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Sample records for restore verapamil-inhibited lung

  1. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xue-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441, and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P Ca3.1 (1-EBIO and KATP (minoxidil channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na, K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO, and KATP (minoxidil channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal.

  2. Restoration of Immune Surveillance in Lung Cancer by Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0400 TITLE: Restoration of Immune Surveillance in Lung Cancer by Natural Killer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR... cancer . However, its mechanism remains obscure, especially related to natural killer (NK) cells . The goal of this application is to uncover how a...explore the viability of targeting miR183 to restore NK cells as a new form of immunotherapy for early stage lung cancer . The specific aims are 1) to

  3. Restoration of normal pH triggers ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung by Na+/H+ exchange activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T M; Khimenko, P L; Taylor, A E

    1995-10-01

    The effects of acidotic extracellular pH and Na+/H+ exchange inhibition on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced microvascular injury were studied in the isolated, buffer-perfused rat lung. When lungs were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) increased significantly, resulting in a change in Kfc (delta Kfc) of 0.360 +/- 0.09 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100 g-1. Addition of hydrochloric acid to the perfusate before ischemia at a concentration sufficient to reduce perfusate pH from 7.38 +/- 0.03 to 7.09 +/- 0.04 completely prevented the increase in Kfc associated with I/R (delta Kfc = 0.014 +/- 0.034 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100 g-1). Addition of a Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, to the perfusate either before ischemia or at reperfusion also prevented the I/R-induced permeability increase (delta Kfc = 0.01 +/- 0.02 and -0.001 +/- 0.02 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100 g-1, respectively). We conclude that restoration of flow at physiological pH to the postischemic lung activates the Na+/H+ exchange system, which may represent the "triggering mechanism" responsible for initiating reperfusion-induced microvascular injury.

  4. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  5. Restoration of Immune Surveillance in Lung Cancer by Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    smoking affect /suppress the immune systems remains open to explore and is still critical for us to understand the mechanism of smoking to contribute to...the mechanisms that govern innate immune escape in lung cancer, including differences in immune function between smokers , e-cigarette users, and non ... smokers and as a function of smoking cessation. Role: Co-PI Kumar (PI) 07/01/2013 – 06/30/2016 Gateway for Cancer

  6. Decreased expression of connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with clinicopathological variables and can be restored by epigenetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Hanna; Gałęcki, Bartłomiej; Jarmołowska-Jurczyszyn, Donata; Kluk, Andrzej; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the development of many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the functional role and regulation of CTGF expression during tumorigenesis remain elusive. Our goal was to determine CTGF transcript and protein levels in tumoral and matched control tissues from 98 NSCLC patients, to correlate the results with clinicopathological features and to investigate whether the CTGF expression can be epigenetically regulated in NSCLC. We used quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate CTGF expression in lung cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues. We tested the impact of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) and trichostatin A (TSA) on CTGF transcript and protein levels in NSCLC cells (A549, Calu-1). DNA methylation status of the CTGF regulatory region was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells viability and proliferation was monitored by the trypan blue assay. We found significantly decreased levels of CTGF mRNA and protein (both p cancerous tissues of NSCLC patients. Down-regulation of CTGF occurred regardless of gender in all histological subtypes of NSCLC. Moreover, we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA were able to restore CTGF mRNA and protein contents in NSCLC cells. However, no methylation within CTGF regulatory region was detected. Both compounds significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation. Decreased expression of CTGF is a common feature in NSCLC; however, it can be restored by the chromatin-modifying agents such as 5-dAzaC or TSA and consequently restrain cancer development.

  7. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  8. Nonantibiotic macrolides restore airway macrophage phagocytic function with potential anti-inflammatory effects in chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Sandra; Tran, Hai B; Hamon, Rhys; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Jersmann, Hubertus; Ween, Miranda; Reynolds, Paul N; Yeung, Arthur; Treiberg, Jennifer; Wilbert, Sibylle

    2017-05-01

    We reported defective efferocytosis associated with cigarette smoking and/or airway inflammation in chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, and childhood bronchiectasis. We also showed defects in phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a common colonizer of the lower airway in these diseases. These defects could be substantially overcome with low-dose azithromycin; however, chronic use may induce bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate two novel macrolides-2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine (GS-459755) and azithromycin-based 2'-desoxy molecule (GS-560660)-with significantly diminished antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumonia , Moraxella catarrhalis , and H. influenzae We tested their effects on efferocytosis, phagocytosis of NTHi, cell viability, receptors involved in recognition of apoptotic cells and/or NTHi (flow cytometry), secreted and cleaved intracellular IL-1β (cytometric bead array, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) using primary alveolar macrophages and THP-1 macrophages ± 10% cigarette smoke extract. Dose-response experiments showed optimal prophagocytic effects of GS-459755 and GS-560660 at concentrations of 0.5-1 µg/ml compared with our findings with azithromycin. Both macrolides significantly improved phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and NTHi (e.g., increases in efferocytosis and phagocytosis of NTHi: GS-459755, 23 and 22.5%, P = 0.043; GS-560660, 23.5 and 22%, P = 0.043, respectively). Macrophage viability remained >85% following 24 h exposure to either macrolide at concentrations up to 20 µg/ml. Secreted and intracellular-cleaved IL-1β was decreased with both macrolides with no significant changes in recognition molecules c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase; scavenger receptor class A, member 1; Toll

  9. Modulating lysosomal function through lysosome membrane permeabilization or autophagy suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin in refractory non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circu, Magdalena; Cardelli, James; Barr, Martin; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Mills, Glenn; El-Osta, Hazem

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Most patients develop resistance to platinum within several months of treatment. We investigated whether triggering lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) or suppressing autophagy can restore cisplatin susceptibility in lung cancer with acquired chemoresistance. Cisplatin IC50 in A549Pt (parental) and A549cisR (cisplatin resistant) cells was 13 μM and 47 μM, respectively. Following cisplatin exposure, A549cisR cells failed to elicit an apoptotic response. This was manifested by diminished Annexin-V staining, caspase 3 and 9, BAX and BAK activation in resistant but not in parental cells. Chloroquine preferentially promoted LMP in A549cisR cells, revealed by leakage of FITC-dextran into the cytosol as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. This was confirmed by increased cytosolic cathepsin D signal on Immunoblot. Cell viability of cisplatin-treated A549cisR cells was decreased when co-treated with chloroquine, corresponding to a combination index below 0.8, suggesting synergism between the two drugs. Notably, chloroquine activated the mitochondrial cell death pathway as indicated by increase in caspase 9 activity. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal proteases using E64 conferred cytoprotection against cisplatin and chloroquine co-treatment, suggesting that chloroquine-induced cell death occurred in a cathepsin-mediated mechanism. Likewise, blockage of caspases partially rescued A549cisR cells against the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and chloroquine combination. Cisplatin promoted a dose-dependent autophagic flux induction preferentially in A549cisR cells, as evidenced by a surge in LC3-II/α-tubulin following pre-treatment with E64 and increase in p62 degradation. Compared to untreated cells, cisplatin induced an increase in cyto-ID-loaded autophagosomes in A549cisR cells that was further amplified by chloroquine, pointing toward autophagic flux activation by cisplatin. Interestingly, this effect

  10. Modulating lysosomal function through lysosome membrane permeabilization or autophagy suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin in refractory non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Circu

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Most patients develop resistance to platinum within several months of treatment. We investigated whether triggering lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP or suppressing autophagy can restore cisplatin susceptibility in lung cancer with acquired chemoresistance. Cisplatin IC50 in A549Pt (parental and A549cisR (cisplatin resistant cells was 13 μM and 47 μM, respectively. Following cisplatin exposure, A549cisR cells failed to elicit an apoptotic response. This was manifested by diminished Annexin-V staining, caspase 3 and 9, BAX and BAK activation in resistant but not in parental cells. Chloroquine preferentially promoted LMP in A549cisR cells, revealed by leakage of FITC-dextran into the cytosol as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. This was confirmed by increased cytosolic cathepsin D signal on Immunoblot. Cell viability of cisplatin-treated A549cisR cells was decreased when co-treated with chloroquine, corresponding to a combination index below 0.8, suggesting synergism between the two drugs. Notably, chloroquine activated the mitochondrial cell death pathway as indicated by increase in caspase 9 activity. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal proteases using E64 conferred cytoprotection against cisplatin and chloroquine co-treatment, suggesting that chloroquine-induced cell death occurred in a cathepsin-mediated mechanism. Likewise, blockage of caspases partially rescued A549cisR cells against the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and chloroquine combination. Cisplatin promoted a dose-dependent autophagic flux induction preferentially in A549cisR cells, as evidenced by a surge in LC3-II/α-tubulin following pre-treatment with E64 and increase in p62 degradation. Compared to untreated cells, cisplatin induced an increase in cyto-ID-loaded autophagosomes in A549cisR cells that was further amplified by chloroquine, pointing toward autophagic flux activation by cisplatin

  11. Exogenous Restoration of TUSC2 Expression Induces Responsiveness to Erlotinib in Wildtype Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR Lung Cancer Cells through Context Specific Pathways Resulting in Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Dai

    Full Text Available Expression of the tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 is reduced or absent in most lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. In this study, we restored TUSC2 gene expression in several wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines resistant to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib and analyzed their sensitivity to erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. A significant inhibition of cell growth and colony formation was observed with TUSC2 transient and stable expression. TUSC2-erlotinib cooperativity in vitro could be reproduced in vivo in subcutaneous tumor growth and lung metastasis formation lung cancer xenograft mouse models. Combination treatment with intravenous TUSC2 nanovesicles and erlotinib synergistically inhibited tumor growth and metastasis, and increased apoptotic activity. High-throughput qRT-PCR array analysis enabling multi-parallel expression profile analysis of eighty six receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinase genes revealed a significant decrease of FGFR2 expression level, suggesting a potential role of FGFR2 in TUSC2-enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib. Western blots showed inhibition of FGFR2 by TUSC2 transient transfection, and marked increase of PARP, an apoptotic marker, cleavage level after TUSC2-erlotinb combined treatment. Suppression of FGFR2 by AZD4547 or gene knockdown enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib in some but not all tested cell lines. TUSC2 inhibits mTOR activation and the latter cell lines were responsive to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin combined with erlotinib. These results suggest that TUSC2 restoration in wild type EGFR NSCLC may overcome erlotinib resistance, and identify FGFR2 and mTOR as critical regulators of this activity in varying cellular contexts. The therapeutic activity of TUSC2 could extend the use of erlotinib to lung cancer patients with wildtype EGFR.

  12. Verapamil inhibits tumor progression of chemotherapy-resistant pancreatic cancer side population cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, LU; ZHAO, YUE; SCHWARZ, BETTINA; MYSLIWIETZ, JOSEF; HARTIG, ROLAND; CAMAJ, PETER; BAO, QI; JAUCH, KARL-WALTER; GUBA, MAKUS; ELLWART, JOACHIM WALTER; NELSON, PETER JON; BRUNS, CHRISTIANE JOSEPHINE

    2016-01-01

    Tumor side population (SP) cells display stem-like properties that can be modulated by treatment with the calcium channel blocker verapamil. Verapamil can enhance the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and multi-drug resistance by targeting the transport function of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study focused on the therapeutic potential of verapamil on stem-like SP tumor cells, and further investigated its chemosensitizing effects using L3.6pl and AsPC-1 pancreatic carcinoma models. As compared to parental L3.6pl cells (0.9±0.22%), L3.6pl gemcitabine-resistant cells (L3.6plGres) showed a significantly higher percentage of SP cells (5.38±0.99%) as detected by Hoechst 33342/FACS assays. The L3.6plGres SP cells showed stable gemcitabine resistance, enhanced colony formation ability and increased tumorigenicity. Verapamil effectively inhibited L3.6plGres and AsPC-1 SP cell proliferation in vitro. A pro-apoptotic effect of verapamil was observed in L3.6pl cells, but not in L3.6plGres cells, which was linked to their differential expression of P-gp and equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT-1). In an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model, both low and high dose verapamil was shown to substantially reduce L3.6plGres-SP cell tumor growth and metastasis, enhance tumor apoptosis, and reduce microvascular density. PMID:27177126

  13. Restoring Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function Reduces Airway Bacteria and Inflammation in People with Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Lung Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisert, Katherine B; Heltshe, Sonya L; Pope, Christopher; Jorth, Peter; Wu, Xia; Edwards, Rachael M; Radey, Matthew; Accurso, Frank J; Wolter, Daniel J; Cooke, Gordon; Adam, Ryan J; Carter, Suzanne; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L; Donnelly, Seamas C; Gallagher, Charles G; Bruce, James E; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J; Hoffman, Lucas R; McKone, Edward F; Singh, Pradeep K

    2017-06-15

    Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis and G551D-CFTR mutations but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once cystic fibrosis lung disease is established. To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with cystic fibrosis and chronic airway infections. We studied 12 subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations and chronic airway infections before and after ivacaftor. We measured lung function, sputum bacterial content, and inflammation, and obtained chest computed tomography scans. Ivacaftor produced rapid decreases in sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density that began within 48 hours and continued in the first year of treatment. However, no subject eradicated their infecting P. aeruginosa strain, and after the first year P. aeruginosa densities rebounded. Sputum total bacterial concentrations also decreased, but less than P. aeruginosa. Sputum inflammatory measures decreased significantly in the first week of treatment and continued to decline over 2 years. Computed tomography scans obtained before and 1 year after ivacaftor treatment revealed that ivacaftor decreased airway mucous plugging. Ivacaftor caused marked reductions in sputum P. aeruginosa density and airway inflammation and produced modest improvements in radiographic lung disease in subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations. However, P. aeruginosa airway infection persisted. Thus, measures that control infection may be required to realize the full benefits of CFTR-targeting treatments.

  14. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  15. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  16. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  17. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  18. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  19. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  20. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  1. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  2. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  3. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  4. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  5. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  6. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  7. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  8. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  9. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  10. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  11. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  12. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  13. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  14. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  15. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  18. Histochemical alterations in one lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kingsley; Gribbin, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Steven; Orndorff, Rebecca; Walker, Jean; Weese, James; Fallahnejad, Manucher

    2007-01-01

    One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. Yorkshire pigs (11-17 kg) were anesthetized, a tracheotomy performed and a tracheal tube inserted. The chest was opened and one lung ventilation (OLV), was induced by clamping of the right main bronchus. OLV was continued for 60 min before the clamp was removed and two lung ventilation (TLV) started. TLV was continued for 30 to 60 min. Blood and lung biopsies were taken immediately before OLV, 30 min and 60 min of OLV and after restoration of TLV. Histological analyses revealed that the non-ventilated lung was totally collapsed during OLV. On reventilation, there was clear evidence of vascular congestion and alveolar wall thickening at 30 min after TLV. At 60 min of TLV, there was still vascular congestion. Serum nitrite levels (as an index of nitric oxide production) showed steady decline over the course of the experimental period, reaching a significantly low level on reventilation (compared with baseline levels before OLV). Lung MPO activity (marker of neutrophil sequestration) and serum TNFalpha levels were not raised during the entire experimental period. These results suggest that there was lung vascular injury after OLV, which was associated with reduced levels of nitric oxide production and not associated with an inflammatory response.

  19. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  20. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  1. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  2. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  3. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  4. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  5. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  7. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  8. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  9. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  10. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  11. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  12. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  13. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  14. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  15. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  16. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  17. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  18. [Lung scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümichen, Carl; Schmidt, Matthias; Krause, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The S1 guideline for lung scintigraphy has been updated and extended in order to emphasize the advantages oft the method in detecting acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the periphery oft the lung (subsegmental PE), in underlying subacute and chronic pulmonary disorders, as well as in detecting chronic LE (CTEPH). Method of choice is ventilation / perfusion (V/P) SPECT or V/P SPECT/CT with even higher specificity. Because of its high sensitivity, a threshold (V/P mismatch in at least one segment or two subsegments) is introduced to avoid overtreatment. In case of a change in the therapeutic approach (observation only instead of anticoaculation) the threshold can be omitted. New data concerning the clinical and therapeutical impact of subsegmental PE are included, the chapters open questions have been extented. Other indications for V/P SPECT (secondary diagnoses, abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion, prediction of postoperative lung function) are presented with new data. Schattauer GmbH.

  19. Lung radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP

  20. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  1. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  2. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  3. Survey and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  4. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  5. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  6. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  7. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  8. The lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macey, D.J.; Marshall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Currently emission tomography of the lungs is only practical for perfusion images with sup(99m)Tc microaggregates and ventilation images with sup(81m)Kr. The following topics are touched on: the rotating gamma camera single photon ECT system, spatial resolution and linearity, resolution in phantom studies, area and volume studies, quantitation studies, with particular reference to the authors' experience of perfusion and ventilation in investigations of pulmonary embolism. (U.K.)

  9. Hyperlucent lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [es

  10. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  11. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  12. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  13. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  14. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  16. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  17. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  18. A Hoseus Banjo Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Intrigued by the sound of another recently restored example, I attempted to bring a sadly abused, bottom-of-the-line, Hoseus-equipped banjo up to playable condition. Reminders, lessons learned, and the joy of (albeit crude) handiwork made it well- worth the purchase price. The actual sound and physics of the Hoseus contraption remain hidden in the complex interaction of the various parts, as demonstrated by the accompanying sound samples.

  19. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  20. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  1. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  2. Respiratory health effects associated with restoration work in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Roy J; Lefante, John J; Freyder, Laurie M; Jones, Robert N

    2012-01-01

    This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by multiple linear regression, χ², or multiple logistic regression. 74% of participants performed post-Katrina restoration work (median time: 620 hours). Symptoms reported include episodes of transient fever/cough (29%), sinus symptoms (48%), pneumonia (3.7%), and new onset asthma (4.5%). Prevalence rate ratios for post-Katrina sinus symptoms (PRR = 1.3; CI: 1.1, 1.7) and fever and cough (PRR = 1.7; CI: 1.3, 2.4) were significantly elevated overall for those who did restoration work and prevalence increased with restoration work hours. Prevalence rate ratios with restoration work were also elevated for new onset asthma (PRR = 2.2; CI: 0.8, 6.2) and pneumonia (PRR = 1.3; CI: 0.5, 3.2) but were not statistically significant. Overall, lung function was slightly depressed but was not significantly different between those with and without restoration work exposure. Post-Katrina restoration work is associated with moderate adverse effects on respiratory health, including sinusitis and toxic pneumonitis.

  3. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  4. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  6. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  7. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  8. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  9. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  11. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  12. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  13. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  14. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  15. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  16. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  17. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  18. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  19. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  20. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  1. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  2. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  5. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  6. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  7. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  8. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  9. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  10. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  11. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  12. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  13. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rule out conditions such as asthma , cystic fibrosis , acid reflux, heart disease, neuromuscular disease, and immune deficiency. Various ... a lung infection. Acid-blocking medicines can prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A ...

  14. Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... propranolol (Inderal, Innopran), may harm lung tissue. Some antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) and ethambutol (Myambutol) can cause lung damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs, such as rituximab ( ...

  15. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  16. Provisional Restorations – A Permanent Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William F; Keirby, Naomi; Ricketts, David N J

    2016-12-01

    Provisional restorations play an important role when providing indirect restorations. There are a number of materials and techniques available for their construction. Careful planning and construction can protect the prepared tooth surface, improve the periodontal condition and help plan for the definitive restoration. A good provisional restoration can save time, money and effort. Clinical relevance: Provisional restoration construction is an integral part of the indirect restorative process for inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges.

  17. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  18. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  19. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  20. Lung scintigraphy; Centellograma pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenz, Roberto

    1994-12-31

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies.

  1. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  2. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  3. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  5. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  8. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  9. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  10. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  11. Clonidine reduces norepinephrine and improves bone marrow function in a rodent model of lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Ines G; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Ramos, Harry; Loftus, Tyler J; Efron, Philip A; Mohr, Alicia M

    2017-03-01

    Propranolol has been shown previously to restore bone marrow function and improve anemia after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that daily clonidine administration would inhibit central sympathetic outflow and restore bone marrow function in our rodent model of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 6 days of restraint stress after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock during which the animals received clonidine (75 μg/kg) after the restraint stress. On postinjury day 7, we assessed urine norepinephrine, blood hemoglobin, plasma granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and peripheral blood mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, as well as bone marrow cellularity and erythroid progenitor cell growth. The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress significantly decreased urine norepinephrine levels, improved bone marrow cellularity, restored erythroid progenitor colony growth, and improved hemoglobin (14.1 ± 0.6 vs 10.8 ± 0.6 g/dL). The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress significantly decreased hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilization and restored granulocyte colony stimulating factor levels. After lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress, daily administration of clonidine restored bone marrow function and improved anemia. Alleviating chronic stress and decreasing norepinephrine is a key therapeutic target to improve bone marrow function after severe injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  13. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  14. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  15. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  16. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  17. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  18. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  19. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  20. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  1. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  2. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  3. Restorative Glass : Reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Barou, L.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Nijsse, R.; Veer, F.A.; Henk, Schellen; van Schijndel, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and

  4. Optical properties of composite restorations influenced by dissimilar dentin restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Veljovic, Djordje N; Stasic, Jovana N; Savic-Stankovic, Tatjana; Trifkovic, Branka; Miletic, Vesna

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate optical properties (color and translucency) of 'sandwich' restorations of resin-based composites and esthetically unfavorable dentin restoratives. Cylindrical 'dentin' specimens (8mm in diameter and 2mm thick, N=5/group) were prepared using EverX Posterior (GC), Biodentine (Septodont), experimental hydroxyapatite (HAP) or conventional composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, GC; Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z500, 3M ESPE). Capping 'enamel' layers were prepared using composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, Filtek Z250 or Z550) of A1 or A3 shade and the following thickness: 0.6, 1 or 2mm. Color (ΔE) and translucency parameter (TP) were determined using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA Zahnfabrik). Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). TP was greatly affected by layer thickness, whilst ΔE depended on shade and layer thickness of the capping composite. HAP and Biodentine showed significantly lower TP and higher ΔE (deviation from 'ideal white') than composites (p<0.05). Greater TP was seen in EverX_composite groups than in corresponding control groups of the same shade and thickness. TP of composites combined with Biodentine or HAP was below 2, lower than the corresponding control groups (p<0.05). Within-group differences of ΔE were greatest in HAP_composite groups. EverX_Gradia and EverX_FiltekZ250 combinations showed the most comparable ΔE with the control groups. A 2mm thick layer of composite covering dentin restoratives with unfavorable esthetics is recommended for a final 'sandwich' restoration that is esthetically comparable to a conventional, mono-composite control restoration. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  7. Restoration of severely weathered wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Mark. Knaebe

    2000-01-01

    Severely weathered window units were used to test various restoration methods and pretreatments. Sanded and unsanded units were pretreated with a consolidant or water repellent preservative, finished with an oil- or latex-based paint system, and exposed outdoors near Madison, WI, for five years. Pretreatments were applied to both window sashes (stiles and rails) and...

  8. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  9. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  10. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc....

  11. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  12. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  13. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  14. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  15. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  16. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  17. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  18. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  19. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  20. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  1. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  2. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  3. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  4. Restorative glass: reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidra Oikonomopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and aesthetical integrity. Concurrently, the material’s unique mechanical properties enable the structural consolidation of the monument. As a proof of concept, the restoration of Lichtenberg Castle is proposed. Solid cast glass units are suggested to complete the missing parts, in respect to the existing construction technique and aesthetics of the original masonry. Aiming for a reversible system, the glass units are interlocking, ensuring the overall stability without necessitating permanent, adhesive connections. This results in an elegant and reversible intervention.

  5. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Lee, Seung-Hae; Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon; Song, Keung-Sub; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  6. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  7. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  8. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  9. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Hui-Hua; Ra, Hyun-Jeong; Majumdar, Sonali; Gulick, Dexter L.; Jerome, Jacob A.; Madsen, Daniel H.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Speicher, David W.; Bachovchin, William W.; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Puré, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a disease characterized by progressive, unrelenting lung scarring, with death from respiratory failure within 2–4 years unless lung transplantation is performed. New effective therapies are clearly needed. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a cell surface-associated serine protease up-regulated in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in wound healing and cancer. We postulate that FAP is not only a marker of disease but influences the development of pulmonary fibrosis after lung injury. In two different models of pulmonary fibrosis, intratracheal bleomycin instillation and thoracic irradiation, we find increased mortality and increased lung fibrosis in FAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Lung extracellular matrix analysis reveals accumulation of intermediate-sized collagen fragments in FAP-deficient mouse lungs, consistent with in vitro studies showing that FAP mediates ordered proteolytic processing of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived collagen cleavage products. FAP-mediated collagen processing leads to increased collagen internalization without altering expression of the endocytic collagen receptor, Endo180. Pharmacologic FAP inhibition decreases collagen internalization as expected. Conversely, restoration of FAP expression in the lungs of FAP-deficient mice decreases lung hydroxyproline content after intratracheal bleomycin to levels comparable with that of wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that FAP participates directly, in concert with MMPs, in collagen catabolism and clearance and is an important factor in resolving scar after injury and restoring lung homeostasis. Our study identifies FAP as a novel endogenous regulator of fibrosis and is the first to show FAP's protective effects in the lung. PMID:26663085

  10. Wetland restoration: a survey of options for restoring peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lode, Elve

    1999-01-01

    In spite of increased attention to wetland conservation following the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, the peat-harvesting industry in many countries is still interested in the further exploitation of peatlands. In some of the most industrialised countries, all natural peatlands have already been lost. In others, only small areas of native peatland remain. Among other possible uses for cut-over peatlands, peatland restoration is one: there is an urgent need for the development of measures for regenerating peat-accumulation processes. The redevelopment of a fen or bog peat landscape is a long-term process, which will probably take centuries. The restoration of any peatland may therefore be considered successful if the outcome is the development and growth of plant communities able to produce peat. The renewal of the hydrological regime of such areas is a major factor which determines the re-colonisation of cut-over peat fields by peat-forming plants. The aim of this paper is to give a brief survey of wetlands, and especially of peatland restoration options, for use in terminated peat-cuttings. It aims to show how peatland management may be made sustainable by means of existing and tried methods and principles, with the goal of returning cut-over peat fields to their former peat-accumulating state. A glossary of peat and peatland terminology is included 105 refs, 5 figs

  11. Incidental Transient Cortical Blindness after Lung Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Murat; Sunam, Guven Sadi; Varoglu, Asuman Orhan; Karabagli, Hakan; Yildiran, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Transient vision loss after major surgical procedures is a rare clinical complication. The most common etiologies are cardiac, spinal, head, and neck surgeries. There has been no report on vision loss after lung resection. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with lung cancer. Resection was performed using right upper lobectomy with no complications. Cortical blindness developed 12 hours later in the postoperative period. Results from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted investigations were normal. The neurologic examination was normal. The blood glucose level was 92 mg/dL and blood gas analysis showed a PO 2 of 82 mm Hg. After 24 hours, the patient began to see and could count fingers, and his vision was fully restored within 72 hours after this point. Autonomic dysfunction due to impaired microvascular structures in diabetes mellitus may induce posterior circulation dysfunction, even when the hemodynamic state is normal in the perioperative period. The physician must keep in mind that vision loss may occur after lung resection due to autonomic dysfunction, especially in older patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28824977

  12. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  13. Reversible ventilation and perfusion abnormalities in unilateral obstructed lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.E.; Jones, R.L.; King, E.G.; Sproule, B.J.; Fortune, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    An intraluminal carcinoid tumor obstructing the left mainstem bronchus produced hypoxemia through alteration in ventilation/perfusion matching. Studies of regional lung function using 133-xenon (/sup 133/Xe) and a multiprobe computerized instrumentation system documented a reduction of perfusion to 22 percent and ventilation to 6 percent of the total. There was negligible washout of intravenously injected /sup 133/Xe from the left lung consistent with air trapping. Four days after left mainstem bronchial sleeve resection, perfusion, ventilation and washout of injected xenon had significantly improved and by four months postresection, all measurements were virtually normal, although complete restoration of perfusion in relation to ventilation was delayed. Regional lung function studied with a multiprobe system in this patient provided a clinical model for the study of ventilation and perfusion inter-relationships in large airway obstruction and demonstrated that a prolonged time may be required for return of perfusion to normal

  14. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  15. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  16. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  17. Restoration of a fractured central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    The treatment of a traumatically damaged single central incisor poses significant challenges relative to function and esthetics to the restoring clinician. Providing a good long-term prognosis is paramount when determining whether to maintain or extract a structurally compromised tooth. Successful restoration demands timely and thorough risk assessment along with excellent communication with both the patient and the laboratory fabricating the restoration.

  18. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  19. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  20. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  1. Image restoration and processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    This review will stress the importance of using image restoration techniques that deal with incomplete, inconsistent, and noisy data and do not introduce spurious features into the processed image. No single image is equally suitable for both the resolution of detail and the accurate measurement of intensities. A good general purpose technique is the maximum entropy method and the basis and use of this will be explained. (orig.)

  2. Autonomous algorithms for image restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Griniasty , Meir

    1994-01-01

    We describe a general theoretical framework for algorithms that adaptively tune all their parameters during the restoration of a noisy image. The adaptation procedure is based on a mean field approach which is known as ``Deterministic Annealing'', and is reminiscent of the ``Deterministic Bolzmann Machiné'. The algorithm is less time consuming in comparison with its simulated annealing alternative. We apply the theory to several architectures and compare their performances.

  3. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the re...

  4. Environmental Restoration 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosper, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    During 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Savannah River Site achieved all of the ''Breakthrough Goals'' that were established with the regulatory agencies in 1995 to advance their cleanup efforts. Effective focus on field remediation was demonstrated by the allocation of 75% of program funding to remediation activities. The Remediation Phase is complete or has begun on sixty-nine waste sites that represent approximately 80% of the known environmental and health risk. The average time required for the assessment phase of active projects was reduced by 50%, from 49 to less than 24 months, which allows cleanup actions to start twice as fast as before. Breakthrough performance has tangible results. During 1997, all of the funding allocation was used effectively to accomplish environmental restoration scope worth over $123 million. That represents a validated cost efficiency of over 20% for the third straight year. Over half of the 500 contaminated acres at SRS have been cleaned up or are currently in the remediation phase. Almost 3 billion gallons of groundwater have been restored by removing over half a million pounds of organic solvents

  5. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  6. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  7. Drug induced lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith

    2010-01-01

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  9. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  10. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  11. Power system restoration: planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering Coll., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Assam (India); Sinha, A.K. [Inidan Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a restoration guidance simulator, which allows power system operator/planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. It also provides in an interactive mode the list of events, which becomes possible as the system grows during restoration. Further, the selected event is validated through a load flow and other analytical tools to show the consequences of implementing the planned event. (Author)

  12. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Hui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    , intratracheal bleomycin instillation and thoracic irradiation, we find increased mortality and increased lung fibrosis in FAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Lung extracellular matrix analysis reveals accumulation of intermediate-sized collagen fragments in FAP-deficient mouse lungs, consistent...... within vitrostudies showing that FAP mediates ordered proteolytic processing of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived collagen cleavage products. FAP-mediated collagen processing leads to increased collagen internalization without altering expression of the endocytic collagen receptor, Endo180....... Pharmacologic FAP inhibition decreases collagen internalization as expected. Conversely, restoration of FAP expression in the lungs of FAP-deficient mice decreases lung hydroxyproline content after intratracheal bleomycin to levels comparable with that of wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that FAP...

  13. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  14. The science and practice of river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  15. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  16. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  17. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  18. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  19. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  20. Lungs in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be done in the hospital under general anesthesia. In general, lung biopsy is not required to ... be helpful for some LAM patients who have asthma like symptoms of wheezing and intermittent shortness of ...

  1. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  2. PEComa of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabhaskar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa, also called clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of the lung, is a rare benign tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with right lower lobe lesion which turned out to be a clear cell tumor of the lung. An [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG - positron emission tomography (PET scan revealed mild FDG uptake in the lung lesion (SUV< 1 with no active uptake elsewhere in the body. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical features of clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of lung and compare them with published literature.

  3. Arterioscanning of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is lung microcirculation by means of introducting radioactive albumin (MAA 131 I introduction through a catheter) in bronchial vessels. Arterioscanning technique and its peculiarities are described in detail. It is established that results of arterioscanning must be estimated taking into account the nature of MAA 131 I distribution and fixation, counting rate and duration of radioactive registration in the range of pathologic neoplasms. It is shown that arterioscanning permits to reveal the 20-80 μm diameter vessels . This method can be one of the most important ones in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The data on the diagnostic effectiveness of lung bronchial arteriography and arterioscanning in the cases of chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and some benigh lung tumours and neoplasms are also presented

  4. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  5. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  6. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  7. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  8. Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Rezaei, Ramazan; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shariati, Parvin; Kheradmand, Farrah; Salimian, Jafar

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4 + T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases inclusive of all literature prior to and including May 2017. Expert commentary: Here we review some of the recent findings that suggest a role for Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory changes associated with pulmonary complications in SM-lung and suggest new therapeutic approaches that could potentially alter disease progression with immune modulating biologics that can restore the lung Th17/Treg balance.

  9. Long-term evaluation of extensive restorations in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuysen, J.-P. van; D'hoore, W.D.; Carvalho, J.

    2003-01-01

    Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry......Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry...

  10. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  11. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  12. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  13. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Process to identify and evaluate restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Senner, S.; Weiner, A.; Rabinowitch, S.; Brodersen, M.; Rice, K.; Klinge, K.; MacMullin, S.; Yender, R.; Thompson, R.

    1993-01-01

    The restoration planning process has yielded a number of possible alternatives for restoring resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. They were developed by resource managers, scientists, and the public, taking into consideration the results of damage assessment and restoration studies and information from the scientific literature. The alternatives thus far identified include no action natural recovery, management of human uses, manipulation of resources, habitat protection and acquisition, acquisition of equivalent resources, and combinations of the above. Each alternative consists of a different mix of resource- or service-specific restoration options. To decide whether it was appropriate to spend restoration funds on a particular resource or service, first criteria had to be developed that evaluated available evidence for consequential injury and the adequacy and rate of natural recovery. Then, recognizing the range of effective restoration options, a second set of criteria was applied to determine which restoration options were the most beneficial. These criteria included technical feasibility, potential to improve the rate or degree of recovery, the relationship of expected costs to benefits, cost effectiveness, and the potential to restore the ecosystem as a whole. The restoration options considered to be most beneficial will be grouped together in several or more of the above alternatives and presented in a draft restoration plan. They will be further evaluated in a companion draft environmental impact statement

  15. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  16. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  17. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  18. Lung Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD. Among adverse effects on lung development are transgenerational (grandmaternal smoking), antenatal (exposure to tobacco and pollution), and early childhood (exposure to tobacco and pollution including pesticides) factors. Antenatal adverse events can operate by causing structural changes in the developing lung, causing low birth weight and prematurity and altered immunological responses. Also important are mode of delivery, early microbiological exposures, and multiple early atopic sensitizations. Early bronchial hyperresponsiveness, before any evidence of airway inflammation, is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Overlapping cohort studies established that spirometry tracks from the preschool years to late middle age, and those with COPD in the sixth decade already had the worst spirometry at age 10 years. Alveolar development is now believed to continue throughout somatic growth and is adversely impacted by early tobacco smoke exposure. Genetic factors are also important, with genes important in lung development and early wheezing also being implicated in COPD. The inescapable conclusion is that the roots of COPD are in early life, and COPD is a disease of childhood adverse factors interacting with genetic factors.

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  20. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  1. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  2. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  4. Restoration of variable density film soundtracks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassaïne , Abdelâali; Decencière , Etienne; Besserer , Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Full text available at http://www.eurasip.org/Proceedings/Eusipco/Eusipco2009/contents/papers/1569192297.pdf; International audience; The restoration of motion picture films has been an active research field for many years. The restoration of the soundtrack however has mainly been performed at the audio domain in spite of the fast that it is recorded as a continuous image on the film stock. In this paper, we propose a new restoration method for variable density soundtracks. The method first d...

  5. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  6. Conservation and restoration of ornamental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rallo Gruss

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention on a building as complex and rich in ornamentation as the Palacio del Marqués de Dos Aguas requires special attention as regards the restoration of all the singular elements, both inside and outside, and the different finishes and furnishings. Within this methodology of integral restoration, it is worth pointing out especially the consolidation and cleaning of the emblematic alabaster portal, the restoration of the paintings and the treatment of the different collections of tiles.

  7. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  8. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  9. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  11. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  12. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  13. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  14. Advances in lung ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco Neto, Miguel Jose; Rahal Junior, Antonio; Vieira, Fabio Augusto Cardillo; Silva, Paulo Savoia Dias da; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established. Some scanning protocols have been used in patient management. The Blue, FALLS and C.A.U.S.E. protocols are examples of algorithms using artifact combinations to achieve accurate diagnoses. Combined chest ultrasonography and radiography are often sufficient to diagnose and manage lung and chest wall conditions. Chest ultrasonography is a highly valuable diagnostic tool for radiologists, emergency and intensive care physicians. (author)

  15. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  16. Occupational lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  17. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  18. Forward-looking farmers owning multiple potential wetland restoration sites: implications for efficient restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder (Kushch), Svetlana; Lang, Zhengxin; Rabotyagov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Wetland restoration can increase the provision of multiple non-market ecosystem services. Environmental and socio-economic factors need to be accounted for when land is withdrawn from agriculture and wetlands are restored. We build multi-objective optimization models to provide decision support for wetland restoration in the Le Sueur river watershed in Southern Minnesota. We integrate environmental objectives of sediment reduction and habitat protection with socio-economic factors associated with the overlap of private land with potential wetland restoration sites in the watershed and the costs representing forward-looking farmers voluntarily taking land out of agricultural production in favor of wetland restoration. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of these factors early on in the restoration planning process affects both the total costs of the restoration project and the spatial distribution of optimally selected wetland restoration sites.

  19. [Management of Lung Abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Ukena, D

    2015-10-01

    A lung abscess is an infectious pulmonary disease characterised by the presence of a pus-filled cavity within the lung parenchyma. The content of an abscess often drains into the airways spontaneously, leading to an air-fluid level visible on chest X-rays and CT scans. Primary lung abscesses occur in patients who are prone to aspiration or in otherwise healthy individuals; secondary lung abscesses typically develop in association with a stenosing lung neoplasm or a systemic disease that compromises immune defences, such as AIDS, or after organ transplantation. The organisms found in abscesses caused by aspiration pneumonia reflect the resident flora of the oropharynx. The most commonly isolated organisms are anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus) or streptococci; in alcoholics with poor oral hygiene, the spectrum of pathogens includes Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Actinomyces. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are mandatory procedures in the diagnostic algorithm. Standard treatment for a lung abscess consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, which is based on the anticipated or proven bacterial spectrum of the abscess. In most cases, primary abscesses are successfully treated by calculated empiric antibiotic therapy, with an estimated lethality rate of less than 10 %. Secondary abscesses, despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, are associated with a poor prognosis, which depends on the patient's general condition and underlying disease; lethality is as high as 75 %. Negative prognostic factors are old age, severe comorbidities, immunosuppression, bronchial obstruction, and neoplasms. Surgical intervention due to failure of conservative treatment is required in only 10 % of patients, with a success rate of up to 90 % and postoperative mortality rates ranging between 0 and 33 %. Treatment success after endoscopic or percutaneous drainage is achieved in 73 to 100 % of cases, with an

  20. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  1. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  2. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  3. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  4. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  5. Lung radiopharmaceuticals; Radioformacos pulmonares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, B M [Instituto Nacional de Pediatroa (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP.

  6. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anterior provisional restorations used to determine form, function, and esthetics for complex restorative situations, using all-ceramic restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshad, Mamaly; Cascione, Domenico; Kim, Tae

    2010-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the restoration of a large and visible maxillary anterior defect. The importance of proper diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication is emphasized. Irreversible treatment should only be rendered once patient approval has been obtained through objective evaluation with provisional restorations. The techniques presented in this article use a combination of ceramic systems currently available to satisfy functional demands while achieving acceptable esthetics. A controlled series of steps, where the provisional restorative components are being replaced by the definitive ones is planned. The only difference between the provisional and definitive restorative components is the material used. The definitive restorations consisted of an implant-supported zirconium oxide framework. Individual pressed porcelain restorations were luted to the framework and a natural tooth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Provisional restorations allow an objective form of communication. Vertical and horizontal transitional lines can be effectively masked with appropriate treatment planning and a skilled ceramist. Many traditional dental laboratory steps may be eliminated or simplified without compromising the definitive restorations.

  8. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  9. BAYESIAN IMAGE RESTORATION, USING CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordis Linda Thorarinsdottir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed in detail for 3 X 3 and 5 X 5 configurations and examples of the performance of the procedure are given.

  10. Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of tables and listings from the results of the Phase I data gathering activities of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The table of contents outlines the presentation of the material and has been annotated to indicate the key fields used to order the printing of each data table. Definitions of selected column headings are provided. Sample collection information is shown first and then more specific information for each matrix type is presented. The analytical results have been reviewed by independent validators and the qualifiers shown are the results of their efforts. No data that were rejected by the validation process are included in this listing. Only results of routine samples are listed; quality control sample results were excluded. All data, both detected and nondetected values, were used to calculated the summary table values. However, only Detected values are given on the analyte specific listings

  11. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... resources, aquatic-life forms, and sport fishing; and (e) develop responsible attitudes and ethics toward..., Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... governing the Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter...

  13. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  14. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53... justify restoration, trustees may proceed with the Restoration Planning Phase. Otherwise, trustees may not... discount all service quantities and/or values to the date the demand is presented to the responsible...

  15. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  16. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  17. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  18. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  19. Psychological Restoration Practices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Yara; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the restoration practices and the different types of environments sought out by college students during times of stress and also explores the potential for restorative experiences in built environments. In February 2015, 407 matriculated undergraduates at a large public research university voluntarily participated in this…

  20. Restoring Nature: Human Actions, Interactions and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    Regardless of one's viewpoint, the conflict that erupted in the spring of 1996 and became known as the Chicago restoration controversy has left an indelible mark on the region's environmental community and has forever changed the way those involved will think about restoration. Its implications extend far beyond Chicago; since its inception, the controversy...

  1. Plant succession and approaches to community restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy

    2005-01-01

    The processes of vegetation change over time, or plant succession, are also the processes involved in plant community restoration. Restoration efforts attempt to use designed disturbance, seedbed preparation and sowing methods, and selection of adapted and compatible native plant materials to enhance ecological function. The large scale of wildfires and weed invasion...

  2. The restoration lines; Les chaines de restauration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference allowed the restoration sector to discover the advantages of the gas energy for cooking: a cheaper cost, a adequate technology for a maximum of efficiency and safety. Gaz De France presents a great interest in this restoration sector and will continue to invest on this market in the future. (A.L.B.)

  3. Transformational restoration: novel ecosystems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Khosro Sagheb-Talebi; Ole K. Hansen

    2018-01-01

    Restoring the estimated 1 billion hectares of degraded forests must consider future climate accompanied by novel ecosystems. Transformational restoration can play a key role in adaptation to climate change but it is conceptually the most divergent from contemporary approaches favoring native species and natural disturbance regimes. Here...

  4. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  5. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  6. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  7. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event of a natural resource emergency, the natural resource trustee shall contact the National Response... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11...

  8. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  9. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  10. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  11. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  12. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  13. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  14. What Are the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ... buildup in the lung tissues. These sensors are thought to trigger rapid, shallow breathing. Sensors in your ... is a complex process. If injury, disease, or other factors affect any ...

  15. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  16. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...

  17. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  18. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  19. Restoration and repair of Earth's damaged ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Jones, Peter C; Barbier, Edward B; Blackburn, Ryan C; Rey Benayas, Jose M; Holl, Karen D; McCrackin, Michelle; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Mateos, David Moreno

    2018-02-28

    Given that few ecosystems on the Earth have been unaffected by humans, restoring them holds great promise for stemming the biodiversity crisis and ensuring ecosystem services are provided to humanity. Nonetheless, few studies have documented the recovery of ecosystems globally or the rates at which ecosystems recover. Even fewer have addressed the added benefit of actively restoring ecosystems versus allowing them to recover without human intervention following the cessation of a disturbance. Our meta-analysis of 400 studies worldwide that document recovery from large-scale disturbances, such as oil spills, agriculture and logging, suggests that though ecosystems are progressing towards recovery following disturbances, they rarely recover completely. This result reinforces conservation of intact ecosystems as a key strategy for protecting biodiversity. Recovery rates slowed down with time since the disturbance ended, suggesting that the final stages of recovery are the most challenging to achieve. Active restoration did not result in faster or more complete recovery than simply ending the disturbances ecosystems face. Our results on the added benefit of restoration must be interpreted cautiously, because few studies directly compared different restoration actions in the same location after the same disturbance. The lack of consistent value added of active restoration following disturbance suggests that passive recovery should be considered as a first option; if recovery is slow, then active restoration actions should be better tailored to overcome specific obstacles to recovery and achieve restoration goals. We call for a more strategic investment of limited restoration resources into innovative collaborative efforts between scientists, local communities and practitioners to develop restoration techniques that are ecologically, economically and socially viable. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Different Adhesive Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sarabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a topic that has been studied extensively but it is still a challenge for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance, fracture patterns and fracture location of endodontically treated human maxillary premolars restored with direct and indirect composite resin and ceramic restoration. Methods: Eighty non-carious maxillary premolars were selected and divided into four groups (n=20. Endodontic treatment and mesio-occluso-distal preparations were carried out in all the groups except for the control group (group I. Subsequently, the prepared teeth were restored as follows: group II: indirect composite restoration; group III: ceramic restoration; group IV: direct composite restoration. The specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture occurred. The mode of failure was also recorded. Results: Group I had higher fracture resistance (1196.82±241.74 than the other groups (P

  1. Statistical lung model for microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hadley, R.T.

    1984-03-01

    To calculate the microdosimetry of plutonium in the lung, a mathematical description is needed of lung tissue microstructure that defines source-site parameters. Beagle lungs were expanded using a glutaraldehyde fixative at 30 cm water pressure. Tissue specimens, five microns thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin then studied using an image analyzer. Measurements were made along horizontal lines through the magnified tissue image. The distribution of air space and tissue chord lengths and locations of epithelial cell nuclei were recorded from about 10,000 line scans. The distribution parameters constituted a model of lung microstructure for predicting the paths of random alpha particle tracks in the lung and the probability of traversing biologically sensitive sites. This lung model may be used in conjunction with established deposition and retention models for determining the microdosimetry in the pulmonary lung for a wide variety of inhaled radioactive materials

  2. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  3. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  4. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  5. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  6. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  7. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environnmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    In the first Five-Year Plan, written in 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) committed to rapidly bringing all operating facilities into compliance with applicable laws and regulations and to cleaning up the 1989 inventory of contaminated inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. This FY 1993--1997 Five-Year Plan moves the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) one step closer to this 30-year goal. The overall EM strategy has three thrusts. First, where risk assessment shows an actual or potential threat to human health and safety -- do immediately whatever is possible to reduce, mitigate, stabilize, and confine the threat. Second, where nobody knows how to solve a problem (as distinct from merely preventing it from getting worse) -- act decisively to develop methods to do it right the first time. Third, where compliance and cleanup must proceed with or without next-generation technologies -- plan, with affected parties and within the provisions of Interagency Agreements, the work to be accomplished and its schedule. This third Five-Year Plan discusses current EM program accomplishments, what the program intends to achieve over the next 5 years, and where it needs to be heading in order to meet its 30-year and other environmental goals

  9. Environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this Five-Year Plan is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. DOE is committed to an open and participatory process for developing a national priority system for expenditure of funds. This system will be based on scientific principles and risk reduction in terms that are understandable to the public. The Plan will be revised annually, with a five-year planning horizon. For FY 1991--1995, this Plan encompasses total program activities and costs for DOE Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, Waste Management Operations, and Applied R ampersand D. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes. The Plan does not include the Safety and Health Program (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health) or programs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. It does include the annual Defense Programs contribution to the Nuclear Waste Fund for disposal of defense high-level waste and research toward characterizing the defense waste form for repository disposal

  10. Targeting Interleukin-13 with Tralokinumab Attenuates Lung Fibrosis and Epithelial Damage in a Humanized SCID Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huilan; Oak, Sameer R.; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Herath, Athula; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Lee, Joyce; Bell, Matt; Knight, Darryl A.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Herzog, Erica L.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2014-01-01

    The aberrant fibrotic and repair responses in the lung are major hallmarks of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Numerous antifibrotic strategies have been used in the clinic with limited success, raising the possibility that an effective therapeutic strategy in this disease must inhibit fibrosis and promote appropriate lung repair mechanisms. IL-13 represents an attractive target in IPF, but its disease association and mechanism of action remains unknown. In the present study, an overexpression of IL-13 and IL-13 pathway markers was associated with IPF, particularly a rapidly progressive form of this disease. Targeting IL-13 in a humanized experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis using tralokinumab (CAT354) was found to therapeutically block aberrant lung remodeling in this model. However, targeting IL-13 was also found to promote lung repair and to restore epithelial integrity. Thus, targeting IL-13 inhibits fibrotic processes and enhances repair processes in the lung. PMID:24325475

  11. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  12. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restore complete fertility of a certain CMS line by various restorer lines (Tan et ... Keywords. rice; heterosis; three-way test cross; fertility restoration genetics. Journal of ..... plants indicating a strong genetic load of maintenance in. DE2. Table 8.

  13. Atraumatic restorative treatment in atypical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Simino Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The atraumatic restorative treatment has been widely divulged among professionals in the area of Pediatric Dentistry. This restorative technique is included in the philosophy of Minimal Intervention and is considered one of the most conservative treatments, because only the layer of infected dentin caries is removed. Moreover, the atraumatic restorative treatment has been shown to be less painful than conventional approaches, and local anesthesia is rarely required. After the removal of the infected dentin, the cavities are filled with glass ionomer cement, a material that has antimicrobial capacity, good marginal sealing and constant fluorine release and recharge. In spite of the increasing number of studies about atraumatic restorative treatment, only studies related to restorations in occlusal cavities have shown scientific evidences about the technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of atraumatic restorative treatment in cavities with 3 or more surfaces involved, by means of a clinical case report of a patient with extensive dstruction in primary teeth, who was submitted to atraumatic restorative treatment, and observe the result of the treatment after one year of clinical and radiographic control.

  14. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  15. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  16. Dental lesions and restorative treatment in molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiu Irina-Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article review specific clinical issues of the molar teeth, as well as the therapeutic approach of their pathology. The dental pathology we face in the group of molars is related to: dental caries, dental trauma (crown and crown-root fractures, dental wear phenomena. The therapeutic approach of the molar teeth is represented by: restoration of the loss of hard dental tissues; endodontic treatments of pulpal and periapical complications; surgical treatment. The restorative treatments in molars are: direct restorations, with or without supplementary anchorage for obturations; inlay, onlay; prosthetic crown.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  18. Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Soong, Keryea; Zvuloni, Assaf; Rinkevich, Baruch; Alino, Porfirio

    2015-04-01

    The 8th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology (ICCB 8) was held in Eilat, Israel from December 1st to 5th 2013. The conference included 15 sessions, one of which discussed the latest information on the conservation, management, and restoration of Coelenterata in different parts of the world. A total of 16 oral presentations and 5 posters were presented in this session. Of these 21 papers, 11 were related to conservation issues, 7 described management, and 3 discussed restoration. This session provided insights on the current conservation, management, and restoration of coelenterates in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  20. Current Concepts in Restorative Implant Dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prof.Marchack

    2009-01-01

    Patients today are incteasingly aware of dental implants.and their expectations are for esthetically and functionally pleasingimplant restorations that mimic natural teeth.This presentation will give both the experienced and novice practitioner a better understand-ing of how restorative implant dentistry has evolved.Treatment planning and restorative options for single implants.multiple implants andfully edentulons arches will be discussed,and the use of modern materials and CADCAM technology in fabricating the most contemporaryfixed implant supported prostheses will be demonstrated.

  1. Restoration of opencast coal mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent-Jones, E.

    1983-10-01

    The paper describes the measures taken by the NCB Opencast Executive in the restoration of opencast sites on completion of mining. Soil surveys are carried out before mining and these, together with geological information, enable a comprehensive soil restoration strategy to be worked out. The soils replacement plan shows the location and thickness of soils to be replaced, and whether special treatment is required to improve the condition of the soil. The equipment that has been developed to cope with the heavy restoration work is described and the conditions under which it is used are given.

  2. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  3. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  4. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  5. Why does the lung hyperinflate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T

    2006-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have some degree of hyperinflation of the lungs. Hyperinflated lungs can produce significant detrimental effects on breathing, as highlighted by improvements in patient symptoms after lung volume reduction surgery. Measures of lung volumes correlate better with impairment of patient functional capabilities than do measures of airflow. Understanding the mechanisms by which hyperinflation occurs in COPD provides better insight into how treatments can improve patients' health. Both static and dynamic processes can contribute to lung hyperinflation in COPD. Static hyperinflation is caused by a decrease in elasticity of the lung due to emphysema. The lungs exert less recoil pressure to counter the recoil pressure of the chest wall, resulting in an equilibrium of recoil forces at a higher resting volume than normal. Dynamic hyperinflation is more common and can occur independent of or in addition to static hyperinflation. It results from air being trapped within the lungs after each breath due to a disequilibrium between the volumes inhaled and exhaled. The ability to fully exhale depends on the degree of airflow limitation and the time available for exhalation. These can both vary, causing greater hyperinflation during exacerbations or increased respiratory demand, such as during exercise. Reversibility of dynamic hyperinflation offers the possibility for intervention. Use of bronchodilators with prolonged durations of action, such as tiotropium, can sustain significant reductions in lung inflation similar in effect to lung volume reduction surgery. How efficacy of bronchodilators is assessed may, therefore, need to be reevaluated.

  6. Marijuana and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2018-05-17

    As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Angiosarcoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafino, Monica; Alves, Paula; Almeida, Margarida Mendes de; Garrido, Patricia; Hasmucrai, Direndra; Teixeira, Encarnacao; Sotto-Mayor, Renato, E-mail: mgrafino@gmail.com [Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-06-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis. (author)

  8. Marijuana and lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Joshi, Anita; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke. Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development. There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.

  9. Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuoc T Tran

    Full Text Available KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.

  10. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  11. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    and negative effects of human presence on the local and global water supply. Student research scientifically tested ways to slow down the effects of run-off contaminants. Students also revisit water analysis and plant trees as buffers as part of their stream preservation efforts in a culminating activity. Oyster Reef Restoration Project: As a result of changes in climate, pollution and human consumption, the oyster population in the Chesapeake Bay had previously been on a rapid decline. The Oyster Reef Restoration Project allows students to understand the creatures of the bay and the cause of this decline. They explore the domino effect this has had on the quality of the water in the bay and future implications on the environment when the oyster population fluctuates significantly. Students construct concrete reefs and study the components of its contents and the reef's impact on the bay. Students are responsible for mixing, pouring and preparing the reef for its eventual drop in the bay. Wetlands Recovery: Following the elimination of a substantial amount of the natural wetlands behind the elementary and middle schools, a wetlands area was erected on the school grounds. This pond has been used to learn about habitats and the role humans, plants and organisms play in the preservation of the earth soil and water supply. This wetland is used by both the elementary and middle schools as a place for hands-on inquiry based learning. Students maintain the upkeep of the pond and teach other students at lower grades.

  12. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  13. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  14. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2018-04-30

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  15. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  16. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  17. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  18. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  19. Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale (Cosmogram) Part 1. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... is one, who is in harmony or at peace with his world of relationships (Cosmos).

  20. Channel Restoration Design for Meandering Rivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip

    2001-01-01

    .... A geomorphic engineering approach is presented, which recognizes that the river is ultimately the best restorer of its natural morphology and should be allowed to participate in its own recovery...

  1. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Schö lkopf, Bernhard; Hirsch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  2. ROV Based Underwater Blurred Image Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhishen; DING Tianfu; WANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of ROV based image processing to restore underwater blurry images from the theory of light and image transmission in the sea. Computer is used to simulate the maximum detection range of the ROV under different water body conditions. The receiving irradiance of the video camera at different detection ranges is also calculated. The ROV's detection performance under different water body conditions is given by simulation. We restore the underwater blurry images using the Wiener filter based on the simulation. The Wiener filter is shown to be a simple useful method for underwater image restoration in the ROV underwater experiments. We also present examples of restored images of an underwater standard target taken by the video camera in these experiments.

  3. Generalized probabilistic scale space for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Mishra, Akshaya K

    2010-10-01

    A novel generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale space theory is proposed for image restoration. We explore extending the definition of scale space to better account for both noise and observation models, which is important for producing accurately restored images. A new class of scale-space realizations based on sampling and probability theory is introduced to realize this extended definition in the context of image restoration. Experimental results using 2-D images show that generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale-space theory can be used to produce more accurate restored images when compared with state-of-the-art scale-space formulations, particularly under situations characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and image degradation.

  4. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  5. Fisheries Restoration Grant Program Projects [ds168

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This shapefile (FRGP_All_020209.shp) represents the locations of all ongoing and completed salmonid restoration projects in California with existing records in the...

  6. Project Rio Blanco: site restoration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7,000 foot well in northwestern Colorado. Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975 and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. The activities throughout the restoration period are summarized and the final site status, including the disposition of all project facilities and the status of all project related wells after plug and abandonment and recompletion work are described

  7. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  8. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  9. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  10. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  11. Thermal Energy Transfer Through All Ceramic Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    correlate to a histological status or disease process. A positive response only expresses that there is a viable nerve fibers located within the pulp ...INTRODUCTION: The literature has demonstrated that cold testing with 1,1,1,2- tetrafluoroethane (TFE) can be used to assess the pulp vitality of teeth restored...restorative materials to natural teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermoprobes (T-type, Omega) were inserted into the pulp chamber of 3 extracted human

  12. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  13. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  14. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2015-01-01

    Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success...... to experimental disturbance treatments (ploughing or rotavation), and the vegetation was surveyed during four subsequent years of succession. Treated plots were compared with control plots representing untreated grassland, as well as nearby plots characterized by plant communities representing the restoration...

  15. Nd: YAG laser in art works restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Moreno, B.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Laser cleaning in works of art has a number of advantages over traditional techniques of restoration. In this article, the technique used and the physical mechanisms that explain the process of ablation of pollutants are described. The results obtained in the cleaning of statues of marble and alabaster are exposed as well as oil-painting restoration. In this last specific case, the Nd: YAG laser is used with successful results. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  17. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  18. Marginal microfiltration in amalgam restorations. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoud Salem, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The present articule is review references from phenomenon of microfiltration in restorations with amalgam and yours consecuents in changes of color in the interface tooth-restorations, margin deterioted , sensitivity dentinarea postoperate, caries secondary and pulp inflamation. Besides naming the mechanicals for to reduce microfiltration, and yours effects for use of sealers dentinaries representation for the varnish cavitys and adhesive systens Conclusive indicate wath the amalgam is the ma...

  19. STRATIFICATION TECHNIQUE IN MAXILLARY ANTERIOR INCISORS RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of their main characteristics: transparency, opalescence and color density, the tooth structures are extremely difficult to restore by means of completely inconspicuous restorations of the natural tooth tissue characteristics. The aim is to show successful aesthetic restoration of III Class dental lesions in upper incisors by means of high quality composites. Materials and method: A female patient visited the clinic being not satisfied with the esthetics of her front teeth. The intraoral examination showed previous restorations and carious lesions in 12, 11, 21, 22. After defining the tooth color a silicone key was made. The treatment was performed under anesthesia, the existing restorations were removed and the carious lesions in teeth 11, 12, 21, 22 were treated with restorations using Vanini edge preparation. The teeth were restored by means of stratification technique. After etching and rinsing, bonding was applied for 20 sec. and then polymerized. After fixing the silicone key enamel shade was applied and then dentine shades UD2, UD3, UD4 of 0.5mm thickness each. The polymerization was done layer by layer. Applied were 10 to 15 layers in total. The composite material was preheated in oven up to 55. Teeth 21 and 22 are restored with Enamel Plus HRi (Micerium. Results and Discussion: Excellent aesthetics is achieved with composite material. They have enamel and dentine shades and allow high quality aesthetics. The polishing is excellent in Enamel Plus HRi (Micerium which is typical for this type of composite. The result of the carious lesion treatment in this patient is real improvement of the dental appearance of her anterior incisors. Conclusion: Materials show excellent aesthetic results due to their characteristics and the stratification technique used.

  20. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  2. [Lung auscultation--an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Urs; Huber, Lars Christian

    2015-07-01

    The auscultation of the lungs is - among anamnesis - the most important part in the assessment of patients presenting with pulmonary symptoms. The lung auscultation is reproducible, cost efficient and very helpful to distinguish between differential diagnoses, in particular in emergency situations. Detection and description of lung sounds requires experience and should be performed by strict adherence to the internationally accepted terminology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion) and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiolo...

  4. A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

  5. Exxon Valdez -- Framework for natural resource restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Once the task of evaluating the nature and extent of natural resource injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill neared completion, the equally daunting task of formulating proper restorative measures began. The essence of the natural resource restoration effort is to determine how to utilize the monies received from the criminal and civil settlements to fulfill the natural resource trustees' responsibilities to restore Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to their condition prior to the spill. Given the magnitude and variety of environmental impact, i.e., natural resource injuries ranging from the death of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals to the persistent sublethal affects of hydrocarbon contamination in intertidal sediments, the field of restorative endeavor is as broad and perplexing as was responding to the spill itself. This paper discusses the policy and legal parameters which give structure to the scientific and technical decisions the natural resource trustees must make in the years to come as they engage in their restoration responsibilities. The discussed policy and legal parameters translate generally to natural resource restoration under such statutes as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

  6. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  7. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  8. Applying Attention Restoration Theory to Understand and Address Clergy's Need to Restore Cognitive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chelsea; Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

    2018-02-06

    Attention Restoration Theory is applied to explore the causes and consequences of mental fatigue in clergy and suggest practical interventions to restore cognitive wellbeing. Previous research has investigated the physical and emotional health and wellbeing of clergy, but has largely neglected clergy cognitive wellbeing. Due to the demanding nature of their work, clergy are particularly susceptible to mental fatigue and depletion of their capacity to maintain attention. Symptoms include inability to focus attention, inhibit distractions, make decisions or solve problems. Mental fatigue can be overcome, and cognitive capacity restored, by spending time in restorative environments that allow directed attention to rest.

  9. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs

  10. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  11. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, J.M. [SDI-UDIAT, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Parc Tauli s/n, E-08208 Barcelona (Spain)]|[Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Caceres, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs.

  12. Pseudo tumors of the lung after lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Inger F; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Entwisle, James J; Waller, David A

    2004-03-01

    We describe 2 patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery, who postoperatively had computed tomographic scans that showed symptomatic mass lesions suggestive of malignancy and an inhaled foreign body. Investigations excluded these conditions with the remaining likely diagnosis of pseudotumor secondary to buttressing material. These potential sequelae of lung volume reduction surgery should be recognized in follow-up investigations.

  13. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  14. Chronic inflammatory and suppurative processes in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic methods of diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectatic disease, lung abscess and gangrene, chronic non-specific pneumonia and cancer of lung and other pathalogical changes at chronic processes in lungs are discussed in detail

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, ... know. Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/articles/lung-disease-rheumatoid-arthritis.php. Accessed ...

  16. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Pneumothorax - infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Collapsed Lung updates ... Lung surgery Pneumothorax - slideshow Pneumothorax - infants Related Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders ...

  17. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  18. Black lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP), often called Black Lung Disease is a occupational disease which results from inhalation of coal mine dust which usually contains small amounts of free crystalline silica. This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CWP and how it has been controlled in the USA through the 1969 Coal Mine Act and dust level standards. It describes the sampling methods used. Medical control methods and engineering control of the disease is discussed. Work of the Generic Mineral Technology Center for Respirable Dust is described. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Epithelioid lung haenangioendiothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finozzi, V.; Andrade, E.; Campos, N.; Pizarrosa, C.

    2000-01-01

    The first national case of epithelioid lung haenangioendiothelioma concerned a 60 years old woman. Clinical picture and TC diagnosis showed a vascularized tumor producing persistent haenoptoic expectoration.It is necessary to be acquainted with it for the purpose of a differentiated diagnosis. It is a tumor with specific immunohistochemical markers against factor V III.Treatment consisted of surgical resection. Concerning its classification it is situated at the limit between benign and malignant, prognosis is usually good, but evolution is slow, extending for over 20 years

  20. Immunologic lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references

  1. Rangeland restoration for Hirola, the world's most endangered antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland restoration can improve habitat for threatened species such as the hirola antelope (Beatragus hunteri) that inhabit savannas of eastern Kenya. However, restoration success likely varies across soil types and target restoration species, as well as according to restoration approach. We teste...

  2. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  3. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  4. Overcoming restoration paradigms: value of the historical record and metapopulation dynamics in native oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald N. Lipcius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently, we (i evaluated previously unknown historical data from the 1800s, (ii quantified extant oyster recruitment and abundance, physical conditions, and disease presence on constructed restoration reefs and alternative substrates, and (iii assessed simulations from biophysical models to identify potential restoration sites in the metapopulation. The collective data distinguished numerous restoration sites (i in the polyhaline zone (salinity 18.4-22.2 where disease resistance is evolving, (ii where oysters were abundant in the late 1800s-early 1900s, (iii of recent high recruitment, abundance and survival, despite consistent and elevated disease challenge, and (iv interconnected as a metapopulation via larval dispersal. Moreover, a network of constructed restoration reefs met size structure, abundance and biomass standards of restoration success. These findings demonstrate that assumptions about the suitability of sites for oyster restoration based on individual processes can be severely flawed, and that in-depth examination of multiple processes and sources of information are required for oyster reef restoration plans to maximize success. We use these findings and previous information to recommend a strategy for successful restoration of subtidal oyster reefs

  5. Single-Lung Ventilation with Contralateral Lung Deflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallan, Luís Alberto O.; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto F.; Platania, Fernando; Oliveira, Sérgio A.; Stolf, Noedir A.

    2007-01-01

    There are many new alternative methods of minimally invasive myocardial revascularization that can be applied in selected patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease. However, these techniques often require new and expensive equipment. Most multivessel myocardial revascularization is performed via median sternotomy and involves the use of a conventional endotracheal tube. Both lungs are ventilated, and frequently the left pleural cavity is opened. In contrast, single-lung deflation naturally moves the mediastinum within the thorax toward the collapsed lung, without the need to open the pleural cavities. Herein, we describe a simple alternative procedure that facilitates off-pump multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting via complete median sternotomy: single-lung ventilation with contralateral lung deflation. This technique better exposes the more distal right and circumflex coronary artery branches with or without the opening of the pleural cavities. PMID:17622364

  6. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. River restoration: separating myths from reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, N.; Woodward, G.

    2015-12-01

    River restorations are a social construct where degraded systems are physically modified to obtain a pre-disturbance set of attributes. These can be purely esthetic but are often linked to some kind of biotic recovery or the provision of important ecosystem services such as flood control or self-purification. The social setting of restoration projects, with a range of potential conflicts, significantly reduces scale of most interventions to a size with little room, or wish, for natural processes. We show that projects sizes are still very small and that the restoration target is not to recover natural geomorphic processes but rather to fulfil human perception of what a nice stream looks like. One case from Danish lowland streams, using a space-for-time substitution approach, shows excess use of pebble and gravel when restoring channelized sandy bottom streams, de-coupling the link between energy and substrate characteristics that are found in natural lowland systems. This has implication for both the biological structure and functioning of these systems as a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity was not found in restored streams, while the density of grazer increased indicating an increased use of periphyton as a basal resource. Another case of adding woody debris to UK lowland streams, using a BACI study design, showed very little effect on the macroinvertebrate community even after a 100-year flood, which indicate that added tree trunks did not provide additional flow refugia. We suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers.

  8. Psycholegal abilities and restoration of competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; Deyoung, Nathaniel J

    2012-01-01

    Criminal defendants adjudicated incompetent to stand trial are typically hospitalized for competence restoration in state institutions. Prolonged restoration hospitalizations involve civil rights concerns and increasing financial costs, and there remains interest in determining which individuals are likely to be successfully restored. We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of 455 male defendants admitted to a forensic treatment center for competence restoration in an effort to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses, demographic factors, or psycholegal abilities were predictive of successful or failed restoration. At varying stages of restoration efforts, psychotic disorder, mental retardation, and previous state hospitalization predicted unsuccessful restoration, while substance use and personality disorders were predictive of successful restoration. Psycholegal abilities were predictive of successful restoration and appeared to form a continuum, with basic behavior and outlook, factual legal understanding, and rational attorney assistance factors demonstrating progressively increased importance in successful restoration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The state-of-the-art of ART restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-04-01

    ART is less anxiety- and pain-provoking than traditional restorative treatments; administration of local anaesthesia is rarely required. Systematic reviews have provided evidence of the high level of effectiveness of high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restoration in restoring single-surface cavities, both in primary and permanent posterior teeth, but its survival rates in restoring multiple-surface cavities in primary posterior teeth needs to be improved. Insufficient information is available regarding the survival rates of multiple-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth. Evidence from these reviews indicates no difference in the survival rates of single-surface high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations and amalgam restorations in primary and permanent posterior teeth. Where indicated, high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations can be used alongside traditional restorations. ART provides a much more acceptable introduction to dental restorative care than the traditional 'injection, drill and fill'.

  10. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  11. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  12. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  13. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  14. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  15. A lung function information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J. de Vries (Julius); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A lung function information system (LFIS) was developed for the data analysis of pulmonary function tests at different locations. This system was connected to the hospital information system (HIS) for the retrieval of patient data and the storage of the lung function

  16. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  17. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  18. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  19. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... these regulations on June 10, 2010, to address changes in law, regulation, policy, technology, and... Service 50 CFR Part 80 Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter... 80 [Docket No. FWS-R9-WSR-2009-0088; 91400-5110-POLI-7B; 91400-9410-POLI- 7B] RIN 1018-AW65 Financial...

  20. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  1. CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

  2. Congenital cystic lung malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.; Scheer, I.; Bassir, C.; Chaoui, R.; Henrich, W.; Schwabe, M.; Wauer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study concerning congenital cystic lung malformations was to evaluate prenatal diagnoses postnatally to determine prognostic factors as well as to define optimized perinatal management. Materials and Methods: The study is based on 45 prenatal ultrasound examinations depicting fetal cystic lung lesions. 32 of the mothers had follow-up examinations. 5 pregnancies were terminated due to CCAM and additional malformations. Complete regression of the lesions was seen prenatally in 8 cases and postnatally in 5 children. Results: Surgical intervention due to respiratory insufficiency was necessary in 4 neonates. According to the imaging results, CCAM was present in 4 cases and sequestration in 7 patients. No correlation between the imaging findings and the surgical results was found in 3 children: One child suffered from rhadomyoid dysplasia, and in the case of the second child, a left-sided hernia of the diaphragm and additional sequestration were detected. The third child showed AV malformation. The cystic lesions of the 14 children operated upon were proven histologically. The degree of accuracy in the present study was high. Conclusion: Precise perinatal management is warranted in order to determine according to the clinical relevance surgical intervention and to prevent complications after the first year of life. This is performed during the neonatal period for respiratory insufficient neonates and within the first year of life for clinically stable children. (orig.)

  3. Lung and oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrah-Davies, E.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses cancer of the lung and oesophagus. The author says lung cancer is increasing and there is no real improvement in the cure rates. It is natural to think of instituting some method of screening the population mostly at risk, in order to detect changes at an earlier stage of development. It seems to be tacitly agreed that screening methods so far known (mass radiography, sputum cytology, and possibly fibre-optic bronchoscopy) are likely to give a poor return, and would certainly be inordinately expensive. The recognition of air pollution as a major problem, and the attempts being made to deal with it, may help. Antismoking propaganda seems to have had little or no value, and it is unlikely that human nature will change and the public will stop smoking en masse. It also seems unlikely that any government will ever attempt to ban cigarettes when the tobacco tax is so lucrative. In short, the outlook at the moment is indeed pessimistic and one can only hope that some unexpected avenue of advance will appear soon

  4. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  5. The observational approach in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Quinn, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to completing environmental restoration of its facilities within the next 28 years (DOE 1990b). In order to achieve this, DOE must ensure that its restoration activities are both effective and efficient. A key aspect of fulfilling this commitment is the recognition and management of uncertainty that is inherent in waste-site clean-up actions. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the applicability and implementation of what is known as the ''observational approach'' to better address these needs. PNL's initial investigation resulted in the positive conclusion that the observational approach had potential benefit to DOE during environmental restoration. In a follow-on effort, PNL supported by CH2M HILL, has been providing guidance to DOE field-offices on observational approach fundamentals, implementation, and application to waste-site remediation. This paper outlines the fundamentals of the observational approach and discusses the progress in integrating the observational approach in DOE's environmental restoration efforts. 9 refs., 2 figs

  6. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  8. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  9. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L; Holmes, S Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  10. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L.; Holmes, S. Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A.

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  11. Planning for Environmental Restoration in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.

    1995-01-01

    The restoration in the Slovak Republic concerns to the contaminated banks of the waste water recipient of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. The identified contamination, consisting mainly of 137 Cs, is a result of two accidents on the CO 2 -cooled and heavy water moderated NPP Bohunice-A1 unit of NPP Bohunice complex. Two type of radiation risk scenarios, namely the bank use and contaminated soil (from bank) use scenario were investigated in relation to decision making on the planning for restoration of the contaminated banks. Results of dose assessments and the approach to planning for restoration of contaminated banks are summarized in the paper. Some details from the worked out technical design of the contaminated soil removal from the banks and its safe disposal in a near surface isolated basin are introduced in the paper too

  12. Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Qin, Nan; Chong, Yan; Diao, Yupu; Yiliguma; Wang, Zhexuan; Xue, Tian; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2018-03-06

    The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.

  13. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes.

  14. Restoration of the Serranos Towers in Valencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Mileto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent restoration of the emblematic Serranos Towers carried out by an interdisciplinary team of specialists was an excuse to delve into the history and masonry of the towers, from their initial building and use as a prison to the restorations works practised in the 19th century and subsequent repairs. The cleaning of the walls permitted a direct study of the masonry, which provided a great deal of information that complemented the rigorous historical investigation. The maintenance scheme planned for the future is an interesting proposal, where good sense prevails over improvisation, so often a reality in the restoration of monuments today.

  15. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  16. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  17. Environmental Restoration Program Roadmap: Strategic program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a strategic plan for accomplishing environmental restoration objectives at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Waste Management (WM) for environmental restoration activities and integration of these activities into the PORTS WM operations is addressed in this document. The document provides detailed information concerning specific assumptions and activities required to meet DOE's environmental restoration objectives at this site. Environmental contamination at PORTS consists mainly of spent solvents and low level radionuclides. Solvents were used for industrial metal cleaning operations required to maintain the process during operations. Plumes of groundwater contamination resulting from past disposal of these spent solvents in landfills and impoundments extend from several locations within the site. Also, two sludge impoundments associated with a chromate reduction facility were characterized as having soil and groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium

  18. Pardon in the light of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .

  19. Design for Restoration: beyond the survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carbonara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  This new issue, that we can define special, marks an important change for DISEGNARECON (its transfer from the University of Bologna to the University of L’Aquila facing the topic of the Design for the Restoration in a way that is special too. Treated in fact - beside the outgoing editor in chief, Roberto Mingucci - by Mario Centofanti, who now assumes the responsibility for the magazine, and Giovanni Carbonara, which is definitely authoritative reference in the field. Sharing a strong interest for communicating the Restoration Project, they intended to indicate the substantial union of methods and objectives between the disciplines of architectural survey and of restoration, which makes the meaning of an aggregation now also institutionally formalized and particularly significant for the project on the existing architecture. 

  20. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  1. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  2. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, K.; Eenjes, E.; van Riet, S.; Poot, Andreas A.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Hiemstra, P.; Rottier, R.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as

  3. Unevenness on aerosol inhalation lung images and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    The unevenness or inhomogeneity of aerosol deposition patterns on radioaerosol inhalation lung images has been interpreted rather qualitatively in the clinical practice. We have reported our approach to quantitatively analyze the radioactive count distribution on radioaerosol inhalation lung images in relation to the actual lung function data. We have defined multiple indexes to express the shape and the unevenness of the count distribution of the lung images. To reduce as much as possible the number of indexes to be used in the regression functions, the method of selection of variables was introduced to the multiple regression analysis. Because some variables showed greater coefficients of simple correlation, while others did not, multicollinearity of variables had to be taken into consideration. For this reason, we chose a principal components regression analysis. The multiple regression function for each item of pulmonary function data thus established from analysis of 67 subjects appeared usable as a predictor of the actual lung function: for example, % VC (vital capacity) could be estimated by using four indexes out of the multiple ones with a coefficient of multiple correlation (R) of 0.753, and FEVsub(1.0) % (forced expiratory volume in one second divided by forced expiratory volume), by 7 indexes with R = 0.921. Pulmonary function data regarding lung volumes and lung mechanics were estimated more accurately with greater R's than those for lung diffusion, but even in the latter the prediction was still statistically significant at p less than 0.01. We believe the multiple regression functions thus obtained are useful for estimating not only the overall but also the regional function of the lungs. (author)

  4. Regional restoration benchmarks for Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopmeyer, Stephanie A.; Lirman, Diego; Bartels, Erich; Gilliam, David S.; Goergen, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Sean P.; Johnson, Meaghan E.; Lustic, Caitlin; Maxwell, Kerry; Walter, Cory S.

    2017-12-01

    Coral gardening plays an important role in the recovery of depleted populations of threatened Acropora cervicornis in the Caribbean. Over the past decade, high survival coupled with fast growth of in situ nursery corals have allowed practitioners to create healthy and genotypically diverse nursery stocks. Currently, thousands of corals are propagated and outplanted onto degraded reefs on a yearly basis, representing a substantial increase in the abundance, biomass, and overall footprint of A. cervicornis. Here, we combined an extensive dataset collected by restoration practitioners to document early (1-2 yr) restoration success metrics in Florida and Puerto Rico, USA. By reporting region-specific data on the impacts of fragment collection on donor colonies, survivorship and productivity of nursery corals, and survivorship and productivity of outplanted corals during normal conditions, we provide the basis for a stop-light indicator framework for new or existing restoration programs to evaluate their performance. We show that current restoration methods are very effective, that no excess damage is caused to donor colonies, and that once outplanted, corals behave just as wild colonies. We also provide science-based benchmarks that can be used by programs to evaluate successes and challenges of their efforts, and to make modifications where needed. We propose that up to 10% of the biomass can be collected from healthy, large A. cervicornis donor colonies for nursery propagation. We also propose the following benchmarks for the first year of activities for A. cervicornis restoration: (1) >75% live tissue cover on donor colonies; (2) >80% survivorship of nursery corals; and (3) >70% survivorship of outplanted corals. Finally, we report productivity means of 4.4 cm yr-1 for nursery corals and 4.8 cm yr-1 for outplants as a frame of reference for ranking performance within programs. Such benchmarks, and potential subsequent adaptive actions, are needed to fully assess the

  5. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  6. Hyperlucent lung; Pulmon hiperlucente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E [Hospital Nacional de Ninos, Servicio de Neumologia, apartado 1654-1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2007-10-15

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [Spanish] El pulmon hiperlucente unilateral tambien se ha denominado Sindrome de Swyer-James, Sindrome de Macleod o enfisema lobular o unilateral. Es una enfermedad poco frecuente que se caracteriza por una hiperclaridad pulmonar o lobar unilateral asociada a un atrapamiento aereo en la espiracion. En cuanto a la etiologia, existe evidencia que se atribuye a una enfermedad adquirida que aparece tras una infeccion pulmonar durante la infancia, probablemente una bronquiolitis o una neumonia viral. El cuadro clinico es variable: algunos pacientes se encuentran asintomaticos, otros con

  7. Advances in lung ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Miguel José; Rahal, Antonio; Vieira, Fabio Augusto Cardillo; Silva, Paulo Savoia Dias da; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established. Some scanning protocols have been used in patient management. The Blue, FALLS and C.A.U.S.E. protocols are examples of algorithms using artifact combinations to achieve accurate diagnoses. Combined chest ultrasonography and radiography are often sufficient to diagnose and manage lung and chest wall conditions. Chest ultrasonography is a highly valuable diagnostic tool for radiologists, emergency and intensive care physicians. RESUMO O exame ultrassonográfico do tórax avançou nas últimas décadas, sendo utilizado para o diagnóstico de inúmeras condições patológicas, e fornecendo informações qualitativas e quantitativas. Os pulmões aerados e o arcabouço ósseo do tórax representam barreira sonora para o estudo ultrassonográfico, gerando artefatos que, bem conhecidos, são utilizados como ferramentas diagnósticas. Eco pleural normal, linhas A, linhas B, linhas C, linhas E e Z (conhecidas como falsas linhas B) são artefatos com características peculiares. Os padrões de consolidação e de pneumotórax também são bem estabelecidos. Alguns protocolos têm sido utilizados no manuseio dos pacientes: Blue Protocol, Protocolo FALLS e Protocolo C.A.U.S.E são exemplos de três propostas que, por meio da associação entre os artefatos, permitem sugerir diagnósticos precisos. A ultrassonografia de tórax, aliada à radiografia de tórax, muitas vezes é suficiente para o diagn

  8. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Pistacia chinensis bark (PCEB was investigated in rats against CCl4 induced lung and thyroid injuries. PCEB dose dependently inhibited the rise of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and protein content and restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, that is, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and quinone reductase in both lung and thyroid tissues of CCl4 treated rats. Decrease in number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and hemoglobin and T3 and T4 content as well as increase in monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes count with CCl4 were restored to normal level with PCEB treatment. Histological study of CCl4 treated rats showed various lung injuries like rupture of alveolar walls and bronchioles, aggregation of fibroblasts, and disorganized Clara cells. Similarly, histology of CCl4 treated thyroid tissues displayed damaged thyroid follicles, hypertrophy, and colloidal depletion. However, PCEB exhibited protective behaviour for lungs and thyroid, with improved histological structure in a dose dependant manner. Presence of three known phenolic compounds, that is, rutin, tannin, and gallic acid, and three unknown compounds was verified in thin layer chromatographic assessment of PCEB. In conclusion, P. chinensis exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.

  10. Asymmetric cell division of stem cells in the lung and other systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed eBerika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric versus symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms.

  11. Unmet needs in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: potential role for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2014-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung accounts for 20-30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Despite the differences in disease characteristics between squamous and non-squamous NSCLC, both have historically been treated similarly in the clinic. Recently approved drugs have revealed differences in activity and safety profiles across histologic subtypes and have applicability in treating non-squamous, but not typically squamous, NSCLC. Exploration of immune checkpoints--co-inhibitory molecules used to regulate immune responses--has resulted in novel immunotherapies designed to interrupt signaling through the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 or programmed cell death protein-1 pathways on lymphocytes. Modulation of these pathways can lead to restored antitumor immune responses, and preliminary evidence shows that agents targeting these pathways have activity in lung cancer, including squamous NSCLC.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands regulate lipid content, metabolism, and composition in fetal lungs of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Careaga, V; Martinez, N; Mazzucco, M B; Maier, M; Jawerbaum, A

    2014-03-01

    Maternal diabetes impairs fetal lung development. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors relevant in lipid homeostasis and lung development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of in vivo activation of PPARs on lipid homeostasis in fetal lungs of diabetic rats. To this end, we studied lipid concentrations, expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid composition in fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats i) after injections of the fetuses with Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, PPARα ligand) or 15deoxyΔ(12,14)prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2, PPARγ ligand) and ii) fed during pregnancy with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets, enriched with PPAR ligands were studied. Maternal diabetes increased triglyceride concentrations and decreased expression of lipid-oxidizing enzymes in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, an expression further decreased by LTB4 and partially restored by 15dPGJ2 in lungs of male fetuses in the diabetic group. In lungs of female fetuses in the diabetic group, maternal diets enriched with olive oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid synthase expression, while those enriched with safflower oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid transporter expression. Both olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets decreased cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations and increased the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in fetal lungs of female fetuses of diabetic rats. In fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the maternal diets enriched with olive and safflower oils. Our results revealed important changes in lipid metabolism in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, and in the ability of PPAR ligands to modulate the composition of lipid species relevant in the lung during the perinatal period.

  13. All-ceramic restorations: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, F; Carossa, S; Pera, P; Preti, G

    1998-09-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations are reviewed particularly from the aesthetic point of view. All-ceramic restorations offer the best results because they let the light through optimally. In constructing all-ceramic crowns on teeth which have been endodontically treated, the material used to rebuild the pin-abutments must be taken into consideration if the best aesthetic results are to be achieved. Materials which, because of their translucent characteristics, are the most aesthetic alternatives to metal alloy pin-abutments in rebuilding teeth which have been endodontically treated, are then described.

  14. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...... on the part of the treating clinician, while the evidence base for refurbishment and repair rather than replacement for the management of defective and failing restorations continues to grow and strengthen. This article, prepared as an Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section consensus publication...

  15. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  16. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  17. [How does sleeping restore our brain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Stenberg, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The central function of sleep is to keep our brain functional, but what is the restoration that sleep provides? Sleep after learning improves learning outcomes. According to the theory of synaptic homeostasis the total strength of synapses, having increased during the day, is restored during sleep, making room for the next day's experiences. According to the theory of active synaptic consolidation, repetition during sleep strengthens the synapses, and these strengthened synapses form a permanent engram. According to a recent study, removal of waste products from the brain may also be one of the functions of sleep.

  18. The Management of Dissonance in Nature Restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2016-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance—‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particularly sensitive to site-specificity. As exemplified...... for multiple interpretations to coexist. Indications can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015)—a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  19. The Management of Dissonance in Nature Restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance—‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particularly sensitive to site-specificity. As exemplified...... for multiple interpretations to coexist. Indications can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015)—a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  20. Matrix Krylov subspace methods for image restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalide jbilou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we consider some matrix Krylov subspace methods for solving ill-posed linear matrix equations and in those problems coming from the restoration of blurred and noisy images. Applying the well known Tikhonov regularization procedure leads to a Sylvester matrix equation depending the Tikhonov regularized parameter. We apply the matrix versions of the well known Krylov subspace methods, namely the Least Squared (LSQR and the conjugate gradient (CG methods to get approximate solutions representing the restored images. Some numerical tests are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program`s essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan.

  2. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program's essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan

  3. Restoration techniques for Sphagnum-dominated peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferland, C.; Rochefort, L. [Laval University, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada). Department of Phytology

    1997-07-01

    After peat harvesting, peat mosses do not usually recolonize the abandoned site. The purpose of this study is to develop techniques for restoring peatlands. Sphagnum diaspores from natural peatlands were introduced to exploited peatlands. The influence of microrelief, of planting companion species with the Sphagnum, and of light phosphorus fertilization on establishment of a peat moss carpet are examined. The results show that Sphagnum diaspores can be reintroduced on bare peat surfaces. The restoration method is combined with techniques to improve substrata moisture conditions, such as creation of surface roughness and the use of companion plant species. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia restores expiratory lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Backer, Vibeke; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications secondary to intermittent intra-abdominal hypertension and/or atelectasis are common after abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernias. It is unknown if the respiratory function of this patient group is affected long term or impairs activities...... of daily living. We hypothesized that abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia would not lead to improved, long-term pulmonary function or respiratory quality of life. METHODS: Eighteen patients undergoing open abdominal wall reconstruction with mesh for a large incisional hernia...... (horizontal fascial defect width >10 cm) were compared with 18 patients with an intact abdominal wall who underwent colorectal resection. Patients were examined pre- and 1-year postoperatively. Examined measures included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second, peak expiratory flow...

  5. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution to the study of the distribution of air within the lung using xenon 133 during primary bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, P.; Vigne, J.; Feliciano, J.M.; Kleisbauer, J.P.; Poirier, R.; Lins, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    An Anger gamma-camera coupled with a two route integrator to record graphs giving the activity of each lung, and a computer with two analog-digital converters for storage of data on paper and magnetic tape, were used. 133 Xe is inhaled in a closed circuit, then a radioactive bolus is given intravenously and expired. The present programme includes a count for each lung, the percentage of ventilation between the right and left lung, the percentage of aerial distribution of the 9 different areas for each lung compared with the whole of the side under consideration, restoration of the distribution curves on inspiration and wash-out on expiration for each of these zones. Study of 14 patients with primary bronchial carcinoma is made. The results are analyzed, typical cases are given, and the future prospects of the method, which may suggest a physical model reproducing the respiratory apparatus of a given subject, are discussed [fr

  7. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  8. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  9. Genotoxicity evaluation of dental restoration nanocomposite using comet assay and chromosome aberration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Marahaini; Ponnuraj, Kannan Thirumulu; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahman, Ismail Ab

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposite is used as a dental filling to restore the affected tooth, especially in dental caries. The dental nanocomposite (KelFil) for tooth restoration used in this study was produced by the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and is incorporated with monodispersed, spherical nanosilica fillers. The aim of the study was to determine the genotoxic effect of KelFil using in vitro genotoxicity tests. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KelFil was evaluated using MTT assay, comet assay and chromosome aberration tests with or without the addition of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), using the human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Concurrent negative and positive controls were included. In the comet assay, no comet formation was found in the KelFil groups. There was a significant difference in tail moment between KelFil groups and positive control (p < 0.05). Similarly, no significant aberrations in chromosomes were noticed in KelFil groups. The mitotic indices of treatment groups and negative control were significantly different from positive controls. Hence, it can be concluded that the locally produced dental restoration nanocomposite (KelFil) is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions. (paper)

  10. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational and environmental lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  13. Lung abscess; Percutaneous catheter therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, H.K. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kang, M.W. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Park, J.M. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Yang, W.J. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Shinn, K.S. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Bahk, Y.W. (Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1993-07-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.).

  14. Pain management in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  15. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  16. "Restorative Practices" Offer Alternatives to Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    At City Springs and many other schools across the country, restorative practices are about holding students accountable and getting them to right a wrong. The approach is getting more notice than ever as criticism grows of zero-tolerance disciplinary policies that often require out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Educators are turning to…

  17. ENDODONTIC TREATMENT AND POST-CORE RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Hafifah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic root canal treatment is to maintain the tooth as long as possible in the arch’s width in a good functional status. In order to reach that goal, all irritation to the pulp should be eliminated so that the tooth has a healthy periodontal tissue support. A female patient, aged 37 years, came for her upper front tooth which had been restored with a pin crown a year ago. One month ago she had a swelling accompanied with throbbing pain. There was no history of general diseases and her oral hygiene was good. Clinically 11 was restored with a pin crown and the radiographic picture showed a narrow pulp chamber, normal roots with normal canals, thickened periodontium, broken laminar dura, and diffuse periapical rarefaction. The tooth was diagnosed with pulpal necrosis. A conventional root canal treatment was performed followed by the insertion of a post core crown. The result showed a satisfactory treatment plan, a good restoration, successful treatment in this case was due to the role of the dentist to create healthy soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity before restoration, and also due to patient cooperation.

  18. Ghost suppression in image restoration filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, T. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    An optimum image restoration filter is described in which provision is made to constrain the spatial extent of the restoration function, the noise level of the filter output and the rate of falloff of the composite system point-spread away from the origin. Experimental results show that sidelobes on the composite system point-spread function produce ghosts in the restored image near discontinuities in intensity level. By redetermining the filter using a penalty function that is zero over the main lobe of the composite point-spread function of the optimum filter and nonzero where the point-spread function departs from a smoothly decaying function in the sidelobe region, a great reduction in sidelobe level is obtained. Almost no loss in resolving power of the composite system results from this procedure. By iteratively carrying out the same procedure even further reductions in sidelobe level are obtained. Examples of original and iterated restoration functions are shown along with their effects on a test image.

  19. 75 FR 71625 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... to start operating and delivering electric power without assistance from the electric system... and system restoration and reporting following disturbances. \\3\\ North American Electric Reliability... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System and determined that the proposed requirements are necessary to...

  20. 76 FR 16277 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... electric system. Blackstart units are essential to restart generation and restore power to the grid in the... Standard EOP-007-0. \\2\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, 72 FR... = $5,894,624. Title: Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System. Action: FERC 725A...

  1. Declassification and restoration of nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Rahier, A.; Deboodt, P.; Massaut, V.

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the legal and technical aspects of the declassification and restoration of nuclear sites. This involves a number of technical and administrative operations. Different declassification strategies are discussed. The evaluation of the risks and impact on the environment are discussed as well as research and development needs, costs and possible sources for funding

  2. Super-Kamiokande worth full restoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Mishima, I

    2002-01-01

    While prospects are good that the SuperKamiokande facility will be partially repaired after an accident last November, the government has yet to confirm whether it will spend the estimated 2.5 billion yen needed for a full-scale restoration (1 page).

  3. Reactance, Restoration, and Cognitive Structure: Comparative Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessarabova, Elena; Fink, Edward L.; Turner, Monique

    2013-01-01

    This study (N = 143) examined the effects of freedom threat on cognitive structures, using recycling as its topic. The results of a 2(Freedom Threat: low vs. high) x 2(Postscript: restoration vs. filler) plus 1(Control) experiment indicated that, relative to the control condition, high freedom threat created a boomerang effect for the targeted…

  4. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  5. 7 CFR 1415.11 - Restoration agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... functions and values of the grassland to meet both USDA and the participant's objective and the purposes of... restoration agreement at that time to improve the functions and values with USDA approval and when funds are... grassland resources are adequate to meet the participant's objectives and the purposes of the program, or if...

  6. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  7. Management Restoration Plans for Coastal Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudianto Rudianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The village is located in the coastal area up to this time has decreased the quality of the coastal environment either caused by the process of natural or anthropogenic processes. Coastal damage Persistent will affect people's lives. Based on studies conducted by Rudianto (2013 and continued research by Rudianto (2014 on the institutional model for implementing the strategy, the resulting output coast of research called restoration plan for coastal villages or R2DP coastal villages. The objective of R2DP is helping the village administration to alleviate the problems of coastal areas. R2DP is a guideline that will be used by the village government based on a legal framework called the village regulations. The method used to compile R2DP is descriptive method. By using the method of Miles and Huberman (1984 used data reduction techniques. This technique is to pick and choose which data is critical to focus on the purpose of research. the results of research to produce findings about the restoration plan or a coastal village called R2DP. The essence of the mechanism and procedure R2DP is doing the restoration work by using institutions as a means of restoration.

  8. Early space symmetry restoration and neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of early space symmetry restoration on the left-right symmetry models and the models with the extended (due to mirror quarks and leptons) fermion sector is being discussed. The experiments in which the derivations from the standard model of electroweak interactions should be studied are presented

  9. Barriers to community-directed fire restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; Bruce E. Goldstein

    2006-01-01

    Wild fire disasters create novel situations and challenges for natural resource managers, including working with emergent community groups that have a great deal of motivation for change, little familiarity with agency protocol, and strong preferences for the goals and methods of forest fire restoration, some of which may run counter to agency norms. After a fire,...

  10. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.S.; Blignaut, J.; Ploeg, van der S.; Aronson, J.; Elmqvist, T.; Farley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies)

  11. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  12. Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA; van der Windt, HJ; Keulartz, J

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  13. Valuation of Nature in Conservation and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, F.W.J.; Swart, S.; Windt, v.d. H.

    2001-01-01

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  14. The importance of demonstratively restoring order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Keizer

    Full Text Available Contrary to what is often assumed, order is not the strongest context for encouraging normative behavior. The strongest context effect on normative behavior comes from cues that clearly convey other people's respect for norms. Ironically, this show of respect necessitates some contrasting disrespect that is being restored. Using civic virtues (such as helping behavior as a prototype of normative behavior, the three field experiments described in this paper reveal the impact of normative cues on civic virtues. Results show that the strongest effect on making people follow prosocial norms in public places emanates from seeing order being restored, rather than just order being present. The robust and surprisingly large effects show that observing other people's respect for one particular norm (as evidenced in their restoring physical order makes it more likely that the onlooker follows other norms as well. This implies that prosocial behavior has the highest chance of spreading when people observe order being restored. There are clear policy implications: create low cost "normative respect cues" wherever it is desirable to increase conformity to norms.

  15. Restoration for Noise Removal in Quantum Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-09-01

    Quantum computation has become increasingly attractive in the past few decades due to its extraordinary performance. As a result, some studies focusing on image representation and processing via quantum mechanics have been done. However, few of them have considered the quantum operations for images restoration. To address this problem, three noise removal algorithms are proposed in this paper based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model, oriented to two kinds of noise pollution (Salt-and-Pepper noise and Gaussian noise). For the first algorithm Q-Mean, it is designed to remove the Salt-and-Pepper noise. The noise points are extracted through comparisons with the adjacent pixel values, after which the restoration operation is finished by mean filtering. As for the second method Q-Gauss, a special mask is applied to weaken the Gaussian noise pollution. The third algorithm Q-Adapt is effective for the source image containing unknown noise. The type of noise can be judged through the quantum statistic operations for the color value of the whole image, and then different noise removal algorithms are used to conduct image restoration respectively. Performance analysis reveals that our methods can offer high restoration quality and achieve significant speedup through inherent parallelism of quantum computation.

  16. Restoring Oaks in the Missouri River Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Dey; John Kabrick; Jennifer Grabner; Mike Gold

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of native vegetation and hydrologic regimes in the Mississippi and Missouri River floodplains is problematic because they are among the most altered ecosystems in North America (Noss et al. 1995), and because of the competing demands placed on these river ecosystems by commercial, private and social interests. Since the 1780s, more than half (53 percent) of...

  17. Restor pakub kileseina asemele moodulaeda / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tüli ehitusfirma Restor ja Tallinna linna vahel linnamüüriäärse maa täisehitamise pärast. Restori nõue ehitusloa taastamiseks jäi rahuldamata muinsuskaitsealal omavoliliselt lammutatud 18. sajandi hoonete pärast. Restoril on valminud ridaelamuboksid Plate ja Eppingi tornide vahel

  18. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  19. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  20. Restorative Justice: Principles, Practices, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sandra Pavelka

    2007-01-01

    A modern-day movement is transforming the way that communities and justice systems think about and respond to crime and wrongful occurrences. This response implements a holistic continuum of services, providing for prevention, intervention, diversion, commitment, probation, reentry, and aftercare. This approach--known as restorative justice--seeks…

  1. Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…

  2. Restorative Justice for Discipline with Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Expulsion is commonly schools' last resort to maintain discipline and keep schools safe. But increasingly, educators are turning to "restorative justice"--an alternative method from the field of criminology--with promising results. According to Randall Comfort, assistant upper-school director, Mounds Park Academy, St. Paul, Minnesota, using this…

  3. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  4. 77 FR 56749 - Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... laws of the United States of America, including section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) (33 U.S.C. 1321), section 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2706), and section 301.... The Task Force's Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Strategy), created with input...

  5. Oral environment control before restorative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Matos Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe caries disease treatment, by means of a clinical case report, with a view to promoting the patient’s health before definitive restorative treatments, considering that treatment should include changes in the patient’s dietary and hygiene habits, and not be restricted only to restoring lesions, as well as the establishment of an individualized treatment plan for each patient. Iodine-based antimicrobial solution was applied, instructions about oral hygiene and dietary habit changes were provided. The stepwise excavation technique was performed in tooth 15, mass excavation followed by the application of glass ionomer cement in the other teeth that presented carious lesions. White stain lesions were remineralized, and cicatrizes and fissures in the posterior teeth were sealed. After health was reestablished, the temporary restorations were replaced by definitive restorations. Changes in the treatment philosophy of caries disease, based on changes in the patient’s habits and removal of foci of infection have been presented with the object of producing an effective change in this paradigm, in order to increase the longevity of teeth with less operative intervention.

  6. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    floristically Ecological Importance of Understory diverse undergrowth may serve to pollinate flowers, Plants including those of trees. Undergrowth vegetation...Herbaceous plants include bedstraw, Variants and associated vegetation. Sycamore- violet, wild carrot, wild lettuce , amsonia, mint, legumes, pecan...elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative

  7. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, L. R.; Hölzer, N.; Marrs, R.; del Moral, R.; Prach, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 187-192 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2014

  8. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-19

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  9. Restoration of sites affected by opencast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Uribarri, D.

    This report is based on a report by Drs Habil, Stozodka and S Frohnert (Dipl Eng), lecturers in the Opencast Mining and Hydroeconomics Technical Department of the Freiburg Mining Academy in Saxony, East Germany. The report finishes with a brief description of Spanish laws relating to site restoration, currently the subject of considerable debate.

  10. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Creating complex habitats for restoration and reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Ladle, R.J.; Bouma, T.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Simplification of natural habitats has become a major conservation challenge and there is a growing consensus that incorporating and enhancing habitat complexity is likely to be critical for future restoration efforts. Habitat complexity is often ascribed an important role in controlling species

  12. 75 FR 4006 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Agency (FEMA) for public assistance grant eligibility in the event of a declared disaster. This amendment... they incur costs for disaster related system repair and restoration by including FEMA requirements in... comments, and viewing the docket after the close of the comment period, is available through the site's...

  13. My Non-Restorative Sleep Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy Ambar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal experience of systemic effects of late night sleep deprivation and non-restorative sleep-a common experience amongst doctors, has been described. Results of some simple self-experimentations have been mentioned to highlight the possible pathogenetic mechanisms.

  14. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  15. A systems approach to restoring degraded drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Roger L. Sheley; Todd Erickson; Kimberly S. Rollins; Michael H. Taylor; Kingsley W. Dixon

    2013-01-01

    Drylands support over 2 billion people and are major providers of critical ecosystem goods and services across the globe. Drylands, however, are one of the most susceptible biomes to degradation. International programmes widely recognize dryland restoration as key to combating global dryland degradation and ensuring future global sustainability. While the need to...

  16. [Comparison of color reappearance between metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using crystaleye spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fan-wen; Zhan, De-song

    2010-10-01

    To study the color reappearance effect of metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using Crystaleye spectrophotometer. 58 metal-ceram restorations and 58 foundry-ceram restorations according to the result of the Crystaleye spectrophotometer were made respectively. The deltaE between restorations and natural teeth as referenced were analyzed. And satisfaction of dentists and patients were evaluated. The deltaE between metal-ceram restorations and natural teeth was 7.13 +/- 0.74. The deltaE between foundry-ceram restorations and teeth was 1.47 +/- 0.84. There were statistical differences between the deltaE (P spectrophotometer can provide accurate reference for foundry-ceram restoration, but for metal-ceram restoration it is not accurate.

  17. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel L. Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex®was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98. The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p =0.035. The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H20 in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H20 in Group 2 (p =0.816. The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p=0.87. The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0, and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm² and 137.50/mm², respectively (p=0.71. CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation.

  18. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals

  19. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  20. Prestresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Feilzer, Albert J; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J

    2008-10-01

    A general trend in all ceramic systems is to use veneering ceramics of slightly lower thermal expansion coefficients compared with that of the framework resulting in a positive mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (+DeltaTEC). The concept behind this TEC mismatch is to generate compressive stresses in the weaker veneering ceramic and thus enhance the overall strength of the restoration. This technique had excellent results with porcelain fused to metal restorations (PFM). However, there are concerns to apply this concept to all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this research was to determine the stresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations due to the mismatch in TEC. Two commercial veneering ceramics with a TEC lower than that of zirconia (+DeltaTEC); NobelRondo zirconiatrade mark and Lava Ceramtrade mark, plus one experimental veneering ceramic with an identical TEC that matches that of zirconia (DeltaTEC = 0) were used to veneer zirconia discs. The specimens were loaded in biaxial flexure test setup with the veneer ceramic in tension. The stresses due to load application and TEC mismatch were calculated using fractography, engineering mathematics, and finite element analysis (FEA). In this study, the highest load at failure (64 N) was obtained with the experimental veneer where the thermal mismatch between zirconia and veneering ceramic was minimal. For the two commercial veneer ceramics the magnitude of the thermal mismatch localized at the zirconia veneer interface (42 MPa) exceeded the bond strength between the two materials and resulted in delamination failure during testing (ca. 50 MPa). For all-ceramic zirconia veneered restorations it is recommended to minimize the thermal mismatch as much as possible. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Will Restored Tidal Marshes Be Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Orr

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We assess whether or not restored marshes in the San Francisco Estuary are expected to be sustainable in light of future landscape scale geomorphic processes given typical restored marsh conditions. Our assessment is based on a review of the literature, appraisal of monitoring data for restored marshes, and application of vertical accretion modeling of organic and inorganic sedimentation. Vertical accretion modeling suggests that salt marshes in San Pablo Bay will be sustainable for moderate relative sea level rise (3 to 5 mm yr-1 and average sediment supply (c. 100 mg L-1. Accelerated relative sea level rise (above 6 mm yr-1 and/or reduced sediment supply (50 mg L-1 will cause lowering of the marsh surface relative to the tide range and may cause shifts from high to low marsh vegetation by the year 2100. Widespread conversion of marsh to mudflat-"ecological drowning"-is not expected within this time frame. Marshes restored at lower elevations necessary to aid the natural development of channel systems (c. 0.5 m below mean higher high water are predicted to accrete to high marsh elevations by the year 2100 for moderate relative sea level rise and sediment supply conditions. Existing rates of sediment accretion in restored fresh water tidal marshes of the Delta of greater than 9 mm yr-1 and slightly lower drowning elevations suggest that these marshes will be resilient against relatively high rates of sea level rise. Because of higher rates of organic production, fresh water marshes are expected to be less sensitive to reduced sediment availability than salt marshes. The ultimate long-term threat to the sustainability of tidal marshes is the interruption of coastal rollover-the process by which landward marsh expansion in response to sea level rise compensates for shoreline erosion. Bay front development now prevents most landward marsh expansion, while shoreline erosion is expected to accelerate as sea level rises.

  2. Assessing the carbon benefit of saltmarsh restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Paterson, David; Hanley, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of carbon sequestration rates in coastal ecosystems is required to better realise their potential role in climate change mitigation. Through accurate valuation this service can be fully appreciated and perhaps help facilitate efforts to restore vulnerable ecosystems such as saltmarshes. Vegetated coastal ecosystems are suggested to account for approximately 50% of oceanic sedimentary carbon despite their 2% areal extent. Saltmarshes, conservatively estimated to store 430 ± 30 Tg C in surface sediment deposits, have experienced extensive decline in the recent past; through processes such as land use change and coastal squeeze. Saltmarsh habitats offer a range of services that benefit society and the natural world, making their conservation meaningful and beneficial. The associated costs of restoration projects could, in part, be subsidised through payment for ecosystem services, specifically Blue carbon. Additional storage is generated through the (re)vegetation of mudflat areas leading to an altered ecosystem state and function; providing similar benefits to natural saltmarsh areas. The Eden Estuary, Fife, Scotland has been a site of saltmarsh restoration since 2000; providing a temporal and spatial scale to evaluate these additional benefits. The study is being conducted to quantify the carbon benefit of restoration efforts and provide an insight into the evolution of this benefit through sites of different ages. Seasonal sediment deposition and settlement rates are measured across the estuary in: mudflat, young planted saltmarsh, old planted saltmarsh and extant high marsh areas. Carbon values being derived from loss on ignition organic content values. Samples are taken across a tidal cycle on a seasonal basis; providing data on tidal influence, vegetation condition effects and climatic factors on sedimentation and carbon sequestration rates. These data will inform on the annual characteristics of sedimentary processes in the estuary and be

  3. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Antibody induction therapy for lung transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Ida Elisabeth Irene

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become a valuable and well-accepted treatment option for most end-stage lung diseases. Lung transplant recipients are at risk of transplanted organ rejection, and life-long immunosuppression is necessary. Clear evidence is essential to identify an optimal, safe and effect...... and effective immunosuppressive treatment strategy for lung transplant recipients. Consensus has not yet been achieved concerning use of immunosuppressive antibodies against T-cells for induction following lung transplantation....

  5. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  6. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lungs Print en español Tus pulmones y tu sistema respiratorio What's something that you do all day, ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Aging changes in the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004011.htm Aging changes in the lungs To use the sharing ... out (exhaled). Watch this video about: Gas exchange AGING CHANGES IN YOUR BODY AND THEIR AFFECTS ON ...

  9. Tuberculosis in the lung (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M bovis , M africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

  10. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  11. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  12. Open lung approach versus standard protective strategies: Effects on driving pressure and ventilatory efficiency during anesthesia - A pilot, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Tusman, Gerardo; León, Irene; Romero, Esther; Gracia, Estefania; Mugarra, Ana; Arocas, Blanca; Pozo, Natividad; Soro, Marina; Belda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Low tidal volume (VT) during anesthesia minimizes lung injury but may be associated to a decrease in functional lung volume impairing lung mechanics and efficiency. Lung recruitment (RM) can restore lung volume but this may critically depend on the post-RM selected PEEP. This study was a randomized, two parallel arm, open study whose primary outcome was to compare the effects on driving pressure of adding a RM to low-VT ventilation, with or without an individualized post-RM PEEP in patients without known previous lung disease during anesthesia. Consecutive patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were submitted to low-VT ventilation (6 ml·kg-1) and standard PEEP of 5 cmH2O (pre-RM, n = 36). After 30 min estabilization all patients received a RM and were randomly allocated to either continue with the same PEEP (RM-5 group, n = 18) or to an individualized open-lung PEEP (OL-PEEP) (Open Lung Approach, OLA group, n = 18) defined as the level resulting in maximal Cdyn during a decremental PEEP trial. We compared the effects on driving pressure and lung efficiency measured by volumetric capnography. OL-PEEP was found at 8±2 cmH2O. 36 patients were included in the final analysis. When compared with pre-RM, OLA resulted in a 22% increase in compliance and a 28% decrease in driving pressure when compared to pre-RM. These parameters did not improve in the RM-5. The trend of the DP was significantly different between the OLA and RM-5 groups (p = 0.002). VDalv/VTalv was significantly lower in the OLA group after the RM (p = 0.035). Lung recruitment applied during low-VT ventilation improves driving pressure and lung efficiency only when applied as an open-lung strategy with an individualized PEEP in patients without lung diseases undergoing major abdominal surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02798133.

  13. Adaptive Management of Urban Ecosystem Restoration: Learning From Restoration Managers in Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban aquatic restoration can be difficult to accomplish because of complications like industrial pollutants, population density, infrastructure, and expense; however, unique opportunities in urban settings, including the potential to provide benefits to many diverse people, can ...

  14. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault.

  15. Spontaneous colonization of restored dry grasslands by target species: restoration proceeds beyond sowing regional seed mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johanidesová, E.; Fajmon, K.; Jongepierová, I.; Prach, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2015), s. 631-638 ISSN 0142-5242 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration * grasslands * spontaneous colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2015

  16. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  17. Pain management after lung surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Frödin; Margareta Warrén Stomberg

    2014-01-01

    Pain management is an integral challenge in nursing and includes the responsibility of managing patients’ pain, evaluating pain therapy and ensuring the quality of care. The aims of this study were to explore patients’ experiences of pain after lung surgery and evaluate their satisfaction with the postoperative pain management. A descriptive design was used which studied 51 participants undergoing lung surgery. The incidence of moderate postoperative pain varied from 36- 58% among the partici...

  18. Systemic vasculitis and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Rosaria; Barsotti, Simone; Elefante, Elena; Baldini, Chiara; Tani, Chiara; Mosca, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the recent literature on this topic, with particular focus on the most relevant studies published over the last year. Many studies are published every year on the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary involvement in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The main subjects covered by this article are the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical aspects of lung involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis and non-ANCA-associated vasculitis. Lung involvement is a common feature in systemic vasculitis. The lungs are one of the most frequently involved organs in systemic vasculitis. In order to provide an update on the recent advances in the pathogenesis, clinical features and novel treatments of lung involvement in systemic vasculitis, a systematic MedLine search has been performed.Most of the data analyzed have confirmed that lung involvement seems to develop more frequently in patients with myeloperoxidase-ANCA-positive AAV, mainly in those with a diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), compared with patients with proteinase 3 ANCA-positive AAV. Moreover, among non-ANCA-associated vasculitis lung involvement may represent a worrying complication of the disease, mainly when associated with vascular involvement.

  19. Pathogenic mechanism in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.; Haschek, W.M.; Meyer, K.R.; Ullrich, R.L.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether an interaction between two agents causing alveolar epithelial damage would produce lung fibrosis. In mouse lung, intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene causes diffuse alveolar type I cell necrosis, followed by proliferation of type II alveolar cells. In animals exposed to 70% O 2 or 100-200 rad x rays during the phase of type II cell proliferation following BHT, diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis developed within 2 weeks. Quantitative analysis of the lungs for hydroxyproline showed that the interaction between BHT and O 2 or x rays was synergistic. If exposure to O 2 or x rays was delayed until epithelial recovery was complete, no fibrosis was seen. Abnormally high levels of lung collagen persisted up to 6 months after one single treatment with BHT and 100 rad x rays. A commonly seen form of chronic lung damage may thus be caused by an acute interaction between a bloodborne agent which damages the alveolar cell and a toxic inhalant or x rays, provided a critically ordered sequence of exposure is observed

  20. Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser

    2017-11-20

    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.