, and an appropriate reconfiguration procedure for re-energizing or minimizing the service interruption (author). 35 refs., 45 figs.

  1. Development of expert system for fault diagnosis and restoration at substations

    Choo, Jin Boo; Kwon, Tae Won; Yoon, Yong Beum; Park, Sung Taek [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Park, Young Moon; Lee, Heung Jae [Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    When a fault occurs in power systems, the operators have to make precise judgements on the situation and take appropriate actions rapidly to protect the system and minimize the black-out area. However, the larger and the more complex the power systems become, the more difficult it becomes to expect the effective actions of human operators. Therefore, it is a very important issue to support the operators of the local power systems in the case of various faults. We develop an expert system for fault diagnosis and reconfiguration of local power system. The expert system has a capability of identifying the location and the type of faults, the black-out area, and an appropriate reconfiguration procedure for re-energizing or minimizing the service interruption (author). 35 refs., 45 figs.

  2. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  3. A mobile GPR system for evaluating road landslide damage and effectiveness of the restoration works at Potenza District scale

    Loperte, A.; Bavusi, M.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) is affected by a large amount of landslides due to its geological structure and orogenic history. In particular, due to its location in the Italian Apennine chain, the District of Potenza is particularly affected by this natural hazard, which threatens private buildings and public infrastructures. In this framework, the transport infrastructures result greatly exposed to this kind of damage since there is a great probability that a road intercepts a landslide in its path. In addition, this can have relevant "social and economic" effects at large distance from the landslide due to the interconnected character of the road network. A classical remediation strategy for a damaged road, especially when affected by a localised landslide, consists in restoring its planarity by filling the depression induced by the damage. Moreover a such intervention often causes the recurrence of the damage since it results in a weakness zone in the road section. The result is that there is always an interrupted road somewhere in Basilicata. In order to design an effective remediation strategy at the scale of the district road network, a fast low-cost diagnosis method is needed in order to: • Detect damaged/restored treats of roads; • Characterize previous restoration intervention quality; • Provide a geo-database reporting all at-risk road sections; • Predict which road sections might be damaged with the upcoming rainfall events. In this framework, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA-CNR), also thanks to the cooperation of the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA-CNR) has equipped a van with a high-resolution Ground Penetrating Radar and differential GPS instrumentations so to achieve a mobile GPR system. The main elements of the GPR are the control unit IDS DAD MCH Fast-Wave, horn antenna air-launched IDS HN-1000b and high speed encoder, differential GPS 1200 Leica. Main feature of this

  4. Brain machine interface and limb reanimation technologies: restoring function after spinal cord injury through development of a bypass system.

    Lobel, Darlene A; Lee, Kendall H

    2014-05-01

    Functional restoration of limb movement after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) remains the ultimate goal in SCI treatment and directs the focus of current research strategies. To date, most investigations in the treatment of SCI focus on repairing the injury site. Although offering some promise, these efforts have met with significant roadblocks because treatment measures that are successful in animal trials do not yield similar results in human trials. In contrast to biologic therapies, there are now emerging neural interface technologies, such as brain machine interface (BMI) and limb reanimation through electrical stimulators, to create a bypass around the site of the SCI. The BMI systems analyze brain signals to allow control of devices that are used to assist SCI patients. Such devices may include a computer, robotic arm, or exoskeleton. Limb reanimation technologies, which include functional electrical stimulation, epidural stimulation, and intraspinal microstimulation systems, activate neuronal pathways below the level of the SCI. We present a concise review of recent advances in the BMI and limb reanimation technologies that provides the foundation for the development of a bypass system to improve functional outcome after traumatic SCI. We also discuss challenges to the practical implementation of such a bypass system in both these developing fields. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Azlinda Azman, PhD; Mohd Taufik bin Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the ...

  6. Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and an aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes

    Majewski, M.; Desjardina, R.; Rochette, P.; Pattey, E.; Selber, J.; Glotfelty, D.

    1993-01-01

    The field experiment reported here applied the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique to the measurement of triallate (TA) and trifluralin (TF) volatilization from fallow soil. A critical analysis of the REA system used in this experiment is done, and the fluxes are compared to those obtained by the aerodynamic-gradient (AG) technique. The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system were higher than with the REA system. The differences between the methods over the first 5 days of the experiment were 27 and 13% for TA and TF, respectively. A mass balance based on the amount of parent compounds volatilized from soil during the first 5 days of the experiment showed a 110 and 70% and a 79 and 61% accountability for triallate and trifluralin by the AG and REA methods, respectively. These results also show that the non-footprint-corrected AG flux values underestimated the volatilization flux by approximately 16%. The footprint correction model used in this experiment does not presently have the capability of accounting for changes in atmospheric stability. However, these values still provide an indication of the most likely upwind area affecting the evaporative flux estimations. The soil half-lives for triallate and trifluralin were 9.8 and 7.0 days, respectively. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  7. Systems Engineering Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safety Operations, Project W-314

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314 has been prepared within the guidelines of HNF-SD-WM-SEMP-002, TWRS Systems Engineering Management Plan. The activities within this SEMP have been tailored, in accordance with the TWRS SEMP and DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, to meet the needs of the project

  8. Restoration of Natural and Semi-Natural Wetland Systems in Central Europe : Progress and Predictability of Developments

    Klötzli, Frank; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2001-01-01

    After almost 40 years of experience in wetland restoration in Central Europe in which vegetation changes have been monitored by means of permanent plots or vegetation maps, some light can be shed on the intrinsic dynamics of such ecosystems, showing the limits of restoration and constraints in its

  9. A Summary of the San Francisco Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  10. Contribution of Chromosomes 1HchS and 6HchS to Fertility Restoration in the Wheat msH1 CMS System under Different Environmental Conditions.

    Castillo, Almudena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Martín, Azahara C; Pistón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting hybrid wheat heterosis has been long pursued to increase crop yield, stability and uniformity. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems based in the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatible interactions are a classic way for hybrid seed production, but to date, no definitive system is available in wheat. The msH1 CMS system results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasmic genome of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. Fertility restoration of the CMS phenotype was first associated with the disomic addition of the short arm of chromosome 6H from H. chilense. In further studies it was observed that chromosome arm 1HchS was also implicated, and the combination of genes in both chromosome arms restored fertility more efficiently. In this work we aim to dissect the effect of each chromosome in fertility restoration when combined in different genomic backgrounds and under different environmental conditions. We propose a model to explain how restoration behaves in the msH1 system and generate valuable information necessary to develop an efficient system for hybrid wheat production.

  11. Combination Effect of Hemostatic and Disinfecting Agents on Micro-leakage of Restorations Bonded with Different Bonding Systems

    Farhadpour H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Hemostatic agents may affect the micro-leakage of different adhesive systems. Also, chlorhexidine has shown positive effects on micro-leakage. However, their interaction effect has not been reported yet. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of contamination with a hemostatic agent on micro- leakage of total- and self-etching adhesive systems and the effect of chlorhexidine application after the removal of the hemostatic agent. Materials and Methods: Standardized Class V cavity was prepared on each of the sixty caries free premolars at the cemento-enamel junction, with the occlusal margin located in enamel and the gingival margin in dentin. Then, the specimens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10 according to hemostatic agent (H contamination, chlorhexidine (CHX application, and the type of adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond and Clearfil SE Bond used. After filling the cavities with resin composite, the root apices were sealed with utility wax. Furthermore, all the surfaces, except for the restorations and 1mm from the margins, were covered with two layers of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in a 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 hours, rinsed, blot-dried and sectioned longitudinally through the center of the restorations bucco- lingualy. The sections were examined using a stereomicroscope and the extension of dye penetration was analyzed according to a non-parametric scale from 0 to 3. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: While ASB group showed no micro-leakage in enamel, none of the groups showed complete elimination of micro-leakage from the dentin. Regarding micro- leakage at enamel, and dentin margins, there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 (p > 0.05. A significantly lower micro-leakage at the enamel and dentin margins was observed in group 3, compared to group 6. No significant difference was observed between

  12. A cable-driven locomotor training system for restoration of gait in human SCI.

    Wu, Ming; Hornby, T George; Landry, Jill M; Roth, Heidi; Schmit, Brian D

    2011-02-01

    A novel cable-driven robotic locomotor training system was developed to provide compliant assistance/resistance forces to the legs during treadmill training in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Eleven subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to participate in two experiments to test the feasibility of the robotic gait training system. Specifically, 10 subjects participated in one experimental session to test the characteristics of the robotic gait training system and one subject participated in repeated testing sessions over 8 weeks with the robotic device to test improvements in locomotor function. Limb kinematics were recorded in one experiment to evaluate the system characteristics of the cable-driven locomotor trainer and the overground gait speed and 6 min walking distance were evaluated at pre, 4 and 8 weeks post treadmill training of a single subject as well. The results indicated that the cable driven robotic gait training system improved the kinematic performance of the leg during treadmill walking and had no significant impact on the variability of lower leg trajectory, suggesting a high backdrivability of the cable system. In addition, results from a patient with incomplete SCI indicated that prolonged robotic gait training using the cable robot improved overground gait speed. Results from this study suggested that a cable driven robotic gait training system is effective in improving leg kinematic performance, yet allows variability of gait kinematics. Thus, it seems feasible to improve the locomotor function in human SCI using this cable driven robotic system, warranting testing with a larger group of patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direction of Process: an instrument to improve the restoration services in the system for aliments and beverages management in Kurhotel Escambray.

    Fabián Enrique Wilson González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is made in Kurhotel Escambray, a cuban Institution for health Tourism, located in Topes de Collantes, in the group of montains named Guamhuaya, approximately 800 meters over the sea level with a medial tempeture. It is unquestionable that todays situation that has the restoration of the system for aliments and beverages management in Kurhotel Escambray demands a study to improve its service, taking into account clients and patients needs, for doing this it is necessary to develo this work and present a strategy which will satisfy the regularities that may happen, giving a guarantee of efficiency – efficacy and effectiveness; that is why the importance of it. It is an objective of this work to present the consideation for process in restoration as an alternative proposal to better the system for aliments and beverages management in Kurhotel Escambray. It contains two main themes, the first regarding to the process of restoration in the system of aliments and bevearges management in Kurhotel, where are enumate the outlet process, elaboration, entrance, and extensión or marketing of the product, It is described too, the significance of them inside the restoration process and the other theme reflects characteristics and requirements of every process that interfere in the restoration process. This work propose to strengthen the process of restoration in the aliments and bevarages management for the Installation to improve and better the quality of the services offered; and by means of them contribute to keep the Installation as a Center of National and International Reference.

  14. Restorative justice and victimology

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  15. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer

  16. A novel method for non-parametric identification of nonlinear restoring forces in nonlinear vibrations from noisy response data: A conservative system

    Jang, T. S.; Kwon, S. H.; Han, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel procedure is proposed to identify the functional form of nonlinear restoring forces in the nonlinear oscillatory motion of a conservative system. Although the problem of identification has a unique solution, formulation results in a Volterra-type of integral equation of the 'first' kind: the solution lacks stability because the integral equation is the 'first' kind. Thus, the new problem at hand is ill-posed. Inevitable small errors during the identification procedure can make the prediction of nonlinear restoring forces useless. We overcome the difficulty by using a stabilization technique of Landweber's regularization in this study. The capability of the proposed procedure is investigated through numerical examples

  17. Application of Improved Genetic Algorithm to Service Restoration Problem for Distribution Systems

    Michibata, Ikuo; Aoki, Hidenori

    The problem of recovery from power-system failures is the problem of handling operations that make it possible to supply power from other lines in response to power-system failures or construction by switching between the opened and closed states of sectionalizing switches. Considerable research has already been conducted with regard to this issue. This paper addresses the issue of determining target systems for final recovery in cases when some sections remain subject to power failure (i.e., sound bank capacity failure sections. In such research, calculations are implemented by setting a value of 2 to the sectionalizing switches of a single parameter. In addition, when the state of a sound section changes due to mutation improvements, the method of simultaneously changing the selected points and neighboring sectionalizing switches is applied. It is clear that the proposed method, consisting of conventional GA only, is superior in terms of average fitness values.

  18. Allocation of synchronous condensers for restoration of system short-circuit power

    Marrazi, Emanuel; Yang, Guangya; Weinreich-Jensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Modern power systems, employing an increasing number of converter-based renewable energy sources (RES) and decreasing the usage of conventional power plants, are leading to lower levels of short-circuit power and rotational inertia. A solution to this is the employment of synchronous condensers...... in the grid, in order to provide sufficient short-circuit power. This results in the increase of the short-circuit ratio (SCR) at transmission system bus-bars serving as points of interconnection (POI) to renewable generation. Evaluation of the required capacity and grid-location of the synchronous condensers......, isinherently a mixed integer non-linear optimization problem, which could not be done on manual basis considering each type of machine and all bus-bars. This study therefore proposes a method of optimal allocation of synchronous condensers in a hypothetic future scenario of a transmission system fed...

  19. Allocation of synchronous condensers for restoration of system short-circuit power

    Marrazi, Emanuel; Yang, Guangya; Weinreich-Jensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Modern power systems, employing an increasing number of converter-based renewable energy sources (RES) and decreasing the usage of conventional power plants, are leading to lower levels of short-circuit power and rotational inertia. A solution to this is the employment of synchronous condensers...... in the grid, in order to provide sufficient short-circuit power. This results in the increase of the short-circuit ratio (SCR) at transmission system bus-bars serving as points of interconnection (POI) to renewable generation. Evaluation of the required capacity and grid-location of the synchronous condensers...... by renewable generation. Total cost of synchronous condenser installations in the system is minimized and the SCRs at the POIs of central renewable power plants are strengthened. The method has potential for application on larger grids, aiding grid-integration of RES....

  20. Implementing the new radiological protection criteria into the decision support system for environmental restoration after nuclear accidents, TEMAS

    Montero, M.; Vazquez, C.; Moraleda, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A conceptual decision system implemented as help decision tool that can contribute to the management and rehabilitation of contaminated areas is presented. The first version of the tool was developed in the TEMAS PROJECT. The TEMAS project (Techniques and Management Strategies for Environmental Restoration and Their Ecological Consequences), was assembled into an Association Contract (FI4PCT95-0021 with the European Atomic Energy Community in the frame of 4 o FP of the UE, and whose objectives were concentrated on the development of techniques and management strategies for environmental remediation after contamination of landscapes or sites with radioactive substances. The main result of the project was the development of a user-friendly decision-aiding computerized system (TEMAS DSS) able to select the best local strategy of restoration when a post-accidental environmental contamination with long lived radionuclides (caesium and strontium) must be faced. TEMAS provides answer for complex scenarios including urban, agricultural and forest ecosystems in the frame of the European Community with different levels of contamination, uses and dimensions. The TEMAS system is organized in two modules, the first to evaluate the radiological impact from the scenario on the affected population, the second to decide the best strategy to control the risk sources. The evaluation methodology breaks down the contaminated scenario into a set of elemental units for restoration taken into account the applicability of the intervention options in terms of practicability, radiological efficiency, cost and secondary effects. Each unit is considered as an individual source of risk and is associated to different applicable countermeasures. Radiecological models describing fluxes of radioactivity from each elemental unit through its associated pathways (e.g. soil, plant, animals to consumption products) and dose models evaluating radiological impact to the population from external

  1. Plastic changes in the central auditory system after hearing loss, restoration of function, and during learning

    Syka, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2002), s. 601-636 ISSN 0031-9333 R&D Projects: GA MZd NK6454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : auditory system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 26.533, year: 2002

  2. Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program

    1994-07-01

    This program management plan describes the scope, objectives, and method of accomplishment for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The ORNL ER Program is one of five site program, receiving guidance from and reporting to the Energy Systems ER Division. Therefore, all ORNL ER policies and procedures are consistent with ER Division policies and procedures. This plan covers all ORNL ER activities, the participants involved in these activities (and their roles and responsibilities), and all phases of the remediation process. This plan will also serve as a template that may be supplemented as necessary to produce individual project management plans for specific projects. This document explains how the Energy Systems ORNL ER Program does business, so the ORNL ER Program's management structure is illustrated in detail. Personnel are matrixed to the ER Program from other organizations to assist with specific projects. This plan identifies positions at the program level and discusses responsibilities and interactions with positions at the project level. This plan includes sections that describe requirements for project plans, work breakdown structures, schedules, project management and cost control systems, and information and reporting. Project management plans will utilize the work breakdown structure and dictionary pages in the appropriate life cycle baseline report This plan describes the information that should be contained in ORNL ER project management plans. The most important milestones are primary documents relating to the management and remediation of contaminated sites. Primary document milestones are subject to stipulated penalties and receive paramount attention

  3. Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program

    1994-07-01

    This program management plan describes the scope, objectives, and method of accomplishment for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The ORNL ER Program is one of five site program, receiving guidance from and reporting to the Energy Systems ER Division. Therefore, all ORNL ER policies and procedures are consistent with ER Division policies and procedures. This plan covers all ORNL ER activities, the participants involved in these activities (and their roles and responsibilities), and all phases of the remediation process. This plan will also serve as a template that may be supplemented as necessary to produce individual project management plans for specific projects. This document explains how the Energy Systems ORNL ER Program does business, so the ORNL ER Program`s management structure is illustrated in detail. Personnel are matrixed to the ER Program from other organizations to assist with specific projects. This plan identifies positions at the program level and discusses responsibilities and interactions with positions at the project level. This plan includes sections that describe requirements for project plans, work breakdown structures, schedules, project management and cost control systems, and information and reporting. Project management plans will utilize the work breakdown structure and dictionary pages in the appropriate life cycle baseline report This plan describes the information that should be contained in ORNL ER project management plans. The most important milestones are primary documents relating to the management and remediation of contaminated sites. Primary document milestones are subject to stipulated penalties and receive paramount attention.

  4. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  5. Development of a scintillation flow-cell detection system for environmental restoration and waste management applications

    DeVol, T.A.; Branton, S.D.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A flow-cell detection system was developed utilizing a coincidence circuit and tested with BaF 2 , CaF 2 :Eu and scintillating glass. The coincidence detection system reduced the background from ∼200 cps to ∼0.5 cps. The detection efficiencies for these cells ranged from 0.38 to 0.66 for 45 Ca beta particles (E max = 0.257 MeV) and from 0.45 to 0.52 for 233 U alpha particles (E α = 4.8 MeV). The minimum detectable activity was calculated for a 30 s count time and determined to be in the range of 1-2 Bq

  6. A multi-pad electrode based functional electrical stimulation system for restoration of grasp

    Malešević Nebojša M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES applied via transcutaneous electrodes is a common rehabilitation technique for assisting grasp in patients with central nervous system lesions. To improve the stimulation effectiveness of conventional FES, we introduce multi-pad electrodes and a new stimulation paradigm. Methods The new FES system comprises an electrode composed of small pads that can be activated individually. This electrode allows the targeting of motoneurons that activate synergistic muscles and produce a functional movement. The new stimulation paradigm allows asynchronous activation of motoneurons and provides controlled spatial distribution of the electrical charge that is delivered to the motoneurons. We developed an automated technique for the determination of the preferred electrode based on a cost function that considers the required movement of the fingers and the stabilization of the wrist joint. The data used within the cost function come from a sensorized garment that is easy to implement and does not require calibration. The design of the system also includes the possibility for fine-tuning and adaptation with a manually controllable interface. Results The device was tested on three stroke patients. The results show that the multi-pad electrodes provide the desired level of selectivity and can be used for generating a functional grasp. The results also show that the procedure, when performed on a specific user, results in the preferred electrode configuration characteristics for that patient. The findings from this study are of importance for the application of transcutaneous stimulation in the clinical and home environments.

  7. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  8. Drug delivery system of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel for restoration of acute vocal fold scar.

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    There continue to be therapeutic challenges in the management of vocal fold scarring. We previously showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection has therapeutic potential for vocal fold scarring. However, the working time of bFGF is relatively short, and multiple injections were required in many cases to obtain the regenerative effect. An efficacious delivery system for bFGF has yet to be established. We designed a method of sustained drug delivery system (DDS) of bFGF by using a gelatin hydrogel. Hydrogel has been developed for targeted delivery and controlled release of bFGF. Hydrogel of the particle type is also injectable and commercially available. The current study aims to investigate the effects of a single injection of bFGF-DDS on acute vocal fold scarring using a canine model. Vocal folds from eight beagles were unilaterally scarred by stripping the lamina propria. One month later, hydrogels (0.5ml) containing 10μg of bFGF were injected into the scarred vocal folds of four beagles (FGF-hydrogel group). Saline (0.5ml) was injected into the other four beagles (sham group). Vibratory and histological examination of excised larynges was performed 5 months after treatment. Comparative analysis between the current data and our previous data with repeated injection of bFGF solution was also completed. Vibratory examination demonstrated significantly improved vibration in the bFGF hydrogel-treated group. Histological examination of the bFGF hydrogel group showed restoration of hyaluronic acid in the lamina propria as compared to sham. Comparison between the DDS system and our previous bFGF solution injection indicated better effects of the DDS system on vibratory amplitude. A single injection of bFGF hydrogel has regenerative effects on acute vocal fold scarring, which is at least similar to repeated injection of bFGF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain iron accumulation affects myelin-related molecular systems implicated in a rare neurogenetic disease family with neuropsychiatric features.

    Heidari, M; Johnstone, D M; Bassett, B; Graham, R M; Chua, A C G; House, M J; Collingwood, J F; Bettencourt, C; Houlden, H; Ryten, M; Olynyk, J K; Trinder, D; Milward, E A

    2016-11-01

    The 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain, we studied mice with disruption of two iron regulatory genes, hemochromatosis (Hfe) and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated increased iron in the Hfe -/- × Tfr2 mut brain (P=0.002, n ≥5/group), primarily localized by Perls' staining to myelinated structures. Western immunoblotting showed increases of the iron storage protein ferritin light polypeptide and microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed decreased transcript levels (Pgross myelin structure and integrity appear unaffected (P>0.05). Overlap (P0.05). These results implicate myelin-related systems involved in NBIA neuropathogenesis in early responses to iron loading. This may contribute to behavioral symptoms in NBIA and hemochromatosis and is relevant to patients with abnormal iron status and psychiatric disorders involving myelin abnormalities or resistant to conventional treatments.

  10. Immune system participates in brain regeneration and restoration of reproduction in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.

    Molnar, Laszlo; Pollak, Edit; Skopek, Zuzanna; Gutt, Ewa; Kruk, Jerzy; Morgan, A John; Plytycz, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Earthworm decerebration causes temporary inhibition of reproduction which is mediated by certain brain-derived neurohormones; thus, cocoon production is an apposite supravital marker of neurosecretory center functional recovery during brain regeneration. The core aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of the interactions of nervous and immune systems during brain regeneration in adult Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida; Oligochaeta). Surgical brain extirpation was combined, either with (i) maintenance of immune-competent coelomic cells (coelomocytes) achieved by surgery on prilocaine-anesthetized worms or (ii) prior extrusion of fluid-suspended coelomocytes by electrostimulation. Both brain renewal and cocoon output recovery were significantly faster in earthworms with relatively undisturbed coelomocyte counts compared with individuals where coelomocyte counts had been experimentally depleted. These observations provide empirical evidence that coelomocytes and/or coelomocyte-derived factors (e.g. riboflavin) participate in brain regeneration and, by implication, that there is close functional synergy between earthworm neural and immune systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  12. Influence of incorrect application of a water-based adhesive system on the marginal adaptation of Class V restorations.

    Peschke, A; Blunck, U; Roulet, J F

    2000-10-01

    To determine the influence of incorrectly performed steps during the application of the water-based adhesive system OptiBond FL on the marginal adaptation of Class V composite restorations. In 96 extracted human teeth Class V cavities were prepared. Half of the margin length was situated in dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups. The cavities were filled with Prodigy resin-based composite in combination with OptiBond FL according to the manufacturer's instructions (Group O) and including several incorrect application steps: Group A: prolonged etching (60 s); Group B: no etching of dentin; Group C: excessive drying after etching; Group D: short rewetting after excessive drying; Group E: air drying and rewetting; Group F: blot drying; Group G: saliva contamination; Group H: application of primer and immediate drying; group I: application of only primer; group J: application of only adhesive; Group K: no light curing of the adhesive before the application of composite. After thermocycling, replicas were taken and the margins were quantitatively analyzed in the SEM. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using non-parametric procedures. With exception of the "rewetting groups" (D and E) and the group with saliva contamination (G), all other application procedures showed a significantly higher amount of marginal openings in dentin compared to the control group (O). Margin quality in enamel was only affected when the primer was not applied.

  13. The passive system for reflooding of the VVER reactor core from the second-stage hydro-accumulators: design and basic design solutions

    Alexandr D Efanov; Sergey G Kalyakin; Andrey V Morozov; Oleg V Remizov; Vladimir M Berkovich; Victor N Krushelnitskiy; Vladimir G Peresadko; Yuri G Dragunov; Alexey K Podshibyakin; Sergey I Zaitcev

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The fundamental difference in the safety assurance of the operating NPPs and those under design implies that the safety in the existing NPPs is achieved by energy-dependent (active) systems and depends on the proficiency of attending personnel. To provide safety, the new NPP designs use the physical processes proceeding in the facility without power supply; and they are unaffected by human errors. As to the safety level, the design of the new generation nuclear power plant NPP-92 relates to the class of the improved NPPs; and it applies a principle of diversity in the structure of systems responsible for critical safety functions. In accordance with the above-mentioned safety concept, the design development required a complex of experimental investigations and numerical modeling to be conducted. Among the passive safety systems of the NPP with RP-392 is the system of the second stage hydro-accumulators (GE-2). The system of the second-stage hydro-accumulators consists of four groups of hydro-accumulating tanks with a total coolant volume of 960 m 3 . The system is intended for the core flooding with coolant during 24 hours. In each group of the hydro-accumulators, the graded coolant flowrate is provided, which depends on residual heat in the reactor. The special check valves are tuned to open at the pressure drop in the circuit below 1.5 MPa. The paper presents the thermalhydraulic substantiation of the serviceability of the second-stage hydro-accumulators system for passive heat removal from the VVER reactor core and the basic design solutions on the GE-2 system. (authors)

  14. Experimental concepts for toxicity prevention and tissue restoration after central nervous system irradiation

    Astner Sabrina T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several experimental strategies of radiation-induced central nervous system toxicity prevention have recently resulted in encouraging data. The present review summarizes the background for this research and the treatment results. It extends to the perspectives of tissue regeneration strategies, based for example on stem and progenitor cells. Preliminary data suggest a scenario with individually tailored strategies where patients with certain types of comorbidity, resulting in impaired regeneration reserve capacity, might be considered for toxicity prevention, while others might be "salvaged" by delayed interventions that circumvent the problem of normal tissue specificity. Given the complexity of radiation-induced changes, single target interventions might not suffice. Future interventions might vary with patient age, elapsed time from radiotherapy and toxicity type. Potential components include several drugs that interact with neurodegeneration, cell transplantation (into the CNS itself, the blood stream, or both and creation of reparative signals and a permissive microenvironment, e.g., for cell homing. Without manipulation of the stem cell niche either by cell transfection or addition of appropriate chemokines and growth factors and by providing normal perfusion of the affected region, durable success of such cell-based approaches is hard to imagine.

  15. Site Restoration

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  16. Using geographical information systems in planning NLLP decommissioning and environmental restoration activities

    McGregor, R.; Turner, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) manages Canada's nuclear legacy liabilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) sites and is funded by the Government of Canada through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Through the first five years of the Program these two organizations have worked collaboratively to bring numerous projects to completion. In addition to the diversity of facilities and waste dealt with under the NLLP, the Program involves seven sites in three different provinces. The breadth of the Program encompasses over 20 different projects at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site alone, with new projects evolving as work continues. Nuclear legacy liabilities are the result of over 60 years of nuclear research and development conducted by the National Research Council of Canada (1944 to 1952) and AECL (1952 to 2006) on behalf of the Government of Canada. The liabilities consist of outdated and unused research facilities and buildings, a wide variety of buried and stored radioactive waste, and affected lands. Since 1952, AECL has safely and cost effectively managed Canada's nuclear research facilities and the waste generated by their operation. During this time AECL improved waste management technologies and developed expertise in best practices. All projects undertaken by the NLLP contain a spatial, or geographically referenced, component that can be captured in a geographic information system (GIS). From the decommissioning of a single building within the plant itself (e.g. the building location itself or spaces within the building) to the process of locating a new facility within the CRL site (e.g. location within the CRL property in three dimensions and adjacency to other communities) all these projects contain spatially referenced information. This spatial information can be captured, organized and used by the GIS software to analyze and model any number of questions. The paper will discuss projects that address a

  17. A new signal restoration method based on deconvolution of the Point Spread Function (PSF) for the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating UV spectrometer system

    Dai, Honglin; Luo, Yongdao

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, with the development of the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating, they are adopted by all kinds of UV spectrometers. By means of single optical surface, the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating can implement dispersion and imaging that make the UV spectrometer system design quite compact. However, the calibration of the Flat-Field Holographic Concave Grating is very difficult. Various factors make its imaging quality difficult to be guaranteed. So we have to process the spectrum signal with signal restoration before using it. Guiding by the theory of signals and systems, and after a series of experiments, we found that our UV spectrometer system is a Linear Space- Variant System. It means that we have to measure PSF of every pixel of the system which contains thousands of pixels. Obviously, that's a large amount of calculation .For dealing with this problem, we proposes a novel signal restoration method. This method divides the system into several Linear Space-Invariant subsystems and then makes signal restoration with PSFs. Our experiments turn out that this method is effective and inexpensive.

  18. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  19. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  20. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil

    Ligia Bahia

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans.

  1. A whole-air relaxed eddy accumulation measurement system for sampling vertical vapour exchange of elemental mercury

    Jonas Sommar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus relying on relaxed eddy accumulation (REA methodology has been designed and developed for continuous-field measurements of vertical Hg0 fluxes over cropland ecosystems. This micro-meteorological technique requires sampling of turbulent eddies into up- and downdraught channels at a constant flow rate and accurate timing, based on a threshold involving the sign of vertical wind component (w. The fully automated system is of a whole-air type drawing air at a high velocity to the REA sampling apparatus and allowing for the rejection of samples associated with w-fluctuations around zero. Conditional sampling was executed at 10-Hz resolution on a sub-stream by two fast-response three-way solenoid switching valves connected in parallel to a zero Hg0 air supply through their normally open ports. To suppress flow transients resulting from switching, pressure differentials across the two upstream ports of the conditional valves were minimised using a control unit. The Hg0 concentrations of the up- and downdraught channel were sequentially (each by two consecutive 5-minute gas samples determined after enhancement collection onto gold traps by an automated cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (CVAFS instrument. A protocol of regular reference sampling periods was implemented during field campaigns to continuously adjust for bias that may exist between the two conditional sampling channels. Using a 5-minute running average was conditional threshold, nearly-constant relaxation coefficients (β s of ~0.56 were determined during two bi-weekly field deployments when turbulence statistics were assured for good quality, in accordance with previously reported estimates. The fully developed REA-CVAFS system underwent Hg0 flux field trial runs at a winter wheat cropland located in the North China Plain. Over a 15-d period during early May 2012, dynamic, often bi-directional, fluxes were observed during the course of a day with a tendency of

  2. MODEL FOR ELECTRIC LOAD OF COMMUNITY HOUSING PROJECTS TO INVESTIGATE “GENERATOR – ACCUMULATOR – CONSUMER” SYSTEM WHILE USING MONTE-CARLO METHOD

    K. V. Dobrego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we observe rather rapid growth of energy accumulators market. There are prerequisites to their extensive application in Belarus. In spite of technology development problems pertaining to optimization of electric power and their operation under conditions of specific systems “generator – accumulator – consumer” (GAC have not obtained proper consideration. At the same time tuning and optimization of the GAC system may provide competitive advantages to various accumulating systems because application of accumulator batteries in non-optimal charge – discharge conditions reduces its operating resource. Optimization of the GAC system may include utilization of hybrid accumulator systems together with heterogeneous chemical and mechanical accumulators, tuning of system controller parameters etc. Research papers present a great number of empirical and analytical methods for calculation of electric loads. These methods use the following parameters as initial data: time-averaged values of actual electric power consumption, averaged apartment electric loads, empirical and statistical form coefficients, coefficients of maximum electric load for a group of uniform consumers. However such models do not meet the requirements of detailed simulation of relatively small system operation when the simulation must correspond to non-stationary, non-averaged, stochastic load nature. The paper provides a simple approach to the detailed simulation of electric loads in regard to small projects such as multi-unit apartment building or small agricultural farm. The model is formulated both in physical and algorithmic terms that make it possible to be easily realized in any programming environment. The paper presents convergence of integral electric power consumption, which is set by the model, to statistically averaged parameters. Autocorrelation function has been calculated in the paper that shows two scales for autocorrelation of simulated load diagrams

  3. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  4. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  5. Technologies for lake restoration

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  6. Report on a feasibility survey of the cold accumulated heat use energy system in Hokkaido; Hokkaido ni okeru reichikunetsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of various systems which use in summer cold heat from the snow stored in winter. A model of the cold accumulated heat system of the type which has a high possibility of the introduction was built to study a possibility of the realization. Types of the model system were selected assuming the utilization of cold heat energy of snow in Sapporo, a typical large city in the cold heavy-snow area. Studies were made on each model of urban type commercial facilities, urban type offices, suburban type shopping center, and suburban type hospitals. For each model, more than one systems were studied according to types and forms of the storage tank, and heat recovery methods. As a result, it was found that cold heat energy of snow can be utilized almost effectively by making an appropriate study of the energy balance like the possible supply of cold heat exceeded the demand in two models of an urban type office building and an suburban type hospital. Further, operating expenses of typical models were roughly calculated. 51 figs., 20 figs.

  7. Effect of At-home and In-office Bleaching on Marginal Microleakage in Composite Resin Restorations using Two Adhesive Systems.

    Klein, Celso A; da Silva, Douglas; Reston, Eduardo G; Borghetti, Diana Lb; Zimmer, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess marginal microleakage of cervical cavities restored with composite resins and two different adhesive techniques subjected to at-home and in-office bleaching. In this randomized, blind laboratory experiment, 60 bovine teeth recently extracted were collected and divided into six groups (n = 10 each group). The teeth received cervical cavity preparations (2 mm × 3 mm × 1 mm) with enamel margins. Two different adhesive systems were used (Single Bond 2 and Clearfil SE Bond), in addition to composite resin (Z250). Restored teeth received two different bleaching gels (Opalescence PF and Opalescence Boost). Teeth were thermo-cycled and analyzed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. No significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) in microleakage scores between the two groups not subjected to bleaching nor between the four groups that received bleaching treatment (p > 0.05), regardless of the gel and adhesive system employed. However, when comparing nonbleached with bleached teeth, those not subjected to bleaching showed statistically lower marginal microleakage scores (p bleaching agents used both at-home and in-office, regardless of the adhesive system employed (total-etch or self-etch). Both at-home and in-office bleaching agents have an influence on the adhesive interface of resin restorations, producing changes and inducing marginal leakage.

  8. Vitamin A-coupled liposome system targeting free cholesterol accumulation in hepatic stellate cells offers a beneficial therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.

    Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Tomita, Kengo; Teratani, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Motonori; Nishikawa, Makoto; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Takajo, Takeshi; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Maruta, Koji; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Aosasa, Suefumi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Yamamoto, Junji; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2018-04-01

    Liver fibrosis is a life-threatening disorder for which no approved therapy is available. Recently, we reported that mouse hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation increased free cholesterol (FC) accumulation, partly by enhancing signaling through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and microRNA-33a (miR-33a), which resulted in HSC sensitization to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced activation in a "vicious cycle" of liver fibrosis. Human HSCs were isolated from surgical liver specimens from control patients and patients with liver fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride for 4 weeks and concurrently given SREBP2-siRNA- or anti-miR-33a-bearing vitamin A-coupled liposomes. In human activated HSCs obtained from patients with liver fibrosis, FC accumulation was enhanced independently of serum cholesterol levels through increased signaling by both SREBP2 and miR-33a. This increased FC accumulation enhanced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels and lowered the TGFβ-pseudoreceptor Bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) mRNA levels in HSCs. Notably, in a mouse liver fibrosis model, reduction of FC accumulation, specifically in activated HSCs by suppression of SREBP2 or miR-33a expression using SREBP2-siRNA- or anti-miR-33a-bearing vitamin A-coupled liposomes, downregulated TLR4 signaling, increased Bambi expression, and consequently ameliorated liver fibrosis. Our results suggest that FC accumulation in HSCs, as an intracellular mediator promoting HSC activation, contributes to a vicious cycle of HSC activation in human and mouse liver fibrosis independent of serum cholesterol levels. Targeting FC accumulation-related molecules in HSCs through a vitamin A-coupled liposomal system represents a favorable therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. Wetland restoration: a survey of options for restoring peatlands

    Lode, Elve

    1999-01-01

    In spite of increased attention to wetland conservation following the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, the peat-harvesting industry in many countries is still interested in the further exploitation of peatlands. In some of the most industrialised countries, all natural peatlands have already been lost. In others, only small areas of native peatland remain. Among other possible uses for cut-over peatlands, peatland restoration is one: there is an urgent need for the development of measures for regenerating peat-accumulation processes. The redevelopment of a fen or bog peat landscape is a long-term process, which will probably take centuries. The restoration of any peatland may therefore be considered successful if the outcome is the development and growth of plant communities able to produce peat. The renewal of the hydrological regime of such areas is a major factor which determines the re-colonisation of cut-over peat fields by peat-forming plants. The aim of this paper is to give a brief survey of wetlands, and especially of peatland restoration options, for use in terminated peat-cuttings. It aims to show how peatland management may be made sustainable by means of existing and tried methods and principles, with the goal of returning cut-over peat fields to their former peat-accumulating state. A glossary of peat and peatland terminology is included 105 refs, 5 figs

  10. Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and performance indices

    Oliver H. Knowles; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and sixty taxa of upland moist forest trees were studied with reference to their suitability for forest restoration on bauxite mined Iands in western Para State, Brazil. Over a 14-year period, field observations in native primary forests, nursery studies, and evaluations of over 600 ha of mixed-species reforestation areas were used to characterize fruiting...

  11. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling

    A. Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of degraded land in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes has led to alterations in the functioning of degraded catchments. Recovery of vegetation on areas affected by overgrazing, as well as the reforestation or afforestation of gully areas have given rise to modifications of hydrological connectivity within the catchments. Recent research has highlighted the ability of gully channels to trap sediment eroded from steep slopes, especially if vegetation is established along the gully bed. However, vegetation cover not only induces sediment deposition in the gully bed, but may also have a potential to reduce runoff water volume. The performance of gully beds in reducing the transfer of runoff was investigated by conducting controlled concentrated flow experiments in the field. Experimental field data for nine gullies were derived by pouring concentrated inflow into the upstream end and measuring the outflow at the downstream end of the channel. Two consecutive flow experiments per gully were carried out, so that data for dry and wet soil conditions were collected. The hydrological response to concentrated flow was estimated for each experiment by calculating its cumulative infiltration coefficient, IC (%. The results showed a great difference in IC between dry and wet soil conditions. The IC for wet soil conditions was on average 24%, whereas it was 60% for dry conditions. Gullies with more than 50% surface vegetation cover exhibit the highest cumulative infiltration coefficients (81% for dry runs, and 34% for wet runs, but runoff transmission losses were not as clearly related to vegetation cover as sediment storage as shown in Molina et al. (2009. The experimental field data of 16 experiments were used to calibrate a hydrological model developed by Fiener and Auerswald (2005 in order to simulate the transfer of concentrated flow along the gully beds. The calibrated model was able to simulate the transfer of runoff water

  13. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  14. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  16. Convergence of hepcidin deficiency, systemic iron overloading, heme accumulation, and REV-ERBα/β activation in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-elicited hepatotoxicity

    Fader, Kelly A.; Nault, Rance [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kirby, Mathew P.; Markous, Gena [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Matthews, Jason [Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists elicit dose-dependent hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice. Iron (Fe) promotes AhR-mediated oxidative stress by catalyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further characterize the role of Fe in AhR-mediated hepatotoxicity, male C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 0.01–30 μg/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) every 4 days for 28 days. Duodenal epithelial and hepatic RNA-Seq data were integrated with hepatic AhR ChIP-Seq, capillary electrophoresis protein measurements, and clinical chemistry analyses. TCDD dose-dependently repressed hepatic expression of hepcidin (Hamp and Hamp2), the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, resulting in a 2.6-fold increase in serum Fe with accumulating Fe spilling into urine. Total hepatic Fe levels were negligibly increased while transferrin saturation remained unchanged. Furthermore, TCDD elicited dose-dependent gene expression changes in heme biosynthesis including the induction of aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (Alas1) and repression of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Urod), leading to a 50% increase in hepatic hemin and a 13.2-fold increase in total urinary porphyrins. Consistent with this heme accumulation, differential gene expression suggests that heme activated BACH1 and REV-ERBα/β, causing induction of heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and repression of fatty acid biosynthesis, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that Hamp repression, Fe accumulation, and increased heme levels converge to promote oxidative stress and the progression of TCDD-elicited hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • TCDD represses hepatic hepcidin expression, leading to systemic iron overloading. • Dysregulation of heme biosynthesis is consistent with heme and porphyrin accumulation. • Heme-activated REV-ERBα/β repress circadian-regulated hepatic lipid metabolism. • Disruption of iron

  17. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  18. FY 1986 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. System construction and operational study results (Systemization studies); 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. System shisaku unten kenkyu (system ka kenkyu)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The studies on combinations of high-performance compression heat pump and chemical heat accumulation systems are conducted to construct the optimum systems for air conditioning/hot water supply for large-sized buildings and local districts, and also for industrial processes. For partial optimization of super heat pump (SPH) accumulation system, the SPH operational mode is changed to find the optimum conditions. As a result, it is found that system efficiency is the highest, and hence the power cost is the lowest, when the system is continuously operated night and day, followed by 2-night/1-day mode and night alone mode, in this order, for office building air conditioning, district air conditioning, and hot water supply. The effects of combination of SHP and chemical heat accumulation systems incorporated in an industrial process for heating are estimated. The results indicate that power load leveling effect is not 100% but 92%, even when the heat required for the daytime operation is totally supplied from the chemical accumulation system. The skeleton of the super heat pump accumulation system simulator is finalized, and the elementary system modules are developed, to allow simulation of general flows. (NEDO)

  19. Marginal microleakage of class V resin-based composite restorations bonded with six one-step self-etch systems

    Alfonso Sánchez-Ayala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the microleakage of class V restorations bonded with various one-step self-etching adhesives. Seventy class V resin-based composite restorations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 35 premolars, by using: Clearfil S 3 Bond, G-Bond, iBond, One Coat 7.0, OptiBond All-In-One, or Xeno IV. The Adper Single Bond etch-and-rinse two-step adhesive was employed as a control. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles in separate water baths at 5°C and 55°C and loaded under 40 to 70 N for 50,000 cycles. Marginal microleakage was measured based on the penetration of a tracer agent. Although the control showed no microleakage at the enamel margins, there were no differences between groups (p = 0.06. None of the adhesives avoided microleakage at the dentin margins, and they displayed similar performances (p = 0.76. When both margins were compared, iBond® presented higher microleakage (p < 0.05 at the enamel margins (median, 1.00; Q3–Q1, 1.25–0.00 compared to the dentin margins (median, 0.00; Q3–Q1, 0.25–0.00. The study adhesives showed similar abilities to seal the margins of class V restorations, except for iBond®, which presented lower performance at the enamel margin.

  20. Parameter Estimation for the Blind Restoration of Blurred Imagery.

    1986-09-01

    4 Ii. Image Restoration Theory . ............. 5 Linear Space Invariant Systems.... .... 5 Imaging System .. ............ ... 5 Image Restoration...transformation and inversion, and image file input/output. - o A IiI. Image Restoration Theory Linear Space Invariant Systems We can think of a system as a

  1. Real-time environmental radiation monitoring system with automatic restoration of backup data in site detector via communication using radio frequency

    Lee, Wan No; Kim, Eun Han; Chung, Kun Ho; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Park, Ki Hyun; Kim, Yun Goo

    2003-01-01

    An environmental radiation monitoring system based on high pressurized ionization chamber has been used for on-line gamma monitoring surrounding the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), which transmits the dose data measured from ion chamber on the site via radio frequency to a central processing computer and stores the transmitted real-time data. Although communication using ratio frequency has several advantages such as effective and economical transmission, storage, and data process, there is one main disadvantage that data loss during transmission often happens because of unexpected communication problems. It is possible to restore the loss data by off-line such as floppy disk but the simultaneous process and display of current data as well as the backup data are very difficult in the present on-line system. In this work, a new electronic circuit board and the operation software applicable to the conventional environmental radiation monitoring system are developed and the automatical synchronization of the ion chamber unit and the central processing computer is carried out every day. This system is automatically able to restore the backup data within 34 hours without additional equipment and also display together the current data as well as the transmitted backup data after checking time flag

  2. From one marsh to another, changing swamps - Exercise of reflexivity within the water and territories system: wetland renaturation / restoration

    Sandoz, Alain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Boutron, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In relation to the"Plan National en faveur des Zones Humides", the project aims to provide food for thought, from the interdisciplinary articulation , for the development, organizational arrangements and the level of water governance. The methods that will permit to better understand how work studied ecosystems and to measure the anthropogenic and natural part of the functioning of these territories. The methods will be based on a landscape approach and facilitated by the techniques used in landscape ecology making wide use of the techniques from geomatic (GIS, digital photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing...). Additional studies from data collected in the field will also be made in particular to improve our understanding of hydrology, water quality... . The two sites selected by this proposal covers two wetlands of national and international interests. Both are located in natural regional parks (NRP): Alpilles and Camargue, the NRP of Camargue is furthermore included in the "Man and Biosphere Reserve" of the Rhone delta. The first concerns the "Vallée des marais des Baux", the second, the "Salins de Giraud". The complexity of natural and human issues make such territories privileged study sites. Located both in the west of the "Bouches du Rhône" department, these territories have very different human and physical characteristics. We develop in this presentation only the first, the "Vallée des marais des Baux". Under the initiative of several private owners, voluntary marshes restoration experiments are conducted. This area covering about 1300 hectares was originally swamp. Since the Romans, many attempts have succeeded in drying up the area but it's not until 1950-1960 that the technical development allowed to realize so - exception of small areas of relict marsh - implementing development centred on agriculture. Following to major floods in 2003, the sector is defined (Rhône river master plan) as an flood expansion area. Moreover, there is some decline of

  3. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations

    Niloofar Shadman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P 0.05. In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003. AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05. Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite.

  4. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo

    Principi E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elisa Principi,1,* Rossana Girardello,2,* Antonino Bruno,1,* Isabella Manni,3 Elisabetta Gini,2 Arianna Pagani,1 Annalisa Grimaldi,2 Federico Ivaldi,4 Terenzio Congiu,5 Daniela De Stefano,1 Giulia Piaggio,3 Magda de Eguileor,2 Douglas M Noonan,1,2 Adriana Albini1 1Vascular Biology and Angiogenesis, Scientific and Technology Pole, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milano, 2Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, 3Department of Research, Advanced Diagnosis and Innovation, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, 4Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, University of Genoa, Genoa, 5Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs, administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections, functional (serum enzymes, and morphological (organs and tissues alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron

  5. Efficacy of Hydrophobic Layer On Sealing Ability of Dentin Adhesive Systems in Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    Fatemeh Maleknejad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Adhesive permeability is hindered by application of an additional layer of hydrophobic resin, which increases its concentration within the hydrophilic layer, reduces its affinity to water, and enhances its physical properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydrophobic layer on the microleakage of class V composite restorations using different adhesives. Materials and methods. The adhesives including total-etch Scotchbond MP and Single Bond, and the self-etch Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond were applied to 80 class V cavities in vitro on the buccal surface in CEJ and then were followed by hydrophobic resin (Margin Bond in half of the cavities in each group (n=10. After restoration with microhybrid composite, Z100 and immersion in fuchsine, the degree of microleakage was assessed. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Man-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Results. The hydrophobic layer significantly reduced the microleakage of Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond only in dentin (p0.05. Conclusion. Within the limitation of this study, only Clearfil S3 Bond could demonstrate the identical values of microleakage in enamel and dentinal margins.

  6. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  7. Biofilm Formation on Dental Restorative and Implant Materials

    Busscher, H. J.; Rinastiti, M.; Siswomihardjo, W.; van der Mei, H. C.

    Biomaterials for the restoration of oral function are prone to biofilm formation, affecting oral health. Oral bacteria adhere to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, but due to fluctuating shear, little biofilm accumulates on hydrophobic surfaces in vivo. More biofilm accumulates on rough than on

  8. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  9. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  10. Microleakage comparison of three types of adhesive systems versus GIC-based adhesive in class V composite restorations

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: New dentin bonding agents and techniques have been developed to reduce microleakage and create higher bond strength. This in-vitro study compared the microleakage of three resin-based adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive on class V composite restorations.  Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 72 sound premolars, randomly assigned to six groups (n=12 and treated as follows: without any treatment (negative control group; total-etch (OptiBond Solo Plus; two-step self-etch (OptiBond XTR; one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One and GIC-based adhesive (Fuji bond LC with pre-cure and co-cure techniques. The treated cavities were filled with a micro-hybrid resin composite (Point 4, Kerr. Following finishing and polishing procedures, the specimens were placed in 100% humidity, stored in distilled water, thermocycled and then immersed in a methylene blue, sectioned, evaluated for microleakage and scored on a 0 to 3 ordinal scale.  Results: None of the adhesives tested were capable of completely eliminating marginal microleakage. There were statistically significant differences among the test groups at occlusal margins; but at cervical margins were not. The Fuji Bond LC with co-cure and control groups had significantly greater microleakage scores at the occlusal margins. At the cervical margins, the bonded restorations with OptiBond XTR and OptiBond All-in-One adhesives presented significantly lower microleakage scores. Also, there were no significant differences between the resin adhesive groups both at occlusal and cervical margins. The microleakage scores at the cervical margins were markedly higher than the occlusal margins in the groups bonded with OptiBond Solo Plus and Fuji Bond LC with pre-cure. The differences between Fuji Bond LC adhesive with pre-cure and co-cure techniques were significant. Conclusion: This study encourages application of the Fuji bond LC adhesive with pre

  11. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L.; Didero, M.; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P.; Tatano, F.

    2005-01-01

    On site CO 2 flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO 2 emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities [it

  12. River Restoration and Meanders

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  13. Functional approach for pairing in finite systems: How to define restoration of broken symmetries in Energy Density Functional theory?

    Hupin, G; Lacroix, D; Bender, M

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-Reference Energy Density Functional (MR-EDF) approach (also called configuration mixing or Generator Coordinate Method), that is commonly used to treat pairing in finite nuclei and project onto particle number, is re-analyzed. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the MR-EDF energy can be interpreted as a functional of the one-body density matrix of the projected state with good particle number. Based on this observation, we propose a new approach, called Symmetry-Conserving EDF (SC-EDF), where the breaking and restoration of symmetry are accounted for simultaneously. We show, that such an approach is free from pathologies recently observed in MR-EDF and can be used with a large flexibility on the density dependence of the functional.

  14. The system for diagnostics and monitoring of the IBR-2 reactor state. Data acquisition, accumulation and storage of information

    Ermilov, V.G.; Ivanov, V.V.; Korolev, V.S.; Pepelyshev, Yu.N.; Semashko, S.V.; Tulaev, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    The architectural decisions for a developed distributed system of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor conditions monitoring are described. The system is intended for measurement of the basic reactor parameters, acquisition, storage and processing of information, the current reactor state monitoring, analysis of reactor parameters for a long time operation period both in on-line, and in off-line modes. The system is constructed in the architecture client-server using DBMS MS SQL Server 7.0 The basic hardware components of the system are measuring workstations and devices, processing and user workstations and the central server. The software of the system consists of the measuring programs, data flows dispatching services, client applications for data processing and visualization, and means for preparing data for subsequent presentation in WWW. The basic results of the first system operation phase and prospect of its development are discussed. (author)

  15. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable.

  16. Chemical carcinogenesis in the nervous system. Preferential accumulation of O6-methylguanine in rat brain deoxyribonucleic acid during repetitive administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea.

    Margison, G P; Kleihues, P

    1975-01-01

    The alkylation of purine bases in DNA of several rat tissues was determined during weekly injections (10 mg/kg) of N-[3H]methyl-N-nitrosourea, a dose schedule known to selectively induce tumours of the nervous system. Each group of animals was killed 1 week after the final injection, and the DNA hydrolysates were analysed by chromatography on Sephadex G-10. After five weekly applications, O6-methylguanine had accumulated in brain DNA to an extent which greatly exceeded that in kidney, spleen and intestine. In the liver, the final O6-methylguanine concentration was less than 1% of that in brain. Between the first and the fifth injection, the O6-methylguanine/7-methylguanine ratio in cerebral DNA increased from 0.28 to 0.68. In addition, 3-methylguanine was found to accumulate in brain DNA whereas in the other organs no significant quantities of this base were detectable. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that O6-alkylation of guanine in DNA plays a major role in the induction of tumours by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and related carcinogens. The kinetics of the increase of O6-methylguanine in cerebral DNA suggest that there is no major cell fraction in the brain which is capable of excising chemically methylated bases from DNA. This repair deficiency could be a determining factor in the selective induction of nervous-system tumours by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and other neuro-oncogenic compounds. PMID:1200992

  17. Restoration of severely weathered wood

    R. Sam. Williams; Mark. Knaebe

    2000-01-01

    Severely weathered window units were used to test various restoration methods and pretreatments. Sanded and unsanded units were pretreated with a consolidant or water repellent preservative, finished with an oil- or latex-based paint system, and exposed outdoors near Madison, WI, for five years. Pretreatments were applied to both window sashes (stiles and rails) and...

  18. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  19. About assessment of carbon accumulation potential in the Kazakhstan soils under conditions of transition to ecological farming systems

    Popov, Yu.M.

    1997-01-01

    Processes of carbon oxidation of soil humus as well as possible adsorption of CO 2 from atmosphere and its bonding in soils in capacity of organic forms under condition of transition to ecological farming systems are considered. (author)

  20. Restoration of badlands through applying bio-engineering techniques in active gully systems: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Andes

    Borja, P.; Vanacker, V.; Alvarado, D.; Govers, G.

    2012-04-01

    A better insight in the processes controlling sediment generation, transport and deposition in badlands is necessary to enhance restoration of degraded soils through eco-engineering techniques. In this study, we evaluate the effect of different bio-engineering measures on soil and slope stability. Five micro-catchments (of 0.2 to 5 ha) were selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The micro-catchments differ only by land cover and degree of implementation of soil and water conservation measures. Bio-engineering techniques were used to construct dikes made of fascines of wooden sticks and earth-filled tires in active gully beds, where they are most efficient to reduce water and sediment transport. The experimental design consists of three micro-catchments within highly degraded lands: (DI) micro-catchment with bio-engineering measures concentrated in the active gully beds, (DF) with reforestation of Eucalyptus trees, and (DT) reference situation without any conservation measures. Two micro-catchments were monitored in agricultural lands with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering measures in the active gully beds. All catchments were equipped with San Dimas flumes to measure water flow, and sediment traps to monitor sediment export. In the (active) gully beds, various parameters related to gully stability (soil water content, bed elevation, vegetation cover, sedimentation/erosion) were monitored at weekly intervals. First results show that bio-engineering techniques are efficient to stabilize active gully beds through a reduction of the rapid concentration of excess rainfall and the sediment production and transfer. Fascines made of wooden sticks are far more efficient than earth-filled tires. Sediment deposition behind dikes is strongly dependent on precedent rainfall events, and the slope and vegetation cover of the gully floor. The sediment deposited facilitates colonization of the gully floor by native

  1. Measurement of grain-boundary diffusion at low temperature by the surface-accumulation method. II. Results for gold-silver system

    Hwang, J.C.M.; Pan, J.D.; Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Grain-boundary diffusion rates in the gold-silver system were measured at relatively low temperatures by the surface-accumulation method which was analyzed in Paper I. The specimen was a polycrystalline gold film possessing columnar grains on which a silver layer was initially deposited epitaxially on one surface. During subsequent low-temperature annealing lattice diffusion was frozen out, and diffusion then occurred along the grain boundary and free-surface short circuits. The silver, therefore, diffused into the film from the silver layer along the boundaries, eventually reaching the opposite surface where it accumulated and was measured by Auger spectroscopy. The silver layer acted as an effective constant silver source, and grain-boundary diffusivities were calculated from the accumulation data. However, the exact location of the effective constant source in the silver layer could not be determined and this led to an uncertainty in the values of the grain-boundary diffusivities of a factor of 10. Lower- and upper-bound values were therefore described by D/sub b/(lower bound) =7.8 x 10 -6 exp(-0.62eV/kT) and D/sub b/(upper bound) =7.8 x 10 -5 exp(-0.62eV/kT) cm 2 /s in the temperature range 30--269 0 C. An examination of available grain-boundary diffusion data (including the present) suggests a tendency for the observed activation energy to decrease with decreasing temperature, and this was ascribed to a spectrum of activated jumps in the grain boundary and/or a spectrum of grain-boundary types in the specimen employed. The constant source behavior was tentatively ascribed, at least in part, to a grain-boundary ''Kirkendall effect'' resulting from the faster diffusion of silver than gold. The work indicates a need for increased understanding of the details of grain-boundary diffusion in alloys

  2. Simple catalytic cell for restoring He leak detector sensitivity on vacuum systems with high D2 backgrounds

    Busath, J.; Chiu, H.K.

    1998-12-01

    The DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics focuses on plasma physics and fusion energy science. The DIII-D tokamak is a 35 m 3 toroidal vacuum vessel with over 200 ports for diagnostic instrumentation, cryogenics, microwave heating, and four large neutral beam injectors. Maintaining vacuum in the 10 -8 Torr range is crucial for producing high performance plasma discharges. He leak checking the DIII-D tokamak and the neutral beamlines has historically been difficult. D 2 is used as the fuel gas in most plasma discharges and neutral beams. After plasma operations, D 2 out-gassing from the torus walls and internal beamline components can exceed 10 -4 std cc/s. The mass of the D 2 molecule (4.028 u) is indistinguishable from that of the He atom (4.003 u) to a standard mass spectrometer leak detector. High levels of D 2 reduce leak detector sensitivity and effectively mask the He trace gas signal rendering normal leak checking techniques ineffective. A simple apparatus was developed at GA to address these problems. It consists of a palladium based catalyst cell and associated valves and piping placed in series with the leak detector. This reduces the D 2 throughput by a factor greater than 10,000, restoring leak detector sensitivity. This paper will briefly discuss the development of the cell, the physical processes involved, the tests performed to quantify and optimize the processes, and the operational results at DIII-D

  3. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  4. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF SEWERS USING ELEMENTS OF RECYCLED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  6. Development of an accumulation-based system for cost-effective chamber measurements of inert trace gas fluxes

    Ambus, Per; Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.

    2010-01-01

    As soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases are characterized by high temporal fluctuations, frequent measurements in the range of hours to days need to be deployed, resulting in high analytical costs. We have therefore developed a new low-cost system that combines high-frequency automated...

  7. A Prospective Study of the Impact of Current Poverty, History of Poverty, and Exiting Poverty on Accumulation of Disease Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Yelin, Edward; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the effect of current poverty, number of years in poverty, and exiting poverty on disease damage accumulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this study, 783 patients with SLE were followed up from 2003 to 2015 through annual structured interviews. Respondents were categorized in each year by whether they had a household income of ≤125% of the US federal poverty level. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the impact of poverty in 2009, number of years in poverty between 2003 and 2009, and permanent exits from poverty as of 2009 on the extent of disease damage (according to the Brief Index of Lupus Damage [BILD] score) or accumulation of a clinically meaningful increase in disease damage (defined as a minimum 2-point increase in the BILD damage score) by 2015. After adjustment for sociodemographic features, health care characteristics, and health behaviors, poverty in 2009 was associated with an increased level of accumulated disease damage in 2015 (mean difference in BILD damage score between poor and non-poor 0.62 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.25-0.98) and increased odds of a clinically important increase in damage (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, 95% CI 0.98-2.85). Being poor in every year between 2003 and 2009 was associated with greater damage (mean change in BILD score 2.45, 95% CI 1.88-3.01) than being poor for one-half or more of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.45, 95% CI 0.97-1.93), for fewer than one-half of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-1.88), or for none of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49). Those exiting poverty permanently had similar increases in disease damage (mean change in BILD score 1.30, 95% CI 0.90-1.69) as those who were never in poverty (mean change in BILD score 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.50) but much less damage than those who remained in poverty (mean change in BILD score 1.98, 95% CI 1.59-2.38). The effects of current poverty

  8. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent.

  9. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  10. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Restoration of soil fertility and improvement of cropping systems for sustainable development in the humid savannahs of Cote d'Ivoire

    Bachmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present FAO-project addresses the soil fertility problems by combining organic with inorganic nutrient sources and actively involving farmers and other beneficiaries in an integrated, long-term development process. A major objective of the project is the participatory on-farm testing and validation of available technological innovations for soil fertility improvement. The results should fulfill two main requirements: (i) provide the farmer with a short-term production increase and (ii) improve/maintain soil fertility in the medium and long-term. The strategic framework of the project is based on the following three main elements: the need to take into account all aspects of soil fertility restoration including areas concerned, cost of fertility restoration, and economic profitability and sustainability; - the need to test all fertility improving measures at farm level in representative agro-ecozones of the humid and sub-humid savannas before their extension at large; the need to identify major macro-economic constraints (e.g. marketing) which impede sustainable agricultural development in the savannah region. The primary goal of the project is to replace traditional shifting cultivation in the humid savannas of the country by economically, ecologically and socially more sustainable production systems. In order to achieve this development objective the project focuses on the following main issues: restoration of soil fertility through improved land and crop management and more efficient use of mineral and organic fertilizers; crop diversification through more efficient use of water resources (irrigation); introduction of new cropping systems which have been successfully tested in countries with similar agro-ecological conditions; adapting traditional land tenure to the market economy; involving the private sector in all aspects of regional development assisted by Government through the creation of a favorable environment. Phase 1: constraint analysis and

  12. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  13. Recovery of the accumulation ability of thiomethyl-β-galactoside in Escherichia coli after bacteriophage T4 infection

    Saijo, N.; Okamoto, K.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of uv-irradiated and unirradiated T4 phage infection on the β-galactoside accumulation ability in Escherichia coli have been examined by the use of 14 C-labeled thiomethyl-β-galactoside (TMG). Under conditions where a synchronous adsorption of phage takes place, the cellular ability for TMG accumulation is found to be largely inhibited immediately after phage adsorption but it recovers with time to a new level, which is dependent on the multiplicity of infection. When cells are infected with uv-irradiated T4 at the same multiplicity as that of unirradiated phage, the cellular accumulation ability is more severely inhibited and there is no recovery from the inhibition. The recovery process in T4-infected cells is mostly sensitive to puromycin. These results suggest that the initial inhibition of the TMG accumulation ability is probably caused by the adsorption of phage coats, and the subsequent restoration occurs through the action of a phage-directed protein(s). In the recovery process, no new transport system appears to be involved. The restored ability of TMG accumulation is resistant to the action of superinfecting uv phage. However, different mechanisms appear to be operating in T4-infected cells for the establishment of resistance to ghosts and for the recovery from the phage coat-induced inhibition

  14. Sediment Accretion, Carbon Sequestration, and Resilience to Sea Level Rise in Natural and Recently Restored Tidal Marshes

    Poppe, K.; Rybczyk, J.; Parr, L.; Merrill, A.

    2017-12-01

    Tidal marshes are typically productive and depositional environments potentially conducive to high rates of carbon sequestration. Though they have been recognized globally for their ability to store "blue carbon", there is a paucity of comprehensive site-scale data from the Pacific Northwest U.S. Here we report carbon stocks and sequestration rates for an existing and a recently restored brackish marsh in the Stillaguamish River Estuary, in Puget Sound, Washington. The Stillaguamish River discharges into the Port Susan Bay Preserve which contains a 150-acre tidal marsh restoration site that was reintroduced to the tidal regime in 2012 from its previous use as diked and drained farmland. We hypothesized that the restoration would not only maximize carbon storage in former tidal wetlands but also, through the accumulation of organic and mineral matter, enhance these systems' resilience to rising sea levels. We collected sediment cores from 13 sites across the estuary, within and outside of the restoration area, to determine bulk density, organic and carbon content with depth, long-term accretion rates, and belowground biomass. We also measured aboveground net primary productivity. Carbon stocks at each site were partitioned into three components as recommended by the IPCC: aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, and sediment carbon. We additionally measured elevation change with surface elevation tables (SETs). Mean sediment carbon stocks in the upper 30 cm of sediment within the restoration area (6.45 kg C/m2) were similar to those measured in the adjacent natural marsh (6.82 kg C/m2). However, mean elevation change, as measured by SETs, were substantially higher in the restoration area (3.10 cm/yr) than in the natural marsh sites (0.79 cm/yr). As a result, carbon accumulation rates were also higher in the restoration area (821 g C/m2/yr) compared to the natural marsh sites (195 g C/m2/yr).

  15. Impact of Seasonal Heat Accumulation on Operation of Geothermal Heat Pump System with Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger

    Timofeev, D. V.; Malyavina, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    The subject of the investigation was to find out the influence of heat pump operation in summer on its function in winter. For this purpose a mathematical model of a ground coupled heat pump system has been developed and programmed. The mathematical model of a system ground heat exchanger uses the finite difference method to describe the heat transfer in soil and the analytical method to specify the heat transfer in the U-tubes heat exchanger. The thermal diffusivity by the heat transfer in the soil changes during gradual freezing of the pore moisture and thus slows soil freezing. The mathematical model of a heat pump includes the description of a scroll compressor and the simplified descriptions of the evaporator and condenser. The analysis showed that heating during the cold season and cooling in the warm season affect the average heat transfer medium temperature in the soil loop in the winter season. It has been also showed that the degree of this effect depends on the clay content in the soil.

  16. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  17. Accumulation of M1-like macrophages in type 2 diabetic islets is followed by a systemic shift in macrophage polarization.

    Cucak, Helena; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86(low) macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease.

  18. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression

    Faisal Nadeem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (FM [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such “excessive” protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  19. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression.

    Nadeem, Faisal; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Wang, Ruifeng; Han, Jienan; Shen, Qi; Chang, Feiran; Diao, Xianmin; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Xuexian

    2018-01-01

    Foxtail millet (FM) [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such "excessive" protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  20. Monitoring of macrophage accumulation in statin-treated atherosclerotic mouse model using sodium iodide symporter imaging system

    Yoo, Ran Ji; Kim, Min Hwan; Woo, Sang-Keun; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo; Lee, Yong Jin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation in atherosclerosis, but its detailed understanding has poorly investigated until now. Thus, we sought to demonstrate a noninvasive technique for macrophage tracking to atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E −/− (ApoE −/− ) mice with an imaging system based on sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene coupled with 99m Tc-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods and results: Macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were stably transduced with retrovirus expressing NIS gene (RAW-NIS). In RAW-NIS cells, uptake of 125 I was higher than the parental cells. [ 18 F]FDG signals in the aorta at 30 weeks on an ApoE −/− mice with high cholesterol diet were higher (1.7 ± 0.12% injected dose (ID)) than those in control group (0.84 ± 0.06% ID). Through 99m Tc-SPECT/computed tomography (CT), in the RAW-NIS cell injected group, the 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake in aorta was higher than control groups. However, according to atorvastatin treatment, RAW-NIS cell recruitment reduced to the aorta. Area of 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake was positively correlated with immunostaining results against macrophage antigen (CD68). Cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels of atorvastatin-treated group showed lower than those of atorvastatin-untreated group, but did not reach statistical difference. Conclusions: This novel approach to tracking macrophages to atherosclerotic plaques in vivo can be applied for studies of arterosclerotic vascular disease.

  1. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  2. Multiplying Forest Garden Systems with biochar based organic fertilization for high carbon accumulation, improved water storage, nutrient cycling, and increased food diversity and farm productivity

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    On abandoned, erosion prone terraces in the middle hills of Nepal, 86 participating farmer families planted >25,000 mixed trees in 2015/16. Since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method, all trees were planted with farmer-made organic biochar-based fertilizer. Planting pits were mulched with rice straw and were pipe irrigated from newly established water retention ponds during the 7 months of the dry season. A peer control system of farmer triads ensured an efficient maintenance of the plantations. Tree survival rate was above 80% after one year compared to below 50% on average for countrywide forestation projects over the last 30 years. In between the young Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, nut and other trees, other secondary crops were cultivated such as ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils, all with organic biochar-based fertilizer and mulching. The objective of this forest garden project was to establish robust social-agronomic systems that can be multiplied from village to village for increasing soil fertility, protecting abandoned terraces from erosion, replenishing natural water resources, generating a stable income with climate-smart agriculture, as well as capturing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. The initial financing of the set-up of the forest garden systems (tree nursery, plantation, preparation of organic biochar based fertilizer, mulching materials, building of irrigation pits and pipe irrigation system, and general maintenance) was covered by carbon credits paid in advance by the international community in the form of a monthly carbon compensation subscription. All planted trees are GIS inventoried and the yearly biomass carbon uptake will be calculated as an average value of the first ten years of tree growth. The 25,000 mixed trees accumulated the equivalent of 350 t CO2 per year (10 years total C-accumulation divided by

  3. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, light-harvesting system and photoinhibition resistance of a zeaxanthin-accumulating mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Tardy, F; Havaux, M

    1996-06-01

    The abscisic-acid-deficient aba-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is unable to epoxidize zeaxanthin. As a consequence, it contains large amounts of this carotenoid and lacks epoxy-xanthophylls. HPLC analysis of pigment contents in leaves, isolated thylakoids and preparations of the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (PSII) (LHC-II) indicated that zeaxanthin replaced neoxanthin, violaxanthin and antheraxanthin in the light-harvesting system of PSII in aba-1. Non-denaturing electrophoretic fractionation of solubilized thylakoids showed that the xanthophyll imbalance in aba-1 was associated with a pronounced decrease in trimeric LHC-II in favour of monomeric complexes, with a substantial increase in free pigments (mainly zeaxanthin and chlorophyll b), suggesting a decreased stability of LHC-II. The reduced thermostability of PSII in aba-1 was also deduced from in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Wild-type and aba-1 leaves could not be distinguished on the basis of their photosynthetic performance: no significant difference was observed between the two types of leaves for light-limited and light-saturated photosynthetic oxygen evolution, PSII photochemistry and PSII to PSI electron flow. When dark-adapted leaves (grown in white light of 80 mumol m-2s-1) were suddenly exposed to red light of 150 mumol m-2s-1, there was a strong nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the amplitude of which was virtually identical (at steady state) in aba-1 and wild-type leaves, despite the fact that the xanthophyll cycle pigment pool was completely in the form of zeaxanthin in aba-1 and almost exclusively in the form of violaxanthin in the wild type. A high concentration of zeaxanthin in aba-1 thylakoids did not, in itself, provide any particular protection against the photoinhibition of PSII. Taken together, the presented results indicate the following: (1) zeaxanthin can replace epoxy-xanthophylls in LHC-II without significantly affecting the

  4. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology.

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-06-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. FES for the immediate generation of lower limb movement along with current rehabilitative techniques is reviewed. The potential of SCS for controlling spinal spasticity and enhancing lower limb function in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury is discussed. The necessity for precise electrode placement and appropriate stimulation parameter settings to achieve therapeutic specificity is elaborated. This will lead to our human work of epidural and transcutaneous stimulation targeting the lumbar spinal cord for enhancing motor functions in spinal cord injured people, supplemented by pertinent human research of other investigators. We conclude that the concept of restorative neurology recently received new appreciation by accumulated evidence for locomotor circuits residing in the human spinal cord. Technological and clinical advancements need to follow for a major impact on the functional recovery in individuals with severe damage to their motor system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lake Sturgeon, Lake Whitefish, and Walleye egg deposition patterns with response to fish spawning substrate restoration in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    Fischer, Jason L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward; Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg deposition and use of restored spawning substrates by lithophilic fishes (e.g., Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis, and Walleye Sander vitreus) were assessed throughout the St. Clair–Detroit River system from 2005 to 2016. Bayesian models were used to quantify egg abundance and presence/absence relative to site-specific variables (e.g., depth, velocity, and artificial spawning reef presence) and temperature to evaluate fish use of restored artificial spawning reefs and assess patterns in egg deposition. Lake Whitefish and Walleye egg abundance, probability of detection, and probability of occupancy were assessed with detection-adjusted methods; Lake Sturgeon egg abundance and probability of occurrence were assessed using delta-lognormal methods. The models indicated that the probability of Walleye eggs occupying a site increased with water velocity and that the rate of increase decreased with depth, whereas Lake Whitefish egg occupancy was not correlated with any of the attributes considered. Egg deposition by Lake Whitefish and Walleyes was greater at sites with high water velocities and was lower over artificial spawning reefs. Lake Sturgeon eggs were collected least frequently but were more likely to be collected over artificial spawning reefs and in greater abundances than elsewhere. Detection-adjusted egg abundances were not greater over artificial spawning reefs, indicating that these projects may not directly benefit spawning Walleyes and Lake Whitefish. However, 98% of the Lake Sturgeon eggs observed were collected over artificial spawning reefs, supporting the hypothesis that the reefs provided spawning sites for Lake Sturgeon and could mitigate historic losses of Lake Sturgeon spawning habitat.

  6. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  7. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  8. Challenges of ecological restoration

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  9. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  10. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  11. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil.

    Bahia, Ligia; Scheffer, Mario; Tavares, Leandro Reis; Braga, Iale Falleiros

    2016-11-03

    The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans. Resumo: A concentração e internacionalização de empresas de planos de saúde no Brasil conferiram-lhes feição financeira. Considerando a necessidade de compreender os padrões de acumulação desse setor, o trabalho examina estratégias de expansão das empresas de planos de saúde por meio da periodização de atributos da oferta e demanda e exame da trajetória patrimonial recente de um dos grandes grupos do setor. Entre os anos 1960 e 2000, ocorreram alterações na escala das demandas por planos de saúde e adesão das empresas a estratégias de acumulação de longo prazo. A partir do século XXI, as alterações nas estruturas societárias da maior empresa brasileira, compatíveis com o regime de acumulação financeirizada, resultaram na multiplicação de seu capital em um curto intervalo de tempo. O aprofundamento da segmentação do sistema de saúde, em um contexto marcado pela desaceleração da economia, questiona a

  12. Accumulation and translocation peculiarities of "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in the soil – plant system

    Marčiulionienė, Danutė; Lukšienė, Benedikta; Jefanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Long-term investigations (1996–2008) were conducted into the "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in the soil of forests, swamps and meadows in different regions of Lithuania, as well as in the plants growing in these media. The "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K activity concentrations, the "1"3"7Cs/"4"0K activity concentration ratio and accumulation, and translocation in the system, i.e. from the soil to plant roots to above-ground plant part of these radionuclides, were evaluated after gamma-spectrometric measurements using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Based on the obtained data, it can be asserted that in the tested plant species, the "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K accumulation, the transfer from soil to roots and translocation within the plants depend on the plant species and environmental ecological conditions. The "1"3"7Cs/"4"0K activity concentration ratios in the same plant species in different regions of Lithuania are different and this ratio depends on the biotope (forest, swamp or meadow) in which the plant grows and on the location of the growing region. Based on the determined trends of statistically reliable inverse dependence between the activity concentrations in both soil and plants, it can be stated that the exchange of "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in plants and soil is different. Different accumulations and translocations of investigated radionuclides in the same plant species indicate diverse biological metabolism of "1"3"7Cs and its chemical analogue "4"0K in plants. A competitive relationship exists between "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in plants as well as in the soil. - Highlights: • Investigations of "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K were performed in different ecological conditions. • The data indicate a diverse biological metabolism of "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in plant species. • A pronounced association between "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in soil and plants is not statistically significant. • A competitive relationship exists between "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in plants as well as in the soil. • The ratio of "1

  13. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  14. A ‘suicide’ CRISPR-Cas9 system to promote gene deletion and restoration by electroporation in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Wang, Yu; Wei, Dongsheng; Zhu, Xiangyang; Pan, Jiao; Zhang, Ping; Huo, Liang; Zhu, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutagenesis is an important tool used to characterize gene functions, and the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful method for performing targeted mutagenesis in organisms that present low recombination frequencies, such as the serotype D strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. However, when the CRISPR-Cas9 system persists in the host cells, off-target effects and Cas9 cytotoxicity may occur, which might block subsequent genetic manipulation. Here, we report a method of spontaneously eliminating the CRISPR-Cas9 system without impairing its robust editing function. We successfully expressed single guide RNA under the driver of an endogenous U6 promoter and the human codon-optimized Cas9 endonuclease with an ACT1 promoter. This system can effectively generate an indel mutation and efficiently perform targeted gene disruption via homology-directed repair by electroporation in yeast. We then demonstrated the spontaneous elimination of the system via a cis arrangement of the CRISPR-Cas9 expression cassettes to the recombination construct. After a system-mediated double crossover, the CRISPR-Cas9 cassettes were cleaved and degraded, which was validated by Southern blotting. This ‘suicide’ CRISPR-Cas9 system enables the validation of gene functions by subsequent complementation and has the potential to minimize off-target effects. Thus, this technique has the potential for use in functional genomics studies of C. neoformans. PMID:27503169

  15. Skin Autofluorescence, as Marker of Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and of Cumulative Metabolic Stress, Is Not Increased in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    M. E. Hettema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs in the skin are increased in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and are related to the presence of disease-related and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods. Skin autofluorescence, as a measure for the accumulation of AGEs, was assessed by measuring UV-A light excitation-emission matrices (AF-EEMS in 41 SSc patients and 41 age- and sex-matched controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-related risk factors were recorded. Results. Skin AF-EEMS did not differ between SSc patients and controls (1.68±0.58 a.u. versus 1.63±0.41 a.u., P=0.684. Skin AF-EEMS in SSc patients was associated with levels of CRP (r=0.44, P=0.004, Medsger's severity scale (r=0.45, P=0.006, and use of agents intervening in the renin-angiotensin system (r=0.33, P=0.027. When analysing SSc patients and controls together, in multivariate analysis, only age and use of agents intervening in the renin-angiotensin system were independently associated with AF-EEMS. Conclusion. These data demonstrate that skin AGEs are not increased in SSc patients.

  16. Genomic and in Situ Analyses Reveal the Micropruina spp. as Abundant Fermentative Glycogen Accumulating Organisms in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Systems

    Simon J. McIlroy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR involves the cycling of biomass through carbon-rich (feast and carbon-deficient (famine conditions, promoting the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs. However, several alternate metabolic strategies, without polyphosphate storage, are possessed by other organisms, which can compete with the PAO for carbon at the potential expense of EBPR efficiency. The most studied are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs, which utilize aerobically stored glycogen to energize anaerobic substrate uptake and storage. In full-scale systems the Micropruina spp. are among the most abundant of the proposed GAO, yet little is known about their ecophysiology. In the current study, genomic and metabolomic studies were performed on Micropruina glycogenica str. Lg2T and compared to the in situ physiology of members of the genus in EBPR plants using state-of-the-art single cell techniques. The Micropruina spp. were observed to take up carbon, including sugars and amino acids, under anaerobic conditions, which were partly fermented to lactic acid, acetate, propionate, and ethanol, and partly stored as glycogen for potential aerobic use. Fermentation was not directly demonstrated for the abundant members of the genus in situ, but was strongly supported by the confirmation of anaerobic uptake of carbon and glycogen storage in the absence of detectable polyhydroxyalkanoates or polyphosphate reserves. This physiology is markedly different from the classical GAO model. The amount of carbon stored by fermentative organisms has potentially important implications for phosphorus removal – as they compete for substrates with the Tetrasphaera PAO and stored carbon is not made available to the “Candidatus Accumulibacter” PAO under anaerobic conditions. This study shows that the current models of the competition between PAO and GAO are too simplistic and may need to be revised to take into account the impact of

  17. Petroleum systems and hydrocarbon accumulation models in the Santos Basin, SP, Brazil; Sistemas petroliferos e modelos de acumulacao de hidrocarbonetos na Bacia de Santos

    Chang, Hung Kiang; Assine, Mario Luis; Correa, Fernando Santos; Tinen, Julio Setsuo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Estudos de Bacias]. E-mails: chang@rc.unesp.br; assine@rc.unesp.br; fscorrea@rc.unesp.br; jstinen@rc.unesp.br; Vidal, Alexandre Campane; Koike, Luzia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Petroleo]. E-mails: vidal@ige.unicamp.br; luzia@iqm.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Santos Basin was formed by rifting process during Mesozoic Afro-American separation. Sediment accumulation initiated with fluvial-lacustrine deposits, passing to evaporitic stage until reaching marginal basin stages. The analysis of hydrocarbon potential of Santos Basin identified two petroleum systems: Guaratiba-Guaruja and Itajai-Acu-Ilhabela. The Guaratiba Formation is less known in the Santos Basin because of small number of wells that have penetrated the rift section. By comparison with Campos Basin, hydrocarbons are of saline lacustrine origin deposited in Aptian age. Analogous to Campos Basin the major source rock is of saline-lacustrine origin, which has been confirmed from geochemical analyses of oil samples recovered from the various fields. These analyses also identified marine source rock contribution, indicating the Itajai-Acu source rock went through oil-window, particularly in structural lows generated by halokynesis. Models of hydrocarbon accumulation consider Guaratiba Formacao as the major source rock for shallow carbonate reservoirs of Guaruja Formacao and for late Albian to Miocene turbidites, as well as siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs of the rift phase. Migration occurs along salt window and through carrier-beds. The seal rock is composed of shales and limestones intercalated with reservoir facies of the post-rift section and by thick evaporites overlying rift section, especially in the deeper water. In the shallow portion, shale inter-tongued with reservoir rocks is the main seal rock. The hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the central-north portion of the basin is caused by overburden of a thick Senonian section. Traps can be structural (rollovers and turtle), stratigraphic (pinch-outs) and mixed origins (pinch-outs of turbidites against salt domes). (author)

  18. Influence of different adhesive systems on bond strength of carbon fiber posts used to restore endodontically treated teeth

    Silva, Lorena dos Santos; Reis, Kátia Rodrigues; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Chuí, Fabíola Mendonça da Silva; Sena, Neylla Teixeira; Carvalhal, Cintia Iara Oda; Oliveira, Jonas Alves de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of three adhesive systems on resinous bonding of carbon fiber posts on roots of endodontically treated bovine incisors. Thirty bovine lower incisors with similar dimensions were selected for this study. The roots were endodontically treated and subsequently prepared for post cementation. The posts were treated with adhesive systems Scotchbond MultiPurpose Plus – 3M chemical cure (Group I), light cure (Group II) and dual cure (Group III). Car...

  19. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Data management plan for the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System, Version 1.1. Enviornmental Restoration Program

    1992-08-04

    The Data Management Plan (DMP) describes the data management objectives, system components, data base structure and contents, system maintenance, data processing, and user interface for the prototype phase of the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The major goals of OREIS data management are to compile data of known quality, to maintain the integrity of the data base, and to provide data to users. The DMP defines the requirements, describes the responsibilities, and references the procedures for meeting the data management objectives. Emphasis is on management of measurement data and the associated metadata used to support its proper interpretation and legal defensibility. The DMP covers transmittal, processing, storage, and data access activities associated with OREIS. The OREIS data dictionary is provided as an appendix.

  1. Hotspots for selected metal elements and microbes accumulation and the corresponding water quality deterioration potential in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system.

    Liu, Gang; Tao, Yu; Zhang, Ya; Lut, Maarten; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; van der Wielen, Paul; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-11-01

    Biofilm formation, loose deposit accumulation and water quality deterioration in drinking water distribution systems have been widely reported. However, the accumulation and distribution of harbored elements and microbes in the different niches (loose deposits, PVC-U biofilm, and HDPE biofilm) and their corresponding potential contribution to water quality deterioration remain unknown. This precludes an in-depth understanding of water quality deterioration and the development of proactive management strategies. The present study quantitatively evaluated the distribution of elements, ATP, Aeromonas spp., and bacterial communities in distribution pipes (PVC-U, D = 110 mm, loose deposit and biofilm niches) and household connection pipes (HDPE, D = 32 mm, HDPE biofilm niches) at ten locations in an unchlorinated distribution system. The results show that loose deposits in PVC-U pipes, acting as sinks, constitute a hotspot (highest total amount per meter pipe) for elements, ATP, and target bacteria groups (e.g., Aeromonas spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Legionella spp.). When drinking water distribution system niches with harbored elements and microbes become sources in the event of disturbances, the highest quality deterioration potential (QDP) is that of HDPE biofilm; this can be attributed to its high surface-to-volume ratio. 16s rRNA analysis demonstrates that, at the genus level, the bacterial communities in the water, loose deposits, PVC-U biofilm, and HDPE biofilm were dominated, respectively, by Polaromonas spp. (2-23%), Nitrosipra spp. (1-47%), Flavobacterium spp. (1-36%), and Flavobacterium spp. (5-67%). The combined results of elemental composition and bacterial community analyses indicate that different dominant bio-chemical processes might occur within the different niches-for example, iron-arsenic oxidizing in loose deposits, bio-calumniation in PVC-U biofilm, and methane oxidizing in HDPE biofilm. The release of 20% loose deposits, 20% PVC-U biofilm

  2. Analysis design and implementation of a data backup system and restoration of information based on AVAMAR Software

    Wilson Chango

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to make a system for the backup of the information of virtual environments and computers of end users through the LAN network, covering, for this purpose, the analysis, design and implementation at the laboratory level, of a system of specialized backups for these environments in this way was thus checked for its performance and its feasibility of execution, from a technical point of view. AVAMAR, emerges as a solution alternative to face the challenges of those IT environments where backups and retrieval of information demand shorter time windows, more agile recovery responses, end user support and virtual machines. The architecture and technology of this backup and recovery solution makes it ideal for a reference study that shows everything that can be achieved in the complex and varied world of information backup. The scenario that was raised concerns a typical infrastructure consisting of physical, virtual servers, a LAN and a SAN network, users of desktop computers and laptops, end users had connectivity to the servers through the LAN, these computer equipment had Windows as an operating system, a virtual environment was established that was executed on the physical servers, the environment was fully operational and functional, all services were active and users could access them from the LAN network . From this scenario, we analyzed the benefits of the system of backups of the information of end users and virtual machines, optimizing resources such as hardware, software and execution time of backup and recovery tasks

  3. Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System

    Kil To Chong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs, which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS.

  4. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by microorganisms accumulated from river water using a two-stage perfusion culture system.

    Morimoto, T; Tashiro, F; Nagashima, H; Nishizawa, K; Nagata, F; Yokogawa, Y; Suzuki, T

    2000-01-01

    The perfusion culture system using a shaken ceramic membrane flask (SCMF) was employed to accumulate microorganisms separated from river water and to produce poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Using a two-step culture method with a single SCMF, river microorganisms were cultured by separately feeding four representative carbon sources, n-propanol, lactic acid, methanol, and formic acid. After 140 h culture, the cell concentration and PHB content respectively reached 43 g/l and 35% when a propanol medium was fed. Using a two-stage perfusion culture with twin SCMFs, the seed cell mass was increased in the first SCMF and then supplied to the second flask for PHB production. As a consequence, the cellular PHB content rose to 51% in the second SCMF, while the cell concentration gradually increased to 25 g/l after 175 h perfusion culture. These results demonstrated the utility of the two-stage perfusion culture system for developing a cheap means of producing PHB coincident with wastewater treatment.

  5. Interfacial characterization of ceramic core materials with veneering porcelain for all-ceramic bi-layered restorative systems.

    Tagmatarchis, Alexander; Tripodakis, Aris-Petros; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the elemental distribution at the interface between all-ceramic core and veneering porcelain materials. Three groups of all-ceramic cores were selected: A) Glass-ceramics (Cergo, IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, e-max Press, Finesse); B) Glass-infiltrated ceramics (Celay Alumina, Celay Zirconia) and C) Densely sintered ceramics (Cercon, Procera Alumina, ZirCAD, Noritake Zirconia). The cores were combined with compatible veneering porcelains and three flat square test specimens were produced for each system. The core-veneer interfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. The glass-ceramic systems showed interfacial zones reach in Si and O, with the presence of K, Ca, Al in core and Ca, Ce, Na, Mg or Al in veneer material, depending on the system tested. IPS Empress and IPS Empress 2 demonstrated distinct transitional phases at the core-veneer interface. In the glassinfiltrated systems, intermixing of core (Ce, La) with veneer (Na, Si) elements occurred, whereas an abrupt drop of the core-veneer elemental concentration was documented at the interfaces of all densely sintered ceramics. The results of the study provided no evidence of elemental interdiffusion at the core-veneer interfaces in densely sintered ceramics, which implies lack of primary chemical bonding. For the glass-containing systems (glassceramics and glass-infiltrated ceramics) interdiffusion of the glass-phase seems to play a critical role in establishing a primary bonding condition between ceramic core and veneering porcelain.

  6. Restoration of landfill sites

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  7. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  8. Restorative glass: reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    Faidra Oikonomopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and aesthetical integrity. Concurrently, the material’s unique mechanical properties enable the structural consolidation of the monument. As a proof of concept, the restoration of Lichtenberg Castle is proposed. Solid cast glass units are suggested to complete the missing parts, in respect to the existing construction technique and aesthetics of the original masonry. Aiming for a reversible system, the glass units are interlocking, ensuring the overall stability without necessitating permanent, adhesive connections. This results in an elegant and reversible intervention.

  9. Effect of emotional stress on postradiation restoration of the hematopoietic system in rats under protection with indraline

    Moroz, B.B.; Deshevoj, Yu.B.; Lyrshchikova, A.V.; Lebedev, V.G.; Vorotnikova, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of the emotional stress developed before γ-irradiation at the dose of 6.0 Gy (LD 40-50/30 ) on the radioprotective effectiveness of indraline was studied using rats-females for experiments. Efficiency of the preparation was assessed by the status of post-radiation hemopoiesis regeneration. It was shown that the emotional stress developed before irradiation did not change the radioprotective effect of indraline on hemopoietic system. In contrast with this, the emotional stress developed after irradiation inhibited the radioprotective effect of preparation on the medullary hemopoiesis [ru

  10. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  11. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  12. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  13. based dynamic voltage restorer

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  14. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  15. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  16. Restoration of soil fertility and improvement of cropping systems for sustainable development in the humid savannahs of the Ivory Coast

    Bachmann, T.

    2000-01-01

    In late 1998, FAO launched a Technical Co-operation Project to assist the government of the Ivory Coast in rural development by promoting agricultural production as the main source of economic growth, and by improving the management of natural resources. The sustainable development of the humid-savannah region and western highlands is being allotted primary consideration. The goal of the project is to replace traditional shifting cultivation with more-sustainable production systems. This paper describes the origins and scope of the problem and the research strategies being considered and employed. The project will be executed in three phases: constraint analysis and formulation of a pilot project, execution of the pilot project (1999-2003), and long-term extension (15 years) from 2004, based on the data generated in the pilot phase. (author)

  17. Restoration of soil fertility and improvement of cropping systems for sustainable development in the humid savannahs of the Ivory Coast

    Bachmann, T [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    In late 1998, FAO launched a Technical Co-operation Project to assist the government of the Ivory Coast in rural development by promoting agricultural production as the main source of economic growth, and by improving the management of natural resources. The sustainable development of the humid-savannah region and western highlands is being allotted primary consideration. The goal of the project is to replace traditional shifting cultivation with more-sustainable production systems. This paper describes the origins and scope of the problem and the research strategies being considered and employed. The project will be executed in three phases: constraint analysis and formulation of a pilot project, execution of the pilot project (1999-2003), and long-term extension (15 years) from 2004, based on the data generated in the pilot phase. (author)

  18. A paradox in the restoration of limestone quarries on mediterranean basin: physical characteristics of substrate as determinant of dynamics of created system

    Jorba, M.; Hereter, A.; Josa March, R.

    2009-01-01

    The restoration of open cast mining land looks for the quick integration in the landscape and the erosion control of derelict areas. The characteristics of substrate can determinate the behaviour of novel system. The stony substrates used have a great Ks and a very low water storage capacity. This paper presents the results of an experiment performed on story mineral substrates amended with sewage sludge under Mediterranean climatic conditions in a limestone quarry in the SW of Barcelona (NE of Spain). the experiments was carried out at container scale and the aim was to evaluate the vegetation response in two substrates with different stoniness and with irrigation during dry period. Water content in the mineral substrate was monitored using vertical TDR probes during the experiment. The growth of introduced plants was monitored monthly. Throughout the experiment, populations of sown plants fluctuated according to the available water in the substrate. The irrigation applied was not sufficient to maintain the vegetation in summer (period of higher evaporative demand at that time of year). The volume of leachate was high and nitrates, sulfates and chlorides were washed. (Author) 4 refs.

  19. Microleakage of Composite Resin Restorations Using a Type of Fifth and Two Types of Seventh Generations of Adhesive Systems: A Comparative Study

    Mitra Tabari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent dentin adhesive systems etching of enamel/dentin are achieved simultaneously. The objective was to evaluate the microleakage of composite restorations using Single Bond2 (5th generation, Clearfil S3 Bond and G Bond (7th generation. Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on  45 extracted intact premolars with gingival margins at the cementoenamel junction and they were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=15 based on the type of adhesives: Single Bond2 (5th generation, Clearfil S3 Bond and G Bond (7th generation. After applying the adhesives, the cavities were filled with Z250 composite resin. The occlusal and gingival microleakage was evaluated using 2% basic fuchsin staining technique. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni corrected Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The mean rank of occlusal microleakage exhibited significant differences by comparison of G Bond, Clearfil S3 Bond and Single Bond2 (21.07, 30.67 and 17.27, respectively (P=0.005. There was a significant difference in gingival microleakage of different bonding agents (34.40, 17.83 and 16.77 for G Bond, Clearfil S3 Bond and Single Bond2, respectively (P

  20. Impacts of nitrogen fertilization and plant species diversity on soil C accumulation in a lignocellulosic bioenergy cropping system nine years following land conversion

    De Graaff, M. A.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol production from second generation biofuel feedstocks, including the perennial grasses switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) has expanded rapidly, with the aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, land conversion for bioenergy production releases carbon (C) stored in soil to the atmosphere as CO2, and creates a C debt in ecosystems. If biofuels are to aid in curbing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is important that this initial C debt be repaid rapidly. A variety of management approaches aimed at increasing NPP and soil C input may be used to accelerate the repayment of soil C. We conducted a long-term field experiment located at the Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in IL, that compares a variety of approaches for perennial feedstock production following conversion of an old-field dominated by C3 grasses to a grassland dominated by C4 perennial grasses. Treatments included a variety of big bluestem and switchgrass cultivars grown in monoculture, diversity manipulated at both the species- and cultivar level, and nitrogen (N) applied at two levels (0 and 67 kg/ha). Previous results from this experiment indicated that four years following initiation of this experiment, only choice of plant species significantly affected the rate of bulk soil C-debt repayment. Here we quantified how nine years of fertilization, plant species, and inter- and intra-specific diversity treatments affect soil C accumulation. To increase our detection of changes in soil C and our mechanistic understanding of the processes that drive C accumulation in this experiment, we used the natural abundance C isotope ratio technique to estimate the contribution and fate of root-derived C to soil organic matter pools. Additionally, we evaluated how the different management approaches affected the ecological sustainability of bioenergy production, by quantifying impacts of the treatments on soil micro-and meso fauna abundance and diversity

  1. 河流水生态修复阈值界定指标体系初步构建%The preliminary structure of definition index system for river water ecological restoration threshold

    于鲁冀; 吕晓燕; 宋思远; 梁静; 王小青

    2013-01-01

      生态阈值存在于各种生态系统中,在查阅国内外相关文献的基础上,通过对生态阈值的理论研究及在森林、草原、湿地、湖泊和河流等方面实践应用进行总结分析,指出生态阈值在河流生态系统研究中的不足之处。针对在高污染负荷下修复退化的水生态系统中,开展生态修复阈值的研究寥寥无几,关于界定河流水生态修复阈值指标体系的研究尚未出现。通过分析阈值在河流水生态修复中的重要性,指出河流水生态修复阈值确定是退化水生态修复的基础,为区域针对性修复水体提供科学依据和决策支持,更是水环境管理发展的迫切需求。在此基础上,从新的角度探讨和提出河流水生态修复阈值概念。河流水生态修复阈值,是依据河流生态系统自然属性和河流功能以及区域社会经济发展的需求来界定退化到何种程度的水生态系统需要进行修复,退化现状程度大于此修复阈值,则需进行人工修复;退化现状程度小于修复阈值,则无需进行修复。通过对指标体系构建原则、筛选方法及阈值计算方法的总结,提出河流水生态修复阈值确定技术路线,采用频度分析法和理论分析法相结合,从影响河流修复的6大要素(物理结构、水文条件、水质状况、水生生物、河流功能和社会经济)初步构建了河流水生态修复阈值界定指标体系及阈值计算方法体系,为下一步河流水生态修复阈值指标体系的定量筛选与阈值计算奠定了基础。%Ecological threshold exists in all kinds of ecological systems. Deficiencies on ecological threshold research in river ecological system were pointed out based on reviewing relevant literatures and analyzing theory researches and practices on forest, grassland, lake, wetland and river ecological threshold. For the restoration of degraded river ecosystems in the high

  2. The interplay between the gut immune system and microbiota in health and disease: nutraceutical intervention for restoring intestinal homeostasis.

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Gut immune system is daily exposed to a plethora of antigens contained in the environment as well as in food. Both secondary lymphoid tissue, such as Peyer's patches, and lymphoid follicles (tertiary lymphoid tissue) are able to respond to antigenic stimuli releasing cytokines or producing antibodies (secretory IgA). Intestinal epithelial cells are in close cooperation with intraepithelial lymphocytes and possess Toll-like receptors on their surface and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) which sense pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Intestinal microbiota, mainly composed of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, generates tolerogenic response acting on gut dendritic cells and inhibiting the T helper (h)-17 cell anti-inflammatory pathway. This is the case of Bacteroides fragilis which leads to the production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, from both T regulatory cells and lamina propria macrophages. Conversely, segmented filamentous bacteria rather induce Th17 cells, thus promoting intestinal inflammation. Intestinal microbiota and its toxic components have been shown to act on both Nod1 and Nod2 receptors and their defective signaling accounts for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In IBD a loss of normal tolerance to intestinal microbiota seems to be the main trigger of mucosal damage. In addition, intestinal microbiota thanks to its regulatory function of gut immune response can prevent or retard neoplastic growth. In fact, chronic exposure to environmental microorganisms seems to be associated with low frequency of cancer risk. Major nutraceuticals or functional foods employed in the modulation of intestinal microbiota are represented by prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, amino acids and polyphenols. The cellular and molecular effects performed by these natural products in terms of modulation of the intestinal microbiota and mostly attenuation of the inflammatory pathway are described.

  3. An In Vitro Comparison of the Marginal Adaptation Accuracy of CAD/CAM Restorations Using Different Impression Systems.

    Shembesh, Marwa; Ali, Ala; Finkelman, Matthew; Weber, Hans-Peter; Zandparsa, Roya

    2017-10-01

    To compare the marginal adaptation of 3-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) obtained from intraoral digital scanners (Lava True Definition, Cadent iTero), scanning of a conventional silicone impression, and the resulting master cast with an extraoral scanner (3Shape lab scanner). One reference model was fabricated from intact, non-carious, unrestored human mandibular left first premolar and first molar teeth (teeth #19 and 21), prepared for a three-unit all-ceramic FDP. Impressions of the reference model were obtained using four impression systems (n = 10), group 1 (PVS impression scan), group 2 (stone cast scan), group 3 (Cadent iTero), and group 4 (Lava True Defintion). Then the three-unit zirconia FDPs were milled. Marginal adaptation of the zirconia FDPs was evaluated using an optical comparator at four points on each abutment. The mean (SD) was reported for each group. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance of the results, with post hoc tests conducted via Tukey's HSD. p impression scans 81.4 μm (6.8), Cadent iTero scan 62.4 μm (5.0), master cast scan 50.2 μm (6.1), and Lava True definition scan 26.6 μm (4.7). One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p impression scan, master cast scan, Lava True definition scan, iTero Cadent scan) were statistically significant (all p impression techniques was within the acceptable clinical limit (120 μm). Group 4 (Lava True Defintion) showed the lowest average gap among all groups followed by group 2 (stone cast scan), group 3 (Cadent iTero), and group 1 (PVS impression scan); these differences were statistically significant. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. System-level network analysis of nitrogen starvation and recovery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals potential new targets for increased lipid accumulation

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, T.; Recuenco-Muňoz, L.; Wienkoop, S.; Weckwerth, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 171 (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1754-6834 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chlamydomonas reinhardtii * lipid accumulation * nitrogen Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.044, year: 2014

  5. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  6. Implementation of the Save and Restoration application for KOMAC operation

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    KOMAC has been operating a 100 MeV proton linear Accelerator. There are about 10,000 PVs for operating the 100 MeV proton linac. It is important to archive the operating parameters for operating beam lines and machine study. The parameters are reported manually and with screenshot. There not fixed reporting type so it is difficult to compare archived data. To improve and compensate the reporting system, a Save and Restoration application, which is based on JAVA has been implemented and connected with KOMAC Control system based on EPICS with JCA library. The operating data are saved in Save and Restoration Server in file type, and are restored to the required values using the saved files. This paper presents Implementation of the Save and Restoration application and its function. The group list is shown in restore page using reload button. The saved value of the PVs in group is shown as selecting a group which clients require and current values are appeared beside the restore value table to compare with saved data. The set restore button input the values in restore value table to each PV. The Save and Restore application save and restore the value of the PVs that clients require. The application is installed in client PC but data are archived in save and restore server in file format.

  7. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  8. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  9. Restoring degraded tropical forests for carbon and biodiversity

    Budiharta, Sugeng; Meijaard, Erik; Wilson, Kerrie A; Erskine, Peter D; Rondinini, Carlo; Pacifici, Michela

    2014-01-01

    The extensive deforestation and degradation of tropical forests is a significant contributor to the loss of biodiversity and to global warming. Restoration could potentially mitigate the impacts of deforestation, yet knowledge on how to efficiently allocate funding for restoration is still in its infancy. We systematically prioritize investments in restoration in the tropical landscape of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and through this application demonstrate the capacity to account for a diverse suite of restoration techniques and forests of varying condition. To achieve this we develop a map of forest degradation for the region, characterized on the basis of aboveground biomass and differentiated by broad forest types. We estimate the costs of restoration as well as the benefits in terms of carbon sequestration and improving the suitability of habitat for threatened mammals through time. When the objective is solely to enhance carbon stocks, then restoration of highly degraded lowland forest is the most cost-effective activity. However, if the objective is to improve the habitat of threatened species, multiple forest types should be restored and this reduces the accumulated carbon by up to 24%. Our analysis framework provides a transparent method for prioritizing where and how restoration should occur in heterogeneous landscapes in order to maximize the benefits for carbon and biodiversity. (letter)

  10. Restoring degraded tropical forests for carbon and biodiversity

    Budiharta, Sugeng; Meijaard, Erik; Erskine, Peter D.; Rondinini, Carlo; Pacifici, Michela; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2014-11-01

    The extensive deforestation and degradation of tropical forests is a significant contributor to the loss of biodiversity and to global warming. Restoration could potentially mitigate the impacts of deforestation, yet knowledge on how to efficiently allocate funding for restoration is still in its infancy. We systematically prioritize investments in restoration in the tropical landscape of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and through this application demonstrate the capacity to account for a diverse suite of restoration techniques and forests of varying condition. To achieve this we develop a map of forest degradation for the region, characterized on the basis of aboveground biomass and differentiated by broad forest types. We estimate the costs of restoration as well as the benefits in terms of carbon sequestration and improving the suitability of habitat for threatened mammals through time. When the objective is solely to enhance carbon stocks, then restoration of highly degraded lowland forest is the most cost-effective activity. However, if the objective is to improve the habitat of threatened species, multiple forest types should be restored and this reduces the accumulated carbon by up to 24%. Our analysis framework provides a transparent method for prioritizing where and how restoration should occur in heterogeneous landscapes in order to maximize the benefits for carbon and biodiversity.

  11. Morphological Modeling of a Low-Dune Barrier Headland System's Response to Hurricane Forcing Before and After a Large Scale Restoration

    Johnson, C.; Chen, Q. J.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal barrier landforms serve as the first line of defense against oceanic and meteorological forcing. Widespread recognition of this function has prompted coastal managers to adopt systematic restoration programs. The state of Louisiana has, in response to its critically eroding shorelines (Byrnes et al., 2017), implemented 30 barrier island and headland restoration projects over the past three decades. The Caminada Headlands Beach and Dune Restoration Project, completed in 2016, restored 22.5 kilometers of Louisiana's coastline by elevating the cross-shore profile and placing approximately 250,000 m3 of sediment within the back- and foreshore. Interventions of this magnitude are significant perturbations to the local sediment budget and geomorphodynamic equilibrium. In Louisiana, an important question is the immediate fate of placed sediment transported during the passage of a hurricane, as the potential to ultimately retain this sediment is influenced by the location of its deposition. The direction of net sediment transport (on- or offshore) depends mainly on the elevation of the storm surge relative to the dune crest, but also on the evolution of the cross-shore water surface gradient and the spatial configuration of biogeophysical properties and hard-structures (Sherwood et al., 2014; Smallegan et al., 2016) . Prior to its restoration, the Caminada headlands were generally of low elevation with the majority of dune crest extending less than 50 cm above MHW and several active breaches. Hurricanes Gustav (2008) and Isaac (2012) made landfall directly on the headlands with inundating storm surges that resulted in observed overwash deposition (Doran et al, 2009; Guy et al, 2013), i.e. landward directed sediment transport and deposition. An open-source process-based morphological model (XBeach) is used to study hurricane induced sediment transport for both pre- and post-restoration of the Caminada headlands. Hindcast pre-restoration simulations of Gustav's and

  12. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    Part I: Dynamic Voltage Restorer In the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of voltage at its source-side terminals is disturbed. In the first part of this thesis, a DVR configuration with no need of bulky dc link capacitor or energy storage is proposed. This fact causes to reduce the size of the DVR and increase the reliability of the circuit. In addition, the proposed DVR topology is based on high-frequency isolation transformer resulting in the size reduction of transformer. The proposed DVR circuit, which is suitable for both low- and medium-voltage applications, is based on dc-ac converters connected in series to split the main dc link between the inputs of dc-ac converters. This feature makes it possible to use modular dc-ac converters and utilize low-voltage components in these converters whenever it is required to use DVR in medium-voltage application. The proposed configuration is tested under different conditions of load power factor and grid voltage harmonic. It has been shown that proposed DVR can compensate the voltage sag effectively and protect the sensitive loads. Following the proposition of the DVR topology, a fundamental voltage amplitude detection method which is applicable in both single/three-phase systems for DVR applications is proposed. The advantages of proposed method include application in distorted power grid with no need of any low-pass filter, precise and reliable detection, simple computation and implementation without using a phased locked loop and lookup table. The proposed method has been verified

  13. Heavy metal and waste metabolite accumulation and their affect on rainbow trout performance in a replicated water reuse system operated at low or high system flushing rates

    A six-month trial was conducted to compare the effects of high and low make-up water flushing rates on rainbow trout performance and water quality in replicated water reuse aquaculture systems (WRAS). Six identical 9.5 m3 WRAS, containing a single 5.3 m3 tank and operated at a total recirculating fl...

  14. Transforming Ecosystems: When, Where, and How to Restore Contaminated Sites

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26033665

  15. A series on optimizing satellite systems. I - Restoring interruptions of communications sattelite service: Logistical and cost comparisons of mature and newly operational systems

    Snow, Marcellus S.

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented of costs and operational factors involved in provision for service interruptions of both a mature and typically large incumbent satellite system and of a smaller, more recently operational system. The equation expresses the required launch frequency for the new system as a function of the launch spacing of the mature system; the time disparity between the inauguration of the two systems; and the rate of capacity depreciation. In addition, a technique is presented to compare the relative extent to which the discounted costs of the new system exceed those of the mature system in furnishing the same effective capacity in orbit, and thus the same service liability, at a given point in time. It is determined that a mature incumbent communications satellite system, having more capacity in orbit, will on balance have a lower probability of service interruption than a newer, smaller system.

  16. Survey and Restoration

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  17. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  18. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced ABA Accumulation in the Root System is Caused by ABA Exudation in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Gaoshan1) and this Enhanced Drought Adaptation.

    Shi, Lu; Guo, Miaomiao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yiji; Cui, Suxia; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Lowland rice (Nipponbare) and upland rice (Gaoshan 1) that are comparable under normal and moderate drought conditions showed dramatic differences in severe drought conditions, both naturally occurring long-term drought and simulated rapid water deficits. We focused on their root response and found that enhanced tolerance of upland rice to severe drought conditions was mainly due to the lower level of ABA in its roots than in those of the lowland rice. We first excluded the effect of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism on root-accumulated ABA levels in both types of rice by monitoring the expression of four OsNCED genes and two OsABA8ox genes. Next, we excluded the impact of the aerial parts on roots by suppressing leaf-biosynthesized ABA with fluridone and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), and measuring the ABA level in detached roots. Instead, we proved that upland rice had the ability to export considerably more root-sourced ABA than lowland rice under severe drought, which improved ABA-dependent drought adaptation. The investigation of apoplastic pH in root cells and root anatomy showed that ABA leakage in the root system of upland rice was related to high apoplastic pH and the absence of Casparian bands in the sclerenchyma layer. Finally, taking some genes as examples, we predicted that different ABA levels in rice roots stimulated distinct ABA perception and signaling cascades, which influenced its response to water stress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Accumulation by Conservation

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  1. Accumulation by Conservation

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  2. Creation / accumulation city

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  3. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. RESTAURACIÓN DE SERVICIO MULTIOBJETIVO EN REDES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN UTILIZANDO NSGA-II MULTIOBJECTIVE SERVICE RESTORATION IN POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS USING NSGA-II

    Jorge Mendoza Baeza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un modelo que permite resolver el problema de la restauración del servicio en las redes eléctricas de distribución de media tensión. El algoritmo fue desarrollado en ambiente MATLAB y es capaz de encontrar aquel conjunto de topologías que minimizan dos objetivos en forma simultánea bajo el concepto de dominancia de Pareto. La búsqueda de estas soluciones eficientes se logra utilizando una técnica evolutiva de optimización multiobjetivo denominada NSGA-II, la cual es combinada con una poderosa estrategia de codificación de individuos y operadores especialmente desarrollados para los problemas de configuración de redes eléctricas. Los principales resultados de este trabajo se centran en la capacidad del algoritmo para encontrar el conjunto de soluciones eficientes y el reducido tiempo de simulación requerido. Esta herramienta permite que los despachadores del sistema puedan tomar rápidas decisiones, incluso bajo condiciones de múltiples fallas en la red.A model to solve the service restoration problem in medium voltage distribution networks is developed in this work. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB and is able to find a set of topologies that minimize two objectives under the concept of Pareto dominance. The search of efficient solutions is attained using the evolutive multiobjective optimization technique called NSGA-II together with a powerful codification strategy and genetic operators specially developed for the configuration of the electric network. The main results of this work focused on the ability of the algorithm to find the set of efficient solutions and reduced simulation time. This tool enables system dispatchers to make quick decisions, even under conditions of multiple failures in the network.

  6. Restoration of liquid effluent from oil palm agroindustry in Malaysia using UV/TiO2 and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems: A comparative study.

    Ng, Kim Hoong; Khan, Maksudur R; Ng, Yun Hau; Hossain, Sk Safdar; Cheng, Chin Kui

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we have employed a photocatalytic method to restore the liquid effluent from a palm oil mill in Malaysia. Specifically, the performance of both TiO 2 and ZnO was compared for the photocatalytic polishing of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The ZnO photocatalyst has irregular shape, bigger in particle size but smaller BET specific surface area (9.71 m 2 /g) compared to the spherical TiO 2 photocatalysts (11.34 m 2 /g). Both scavenging study and post-reaction FTIR analysis suggest that the degradation of organic pollutant in the TiO 2 system has occurred in the bulk solution. In contrast, it is necessary for organic pollutant to adsorb onto the surface of ZnO photocatalyst, before the degradation took place. In addition, the reactivity of both photocatalysts differed in terms of mechanisms, photocatalyst loading and also the density of photocatalysts. From the stability test, TiO 2 was found to offer higher stability, as no significant deterioration in activity was observed after three consecutive cycles. On the other hand, ZnO lost around 30% of its activity after the 1st-cycle of photoreaction. The pH studies showed that acidic environment did not improve the photocatalytic degradation of the POME, whilst in the basic environment, the reaction media became cloudy. In addition, longevity study also showed that the TiO 2 was a better photocatalyst compared to the ZnO (74.12%), with more than 80.0% organic removal after 22 h of UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Classification system on the selection of number of implants and superstructure design on the basis available vertical restorative space and interforaminal distance for implant supported mandibular overdenture

    Akshay Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible is a challenge due to various limiting factors, of which the available vertical restorative space (AVRS has been well understood in the literature. However, other anatomic variations such as arch form, arch size, and also the interforaminal distance (IFD (due to the presence of mandibular nerve are influential in the selection of size and position of implants, and thereby the prosthetic design. Materials and Method: In the present study, 30 edentulous patients from a group of 300 edentulous patients, representing all the three jaw relations (Class I, II, and III were evaluated for designing a classification that could help in a comprehensive treatment plan for the edentulous mandible. Dental panoramic radiographs of each individual with a trial or final prosthesis were made. The horizontal IFD and AVRS values were calculated. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc test (multiple comparison and Bonferroni method having P < 0.05 as significant value showed an overall mean of 38.9 mm for horizontal distance and 13.69 mm for the AVRS in 30 edentulous patients. Conclusion: The results showed that in the majority of cases (90% there is insufficient space to place a bar attachment supported by five implants for mandibular overdentures. This suggests that a universal treatment plan cannot be followed due to varying anatomic factors. Hence, it becomes imperative to have a set of clinical guidelines based on the AVRS and IFD, for the selection of implant number and type of attachment. The article proposes a simple classification system based on the AVRS and IFD for establishing guidelines in the treatment planning of the edentulous mandible, to aid in selection of implant size, number, and position along with the associated prosthetic design.

  8. A large scale evacuation. Tasks of evacuator. Collapse of medical system at the time of areal indication for large scale indoor refuge and problems for restoration

    Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    About the evacuation from disasters of quake/tsunami on Mar. 11, 2011, and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 12-15), described are its social background, influence on the local society, medicare and works of medical staff. The disaster immediately blocked means of communication and transportation in Minamisoma City, and the Japan government indicated the indoor refuge of residents in the zone at 3 km distance from the Plant, then at 20 km on 12th and 30 km on 15th. About 123 thousands residents nearby had to evacuate after all: the largest scale of evacuation by the nuclear accident in Japan. Author's Minamisoma Citizens' Hospital (MCH) was located at 23 km from the Plant. Residents could know about the government indications through various media before their official announcements, and many had begun to evacuate. MCH accepted >100 victims, and measured their contamination as well as the ambient dose, using GM counter from 12th. The highest dose was 16 mc-Sv/h on 20th. Following the hydrogen explosion of no.3 reactor on 14th, residents were bewildered by the indication of indoor refuge, which impacted social activities like stoppage of commerce and brought about residents' mental conflict and solitary. Movement of all 107 hospitalized patients to neighboring facilities in Niigata prefecture started on 18th and actually completed on 20th with help from Self Defense Force. Children, pregnant women and certain patients were prohibited to enter the newly defined emergent evacuation preparation (EEP) zone on Apr. 11, within 30 km afar from the Plant, which inhibited the areal restoration and medicare. At present that 1.5 years have passed since the disaster, the number of medical stuff is quite insufficient near the old EEP zone. There, now 2/3 of population before the disaster are beginning their life, and most are elderly, suggesting the necessity of rearrangement of medical systems which were seemingly once collapsed. (T.T.)

  9. Effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system applied to grey water treatment. kenkiter dot koki roshoho no shori seino ni oyobosu ryuryo hendo oyobi kendaku busshitsu no eikyo

    Okubo, T; Sagehashi, M; Otsuka, N; Okada, M; Murakami, A [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-10

    In this study, effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids (SS) on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system were investigated through the laboratory test using synthetic wastewater and the field test using grey water. Effects of flow variation scarcely appeared on the time change of effluent quality in both cases where daily average hydraulic retention time (HRT) in anaerobic filter was 20h and that of aerobic filter was 6.7h. In the field test, however, removal rate of organic substances was lower (20-30%) than that of the laboratory test (90%), since SS content in grey water accumulated in the anaerobic filter which led dissolution of organic substances from accumulated SS, blocking, and short-circuit flow. Moreover, it was confirmed by the batch test that constituent of grey water has lower resolution for microorganisms and is more difficult to nitrate than synthetic waste water. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Adopting an ecological view of metropolitan landscape: the case of "three circles" system for ecological construction and restoration in Beijing area.

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2004-01-01

    Ecological construction and restoration for sustainable development are now a driving paradigm. It is increasingly recognized that ecological principles, especially landscape ecology theory, are not only necessary but also essential to maintain the long-term sustainability worldwide. Key landscape ecology principles-element, structure and process, dynamics, heterogeneity, hierarchies, connectivity, place and time were reviewed, and use Beijing area as a case study to illustrate how these principles might be applied to ecological construction and restoration, to eventually achieve sustainability. An example to more effectively incorporate the ecological principles in sustainable planning in China was presented.

  11. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  12. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  13. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  14. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  15. Duration on the exposure control, spectra storage and texture goniometer handling in the software complex for the accumulation, control and supervising systems at the NSHR and the SKAT spectrometers (Tofa and Goni tasks)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Korobchenko, M.L.; Sirotin, A.P.; Heinitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    The VME-based accumulation, control and supervising system has been maintained at the NSHR spectrometer since March 1995. Another copy of system has been in use at the newly created SKAT spectrometer since April 1997. This paper is devoted to a detailed description of the user interface for the Join and the Tofa tasks which are dedicated to controlling the duration of the exposure, the spectra storage and handling the texture goniometer at the spectrometers. (author)

  16. Restoration of contaminated soils

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  17. Restoration in South Africa

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  18. River restoration: separating myths from reality

    Friberg, N.; Woodward, G.

    2015-12-01

    River restorations are a social construct where degraded systems are physically modified to obtain a pre-disturbance set of attributes. These can be purely esthetic but are often linked to some kind of biotic recovery or the provision of important ecosystem services such as flood control or self-purification. The social setting of restoration projects, with a range of potential conflicts, significantly reduces scale of most interventions to a size with little room, or wish, for natural processes. We show that projects sizes are still very small and that the restoration target is not to recover natural geomorphic processes but rather to fulfil human perception of what a nice stream looks like. One case from Danish lowland streams, using a space-for-time substitution approach, shows excess use of pebble and gravel when restoring channelized sandy bottom streams, de-coupling the link between energy and substrate characteristics that are found in natural lowland systems. This has implication for both the biological structure and functioning of these systems as a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity was not found in restored streams, while the density of grazer increased indicating an increased use of periphyton as a basal resource. Another case of adding woody debris to UK lowland streams, using a BACI study design, showed very little effect on the macroinvertebrate community even after a 100-year flood, which indicate that added tree trunks did not provide additional flow refugia. We suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers.

  19. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  20. Energy Accumulation by Hydrogen Technologies

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants as a renewable energy source have been receiving rapidly growing attention in the Czech Republic and in the other EU countries. This rapid development of photovoltaic sources is having a negative effect on the electricity power system control, because they depend on the weather conditions and provide a variable and unreliable supply of electric power. One way to reduce this effect is by accumulating electricity in hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to introduce hydrogen as a tool for regulating photovoltaic energy in island mode. A configuration has been designed for connecting households with the photovoltaic hybrid system, and a simulation model has been made in order to check the validity of this system. The simulation results provide energy flows and have been used for optimal sizing of real devices. An appropriate system can deliver energy in a stand-alone installation.

  1. Selenium accumulation by plants

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  2. Accumulation of satellites

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  3. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  4. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept

    Kujawa, K.; Elmitwally, T.A.; Gaillard, A.; Leeuwen, van M.; Zeeman, G.

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20degreesC for a

  5. Productivity and selective accumulation of carotenoids of the novel extremophile microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grown with different carbon sources in batch systems

    Cuaresma, M.; Casal, C.; Forján, E.; Vílchez, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of extremophile microorganisms has attracted interest due to their ability to accumulate highvalue compounds. Chlamydomonas acidophila is an acidophile green microalga isolated by our group from Tinto River, an acidic river that flows down from the mining area in Huelva, Spain. This

  6. Predicting bed shear stress and its role in sediment dynamics and restoration potential of the Everglades and other vegetated flow systems

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson; Crimaldi, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Entrainment of sediment by flowing water affects topography, habitat suitability, and nutrient cycling in vegetated floodplains and wetlands, impacting ecosystem evolution and the success of restoration projects. Nonetheless, restoration managers lack simple decision-support tools for predicting shear stresses and sediment redistribution potential in different vegetation communities. Using a field-validated numerical model, we developed state-space diagrams that provide these predictions over a range of water-surface slopes, depths, and associated velocities in Everglades ridge and slough vegetation communities. Diminished bed shear stresses and a consequent decrease in bed sediment redistribution are hypothesized causes of a recent reduction in the topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of this ecosystem. Results confirmed the inability of present-day flows to entrain bed sediment. Further, our diagrams showed bed shear stresses to be highly sensitive to emergent vegetation density and water-surface slope but less sensitive to water depth and periphyton or floating vegetation abundance. These findings suggested that instituting a pulsing flow regime could be the most effective means to restore sediment redistribution to the Everglades. However, pulsing flows will not be sufficient to erode sediment from sloughs with abundant spikerush, unless spikerush density first decreases by natural or managed processes. Our methods provide a novel tool for identifying restoration parameters and performance measures in many types of vegetated aquatic environments where sediment erosion and deposition are involved.

  7. Developing a unified monitoring and reporting system: a key to successful restoration of mixed-oak forests throughout the central hardwood region

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Thomas M. Schuler; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Many national forests and grasslands in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States recently have undergone Land Management Plan revision, which include management areas that promote restoration through a variety of management activities. Monitoring is a vital component of adaptive management whereby the effects from a variety of treatments (including controls)...

  8. FY 1986 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 2. Development of elementary techniques; 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Yoso gijutsu no kenkyu

    NONE

    1987-04-01

    Summarized in detail herein are R and D results of the chemical heat storage techniques and plant simulation, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For R and D of the chemical heat storage techniques, the R and D efforts are directed to the researches on the fundamental reactions and continuous exothermic reactions involved for the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing the metathesis reactions); researches on the physical properties, heat storage systems, solid-phase reactions, liquid-phase reactors, corrosion of the materials, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing ammonia complex); collection of the data related to media and structural materials, tests of the elementary equipment for the absorption and hydration reactions, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (chemical heat storage utilizing hydration); researches on the media properties and system performance, tests of equipment, and so on for the high temperature heat storage type (heat storage/heating utilizing solvation); researches on the heat storage media, heat storage techniques, corrosion of the materials, systems, and so on for the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing the hydration reactions by mixing solutes); and researches on the media, corrosion and elementary equipment, optimization of the system, and so on for the low temperature heat storage type (clathrate low temperature heat storage systems). (NEDO)

  9. Peatland restoration in Canada by the sphagnum moss layer transfer method

    Rochefort, L.; Boismenu, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie, Peatland Ecology and Research Group; Quinty, F. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    This article described a peatland restoration approach that has received international recognition for restoring the ecological functions of cutover sphagnum dominated peatlands. The Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) conducted a long-term study at the Bois-des-Bel (BDB) peatland site in Quebec to restore plant composition to a peat accumulating ecosystem. The sphagnum moss layer transfer restoration method includes 5 obligatory steps and one optional. These include planning; surface preparation; plant collection and spreading; straw mulch spreading; blocking drainage ditches; and fertilization if needed. Variable moisture conditions throughout the restoration site contribute to the spatial variability in the development of the sphagnum layer. The site has been monitored each year since its restoration. sphagnum cover reached 60 per cent in the restored zone in 2005, a value close to the range of sphagnum cover found in natural sites. In addition, a new moss layer has developed with an average of 25 cm in thickness. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  10. FY 1986 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 1. Development of elementary techniques; 1986 nendo super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Yoso gijutsu no kenkyu

    NONE

    1987-04-01

    Summarized in detail herein are R and D results of the super high performance heat pumps and elementary equipment and working fluids, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For R and D of the super high performance compression heat pumps, the R and D efforts are directed to development of new working fluids, high-performance heat exchangers, closed motors and so on for the highly efficient type (for heating only); to researches on mixed coolants, high-efficiency screw compressors and so on for the highly efficient type (for cooling and heating); to development of tooth shape of the screw compression section, surveys on thermal stability of the working fluids for heating and so on for the high temperature type (utilizing low temperature heat source); and to R and D of the high-speed reciprocating compressors and steam superchargers for the high temperature type (utilizing high temperature heat source). For R and D of the elementary equipment and working fluids, researches are conducted on evaporators for mixed working fluids, condensers utilizing the EHD effect, stainless steel plate fin type heat exchangers, heat exchangers for the chemical heat accumulation unit, and so on. The R and D efforts are also directed to the working fluids (alcohol-based and nonalcohol-based). (NEDO)

  11. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  12. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  13. Assessment of restorative treatment of patients with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Chen, Chiung-Fen; Hu, Jan Ching Chun; Estrella, Maria Regina Padilla; Peters, Mathilde C; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess restorative treatment outcomes in the mixed dentition of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) patients and determine the postrehabilitation oral health status and satisfaction of the patients. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed on eight AI patients, who had 74 restorations placed in permanent incisors and molars, to allow evaluation of the integrity of the restorations and periodontal status post-treatment. Subjects completed a survey regarding esthetics, function, and sensitivity. Among the 74 restorations evaluated, seven were lost; of the remaining restorations, 31 were posterior, and 36 were anterior. Ten were rated clinically unacceptable. Teeth with stainless steel crowns had a moderate gingival index (mean=2.3) and plaque index (mean=2.0) scores. Widening of the periodontal ligament and pulp canal obliteration were common radiographic findings. Subject's recall of satisfaction regarding esthetics (P=.002) and sensitivity (brushing-P=.03; eating-P=.01) showed a statically significant difference before and after treatment. During mixed dentition, teeth with amelogenesis imperfecta may be restored with conventional treatment modalities. Direct restorations should be considered "interim" with multiple repairs anticipated. Post-treatment, gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were observed. Subjects were satisfied with their appearance and reported a decrease of hypersensitivity.

  14. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  16. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    , density of accumulation, and the geometry of the accumulation zone. The density of accumulation and the geometry of the accumulation zone are calculated using a characterization of the fracture system based on field measurements made in the proposed repository (BSC 2001k). The model predicts that accumulation would spread out in a conical accumulation volume. The accumulation volume is represented with layers as shown in Figure 1. This model does not directly feed the assessment of system performance. The output from this model is used by several other models, such as the configuration generator, criticality, and criticality consequence models, prior to the evaluation of system performance

  17. Long-term competence restoration.

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  18. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  19. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  20. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.