WorldWideScience

Sample records for restore tissue affected

  1. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  2. Soft tissue biotype affects implant success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angie; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-06-01

    The influence of tissue biotype in natural dentition is already well demonstrated in the literature, with numerous articles showing that thicker tissue is a preferred biotype for optimal surgical and prosthetic outcomes. In this same line of thought, current studies are directed to explore whether mucosal thickness would have similar implications around dental implants. The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of soft tissue biotype in relation to success of implant therapy. The influence of tissue biotype was divided into 3 main categories: its relationship with periimplant mucosa and the underlying bone, immediate implant placement, and restorative outcomes. Soft tissue biotype is an important parameter to consider in achieving esthetic implant restoration, improving immediate implant success, and preventing future mucosal recession.

  3. Partial-thickness corneal tissue restoration after a chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galan A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Galan, Anton Giulio Catania, Giuseppe Lo Giudice San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy Purpose: We describe a case of full-thickness corneal restoration after an acute corneal burn with an acid agent. Methods: A 32-year-old male reported painful discomfort, redness, photophobia, and a decrease in visual acuity in the left eye after a unilateral burn with an acid agent. Slit-lamp examination revealed massive corneal melting involving necrotic sequestrum of the entire corneal surface. Surgical approach was carried out in order to preserve residual ocular tissues. Results: Extensive corneal–conjunctival layer curettage of the necrotic tissue was performed showing perfectly clear undamaged deep lamellar corneal layers. The patient underwent multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation and total capsular–conjunctival flap in order to preserve ocular tissue from further melting or corneal perforation. A complete and spontaneous “restitutio ad integrum” of the corneal layers was shown during the follow-up. The cornea was perfectly clear with restored normal anatomical architecture. Conclusion: In this case, a spontaneous full-thickness corneal tissue restoration occurred after an acute chemical burn. Studies about the mechanisms whereby different cells interact and replicate within the stroma may unveil the biology behind corneal regeneration and transparency. Keywords: amniotic membrane, chemical burn, corneal healing

  4. Human epithelial tissue culture study on restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, András; Ungvári, Krisztina; Györgyey, Ágnes; Kukovecz, Ákos; Turzó, Kinga; Nagy, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Health condition of the gingival tissues contacting the surfaces of fixed prostheses is a result of multiple etiologic factors. The aim of the investigation discussed here was to evaluate the attachment and proliferation rate of cultured human epithelial cells on three commonly used restorative materials under in vitro conditions. Morphological and chemical structure of polished lithium-disilicate (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Germany), yttrium modified zirconium dioxide (5-TEC ICE Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn GmbH Srl, Germany) and cobalt chromium alloy (Remanium star, Dentaurum GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) discs were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human epithelial cells harvested and cultured from one donor, were applied to investigate cell attachment (24h observation) and proliferation (72h observation) via dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and AlamarBlue(®) (AB) assays on control surface (cell-culture plate) and on the restorative materials (n=3×20 specimens/material). SEM and AFM revealed typical morphology and roughness features for the materials. Zirconia presented significantly higher Ra value. EDS confirmed typical elements on the investigated restorative materials: lithium-disilicate (Si, O); Zirconia (Zi, Y, O); CoCr (Co, Cr, W). All surfaces except CoCr exhibited significant cell proliferation according to MTT and AB assays after 72h compared to 24h. Among the restorative materials, CoCr samples showed the highest cell attachment as indicated by MTT assay. AB results showed that attachment and proliferation of human epithelial cells is supported more on lithium-disilicate. Both assays indicated the lowest value for zirconia. The results indicate that the restorative materials examined are equally suitable for subgingival restorations. Lithium-disilicate exhibited the best biocompatibility. The examined materials are indicated for use

  5. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hélène; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment.

  6. Obtaining Collagen Scaffolds for the Restoration of Myocardium Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Figueroa Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shown an update in the development of collagens for the manufacture of scaffold which are used in tissue regeneration. The steps to obtain collagen scaffolds such as isolation, acid solubilization, purification, precipitation, lyophilization and fibrillogenesis were described. As collagen sources, which provide collagen, Type I such as skin and tendon of mammalians, fish, and birds were mentioned. The physics-chemical characterization using several methods by electrophoresis analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimet-ric and mechanical assay were described. These tests permits to know the behavior of scaffolds. Applied cross-link method to improve physically stabilized to collagen were explained. Emphasis is placed on the limitations encountered during cell therapies and on the restoration of myocardial tissue using scaffolding, which are a challenge to be overcome by tissue engineering.

  7. [Clinical evaluation of gingival tissue restored with stainless steel crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, D D; Tsai, T P; Chen, T C

    1992-12-01

    The use of stainless steel crown for the restoration of primary molars is widely accepted in pediatric dentistry. There has been a concern regarding their effect on the health of the gingival tissue. It is a possibility that the preformed crown may be a contributing cause of gingivitis. This study evaluated one hundred and thirty-seven crowns in forty-five patients who had received pedodontic treatment at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The results indicated that the majority of stainless steel crowns had one or more defects, with crown crimping being the most common error. According to what the paired t-test showed, non-ideal crowns indicated that the gingival index was significantly higher than the entire mouth and control teeth. However the supragingival plaque accumulation of these teeth was significant lower than the entire mouth and control teeth. There was only a moderate positive correlation between supragingival plaque and gingivitis. The operator is necessary to adapt the stainless steel crown margin as closely as possible to the tooth and to avoid the mechanical defect of a crown. It minimizes the irritation of gingival tissue and diminishes the bacterial adherence of subgingival plaque, therefore preserving the health of gingival tissue.

  8. Replacing Amalgam Restorations: A Standardized Protocol Based on Analyzing Tissue Physicochemical Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decup, Franck; Epaillard, Alexandre; Chemla, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Almost 60% of operative dentistry is devoted to replacing restorations. When practitioners have to replace an amalgam restoration, they tend to opt for an adhesive restoration, as it is conservative of tooth tissues and mimics the natural appearance of teeth. Based on a literature review, the aim of this article is to determine the best tissue approach when replacing an old amalgam by a new adhesive restoration. After analyzing and understanding tissue alterations due to the amalgam corrosion process, the authors propose an analytical approach to managing the situation. Both tissue orientated and specific mechanical approaches are developed and should be implemented to carry out the optimal clinical procedure and achieve the most conservative and durable treatment.

  9. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  10. A technique to replicate soft tissues around fixed restoration pontics on working casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, W W; Cho, G C; Ikoma, M M; Arcidiacono, A

    1999-03-01

    When missing maxillary incisors are replaced, the patient's primary concern is usually esthetics. Depending on the patient's smile line and the display of the incisors, the esthetic zone may extend to the entire clinical crown and include the surrounding soft tissue. For these patients, the appearance and form of the soft tissue at the base of the pontics is as critical as the esthetics of the incisal edges of the restoration. A technique is presented to precisely transfer the soft tissue morphology of the pontic area to the working cast. This modified master cast allows the laboratory technician to fabricate restorations that will harmonize precisely with the soft tissues of the patient.

  11. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-4.87, P right ventricular systolic dysfunction is independently associated with increased mortality in patients with ischemic heart failure undergoing surgical left

  12. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E; Custers, Mariëtte H G

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-reported mood were repeatedly measured. Gardening and reading each led to decreases in cortisol during the recovery period, but decreases were significantly stronger in the gardening group. Positive mood was fully restored after gardening, but further deteriorated during reading. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that gardening can promote relief from acute stress.

  13. Testing adhesion of direct restoratives to dental hard tissue - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten

    2010-10-01

    This articles concerns itself with the testing of adhesion between direct restoratives and dental hard tissue, ie, enamel and dentin. The aim is to survey available methods for adhesion testing and influential parameters affecting experimental outcome. The testing of adhesion to indirect restorative materials, eg, ceramics and metals, is beyond the scope of this article and shall be discussed elsewhere. The longevity and success of modern dental restorations very often relies on potent dental adhesives to provide durable bonds between the dental hard substance and the restorative composite. To predict the clinical outcome of such restorative treatment, a large variety of in vitro laboratory tests and clinical in vivo experiments have been devised, analyzed, and published. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of bond strength testing methods and their applicability to the characterization of dental adhesives. Regardless of the method employed, subtle variations in sample preparation may already severely impact test results, usually necessitating at least co-testing of a well-known internal reference to allow conclusive interpretation. This article attempts to list and discuss the most influential parameters, such as substrate nature, age, health status, storage, clinically relevant pre-treatment, and sample preparation. Special attention is devoted to the last aspect, as numerous publications have stressed the tremendous influence of preparatory parameters on the validity and scope of obtained data. Added to the large variety of such factors, an equally large diversity of load-applying procedures exists to actually quantify adhesion between composites and dental hard substance. This article summarizes the basics of macro and micro approaches to shear and tensile bond strength testing, as well as push- and pull-out tests. The strengths and weaknesses inherent to each method and influential test parameters are reviewed and methods for

  14. Restoration of ovarian activity and pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Pellicer, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    to preserve fertility in cancer patients. The present review reports the results of 60 orthotopic reimplantations of cryopreserved ovarian tissue performed by three teams, as well as 24 live births reported in the literature to date. Restoration of ovarian activity occurred in almost all cases in the three...... of ovarian tissue may be combined with removal, via puncture, of small antral follicles, making it possible to freeze both ovarian tissue and isolated immature oocytes....

  15. Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara J; Martins, Manoela D; Porta, Kristianne P; Bussadori, Sandra K

    2009-01-01

    The development of conservative techniques for the removal of carious tissue and the improvement of dental restoration materials allow better preservation of the dental structure. Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette. This study aims to present a clinical case of aesthetic restoration of both upper deciduous central incisors after the removal of carious tissue with Papacárie.

  16. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: mvilla@us.es [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mosqueda, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain); Perianez, R. [E.U.I.T.A., Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Carretera de Utrera, Km. 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Vaca, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary

  17. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, M; Mosqueda, F; Hurtado, S; Mantero, J; Manjón, G; Periañez, R; Vaca, F; García-Tenorio, R

    2009-12-15

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides 226Ra and 210Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of 210Pb and 226Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for 226Ra and 210Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary can be performed via natural

  18. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH: conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48 were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05 for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05 for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p < 0.05 at both periods, and between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05 at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  19. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48) were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05) for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05) for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p < 0.05) at both periods, and between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05) at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  20. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Struzyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following nervous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways - the long-distance fibers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals - is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regeneration rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engineered "living scaffolds", which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a defined, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration - mimicking key developmental mechanisms- or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  1. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura A Struzyna; James P Harris; Kritika S Katiyar; H Isaac Chen; D KacyCullen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following ner-vous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways – the long-distance ifbers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals – is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regenera-tion rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engi-neered “living scaffolds”, which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a deifned, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration – mimicking key developmental mechanisms– or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  2. Targeted Apoptosis of Senescent Cells Restores Tissue Homeostasis in Response to Chemotoxicity and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Marjolein P; Brandt, Renata M C; Putavet, Diana A; Klein, Julian D D; Derks, Kasper W J; Bourgeois, Benjamin R M; Stryeck, Sarah; Rijksen, Yvonne; van Willigenburg, Hester; Feijtel, Danny A; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Essers, Jeroen; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; van IJcken, Wilfred F; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Pothof, Joris; de Bruin, Ron W F; Madl, Tobias; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Campisi, Judith; de Keizer, Peter L J

    2017-03-23

    The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis can also be restored. Here, we identify FOXO4 as a pivot in senescent cell viability. We designed a FOXO4 peptide that perturbs the FOXO4 interaction with p53. In senescent cells, this selectively causes p53 nuclear exclusion and cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Under conditions where it was well tolerated in vivo, this FOXO4 peptide neutralized doxorubicin-induced chemotoxicity. Moreover, it restored fitness, fur density, and renal function in both fast aging Xpd(TTD/TTD) and naturally aged mice. Thus, therapeutic targeting of senescent cells is feasible under conditions where loss of health has already occurred, and in doing so tissue homeostasis can effectively be restored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A restaining method to restore fluorescence in faded preparations of tissues treated with the indirect immunofluorescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, W M; Lechago, J

    1977-01-01

    We report a restainin method for restoring fluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections previously treated with the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Antisera to gastrin and group II pepsinogens were used. Fluorescence was restored in completely faded sections retrived from storage files, as well as in sections that had faded partially either with exposure to fluorescence microscope illumination or after counterstaining with hematoxylin and eosin.

  4. Recovery trends of Scrobicularia plana populations after restoration measures, affected by extreme climate events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelhos, T; Cardoso, P G; Dolbeth, M; Pardal, M A

    2014-07-01

    The Mondego estuary (Portugal) went through different ecological scenarios over the last decades. An eutrophication process led to a decline in the ecosystem quality. The ensuing restoration plan resulted into a gradual ecological recovery, which was impaired by the occurrence of successive extreme climate events that affected dynamics and productivity of key species. In this study we assess the response of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana to the impacts of these events in a recovery scenario, by comparing populations in two different intertidal habitats: a seagrass bed and a sandflat area. As a general tendency, S. plana, which was negatively affected by eutrophication, responded positively to restoration. However, the occurrence of extreme climate events seemed to affect recruitment success, biomass and production, impairing the recovery process. In the seagrass bed, S. plana maintained a stable and structured population, while in the sandflat area recovery clearly reverted into a decline, mainly concerning biomass and production values. This sequence of multiple stressors might have reduced S. plana resilience to further impacts and therefore, understanding the behavior of biological populations following restoration initiatives requires acknowledgement that some changes may not be easily reversible.

  5. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco van Eijk

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the observed improved glucose homeostasis. Leptin-deficient obese (Lep(Ob mice were fed AMP-DNM and its effects on insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation were monitored in fat tissue. We show that reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adipose tissue of Lep(Ob mice restores insulin signalling in isolated ex vivo insulin-stimulated adipocytes. We observed improved adipogenesis as the number of larger adipocytes was reduced and expression of genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR gamma, insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT-4 and adipsin increased. In addition, we found that adiponectin gene expression and protein were increased by AMP-DNM. As a consequence of this improved function of fat tissue we observed less inflammation, which was characterized by reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (crown-like structures and reduced levels of the macrophage chemo attractants monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1/Ccl2 and osteopontin (OPN. In conclusion, pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids by inhibition of glucosylceramide biosynthesis improves adipocyte function and as a consequence reduces inflammation in adipose tissue of obese animals.

  6. The effect of affect on memory of pain induced by tooth restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2014-10-01

    Memories of dental pain may influence both subsequent pain experiences during dental treatment and future decisions about whether to go to a dentist. The main aims of this study were to assess memory of pain and pain-related affect induced by tooth restoration. A total of 39 women who underwent tooth restoration rated their state anxiety before dental treatment, and the intensity and unpleasantness of pain and the emotions they felt immediately after dental treatment. Either 3 months or 6 months later, the participants were asked to recall their state anxiety, the intensity and unpleasantness of pain and the emotions they had felt. Regardless of the length of recall delay, participants accurately remembered both pain intensity and unpleasantness. Although the state anxiety felt before the pain experience was found to be remembered accurately, the positive affect that accompanied pain was underestimated and the negative affect that accompanied pain was overestimated. Positive affect experienced, state anxiety experienced and recalled state anxiety accounted for 32% and 30%, respectively, of the total variance in recalled intensity and unpleasantness of pain. It is concluded that although dental pain is remembered accurately, affective variables, rather than experienced pain, have an effect on memory of pain. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Nanoassemblies of Tissue-Reactive, Polyoxazoline Graft-Copolymers Restore the Lubrication Properties of Degraded Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgese, Giulia; Cavalli, Emma; Müller, Mischa; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Benetti, Edmondo M

    2017-03-13

    Osteoarthritis leads to an alteration in the composition of the synovial fluid, which is associated with an increase in friction and the progressive and irreversible destruction of the articular cartilage. In order to tackle this degenerative disease, there has been a growing interest in the medical field to establish effective, long-term treatments to restore cartilage lubrication after damage. Here we develop a series of graft-copolymers capable of assembling selectively on the degraded cartilage, resurfacing it, and restoring the lubricating properties of the native tissue. These comprise a polyglutamic acid backbone (PGA) coupled to brush-forming, poly-2-methyl-2-oxazoline (PMOXA) side chains, which provide biopassivity and lubricity to the surface, and to aldehyde-bearing tissue-reactive groups, for the anchoring on the degenerated cartilage via Schiff bases. Optimization of the graft-copolymer architecture (i.e., density and length of side chains and amount of tissue-reactive functions) allowed a uniform passivation of the degraded cartilage surface. Graft-copolymer-treated cartilage showed very low coefficients of friction within synovial fluid, reestablishing and in some cases improving the lubricating properties of the natural cartilage. Due to these distinctive properties and their high biocompatibility and stability under physiological conditions, cartilage-reactive graft-copolymers emerge as promising injectable formulations to slow down the progression of cartilage degradation, which characterizes the early stages of osteoarthritis.

  8. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal.

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    Logan J Nealis

    Full Text Available Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness, arousal (activation, or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the 'handgrip task' and cognitive (Stroop assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources.

  9. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin type and margin location (Pcomposite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins.

  10. Restore a 9 mm diameter osteochondral defect with gene enhanced tissue engineering followed mosaicplasty in a goat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sun

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Gene enhanced tissue engineering followed mosaicplasty could restore a 9 mm diameter osteochondral defects in a goat model effectively. With the reduction of covering area of the graft, the advantages of the combined gene enhanced tissue engineering method can be better reflected.

  11. A water-budget approach to restoring a sedge fen affected by diking and ditching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Sweat, Michael J.; Carlson, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2006-04-01

    A vast, ground-water-supported sedge fen in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA was ditched in the early 1900 s in a failed attempt to promote agriculture. Dikes were later constructed to impound seasonal sheet surface flows for waterfowl management. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, which now manages the wetland as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, sought to redirect water flows from impounded C-3 Pool to reduce erosion in downstream Walsh Ditch, reduce ground-water losses into the ditch, and restore sheet flows of surface water to the peatland. A water budget was developed for C-3 Pool, which serves as the central receiving and distribution body for water in the affected wetland. Surface-water inflows and outflows were measured in associated ditches and natural creeks, ground-water flows were estimated using a network of wells and piezometers, and precipitation and evaporation/evapotranspiration components were estimated using local meteorological data. Water budgets for the 1999 springtime peak flow period and the 1999 water year were used to estimate required releases of water from C-3 Pool via outlets other than Walsh Ditch and to guide other restoration activities. Refuge managers subsequently used these results to guide restoration efforts, including construction of earthen dams in Walsh Ditch upslope from the pool to stop surface flow, installation of new water-control structures to redirect surface water to sheet flow and natural creek channels, planning seasonal releases from C-3 Pool to avoid erosion in natural channels, stopping flow in downslope Walsh Ditch to reduce erosion, and using constructed earthen dams and natural beaver dams to flood the ditch channel below C-3 Pool. Interactions between ground water and surface water are critical for maintaining ecosystem processes in many wetlands, and management actions directed at restoring either ground- or surface-water flow patterns often affect both of these components of the water budget. This

  12. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  13. Ultrashort pulse laser processing of hard tissue, dental restoration materials, and biocompatibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Beer, F.; Verhagen, L.; Wittschier, M.; Wintner, E.

    2007-07-01

    During the last few years, ultra-short laser pulses have proven their potential for application in medical tissue treatment in many ways. In hard tissue ablation, their aptitude for material ablation with negligible collateral damage provides many advantages. Especially teeth representing an anatomically and physiologically very special region with less blood circulation and lower healing rates than other tissues require most careful treatment. Hence, overheating of the pulp and induction of microcracks are some of the most problematic issues in dental preparation. Up till now it was shown by many authors that the application of picosecond or femtosecond pulses allows to perform ablation with very low damaging potential also fitting to the physiological requirements indicated. Beside the short interaction time with the irradiated matter, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of the required quality. One main reason for this can be seen in the fact that during scanning the time period between two subsequent pulses incident on the same spot is so much extended that no heat accumulation effects occur and each pulse can be treated as a first one with respect to its local impact. Extension of this advantageous technique to biocompatible materials, i.e. in this case dental restoration materials and titanium plasma-sprayed implants, is just a matter of consequence. Recently published results on composites fit well with earlier data on dental hard tissue. In case of plaque which has to be removed from implants, it turns out that removal of at least the calcified version is harder than tissue removal. Therefore, besides ultra-short lasers, also Diode and Neodymium lasers, in cw and pulsed modes, have been studied with respect to plaque removal and sterilization. The temperature increase during laser exposure has been experimentally evaluated in parallel.

  14. Soft tissue augmentation for restoration of facial contour deformities using the free SCIA/SIEA flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Serdar; Aydin, Mustafa Asim; Altuntaş, Selman; Sönmez, Erhan; Safak, Tunç

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction for facial contour deformities is still a challenging process and treatment for most cases is achieved only by soft tissue augmentation. The use of free tissue transfer offers the advantage of one step vascularized soft tissue augmentation. This article summarized the authors' use of de-epithelialized free superficial circumflex iliac artery/superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for facial contour deformities. Of these patients, two had hemifacial microsomia, one depressed scar, and one had hemifacial progressive atrophy. Stable restoration of the facial contour was achieved in all patients. The advantages of this flap are numerous. Two surgical teams may work at the same time for flap harvesting and recipient area preparation. A wide flap may be planned for large contour deformity to achieve one single stage augmentation. Pedicle course of this flap allows primary de-fating without disturbing distal flap circulation when in need of a thin flap for mild contour deformity. Donor site may be closed with bikini (abdominoplasty) incision, which has excellent esthetic outcome compared to other flaps.

  15. Restoring implants in the esthetic zone after sculpting and capturing the periimplant tissues in rest position: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulou, Panagiota-Eirini; Razzoog, Michael; Sierraalta, Marianella

    2009-12-01

    Obtaining an accurate representation of the soft tissue contours developed around an implant in the esthetic zone is crucial to the success of a restoration. The technique presented emphasizes "guiding" of the soft tissue by modifying a provisional restoration to obtain an emergence profile that appears natural and blends with the gingival contour of the adjacent teeth. The technique provides an accurate impression of the soft tissue through the intraoral use of autopolymerized acrylic resin supported by the impression coping and vinyl polylsiloxane impression material. The eventual restoration uses an esthetic zirconia custom abutment and an implant-supported single crown to fulfill the esthetic and functional expectations of the patient and the provider.

  16. Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta Lara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of conservative techniques for the removal of carious tissue and the improvement of dental restoration materials allow better preservation of the dental structure. Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie ® is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette. This study aims to present a clinical case of aesthetic restoration of both upper deciduous central incisors after the removal of carious tissue with Papacárie ® .

  17. Selenium supplementation restores innate and humoral immune responses in footrot-affected sheep.

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    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Dietary selenium (Se alters whole-blood Se concentrations in sheep, dependent upon Se source and dosage administered, but little is known about effects on immune function. We used footrot (FR as a disease model to test the effects of supranutritional Se supplementation on immune function. To determine the effect of Se-source (organic Se-yeast, inorganic Na-selenite or Na-selenate and Se-dosage (1, 3, 5 times FDA-permitted level on FR severity, 120 ewes with and 120 ewes without FR were drenched weekly for 62 weeks with different Se sources and dosages (30 ewes/treatment group. Innate immunity was evaluated after 62 weeks of supplementation by measuring neutrophil bacterial killing ability. Adaptive immune function was evaluated by immunizing sheep with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. The antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test to KLH were used to assess humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. At baseline, FR-affected ewes had lower whole-blood and serum-Se concentrations; this difference was not observed after Se supplementation. Se supplementation increased neutrophil bacterial killing percentages in FR-affected sheep to percentages observed in supplemented and non-supplemented healthy sheep. Similarly, Se supplementation increased KLH antibody titers in FR-affected sheep to titers observed in healthy sheep. FR-affected sheep demonstrated suppressed cell-mediated immunity at 24 hours after intradermal KLH challenge, although there was no improvement with Se supplementation. We did not consistently prevent nor improve recovery from FR over the 62 week Se-treatment period. In conclusion, Se supplementation does not prevent FR, but does restore innate and humoral immune functions negatively affected by FR.

  18. A Simplified Technique for Implant-Abutment Level Impression after Soft Tissue Adaptation around Provisional Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kutkut; Osama Abu-Hammad; Robert Frazer

    2016-01-01

    Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or plastic impression copings, analogs, and laboratory components. Simplifying the dental implant restoration by reducing armamentarium through incorporating conventional techniq...

  19. detrimentally affects tissue regeneration of Red Sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is threatening the future of coral reef ecosystems. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that OA negatively impacts fundamental life functions of scleractinian corals, including growth and sexual reproduction. Although regeneration is regarded as a chief life function in scleractinian corals and essential to maintain the colony's integrity, the effect of OA on regeneration processes has not yet been investigated. To evaluate the effects of OA on regeneration, the common Indo-Pacific corals Porites sp., Favia favus, Acropora eurystoma, and Stylophora pistillata were inflicted with lesions (314-350 mm2, depending on species) and incubated in different pCO2: (1) ambient seawater (400 µatm, pH 8.1), (2) intermediate (1,800 µatm, pH 7.6), and (3) high (4,000 µatm, pH 7.3) for extended periods of time (60-120 d). While all coral species after 60 d had significantly higher tissue regeneration in ambient conditions as compared to the intermediate and high treatments, reduction in regeneration rate was more pronounced in the slow-growing massive Porites sp. and F. favus than the relatively fast-growing, branching S. pistillata and A. eurystoma. This coincided with reduced tissue biomass of Porites sp., F. favus, and A. eurystoma in higher pCO2, but not in S. pistillata. Porites sp., F. favus, and S. pistillata also experienced a decrease in Symbiodinium density in higher pCO2, while in A. eurystoma there was no change. We hypothesize that a lowered regenerative capacity under elevated pCO2 may be related to resource trade-offs, energy cost of acid/base regulation, and/or decrease in total energy budget. This is the first study to demonstrate that elevated pCO2 could have a compounding influence on coral regeneration following injury, potentially affecting the capacity of reef corals to recover following physical disturbance.

  20. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  1. Comparable low-level mosaicism in affected and non affected tissue of a complex CDH patient.

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    Danielle Veenma

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12. High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20% in uncultured cells, underlining the value of array technology for identification studies. Subsequently, targeted Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization in postmortem collected tissues demonstrated a similar low-level mosaicism, independently of the affected status of the tissue. Thus, a higher incidence of the genetic aberration in affected organs as lung and diaphragm cannot explain the severe phenotype of this complex CDH patient. Comparison with other described chromosome 5p and 12p anomalies indicated that half of the features presented in our patient (including the diaphragm defect could be attributed to both chromosomal areas. In contrast, a few features such as the palpebral downslant, the broad nasal bridge, the micrognathia, microcephaly, abnormal dermatoglyphics and IUGR better fitted the 5p associated syndromes only. This study underlines the fact that low-level mosaicism can be associated with severe birth defects including CDH. The contribution of mosaicism to human diseases and specifically to congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortions becomes more and more accepted, although its phenotypic consequences are poorly described phenomena leading to counseling issues. Therefore, thorough follow-up of mosaic aberrations such as presented here is indicated in order to provide genetic counselors a more evidence based prediction of fetal prognosis in the future.

  2. Is bone tissue really affected by swimming? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez-Bruton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass. AIM: This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of swimming on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the effects of this sport on bone tissue. METHODS: A literature search was conducted up to April 2013. A total of 64 studies focusing on swimmers bone mass, structure and metabolism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. RESULTS: It has been generally observed that swimmers present lower bone mineral density than athletes who practise high impact sports and similar values when compared to sedentary controls. However, swimmers have a higher bone turnover than controls resulting in a different structure which in turn results in higher resistance to fracture indexes. Nevertheless, swimming may become highly beneficial regarding bone mass in later stages of life. CONCLUSION: Swimming does not seem to negatively affect bone mass, although it may not be one of the best sports to be practised in order to increase this parameter, due to the hypogravity and lack of impact characteristic of this sport. Most of the studies included in this review showed similar bone mineral density values in swimmers and sedentary controls. However, swimmers present a higher bone turnover than sedentary controls that may result in a stronger structure and consequently in a stronger bone.

  3. Acupuncture activates signal transduction pathways related to brain-tissue restoration after ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haomei; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Junbao; Zhang, Juan; Cai, Hening; Zhang, Yuchen; Chen, Chutao

    2012-08-25

    A middle cerebral artery occlusion-model was established in rats using the improved thread embolism method. Rats were treated with acupuncture at either Dazhui (DU14), Renzhong (DU26), Baihui (DU20), or a non-meridian point. Detection with protein-chip technology showed that the level of protein phosphorylation in both groups was upregulated or downregulated depending on the signaling pathway compared with the model group that did not receive acupuncture. Analysis of proteins showing downregulated phosphorylation revealed that five signaling pathways were activated in the acupuncture-treatment group, while only two were activated in the acupuncture- control group. In contrast, analysis of proteins showing upregulated phosphorylation revealed only one pathway was activated in the acupuncture-treatment group, whereas four pathways were activated in the acupuncture-control group. Furthermore, the number of activated proteins in the acupuncture-treatment group was not only higher than the acupuncture-control group, but unlike the acupuncture-control group, the majority of activated proteins were key proteins in the signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that acupuncture at specific points can activate multiple signaling pathways to promote the restoration of brain tissue following ischemic injury, and that this is based on a combination of effects resulting from multiple pathways, targets, and means.

  4. Macroinvertebrate Taxonomic and Functional Trait Compositions within Lotic Habitats Affected By River Restoration Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. C.; Hill, M. J.; Bickerton, M. A.; Wood, P. J.

    2017-09-01

    The widespread degradation of lotic ecosystems has prompted extensive river restoration efforts globally, but many studies have reported modest ecological responses to rehabilitation practices. The functional properties of biotic communities are rarely examined within post-project appraisals, which would provide more ecological information underpinning ecosystem responses to restoration practices and potentially pinpoint project limitations. This study examines macroinvertebrate community responses to three projects which aimed to physically restore channel morphologies. Taxonomic and functional trait compositions supported by widely occurring lotic habitats (biotopes) were examined across paired restored and non-restored (control) reaches. The multivariate location (average community composition) of taxonomic and functional trait compositions differed marginally between control and restored reaches. However, changes in the amount of multivariate dispersion were more robust and indicated greater ecological heterogeneity within restored reaches, particularly when considering functional trait compositions. Organic biotopes (macrophyte stands and macroalgae) occurred widely across all study sites and supported a high alpha (within-habitat) taxonomic diversity compared to mineralogical biotopes (sand and gravel patches), which were characteristic of restored reaches. However, mineralogical biotopes possessed a higher beta (between-habitat) functional diversity, although this was less pronounced for taxonomic compositions. This study demonstrates that examining the functional and structural properties of taxa across distinct biotopes can provide a greater understanding of biotic responses to river restoration works. Such information could be used to better understand the ecological implications of rehabilitation practices and guide more effective management strategies.

  5. Factors affecting the placement or replacement of direct restorations in a dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Silvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The knowledge of the reasons for the placement of direct restorations makes possible to trace an epidemiological profile of a specific population and to direct the teaching of dentistry to techniques that are commonly used today and will be continued performed in the future. Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the reasons for placement and replacement of direct restorations in patients treated in the Dental Clinic of the Uberaba University - Brazil. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated 306 restorative procedures carried out on 60 patients. During the treatment planning, a form that contained information about the patient′s gender, tooth number, the classification of restorations, the reasons for placement and replacement of amalgam and tooth-colored restorations, the material that had to be removed and the new material used to fill the cavities was filled for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The data showed that most of the patients were female (66.7%. Of all the restorations placed, 60.45% were 1 st -time placements, while 39.55% were replacements. For 1 st -time restorations, the main reason for placement was primary caries (76.76%, followed by non-carious cervical lesions (15.14%. The amalgam restorations were replaced more frequently (67.77%. The primary reason for replacements was the presence of secondary caries (for both previous amalgam (42.68% and composite (66.67% restorations (P < 0.05. The resin composite was the most indicated material for the new restorations (98.04% (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The main reason for placement of direct restorations was primary caries, while secondary caries was the main reason for replacements. In almost all cases, the material used to fill the cavities was the resin composite.

  6. Electromagnetic cloak to restore the antenna radiation patterns affected by nearby scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teperik, Tatiana V.; de Lustrac, André

    2015-12-01

    We have theoretically verified the feasibility of the concept of mantle cloak for very high frequency (VHF) antenna communications. While the applicability of the concept has been demonstrated for an infinitely long cylindrical obstacle and infinitely long electric source [Y.R. Padooru, A.B. Yakovlev, and P.-Y. Chen and Andrea Alù, J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104902, (2012)], the use of this cloak in realistic conditions is not straightforward. In this paper as an electric source we consider a typical VHF monopole antenna mounted on ground plane together with a metallic cylindrical obstacle. The both ground plane and obstacle affect the antenna radiation scattering. Nevertheless, we could show that the mantle cloak can bee successfully applied to restore the radiation patterns of antenna even when the source, the cylindrical metallic obstacle, and the ground plane have finite length. We have studied the antenna adaptation in the presence of the cloaked obstacle and found that the complete radiation system is still functional in the bandwidth that is reduced only by 11%.

  7. Electromagnetic cloak to restore the antenna radiation patterns affected by nearby scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teperik, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatiana.teperik@u-psud.fr [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622, Orsay F-91405 (France); Donostia International Physics Center, Aptdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lustrac, André de [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ. Paris-Ouest, 92410 Ville d’Avray (France)

    2015-12-15

    We have theoretically verified the feasibility of the concept of mantle cloak for very high frequency (VHF) antenna communications. While the applicability of the concept has been demonstrated for an infinitely long cylindrical obstacle and infinitely long electric source [Y.R. Padooru, A.B. Yakovlev, and P.-Y. Chen and Andrea Alù, J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104902, (2012)], the use of this cloak in realistic conditions is not straightforward. In this paper as an electric source we consider a typical VHF monopole antenna mounted on ground plane together with a metallic cylindrical obstacle. The both ground plane and obstacle affect the antenna radiation scattering. Nevertheless, we could show that the mantle cloak can bee successfully applied to restore the radiation patterns of antenna even when the source, the cylindrical metallic obstacle, and the ground plane have finite length. We have studied the antenna adaptation in the presence of the cloaked obstacle and found that the complete radiation system is still functional in the bandwidth that is reduced only by 11%.

  8. Community structure affects annual grass weed invasion during restoration of a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil S. Allen; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration of shrub-steppe communities in the western United States is often hampered by invasion of exotic annual grasses during the process. An important question is how to create restored communities that can better resist reinvasion by these weeds. One hypothesis is that communities comprised of species that are functionally similar to the invader will...

  9. Soft tissue conditioning by immediate restoration of immediately placed implants in full-arch rehabilitation: the double provisional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Luca; Torsello, Ferruccio

    2006-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of full-arch implant-supported fixed partial dentures have been established. Thus, clinicians are now focusing on the treatment modalities that can reduce patient discomfort, treatment time, and cost, and that could enhance the esthetic outcome of the restorations. Full-arch implant-supported rehabilitations are used when the patient is edentulous or if the residual dentition has a poor prognosis. In order to improve patients' comfort and avoid the use of a removable prosthesis, some protocols for immediate replacement of hopeless dentitions have been proposed, but there are no data on their outcomes regarding the soft tissues. The aim of this article is to describe the double provisional technique and to show evidence of its efficacy in easily achieving predictable esthetic results when immediately restoring a hopeless dentition with a fixed implant-supported restoration.

  10. Effect of reinforced flowable resin restoration on periodontal tissue in patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ran Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of traditional flowable resin and reinforced flowable resin restoration on periodontal tissue in patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss. Methods: A total of 76 patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss who received treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected and randomly divided into reinforced group and traditional group who received reinforced flowable resin restoration and traditional flowable resin restoration respectively. Inflammation indexes, oxidative stress indexes, bone metabolism indexes and apoptotic indexes in gingival crevicular fluid were compared between two groups.Results:2 weeks after treatment, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-18, RANKL, MDA, O2-, H2O2, Fas, FasL, Bax, Smac, Apaf-1 and Caspase-3 levels as well as caspase-1 vitality in gingival crevicular fluid of reinforced group were significantly lower than those of traditional group while SOD, GSH-Px, OPG, ALP, Runx2, OCN and Col-1 levels were significantly higher than those of traditional group.Conclusion: Reinforced flowable resin restoration can alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal tissue, and inhibit alveolar bone resorption and cell apoptosis in patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss.

  11. ASTM lights the way for tissue engineered medical products standards: jump start for combination medical products that restore biological function of human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G L; Stocum, D L

    2001-01-01

    Everybody hopes for better health and restoration of impaired bodily function, and now that hope is illuminated by the promise of powerful biological tools that make human cells grow and replace human tissue. ASTM Committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices is taking the lead by defining some of those tools as standards that can be used for the development, production, testing, and regulatory approval of medical products.

  12. Does the economy affect functional restoration outcomes for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Meredith M; Mayer, Tom G; Neblett, Randy; Marquardt, Dennis J; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    To determine how the economy affects psychosocial and socioeconomic treatment outcomes in a cohort of chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorder (CDOMD) patients who completed a functional restoration program (FRP). A cohort of 969 CDOMD patients with active workers' compensation claims completed an FRP (a medically-supervised, quantitatively-directed exercise progression program, with multi-modal disability management). A good economy (GE) group (n = 532) was released to work during a low unemployment period (2005-2007), and a poor economy (PE) group (n = 437) was released during a higher unemployment period (2008-2010). Patients were evaluated upon admission for demographic and psychosocial variables, and were reassessed at discharge. Socioeconomic outcomes, including work return and work retention 1 year post-discharge, were collected. Some significant differences in psychosocial self-report data were found, but most of the effect sizes were small, so caution should be made when interpreting the data. Compared to the PE group, the GE group reported more depressive symptoms and disability at admission, but demonstrated a larger decrease in depressive symptoms and disability and increase in self-reported quality of life at discharge. The PE group had lower rates of work return and retention 1-year after discharge, even after controlling for other factors such as length of disability and admission work status. CDOMD patients who completed an FRP in a PE year were less likely to return to, or retain, work 1-year after discharge, demonstrating that a PE can be an additional barrier to post-discharge work outcomes. A difference in State unemployment rates of <3% (7 vs. 5%) had a disproportionate effect on patients' failure to return to (19 vs. 6%) or retain (28 vs. 15%) work.

  13. Restoration of hip architecture with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the elderly : does it affect early functional outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Maximilian; Arndt, Marius; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Rueger, Johannes M.; Hoffmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of the anatomic architecture correlates with functional outcome in patients receiving elective total hip arthroplasty. In theory similar rules should apply for bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fractures. The influence of anatomic restoration after bipolar hemiarthroplasty on s

  14. Safety considerations for transplanting cryopreserved ovarian tissue to restore fertility in female patients who have recovered from Ewing's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Greve, Tine; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    potentially preserve fertility. When the patient has been cured and primary ovarian insufficiency has developed, transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue can restore ovarian function. The tissue is usually collected before chemotherapy is initiated, and malignant cells may contaminate the stored......Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) is a highly malignant cancer in children, adolescents and young adults. The chemotherapy required to treat female EWS patients may cause primary ovarian insufficiency and infertility as a side effect. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue before the start of chemotherapy can...... ovarian tissue, potentially causing recrudescence of the original cancer after transplantation. The risk of EWS metastasizing to the ovary is probably low but has not been studied in great detail. This review describes the available evidence on the risk of malignant cell contamination in the ovaries...

  15. Acute tissue death (white syndrome) affects the microenvironment of tabular Acropora corals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Vestergaard, Maj; Ainsworth, Tracy D.

    2010-01-01

    White syndrome (WS) is a collective term for coral diseases that cause acute tissue loss, resulting in apparently healthy tissue bordering on exposed skeleton. In this study, the microenvironmental condition and tissue structure of WS-affected tabular acroporid corals were assessed by O2 microele......White syndrome (WS) is a collective term for coral diseases that cause acute tissue loss, resulting in apparently healthy tissue bordering on exposed skeleton. In this study, the microenvironmental condition and tissue structure of WS-affected tabular acroporid corals were assessed by O2...

  16. How and when does fabrication damage adversely affect the clinical performance of ceramic restorations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denry, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    As compared to factory-processed ceramic parts, one unique trait of all-ceramic dental restorations is that they are custom-fabricated, which implies a greater susceptibility to fabrication defects. A variety of processing techniques is now available for the custom fabrication of all-ceramic single and multi-unit restorations, these include sintering, heat-pressing, slip-casting, hard machining and soft machining, all in combination with a final staining or veneering step. All these fabrication techniques, from shaping to firing, are associated with the production of flaws of various shapes and sizes, in conjunction with thermal residual stresses, all of which are capable of inducing failure. This review will examine the various types of fabrication damage inherent to each technique and attempt to establish a relationship between fabrication defects and clinical performance of all-ceramic dental restorations with particular attention to their longevity in vivo. Failure mechanisms in dental ceramics can be very complex and often involve the combination of physical factors, to which are added patient and clinician-related variables such as restoration design and in vivo conditions. Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the failure mechanisms of all-ceramic dental restorations over the past thirty years. It remains that there is still a need for laboratory tests that usefully simulate clinical conditions. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  17. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  18. Near real-time automated dose restoration in IMPT to compensate for daily tissue density variations in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt, Thyrza; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; van de Water, Steven; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2017-06-01

    Proton therapy is very sensitive to daily density changes along the pencil beam paths. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate an automated method for adaptation of IMPT plans to compensate for these daily tissue density variations. A two-step restoration method for ‘densities-of-the-day’ was created: (1) restoration of spot positions (Bragg peaks) by adapting the energy of each pencil beam to the new water equivalent path length; and (2) re-optimization of pencil beam weights by minimizing the dosimetric difference with the planned dose distribution, using a fast and exact quadratic solver. The method was developed and evaluated using 8-10 repeat CT scans of 10 prostate cancer patients. Experiments demonstrated that giving a high weight to the PTV in the re-optimization resulted in clinically acceptable restorations. For all scans we obtained V 95%  ⩾  98% and V 107%  ⩽  2%. For the bladder, the differences between the restored and the intended treatment plan were below  +2 Gy and  +2%-point. The rectum differences were below  +2 Gy and  +2%-point for 90% of the scans. In the remaining scans the rectum was filled with air, which partly overlapped with the PTV. The air cavity distorted the Bragg peak resulting in less favorable rectum doses.

  19. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ronaldo VT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL-6, interleukin (IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG, VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.

  20. Landscape context affects use of restored grasslands by mammals in a dynamic agroecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Brian; Schooley, Robert L; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    ... agroecosystem in Illinois from 2014 to 2015. We tested hypotheses about the effects of local habitat conditions and landscape context on use of restored grasslands by four focal species: raccoons (Proryon lotor), eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most species showed s...

  1. Zirconia crowns--an esthetic and resistant restorative alternative for ECC affected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planells del Pozo, P; Fuks, A B

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses briefly the problem of ECC in very young children and the recommended approaches for prevention and treatment. The esthetic restoration of the maxillary incisors with Zirconia Nu Smile crowns is described. It is also stressed that the luxation injury two months after placement did not damage the appearance nor the stability of the crowns.

  2. Histological observations in the Hawaiian reef coral, Porites compressa, affected by Porites bleaching with tissue loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudek, M.; Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.; Davy, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The scleractinian finger coral Porites compressa is affected by the coral disease Porites bleaching with tissue loss (PBTL). This disease initially manifests as bleaching of the coenenchyme (tissue between polyps) while the polyps remain brown with eventual tissue loss and subsequent algal overgrowth of the bare skeleton. Histopathological investigation showed a loss of symbiont and melanin-containing granular cells which was more pronounced in the coenenchyme than the polyps. Cell counts confirmed a 65% reduction in symbiont density. Tissue loss was due to tissue fragmentation and necrosis in affected areas. In addition, a reduction in putative bacterial aggregate densities was found in diseased samples but no potential pathogens were observed.

  3. [Oral rehabilitation with metalloceramic restorations in patients with non-differentiated systemic connective tissue dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafeev, A A

    2015-01-01

    False formation of connective tissues have a great influence on structure and function of organs and tissues of the human body. In prosthodontics, the changes in connective tissues greatly occur during clinical stages of preparing metal ceramic dentures. The algorithm of treatment patients with connective tissue dysplasia during metal ceramic dentures was developed and introduced into practical dentistry based on studying the morphology and functionality of dentition and clinical experience.

  4. Intact brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is required for restorative sleep responses after sleep loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kapás, Levente; Szentirmai, Éva

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates the importance of brown fat in creating and maintaining a metabolic environment which is permissive for optimal restorative sleep after sleep loss. The authors propose that impaired brown fat function could be a common underlying cause of poor sleep and metabolic disorders.

  5. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  6. The application of methacrylate resin and the derivation as restorative material of damaged tooth tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adioro Soetojo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of methacrylate resin and the derivation (composite resin and dentin bonding in clinical conservative dentistry has been widely developed. This material could be used to restore class I-V cavity with good aesthetic due to the compatible color with tooth. Composite resin adhesion hydrophobically in enamel that is due to mechanic retention in the form of resin tags which penetrates into enamel porosity. Meanwhile hydrophilic dentin bonding adhesion due to the chemical reaction between functional groups of amino collagen with carbonyl in dentin bonding forming amide binding. In addition mechanical retention in which dentin bonding penetrating into nano inter fibrilar cavity then polymerized. The success of methacrylate resin adhesion restoration is decided by enamel porosity, wetting character of resin, wetting contact angle, good etching acid, optimal humidity of tooth surface, the accuracy of dentist during filling is done etc.

  7. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, N R; Gazguez, E; Bidault, L; Guilbert, T; Vias, C; Vian, E; Watanabe, Y; Muller, L; Germain, S; Bondurand, N; Dufour, S; Fleury, V

    2016-02-18

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  8. FGF receptor antagonism does not affect adipose tissue development in nutritionally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroyen, Ilse; Vranckx, Christine; Lijnen, Henri Roger

    2014-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-FGF receptor (FGFR) system plays a role in angiogenesis and maintenance of vascular integrity, but its potential role in adipose tissue related angiogenesis and development is still unknown. Administration of SSR, a low molecular weight inhibitor of multiple FGFRs, did not significantly affect body weight nor weight of subcutaneous or gonadal (GON) fat, as compared with pair-fed control mice. Adipocyte hypertrophy and reduced adipocyte density were only observed in GON adipose tissues of treated mice. Adipose tissue angiogenesis was not affected by SSR treatment, as normalized blood vessel density was comparable in adipose tissues of both groups. Blocking the FGF-FGFR system in vivo does not markedly affect adipose tissue development in mice with nutritionally induced obesity.

  9. Evaluation of soft tissues around single tooth implants in the anterior maxilla restored with cemented and screw-retained crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Emerson Souza; Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Benatti, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Implant-supported restorations can be attached as screw-retained or cemented prostheses. In both situations, the characteristics of the soft tissues around the implants are crucial for oral rehabilitation and patient satisfaction. Therefore, this study uses the Pink Esthetic Score (PES), which allows evaluation of gingival esthetics around implants, to evaluate the soft tissues around implants in the anterior maxilla rehabilitated with cemented prostheses (CP) and screw-retained prostheses (SP). Forty implants placed in the anterior maxilla were evaluated, and these had been rehabilitated with prosthetic crowns for a minimum of 1 year. Periodontal examination was performed to evaluate probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) of the implant and the corresponding natural tooth. The total mean (±SD) PES for SP was 10.73 (±1.98) and 10.41 (±2.67) for CP, which was not statistically significant (P ≥ .05). Periodontal examination revealed that CP and SP showed no difference for BOP (P ≥ .05). Differences were only detected in PD when comparing the reference teeth of both groups to CP and SP (P ≤ .05). The present study demonstrates that the PES proved to be an efficient index to assess peri-implant tissues, and that the type of crown retention does not influence the health and quality of the soft tissues around implants.

  10. Terahertz absorption and reflection imaging of carcinoma-affected colon tissues embedded in paraffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Venckevicius, Rimvydas; Seliuta, Dalius; Valusis, Gintaras; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Molis, Gediminas; Carneiro, Fatima; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Granja, Pedro L.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, dehydrated human colon tissues embedded in paraffin were studied at THz frequency. A compact THz imaging system with high numerical aperture optics was developed for the analysis of adenocarcinoma-affected colon sections, in transmission and reflection geometry. A comprehensive analysis of the THz images revealed a contrast up to 23% between the neoplastic and control tissues. Absorption and reflection THz images demonstrated the possibility to distinguish adenocarcinoma-affected areas even without water in the tissue, as the main contrast mechanism in THz measurements has been observed to be water absorption in in vivo or freshly excised tissues. The present results corroborate with previous histologic findings in the same tissues, and confirm that the contrast prevails even in dehydrated tissues.

  11. Restoration of hip architecture with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the elderly: does it affect early functional outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Maximilian; Arndt, Marius; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Rueger, Johannes M; Hoffmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of the anatomic architecture correlates with functional outcome in patients receiving elective total hip arthroplasty. In theory similar rules should apply for bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fractures. The influence of anatomic restoration after bipolar hemiarthroplasty on short-term clinical and functional outcome is explored in this study. Patients receiving bipolar hemiarthroplasty for intracapsular femoral neck fractures between 2010 and 2012 were included into a retrospective cohort study. Radiologic and functional outcome parameters were recorded during the acute care phase and geriatric rehabilitation. Postoperative mobilization data were recorded and co-morbidities documented for each case. Outcome parameters were obtained during geriatric rehabilitation: Barthel index, Tinetti score, Timed up and go test, Mini-Mental State Examination. The FO-ratio (ratio of femoral offset to the body weight lever arm), HC-ratio (ratio of the height of the hip center to the pelvic height) and the BWLA ratio (ratio of the body weight lever arm to the pelvic height) were obtained from postoperative radiographs. A total of 193 patients with a median age of 84 (IQR = 78-94, 72% female) were analyzed. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.7%. There was a high proportion of patients with prior co-morbidities (96% with at least one co-morbidity). During rehabilitation the Barthel index improved significantly (p Tinetti score on rehabilitation discharge was 15.5 (IQR = 10-19.5). The patients significantly improved in the timed up and go test from a median of 22 to 19 s. A significant difference (p scores used in this study, optimized anatomic restoration in hemiarthroplasty may not be a major influencing factor in a cohort of elder, multi-morbid patients.

  12. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, M.; Aten, J.; Bijl, N.; Ottenhoff, R.; van Roomen, C.P.A.A.; Dubbelhuis, P.F.; Seeman, I.; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, K.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Arbeeny, C.; Groen, A.K.; Aerts, J.F.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on

  13. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, M.; Aten, J.; Bijl, N.; Ottenhoff, R.; van Roomen, C.P.A.A.; Dubbelhuis, P.F.; Seeman, I.; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, K.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Arbeeny, C.; Groen, A.K.; Aerts, J.F.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipo

  14. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, M.; Aten, J.; Bijl, N.; Ottenhoff, R.; van Roomen, C.P.A.A.; Dubbelhuis, P.F.; Seeman, I.; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, K.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Arbeeny, C.; Groen, A.K.; Aerts, J.F.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipo

  15. Histological observations in the Hawaiian reef coral, Porites compressa, affected by Porites bleaching with tissue loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudek, M; Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Davy, S K

    2012-10-01

    The scleractinian finger coral Porites compressa is affected by the coral disease Porites bleaching with tissue loss (PBTL). This disease initially manifests as bleaching of the coenenchyme (tissue between polyps) while the polyps remain brown with eventual tissue loss and subsequent algal overgrowth of the bare skeleton. Histopathological investigation showed a loss of symbiont and melanin-containing granular cells which was more pronounced in the coenenchyme than the polyps. Cell counts confirmed a 65% reduction in symbiont density. Tissue loss was due to tissue fragmentation and necrosis in affected areas. In addition, a reduction in putative bacterial aggregate densities was found in diseased samples but no potential pathogens were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional abolition of carotid body activity restores insulin action and glucose homeostasis in rats: key roles for visceral adipose tissue and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, Joana F; Ribeiro, Maria J; Rodrigues, Tiago; Olea, Elena; Melo, Bernardete F; Guarino, Maria P; Fonseca-Pinto, Rui; Ferreira, Cristiana R; Coelho, Joana; Obeso, Ana; Seiça, Raquel; Matafome, Paulo; Conde, Sílvia V

    2017-01-01

    We recently described that carotid body (CB) over-activation is involved in the aetiology of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we have demonstrated that CB activity is increased in animal models of insulin resistance, and that carotid sinus nerve (CSN) resection prevents the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension induced by high-energy diets. Here, we tested whether the functional abolition of CB by CSN transection would reverse pre-established insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome. The effect of CSN resection on insulin signalling pathways and tissue-specific glucose uptake was evaluated in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats submitted to two high-energy diets: a high-fat diet, representing a model of insulin resistance, hypertension and obesity, and a high-sucrose diet, representing a lean model of insulin resistance and hypertension. Half of each group was submitted to chronic bilateral resection of the CSN. Age-matched control rats were also used. CSN resection normalised systemic sympathetic nervous system activity and reversed weight gain induced by high-energy diets. It also normalised plasma glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity lipid profile, arterial pressure and endothelial function by improving glucose uptake by the liver and perienteric adipose tissue. We concluded that functional abolition of CB activity restores insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis by positively affecting insulin signalling pathways in visceral adipose tissue and liver.

  17. The role of ablative lasers in cutaneous scars: tissue regeneration to restore function (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhoer, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    Many laser wavelengths with various power and pulse characteristics have been used in an attempt to improve cutaneous scars. No single configuration has produced such dramatic changes in quality of life as the high energy, low density, sub-millisecond pulsed ablative infrared laser. Hundreds of wounded military service members with burn and traumatic scars that resulted in disabling restriction in range of motion have been treated since 2008. By fractionating the pulse to produce a uniform thermal injury less than 400um wide and to a depth of 3mm into the scar, we have observed dramatic reductions in scar-induced pain, pruritus, and most significantly, improvements in range of motion. The clinical and histologic changes seen in restrictive scars following treatment correlates with a regeneration of tissue that appears and functions more like normal tissue rather than scar. This lecture will describe our experience in the military and the latest research to support our observations.

  18. Linking river, floodplain, and vadose zone hydrology to improve restoration of a coastal river affected by saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D; Muñoz-Carpena, R; Wan, Y; Hedgepeth, M; Zheng, F; Roberts, R; Rossmanith, R

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain forests provide unique ecological structure and function, which are often degraded or lost when watershed hydrology is modified. Restoration of damaged ecosystems requires an understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose (unsaturated) zone hydrology in the floodplain. Soil moisture and porewater salinity are of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival in systems affected by saltwater intrusion but are difficult to monitor and often overlooked. This study contributes to the understanding of floodplain hydrology in one of the last bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] floodplain swamps in southeast Florida. We investigated soil moisture and porewater salinity dynamics in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River, where reduced freshwater flow has led to saltwater intrusion and a transition to salt-tolerant, mangrove-dominated communities. Twenty-four dielectric probes measuring soil moisture and porewater salinity every 30 min were installed along two transects-one in an upstream, freshwater location and one in a downstream tidal area. Complemented by surface water, groundwater, and meteorological data, these unique 4-yr datasets quantified the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of vadose zone hydrology. Results showed that soil moisture can be closely predicted based on river stage and topographic elevation (overall Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.83). Porewater salinity rarely exceeded tolerance thresholds (0.3125 S m(-1)) for bald cypress upstream but did so in some downstream areas. This provided an explanation for observed vegetation changes that both surface water and groundwater salinity failed to explain. The results offer a methodological and analytical framework for floodplain monitoring in locations where restoration success depends on vadose zone hydrology and provide relationships for evaluating proposed restoration and management scenarios for the Loxahatchee River.

  19. Restauraciones protésicas sobre dientes con soporte periodontal reducido Prosthetic restoration on teeth with reduced periodontal tissue support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Osorio Vélez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se involucra a los pacientes con enfermedad periodontal en un plan de tratamiento integral, se pretende, en primera instancia, controlar la enfermedad. Sin embargo, superado este objetivo, se espera y se requiere el reemplazo protésico de los dientes perdidos así como la rehabilitación de los remanentes en la mayoría de los casos. Considerando que la elección de los dientes pilares para un restauración protésica depende de la capacidad biológica del periodonto sano reducido de soportar a largo plazo la restauración, numerosas investigaciones se han diseñado para establecer los criterios determinantes en tal selección. Los resultados muestran que la principal limitación para el éxito de las restauraciones en pacientes con pocos pilares y una cantidad reducida de soporte periodontal, se relaciona con los factores biofísicos y técnicos y con el mantenimiento de la salud de los tejidos periodontales, más que con la cantidad de soporte periodontal.When it is intended to provide an integral treatment plan for patients with periodontal disease; it is aimed, at first, to control the illness. Nevertheless, once this objective has been overcome, it is expected and required, the prosthetic replacement of lost teeth as well as rehabilitation for remaining ones, in most of cases. Considering that the selection of the abutments for a prosthetic restoration depends on the biological capacity of their healthy reduced periodontal tissues supporting the restoration in the long term; a lot of research has been carried to establish the determining criteria for such selection. The results show that the limiting criteria for successful restorations in patients with few abutments and a reduced amount of periodontal support, is mainly related with biophysical and technical factors and with keeping healthy tissues, more than the periodontal support amount per se.

  20. Habitat heterogeneity affects ecological functions of macrobenthic communities in a mangrove: Implication for the impact of restoration and afforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Y.S. Leung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have been dwindling rapidly in the last few decades due to human activities, and thus restoration is commonly conducted to recover the ecological functions of degraded mangroves. However, afforestation (i.e. mangrove plantation in mudflats can lead to habitat conversion and hence modify the ecosystem functions by increasing habitat heterogeneity. Mudflats are scarce in mangroves, but provide vital ecological functions by the macrobenthos. As such, the present study investigated how habitat heterogeneity affects the ecological functions of macrobenthic communities in a mangrove by analysing functional diversity, functional redundancy and biological trait patterns. Samples were collected from different habitats with increasing order of habitat heterogeneity (mudflat restoration should consider plant density and plant species to minimize the impact of dense root structures on macrobenthos. Given the lower functional redundancy and distinct trait pattern in the mudflat, afforestation is not recommended so that the integrity of the ecological functions of mangroves can be maintained.

  1. Elective amputation and bionic substitution restore functional hand use after critical soft tissue injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszmann, Oskar C.; Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D.; Salminger, Stefan; Herceg, Malvina; Sturma, Agnes; Hruby, Laura A.; Pittermann, Anna; Hofer, Christian; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries. Clinical tests conducted before, during and after the procedure, evaluating both functional and psychometric parameters, document the benefits of this approach. Additionally, in one of the patients, we show the possibility of implementing a highly functional and natural control of an advanced prosthesis providing both proportional and simultaneous movements of the wrist and hand for completing tasks of daily living with substantially less compensatory movements compared to the traditional systems. It is concluded that the proposed procedure is a viable solution for re-gaining highly functional hand use following critical soft tissue injuries when existing surgical measures fail. Our results are clinically applicable and can be extended to institutions with similar resources. PMID:27721419

  2. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP(2) receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-03-02

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  3. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  4. Do anesthetics and sampling strategies affect transcription analysis of fish tissues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hevrøy Ernst M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current examination was to evaluate if sedation and anesthetic treatment techniques affect the quality of RNA extracted from liver, gill, head kidney and brain tissues in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Blood parameters were measured and tissue specimens sampled in six groups of fish; one control group (0 minutes, two groups kept in pure seawater in 90 liter tanks for 30 and 120 minutes, two groups treated with the anesthetic isoeugenol for 30 and 120 minutes, and one group kept in pure seawater for 105 minutes and then anaesthetized with metacaine for 15 minutes. RNA quality was assessed with the NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (260/280 and 260/230 nm ratios and with the Agilent Bioanalyzer (28S/18S ratio and RIN data in samples either preserved in liquefied nitrogen (N2 or in RNAlater. In addition, the transcriptional levels of two fast-responding genes were quantified in gill and brain tissues. Results The results show that physiological stress during sampling does not affect the quality of RNA extracted from fish specimens. However, prolonged sedation (2 hours resulted in a metabolic alkalosis that again affected the transcriptional levels of genes involved in ionoregulation and respiration. In gills, Na+-K+-ATPase α1b was significantly downregulated and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1 significantly upregulated after two hours of treatment with isoeugenol, suggesting that this commonly used sedative affects osmo-regulation and respiration in the fish. The results also suggest that for tissue preservation in general it is better to flash-freeze fish specimens in liquefied N2 than to use RNAlater. Conclusion Prolonged sedation may affect the transcription of fast-responding genes in tissues of fish. Two hours of sedation with isoeugenol resulted in downregulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase α1b gene and upregulation of the HIF1 gene in gills of Atlantic salmon. The quality of RNA extracted from tissue specimens

  5. Process-induced extracellular matrix alterations affect the mechanisms of soft tissue repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Q Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the

  6. Neural Crest Cell Implantation Restores Enteric Nervous System Function and Alters the Gastrointestinal Transcriptome in Human Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine

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    Christopher R. Schlieve

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI from human intestinal organoids (HIOs. However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI. hPSC-derived enteric neural crest cell (ENCC supplementation of HIO-TESI establishes submucosal and myenteric ganglia, repopulates various subclasses of neurons, and restores neuroepithelial connections and neuron-dependent contractility and relaxation in ENCC-HIO-TESI. RNA sequencing identified differentially expressed genes involved in neurogenesis, gliogenesis, gastrointestinal tract development, and differentiated epithelial cell types when ENS elements are restored during in vivo development of HIO-TESI. Our findings validate an effective approach to restoring hPSC-derived ENS components in HIO-TESI and may implicate their potential for the treatment of enteric neuropathies.

  7. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-06

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage.

  8. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Hill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW, such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage.

  9. Nutritional and exercise interventions variably affect estrogen receptor expression in the adipose tissue of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Lore; Gerbaix, Maude; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Boisseau, Nathalie; Boirie, Yves; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Energy-dense food consumption and lack of physical activity are implicated in the development of the current obesity epidemic. The role of estrogen in adiposity and fuel partitioning is mediated mainly though the estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoform. We hypothesized that nutritional adaptation and exercise training, either individually or combined, could impact ERα expression in adipose tissue relative to glucose tolerance. Seventy-two Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF-HS) diet for 16weeks. The first phase of our study was to investigate the effect of an HF-HS diet on whole-body glucose tolerance, as well as on body composition and ERα expression in different adipose tissues. Second, we investigated the effect of switching to a well-balanced diet, with or without exercise training for 8 weeks, on those same parameters. After the first part of this study, HF-HS-fed rats were fatter (8%) than control rats. Despite a decrease in glucose tolerance, ERα expression in adipose tissues was not significantly altered by an HF-HS diet. The return to a well-balanced diet significantly increased ERα expression in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue, but there was no effect of diet or exercise training on whole-body glucose tolerance. The present findings suggest that diet is a powerful modulator of ERα expression in adipose tissue, as nutritional modulation after an HF-HS diet strongly affects ERα expression, particularly in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue. However, ERα expression in adipose tissue does not appear to be associated with whole-body glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of human arterial tissue affected by atherosclerosis using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baria, Enrico; Cicchi, Riccardo; Rotellini, Matteo; Nesi, Gabriella; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a widespread cardiovascular disease caused by the deposition of lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) on the inner arterial wall. The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, resulting in a thrombus, is one of the leading causes of death in the Western World. Preventive assessment of plaque vulnerability is therefore extremely important and can be performed by studying collagen organization and lipid composition in atherosclerotic arterial tissues. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires immune-histochemical examination and a morpho-functional approach. Instead, a label-free and non-invasive alternative is provided by nonlinear microscopy. In this study, we combined SHG and FLIM microscopy in order to characterize collagen organization and lipids in human carotid ex vivo tissues affected by atherosclerosis. SHG and TPF images, acquired from different regions within atherosclerotic plaques, were processed through image pattern analysis methods (FFT, GLCM). The resulting information on collagen and cholesterol distribution and anisotropy, combined with collagen and lipids fluorescence lifetime measured from FLIM images, allowed characterization of carotid samples and discrimination of different tissue regions. The presented method can be applied for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque vulnerability. Moreover, it lays the foundation for a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to be used in clinical setting.

  11. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2016-01-01

    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... present in homozygotes. FSHB -211T carriers had smaller breast tissue size than girls who without a minor allele; GT+TT 10.5 (confidence interval 9.4 -11.5) mm vs GG 12.1 (confidence interval 11.4-12.8) mm, P = .014. Conclusions: Our study indicates that 3 genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...

  12. Electrical stimulation structurally affects the tissues of the rectum and anus of nulliparous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Hugo Alves; Silva, Maria da Glória da; Barbosa, Keyla de Paula; Vianna, Leonora Maciel de Souza; Pacheco, Yolanda Galindo; de Godoy, José Roberto Pimenta; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2017-09-01

    Considering that the muscles of the anus perform a critical role in maintaining continence, losses in their structure can negatively affect the physiological control of the intestinal contents. Anorectal electro-stimulation (ARES) has been reported to have a positive effect on the functionality of treated patients, but how ARES affects the structural tissues of the anorectal segment remains unknown. Because the study of how ARES structurally affects human tissues is not possible, this study aimed to clarify these effects in a murine model, which has a similar anorectal segment (structure and physiology) to humans. For the descriptive and comparative study, randomly selected nulliparous adult Wistar rats (n = 5) were submitted to 30 anorectal sessions of ARES with a biphasic current (700 μs, 50 Hz from 2 to 4 mA). After treatment, the animals were euthanized, and the anorectal segments were dissected and processed for histopathological analysis. Our results showed that ARES increased the widths of the mucosal, submucosal and muscle layers of the rectum, as well as the number of leukocytes in the mucosa. ARES also caused hyperplasia of the smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter and hypertrophy of the external anal sphincter muscle. In conclusion, our results showed that ARES had not only a positive effect on the structure (morphology) of all tissues associated with the rectum and anus but, more importantly, on the structural gain of the muscles (hyperplasia and hypertrophy), which could point to a functional gain of the anal sphincter, reinforcing the applicability of ARES as a non-invasive treatment for anal incontinence. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  13. On modeling and nanoanalysis of caries-affected dentin surfaces restored with Zn-containing amalgam and in vitro oral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S; Osorio, Estrella; López-López, Modesto T; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-12-19

    The aim of this research was to assess the influence of mechanical loading on the ability of Zn-free versus Zn-containing amalgams to promote remineralization at the dentin interface. Sound and caries-affected dentin surfaces (CAD) were restored using Zn-free or Zn-containing dental amalgams. Midcoronal dentin surfaces were studied by (1) atomic force microscopy analysis (including plot and phase imaging, nanoindentation test [modulus of Young (Ei), nanoroughness measurements, and fibril diameter assessment], (2) Raman spectroscopy/cluster analysis, (3) x-ray diffraction, (4) field emission electron microscope and energy-dispersive analysis, for morphological, mechanical, and physicochemical characterization. Analyses were performed before amalgam placement and after amalgam removal, at 24 h and 3 weeks of load cycling. Zn-free and Zn-containing amalgams restorations promoted an increase in the modulus of Young of CAD surfaces, after 3 weeks of load cycling; at this time, Zn-containing amalgams attained higher Ei than Zn-free restorations. Zn-containing amalgams induced tubular occlusion after load cycling, in both sound and CAD. Zn free-amalgams promoted remineralization of both intertubular and peritubular dentin in CAD substrata. These minerals were identified as calcium-phosphate deposits and crystals as hydroxyl-apatite with augmented crystallographic maturity but with some components of lattice distortion. Crosslinking of collagen diminished and secondary structure of collagen increased in CAD substrate restored with Zn-containing amalgam after 3 weeks of load cycling, indicating an advanced preservation, molecular organization, and orientation of collagen fibrils after load cycling. Plot and phase images permitted to observe the topographical changes which were promoted by the mineral deposits; in general, the indexes related to higher remineralization gave rise to a decrease of nanoroughness and an augmentation of the bandwidth of the collagen fibrils. Zn

  14. Osteopontin, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin expression in human tissue affected by cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smane L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CLP is a common congenital anomaly with a complex etiology which has not been elucidated yet. This study investigated whether expression of osteopontin (OPN, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and osteocalcin (OC, which are essential for the normal craniofacial bone remodelling, is not regulated in children with CLP. Alveolar bone tissue samples were obtained from patients with complete bilateral (CB CLP (n = 14 during corrective plastic surgery and unaffected control subjects (n = 9. OPN, OPG, and OC expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. OPN expression was observed only sporadically in the alveolar bone of 3 patients, in contrast to the control group (z = −2.962; P < 0.003. The number of OPG-positive bone cells varied from occasional to moderate, in contrast to the control group (z = −2.247; P = 0.025. OC-positive osteocytes were present in moderate to numerous numbers in both patients and controls, with no significant difference between them (z = −1.356; P < 0.175. The prominent expression of OC characteristic for CBCLP affected hard tissue indicates a high potential of bone mineralization. Few OPG-positive osteocytes in the bone tissue implicate the disregulation of osteoclast differentiation, maturation, and activity, but few OPN-containing cells may prove the common disregulation of bone remodelling during cleft morphopathogenesis.

  15. Immediate placement and restoration of implants in the aesthetic zone with a trimodal approach: soft tissue alterations and its relation to gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Gustavo; Rioboo, María; Fábrega, Javier G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the soft tissue changes around implants in the aesthetic zone, placed under a trimodal approach (immediate post-extraction placement, flapless, and immediate provisional restoration) and its relationship to gingival/periodontal biotype of the patient. The sample consisted of 14 patients from two private practices that were in need of a tooth extraction in the anterior maxillary region (cuspid to cuspid) and were candidates to a replacement with a dental implant. An initial measurement (baseline) of the position or the mesial and distal papillae and gingival zenith was made at this time, with a rigid dental-supported stent and an electronic precision caliper, able to the second tenth of a millimeter; after careful tooth extraction, the periodontal thickness, at a point 5 mm apical to de gingival buccal margin, with an analogical thickness gauge, able to one tenth of a millimeter. Once the implant was inserted an immediate provisional restoration was delivered. To evaluate the soft tissue changes measurements were repeated at 3, 6, and 12 months. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the changes in the gingival margin around the implant restorations and to identify a possible correlation to patient's periodontal thickness. All 14 patients received Straumann (®) implants (9 Tissue Level [TL] Regular Neck [RN], 2 TL Narrow Neck [NN], 2 Bone Level [BL] Narrow Crossfit [NC], and 1 BL Regular Crossfit [RC]). All implants integrated and none had any biological complications. Three provisional restorations presented screw loosening and retightened once and one loss retention and was recemented once. In one patient, with a severe bruxing habit, the final restoration suffered screw loosening and was retightened. Of the final restorations, 12 were screw-retained and 2 cemented on custom-made Zirconia abutments. A mean recession of the buccal margin of 0.45 mm was recorded at 12 months ( ± 0.25 mm). An acceptable

  16. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  17. Can Caries-Affected Dentin be Completely Remine-ralized by Guided Tissue Remineralization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Mao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, there is no evidence that conventional remineralization techniques us-ing calcium and phosphate ion-containing media will completely remineralize carious lesions in regions where remnant apatite seed crystallites are absent. Conversely, guided tissue remineralization using biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins is successful in remineralizing thin layers of completely demineralized dentin. The hypothesis: Conventional remineralization strategy depends on epitaxial growth over existing apatite crystallites. If there are no or few crystallites, there will be no remineralization. Guided tissue remineralization uses biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins to introduce sequestered amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecur-sors into the internal water compartments of collagen fibrils. Attachment of templating analogs of matrix phosphoproteins to the colla-gen fibrils further guided the nucleation and growth of apatite crystallites within the fibril. Such a strategy is independent of apatite seed crystallites. Our hypothesis is that 250-300 microns thick artificial carious lesions can be completely remineralized in vitro by guide tissue remineralization but not by conventional remineralization techniques.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Validation of the hypothesis will address the critical barrier to progress in remineralization of caries-affected dentin and shift existing paradigms by providing a novel method of remineralization based on a nanotechnology-based bottom-up approach. This will also generate important information to support the translation of the proof-of-concept biomimetic strategy into a clinically-relevant delivery system for remineralizing caries-affected dentin created by micro-organisms in the oral cavity.

  18. Age and diet affect gene expression profiles in canine liver tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yong Kil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver plays a central role in nutrient and xenobiotic metabolism, but its functionality declines with age. Senior dogs suffer from many of the chronic hepatic diseases as elderly humans, with age-related alterations in liver function influenced by diet. However, a large-scale molecular analysis of the liver tissue as affected by age and diet has not been reported in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Liver tissue samples were collected from six senior (12-year old and six young adult (1-year old female beagles fed an animal protein-based diet (APB or a plant protein-based diet (PPB for 12 months. Total RNA in the liver tissue was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Using a 2.0-fold cutoff and false discovery rate <0.10, our results indicated that expression of 234 genes was altered by age, while 137 genes were differentially expressed by diet. Based on functional classification, genes affected by age and/or diet were involved in cellular development, nutrient metabolism, and signal transduction. In general, gene expression suggested that senior dogs had an increased risk of the progression of liver disease and dysfunction, as observed in aged humans and rodents. In particular for aged liver, genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycolysis were up-regulated, whereas genes related to regeneration, xenobiotic metabolism, and cholesterol trafficking were down-regulated. Diet-associated changes in gene expression were more common in young adult dogs (33 genes as compared to senior dogs (3 genes. CONCLUSION: Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine liver and its predisposition to disease and abnormalities. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated alterations in hepatic function or identification of potential targets for nutritional management as a means to decrease incidence of age-dependent liver dysfunction.

  19. A rotated palatal flap ridge preservation technique to enhance restorative and hard and soft tissue esthetics for tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Robert N

    2010-04-01

    Hard and soft tissue alveolar ridge deformities occur following the extraction of teeth, creating functional and esthetic tooth replacement challenges, especially in the maxillary anterior smile zone. A surgical technique using a rotated palatal flap for ridge preservation is discussed that, whether combined with conventional fixed dentures or implant treatment for tooth replacement, provides the possibility for greatly improved esthetics. This technique, used in combination with or in preparation for implant treatment, allows for preservation of the alveolar bone height and width for improved implant size and placement options. In addition, preservation and enhancement of the soft tissue at the extraction site provides for soft tissue contours adjacent to the definitive restoration that vary little from those of the original natural tooth. Combined with conventional fixed dentures, use of this technique creates a template of the labial and interproximal sulcus of the extracted tooth, allowing for the molding of an ovate pontic replacement tooth. This results in vastly improved restorative emergence profiles with minimal or no change in the height of the labial gingival margin and the form and height of the interproximal papillae with adjacent teeth.

  20. Action of two alkalating agents, ethyl methyl sulfonate and nitrogenous mustard, on Jerusalem artichoke tissues cultivated in vitro. Protection of these tissues by cysteamin and restoration by kinetin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonard, R.

    1968-01-01

    Methane methyl sulfonate and nitrogenous mustard cause an inhibition of the proliferation of the Jerusalem artichoke tissues grown in vitro. The cysteamin which protects those tissues from the effect of X-rays, acts in a protective way solely as regards the toxic effect of nitrogenous mustard. Kinetin, which is an efficient radiorestorer for those tissues, brings back a proliferation of the samples subjected to the effect of nitrogenous mustard. 13 references, 2 tables.

  1. Tissue transglutaminase expression affects hypusine metabolism in BALB/c 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, S; Gentile, V; Caraglia, M; Lentini, A; Tagliaferri, P; Abbruzzese, A

    1998-10-16

    Post-translational formation of hypusine in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is essential for cell viability. Recently, we showed that hypusine protein is an in vitro substrate for transglutaminases (TGases). We report the effect of tissue TGase expression on the in vivo hypusine metabolic pathway. The stable expression of tTGase in BALB/c 3T3 cells induced a 100-fold reduction of hypusine levels and a 50% increase of gamma-glutamyl-omega-hypusine formation. Such changes were paralleled by a consistent decrease in the free polyamine pool and an enhancement of their excretion and of the formation of their gamma-glutamyl derivatives. These effects occurred together with a significant reduction of cell proliferation. In this report we suggest, for the first time, that tTGase affects hypusine metabolism, thus regulating the eIF-5A activity and cell proliferation.

  2. Incidence of soft tissue sarcomas in an Italian area affected by illegal waste dumping sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marta; Fazzo, Lucia; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Comba, Pietro; Magnani, Corrado; Fusco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and residence in an Italian area affected by illegal practices of dumping and setting fire to both hazardous and solid urban wastes. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed separately for STS and some specific STS subtypes. The analysis was performed for the total population and for specific age groups, namely, children, adolescents, and adults. In adults, no significant increase in STS was found other than for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in males. A nonsignificant increase in incidence of STS was observed for male children and female adolescents. The results of the present study do not allow conclusions for a causal association. In the absence of previous epidemiological studies on this issue, further investigations are needed.

  3. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

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    Jessica F. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p<0.0001 and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p=0.0004; radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p=0.0085, and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p=0.0037. Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  4. Identification of cell types, tissues and pathways affected by risk loci in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Zhao, Pan; Shen, Changbing; Shen, Songke; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zuo, Xianbo; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun; Yin, Xianyong

    2016-04-01

    Many common variants have been found associated with the risk of psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown, mostly owing to the difficulty in dissecting the mechanism of each variant using representative cell type and tissue in biological experiments. We applied an integrative method SNPsea which has been developed by investigators in Broad, to identify the most relevant cell types, tissues, and pathways to psoriasis by assessing the condition specificity affected by psoriasis genome-wide association studies-implicated genes. We employed this software on 89 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with genome-wide significance in Han Chinese and Caucasian populations. We found significant evidence for peripheral blood CD56 + NK cells (P = 1.30 × 10(-7)), Langerhans cells (P = 4.96 × 10(-6)) and CD14+ monocytes (P psoriasis. We suggested that the DNase I hypersensitivity sites in CD14+ cells were active in psoriasis (P = 2.20 × 10(-16)). In addition, we discovered that biotic stimulus response, cytokine production and NF-κB pathways were significantly activated in psoriasis (P psoriasis that will help guide biological experiments for psoriasis risk variants in future.

  5. Loss of Atrx affects trophoblast development and the pattern of X-inactivation in extraembryonic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ATRX is an X-encoded member of the SNF2 family of ATPase/helicase proteins thought to regulate gene expression by modifying chromatin at target loci. Mutations in ATRX provided the first example of a human genetic disease associated with defects in such proteins. To better understand the role of ATRX in development and the associated abnormalities in the ATR-X (alpha thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked syndrome, we conditionally inactivated the homolog in mice, Atrx, at the 8- to 16-cell stage of development. The protein, Atrx, was ubiquitously expressed, and male embryos null for Atrx implanted and gastrulated normally but did not survive beyond 9.5 days postcoitus due to a defect in formation of the extraembryonic trophoblast, one of the first terminally differentiated lineages in the developing embryo. Carrier female mice that inherit a maternal null allele should be affected, since the paternal X chromosome is normally inactivated in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, however, some carrier females established a normal placenta and appeared to escape the usual pattern of imprinted X-inactivation in these tissues. Together these findings demonstrate an unexpected, specific, and essential role for Atrx in the development of the murine trophoblast and present an example of escape from imprinted X chromosome inactivation.

  6. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART: factors affecting success Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático (ART: fatores que afetam o sucesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of tooth restorations rendered according to principles of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART approach is dependant on various clinical factors. The most common failures, due to these factors, are partial material loss; complete material loss; caries related to restoration margin and material wear > 0.5mm. The main reason for clinical ART failures are related to operator skills and performance. The prevention and management of ART failures includes emphasis on correct clinical indication and the repair of failed restorations. A new caries classification may provide guidance for clinical indication. The classification combines site and size of a lesion, which is reflected in a dual coding system. In addition, ART training and diligence during ART application are important for clinical success.O sucesso de restaurações dentais resultante dos princípios do Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático (ART é dependente de vários fatores clínicos. A falhas mais comuns decorrentes desses fatores estão relacionadas com o desgaste do material (>0,5 mm; perda parcial do material; perda completa do material e cárie associada à margem da restauração. A principal razão para as falhas clínicas do ART está relacionada com a habilidade e performance do operador. A prevenção e controle das falhas do ART incluem ênfase na correta indicação e no reparo de restaurações falhas. Uma nova classificação de cáries pode servir de guia para a indicação clínica. A classificação combina localização e extensão da lesão, a qual é expressa em um sistema de código duplo. Adicionalmente, o treinamento e domínio durante a aplicação do ART são fatores importantes para o sucesso clínico.

  7. A mechanical microconnector system for restoration of tissue continuity and long-term drug application into the injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazda, Nicole; Voss, Christian; Estrada, Veronica; Lodin, Homaira; Weinrich, Nils; Seide, Klaus; Müller, Jörg; Müller, Hans W

    2013-12-01

    Complete transection of the spinal cord leaves a gap of several mm which fills with fibrous scar tissue. Several approaches in rodent models have used tubes, foams, matrices or tissue implants to bridge this gap. Here, we describe a mechanical microconnector system (mMS) to re-adjust the retracted spinal cord stumps. The mMS is a multi-channel system of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), designed to fit into the spinal cord tissue gap after transection, with an outlet tubing system to apply negative pressure to the mMS thus sucking the spinal cord stumps into the honeycomb-structured holes. The stumps adhere to the microstructure of the mMS walls and remain in the mMS after removal of the vacuum. We show that the mMS preserves tissue integrity and allows axonal regrowth at 2, 5 and 19 weeks post lesion with no adverse tissue effects like in-bleeding or cyst formation. Preliminary assessment of locomotor function in the open field suggested beneficial effects of the mMS. Additional inner micro-channels enable local substance delivery into the lesion center via an attached osmotic minipump. We suggest that the mMS is a suitable device to adapt and stabilize the injured spinal cord after surgical resection of scar tissue (e.g., for chronic patients) or traumatic injuries with large tissue and bone damages.

  8. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  9. Pulsed Discharge Through Wetland Vegetation as a Control on Bed Shear Stress and Sediment Transport Affecting Everglades Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Crimaldi, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    The ridge and slough landscape is a patterned peatland within the Florida Everglades in which elevated ridges of emergent vegetation are regularly interspersed among open-water sloughs with floating and submerged vegetation. Landscape features are aligned parallel to the historic flow direction. Degradation of patterning over the past 100 years coincides with diminished flow resulting from drainage and construction of levees and canals. A goal of restoration is to increase flow velocities and redistribution of particles and solutes in attempt to preserve remnant patterning and restore degraded portions of the ridge and slough landscape. To explore different management strategies that could induce sediment redistribution in the ridge and slough landscape, we simulated velocity profiles and bed shear stresses for different combinations of surface water stage, water surface slope, and vegetation community structure, based on field measurements and laboratory experiments. A mixing length approach, in which the minimum of stem spacing and distance from a solid boundary determined eddy scale, was used to simulate velocity profiles and bed shear stress in vegetated arrays. Simplified velocity profiles based only on vegetation frontal area above the bed and the Karman-Prandtl logarithmic law near the bed closely were used to approximate solutions of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for large-scale simulation. Estimates of bed shear stress were most sensitive to bed roughness, vegetation community structure, and energy slope. Importantly, our simulations illustrate that velocity and bed shear stress cannot be increased substantially in the Everglades simply by increasing surface-water stage. This result comes directly from the dependence of velocity and shear stress on vegetation frontal area and the fact that emergent vegetation stems protrude through the water column even during times of relatively deep water in the Everglades. Since merely increasing water

  10. Gene Expression Profiles in Paired Gingival Biopsies from Periodontitis-Affected and Healthy Tissues Revealed by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båge, Tove; Lagervall, Maria; Jansson, Leif; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue and bone that surrounds the teeth. Despite extensive research, distinctive genes responsible for the disease have not been identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate transcriptome changes in periodontitis, by investigating gene expression profiles in gingival tissue obtained from periodontitis-affected and healthy gingiva from the same patient, using RNA-sequencing. Gingival biopsies were obtained from a disease-affected and a healthy site from each of 10 individuals diagnosed with periodontitis. Enrichment analysis performed among uniquely expressed genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition. Hierarchical clustering of the sequenced biopsies demonstrated clustering according to the degree of inflammation, as observed histologically in the biopsies, rather than clustering at the individual level. Among the top 50 upregulated genes in periodontitis-affected tissues, we investigated two genes which have not previously been demonstrated to be involved in periodontitis. These included interferon regulatory factor 4 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18, which were also expressed at the protein level in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, this study provides a first step towards a quantitative comprehensive insight into the transcriptome changes in periodontitis. We demonstrate for the first time site-specific local variation in gene expression profiles of periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues obtained from patients with periodontitis, using RNA-seq. Further, we have identified novel genes expressed in periodontitis tissues, which may constitute potential therapeutic targets for future treatment strategies of periodontitis. PMID:23029519

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue are not affected by renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E J; de Klein, Annelies; Douben, Hannie; Korevaar, Sander S; Mensah, Fane K F; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are a potential therapeutic agent in renal disease and kidney transplantation. Autologous cell use in kidney transplantation is preferred to avoid anti-HLA reactivity; however, the influence of renal disease on mesenchymal stem cells is unknown. To investigate the feasibility of autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease, we isolated these cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy controls and patients with renal disease and compared them phenotypically and functionally. The mesenchymal stem cells from both groups showed similar morphology and differentiation capacity, and were both over 90% positive for CD73, CD105, and CD166, and negative for CD31 and CD45. They demonstrated comparable population doubling times, rates of apoptosis, and were both capable of inhibiting allo-antigen- and anti-CD3/CD28-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. In response to immune activation they both increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. These mesenchymal stem cells were genetically stable after extensive expansion and, importantly, were not affected by uremic serum. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells of patients with renal disease have similar characteristics and functionality as those from healthy controls. Hence, our results indicate the feasibility of their use in autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease.

  12. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions.

  13. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiencies affect expression of lipolytic activities in mouse adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patterns of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (-/-) and HSL (-/-) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-recognition probes possessing the same substrate analogous structure but carrying different fluorophores for specific detection of the enzyme patterns of two different tissues in one electrophoresis gel. We found that ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue had a profound effect on the expression levels of other lipolytic and esterolytic enzymes in this tissue, whereas HSL-deficiency hardly showed any effect in brown adipose tissue. Neither ATGL- nor HSL-deficiency greatly influenced the lipase patterns in white adipose tissue. Enzyme activities of mouse tissues on acylglycerol substrates were analyzed as well, showing that ATGL-and HSL-deficiencies can be compensated for at least in part by other enzymes. The proteins that responded to ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue were overexpressed and their activities on acylglycerols were analyzed. Among these enzymes, Es1, Es10, and Es31-like represent lipase candidates as they catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain acylglycerols.

  14. Short-Term PTEN Inhibition Improves In Vitro Activation of Primordial Follicles, Preserves Follicular Viability, and Restores AMH Levels in Cryopreserved Ovarian Tissue From Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne Novella-Maestre

    Full Text Available In vitro activation and growth of primordial dormant follicles to produce fertilizable oocytes would provide a useful instrument for fertility preservation. The employment of Phosphatase and TENsin homolog (PTEN inhibitors, in combination with Protein kinase B (Akt stimulating molecules, has been previously employed to increase follicular activation through the stimulation of the PTEN-Akt pathway.We aim to establish improved in vitro activation also for cancer patients whose ovarian tissue has already been cryopreserved. Fresh and previously cryopreserved human ovarian cortex were exposed to short-term, low-concentration and ovary-specific treatment with only a PTEN inhibitor.Our in vitro activation protocol enhances the activation mechanisms of primordial follicles in both fresh and cryopreserved samples, and enlarges growing populations without inducing apoptosis in either follicles or the surrounding stroma. Treatment augments estradiol secretion and restores the expression levels of the previously diminished Anti-Müllerian hormone by means of cryopreservation procedures. Genomic modulation of the relative expression of PTEN pathway genes was found in treated samples.The in vitro activation protocol offers new alternatives for patients with cryopreserved tissue as it increases the pool of viable activated follicles available for in vitro growth procedures. The combination of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in vitro activation of primordial follicles, the main ovarian reserve component, will be a major advancement in fertility preservation.

  15. Restoration of Normal Frequency Affected by Small Load Variations Through HVDC link Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Sharma,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HVDC power transmission is coming up with merits to replace the EHV-AC system. The controller inverter operation can successfully regulate the power in HVDC link leading to fulfillment ofpower demand in A.C. networks caused by sudden rise in loading. Since overloading and unloading both lead to the departure of operating frequency below or above normal, its control for normalization isexercised through control of power flow in HVDC Link. Also the same is achieved by adjusting firing delay angle intelligently. This paper aims at providing automation to frequency normalization after it hasundergone changes from normal value of 50 Hz, due to sudden and sustained increase in load or due to working of generations at increased loads in H.V.D.C transmission systems. It is planned to automate the restoration of departed frequency to normal value by arranging the change in firing delay angle i.e. α of the converter of H.V.D.C. link till the increased load demand is met with. An adaptive control system has been devised which controls the firing delay angle on the basis of decisions given by a fuzzy controller. Also the fuzzy controls are decided by the departure in frequency from normal. The results have been found to be encouraging.

  16. Plant maturity and nitrogen fertilization affected fructan metabolism in harvestable tissues of timothy (Phleum pratense L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Ahmed, Marouf; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Lafrenière, Carole; Drouin, Pascal

    2014-10-15

    Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is an important grass forage used for pasture, hay, and silage in regions with cool and humid growth seasons. One of the factors affecting the nutritive value of this grass is the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), mainly represented by fructans. NSC concentration depends on multiple factors, making it hardly predictable. To provide a better understanding of NSC metabolism in timothy, the effects of maturity stage and nitrogen (N) fertilization level on biomass, NSC and N-compound concentrations were investigated in the tissues used for forage (leaf blades and stems surrounded by leaf sheaths) of hydroponically grown plants. Moreover, activities and relative expression level of enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were measured in the same tissues. Forage biomass was not altered by the fertilization level but was strongly modified by the stage of development. It increased from vegetative to heading stages while leaf-to-stem biomass ratio decreased. Total NSC concentration, which was not altered by N fertilization level, increased between heading and anthesis due to an accumulation of fructans in leaf blades. Fructan metabolizing enzyme activities (fructosyltransferase-FT and fructan exohydrolase-FEH) were not or only slightly altered by both maturity stage and N fertilization level. Conversely, the relative transcript levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were modified by N supply (PpFT1 and Pp6-FEH1) or maturity stage (PpFT2). The relative transcript level of PpFT1 was the highest in low N plants while that of Pp6-FEH1 was the highest in high N plants. Morevoer, transcript level of PpFT1 was negatively correlated with nitrate concentration while that of PpFT2 was positively correlated with sucrose concentration. This distinct regulation of the two genes coding for 6-sucrose:fructan fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) may allow a fine adequation of C allocation towards fructan synthesis in

  17. Stent Revascularization Restores Cortical Blood Flow and Reverses Tissue Hypoxia in Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis, But Fails To Reverse Inflammatory Pathways or GFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M.S.; Crane, John; Glockner, James F; Mckusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Eirin, Alfonso; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Lerman, Lilach O.; Textor, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is known to reduce renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amplify kidney hypoxia, but the relationships between these factors and tubulo-interstitial injury in the post-stenotic kidney are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of renal revascularization in ARAS on renal tissue hypoxia and renal injury. Methods and Results Inpatient studies performed in ARAS patients (n = 17), more than 60% occlusion) before and 3 months after stent revascularization, or patients with essential hypertension (EH) (n = 32), during fixed Na+ intake and ACE/ARB Rx. Single-kidney (SK) cortical, medullary perfusion and RBF measured using multidetector CT, and GFR by iothalamate clearance. Tissue deoxyhemoglobin levels (R2*) measured by Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI at 3T, as was fractional kidney hypoxia (% of axial area with R2* > 30/s). In addition, we measured renal vein levels of Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Pre-stent SK-RBF, perfusion, and GFR were reduced in the post-stenotic kidney. Renal vein NGAL, TNF-α, MCP-1 and fractional hypoxia were higher in untreated ARAS than EH. After stent revascularization, fractional hypoxia fell (p < 0.002) with increased cortical perfusion and blood flow, while GFR and NGAL, MCP-1 and TNF-α remained unchanged. Conclusions These data demonstrate that despite reversal of renal hypoxia and partial restoration of RBF after revascularization, inflammatory cytokines and injury biomarkers remained elevated and GFR failed to recover in ARAS. Restoration of vessel patency alone failed to reverse tubulointerstitial damage and partly explains the limited clinical benefit of renal stenting. These results identify potential therapeutic targets for recovery of kidney function in renovascular disease. PMID:23899868

  18. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue doses for the establishment of a breast cancer screening system using mammography. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Hagiwara, Akira; Asahara, Masaki [and others

    2000-09-01

    The effects of technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions and X-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose of radiation were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for an RMI 156 phantom at each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition needed to obtain a radiographic density of 1.20 to 1.40 with an RMI 156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). The analysis included 208 dose measurements at 104 facilities. The results showed that the average glandular tissue dose depends strongly on the grid types and screen-film combinations used. There were also significant differences in radiographic density between the Standard Radiographic Condition and the Canonical Radiographic Condition. This analysis of the technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose will be useful in establishing a standardized mammographic breast cancer screening system. (author)

  19. Factors Affecting Migration Intentions in Ecological Restoration Areas and Their Implications for the Sustainability of Ecological Migration Policy in Arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological migration policy has been proposed and implemented as a means for depopulating ecological restoration areas in the arid Northwest China. Migration intention is critical to the effectiveness of ecological migration policy. However, studies on migration intention in relation to ecological migration policy in China remain scant. Thus this paper aims to investigate the rural residents’ migration intentions and their affecting factors under ecological migration policy in Minqin County, an ecological restoration area, located at the lower terminus of Shiyang River Basin in arid Northwest China. The data for this study come from a randomly sampled household questionnaire survey. Results from logistic regression modelling indicate that most residents do not intend to migrate, despite rigid eco-environmental conditions and governance polices threatening livelihood sustainability. In addition to demographic and socio-economic factors, the eco-environmental factors are also significantly correlated with the possibility of a resident intending to migrate. The implications of the significant independent variables for the sustainability of ecological migration policy are discussed. The paper concludes that ecological migration policies may ultimately be more sustainable when taking into account household interests within complex migration intention contexts, such as household livelihoods dynamics and environmental change.

  20. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. bi...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  1. Effects of mineral water differing in chemical composition on the post-radiation restorative processes of tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkova, S.M.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Nikulina, L.A.; Panova, L.N. [Russian Research Center for Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-11-01

    Experiments have show that natural and manufactured water containing arsenic and iodine may alter radiosensitivity in rats. This effect is associated with the ability of certain concentrations of iodine and arsenic ions to decrease respiration and stimulate phosphorylation in rat liver mintochondria, with resulting tissue hypoxia. Combination of iodine and calcium produced a protective effect after 21 days of daily administration to rats that absorbed radiation. In particular the survival rate of the rates increased to 67% in comparison with a 36% survival rate in rats that received only calcium and a 100% death rate in rats which were left untreated. In addition to increased energization of rat liver mitochondria, the treatment produced an inhibition of renal parenchyma clacification caused by radiation. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annis Elizabeth; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Coen, Enrico S

    2016-08-23

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth.

  3. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebocho, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth. PMID:27553356

  4. Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iromi Dharmawardhane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a

  5. Form of Dietary Methylmercury does not Affect Total Mercury Accumulation in the Tissues of Zebra Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Whitney, Margaret; Rice, Gary W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to mercury in humans, other mammals, and birds is primarily dietary, with mercury in the methylated form and bound to cysteine in the tissues of prey items. Yet dosing studies are generally carried out using methylmercury chloride. Here we tested whether the accumulation of total mercury in zebra finch blood, egg, muscle, liver, kidney or brain differed depending on whether dietary mercury was complexed with chloride or cysteine. We found no effect of form of mercury on tissue accumulation. Some previous studies have found lower accumulation of mercury in tissues of animals fed complexed mercury. Much remains to be understood about what happens to ingested mercury once it enters the intestines, but our results suggest that dietary studies using methylmercury chloride in birds will produce similar tissue accumulation levels to those using methylmercury cysteine.

  6. Nutritional factors affecting growth of muscle and adipose tissue in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, F M

    1982-07-01

    Patterns of tissue growth determine composition of growth, and over intervals of time, these patterns of tissue growth will also be reflected in total tissue accumulated in the animal. Although patterns of tissue growth may be modified by the effects of specific carbon sources through direct impact on lipogenesis, the primary avenue through which nutritional factors regulate or direct protein and fat deposition is through effects of total absorbed energy provided on rates of growth in relation to an animal's daily needs for maintenance and protein growth. Even though mature size and genetic potential establish the maximum upper limits for daily protein growth, other factors determine the extent to which these theoretical limits will ever be achieved. The actual partitioning of absorbed nutrients between protein and fat deposition also depends on other factors, including stage of growth, sex class, hormonal regulation (endogenous and exogenous), and intake of required nutrients. The sex class of an animal establishes different biological limits for bulls, steers, and heifers that are otherwise similar in mature size, genetics, and nutritional adequacy. Also, the use of anabolic agents alters the physiological limit for daily protein growth at the cellular level and allows an animal to deposit protein at rates closer to theoretical genetic limits. Energy that is provided above maintenance and protein growth requirements enhances rates of lipid deposition and accumulation of fat. As a consequence, the rate of growth will direct these tissue responses, and effects of diet, energy level, level of nutrition, and plane of nutrition will impact composition of growth primarily through acceleration of rate of growth above daily limits for protein growth. Changes in tissue storage will impact total body composition to the extent of time and differential in composition of gain and of tissue present.

  7. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  8. Crown lengthening surgery: a restorative-driven periodontal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D F; Handelsman, M; Ravon, N A

    1999-02-01

    Improper management of the periodontal tissues during restorative procedures is a common, but often overlooked, cause of failure. When a restoration is placed, the preservation of an intact, healthy periodontium is necessary to maintain the tooth or teeth being restored. Predictable long-term restorative success requires a combination of restorative principles with the correct management of the periodontal tissues.

  9. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  10. Use of neuropathological tissue for molecular genetic studies: parameters affecting DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösel, S; Graeber, M B

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA were extracted from gray matter of human cerebral cortex which had either been formalin-fixed and embedded into paraffin or stored in formalin for up to 26 years. Extraction conditions were optimized for proteinase K digestion, i.e., enzyme concentration, digestion temperature and incubation time. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA was successfully amplified from archival material and sequenced employing a direct nonradioactive cycle sequencing protocol. In general, tissue embedded into paraffin following brief fixation in formalin gave good quantitative results, i.e., up to 1 microgram DNA/mg tissue were extracted. This yield was at least one order of magnitude higher than that obtained with tissue stored in formalin. However, paraffin-embedded neuropathological material was found to contain an as-yet-unidentified PCR inhibitor, and a deleterious effect of long-term fixation in unbuffered low-grade formalin was clearly detectable. Importantly, both paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and human brain that had been stored in formalin for many years yielded DNA sufficient for qualitative analysis. The implications of these findings for the use of neuropathological material in molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  11. Propionic acid affects immune status and metabolism in adipose tissue from overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.; Roelofsen, H.; Rezaee, F.; Weening, D.; Hoek, A.; Vonk, R.; Venema, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is a primary site of obesity-induced inflammation, which is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Dietary fibre consumption appears to be protective. Short-chain fatty acids, e.g. propionic acid, are the principal products

  12. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones as the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e. true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1±1.2mm) and trapezium (3.4±1.0mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7±0.3mm) and capitate (1.2±0.5mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0±40.4mm(2)) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9±29.7mm(2)) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitate-trapezium ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal tunnel area aids in examining carpal

  13. Segmental overgrowth syndrome due to an activating PIK3CA mutation identified in affected muscle tissue by exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Weigert, Karen Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA-associated......-associated segmental overgrowth syndrome overlaps with CLOVES syndrome and fibroadipose hyperplasia but is distinct from each of these entities....

  14. Development and evaluation of a new 3-D digitization and computer graphic system to study the anatomic tissue and restoration surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastane, A; Vaidyanathan, T K; Vaidyanathan, J; Mehra, R; Hesby, R

    1996-01-01

    It is necessary to visualize and reconstruct tissue anatomic surfaces accurately for a variety of oral rehabilitation applications such as surface wear characterization and automated fabrication of dental restorations, accuracy of reproduction of impression and die materials, etc. In this investigation, a 3-D digitization and computer-graphic system was developed for surface characterization. The hardware consists of a profiler assembly for digitization in an MTS biomechanical test system with an artificial mouth, an IBM PS/2 computer model 70 for data processing and a Hewlett-Packard laser printer for hardcopy outputs. The software used includes a commercially available Surfer 3-D graphics package, a public domain data-fitting alignment software and an inhouse Pascal program for intercommunication plus some other limited tasks. Surfaces were digitized before and after rotation by angular displacement, the digital data were interpolated by Surfer to provide a data grid and the surfaces were computer graphically reconstructed: Misaligned surfaces were aligned by the data-fitting alignment software under different choices of parameters. The effect of different interpolation parameters (e.g. grid size, method of interpolation) and extent of rotation on the alignment accuracy was determined. The results indicate that improved alignment accuracy results from optimization of interpolation parameters and minimization of the initial misorientation between the digitized surfaces. The method provides important advantages for surface reconstruction and visualization, such as overlay of sequentially generated surfaces and accurate alignment of pairs of surfaces with small misalignment.

  15. Hypoxia affects tissue oxygenation differently in the thigh and calf muscles during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takuya; Arimitsu, Takuma; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-08-17

    The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. Hypoxia significantly decreased peak running speed and [Formula: see text] (p incremental running, StO2 in the vastus lateralis decreased almost linearly, and the rate of decrease from warm-up (180 m min(-1)) to [Formula: see text] was significantly greater than in the medial gastrocnemius under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (p incremental running.

  16. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J.

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show ...

  17. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action.

  18. Contraction mode and whey protein intake affect the synthesis rate of intramuscular connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Klejs Rahbek, Stine; Farup, Jean

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the impact of whey protein hydrolysate and maltodextrin (WPH) intake on intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) after maximal shortening and lengthening contractions. METHODS: Twenty young men were randomized...... to receive either WPH or maltodextrin [carbohydrate (CHO)] immediately after completion of unilateral shortening and lengthening knee extensions. Ring-(13) C6 -phenylalanine was infused, and muscle biopsies were obtained. IMCT protein FSR was measured at 1-5, as well as 1-3 and 3-5 hours after contractions...

  19. Inflammatory conditions affect gene expression and function of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Crop (Meindert); C.C. Baan (Carla); S.S. Korevaar (Sander); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); M. Pescatori (Mario); A. Stubbs (Andrew); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); M.H. Dahlke (Marc); E. Eggenhofer (Elke); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThere is emerging interest in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host disease and allograft rejection. It is, however, unknown how inflammatory conditions affect phenotype and function of MSC. Adipose tiss

  20. Knockdown of the coenzyme Q synthesis gene Smed-dlp1 affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Yumiko; Harada, Chiaki; Shiota, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Saeko; Tabata, Kenta; Sekie, Kiyoteru; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater planarian is a model organism used to study tissue regeneration that occupies an important position among multicellular organisms. Planarian genomic databases have led to the identification of genes that are required for regeneration, with implications for their roles in its underlying mechanism. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a fundamental lipophilic molecule that is synthesized and expressed in every cell of every organism. Furthermore, CoQ levels affect development, life span, disease and aging in nematodes and mice. Because CoQ can be ingested in food, it has been used in preventive nutrition. In this study, we investigated the role of CoQ in planarian regeneration. Planarians synthesize both CoQ9 and rhodoquinone 9 (RQ9). Knockdown of Smed-dlp1, a trans-prenyltransferase gene that encodes an enzyme that synthesizes the CoQ side chain, led to a decrease in CoQ9 and RQ9 levels. However, ATP levels did not consistently decrease in these animals. Knockdown animals exhibited tissue regression and curling. The number of mitotic cells decreased in Smed-dlp1 (RNAi) animals. These results suggested a failure in physiological cell turnover and stem cell function. Accordingly, regenerating planarians died from lysis or exhibited delayed regeneration. Interestingly, the observed phenotypes were partially rescued by ingesting food supplemented with α-tocopherol. Taken together, our results suggest that oxidative stress induced by reduced CoQ9 levels affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

  1. Aging affects B-cell antigen receptor repertoire diversity in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Hazanov, Lena; Schiby, Ginette; Rosenthal, Noemie; Rakovsky, Aviya; Michaeli, Miri; Shahaf, Gitit Lavy; Pickman, Yishai; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Melamed, Doron; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Mehr, Ramit; Barshack, Iris

    2016-02-01

    The elderly immune system is characterized by reduced responses to infections and vaccines, and an increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Age-related deficits in the immune system may be caused by peripheral homeostatic pressures that limit bone marrow B-cell production or migration to the peripheral lymphoid tissues. Studies of peripheral blood B-cell receptor spectratypes have shown that those of the elderly are characterized by reduced diversity, which is correlated with poor health status. In the present study, we performed for the first time high-throughput sequencing of immunoglobulin genes from archived biopsy samples of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues in old (74 ± 7 years old, range 61-89) versus young (24 ± 5 years old, range 18-45) individuals, analyzed repertoire diversities and compared these to results in peripheral blood. We found reduced repertoire diversity in peripheral blood and lymph node repertoires from old people, while in the old spleen samples the diversity was larger than in the young. There were no differences in somatic hypermutation characteristics between age groups. These results support the hypothesis that age-related immune frailty stems from altered B-cell homeostasis leading to narrower memory B-cell repertoires, rather than changes in somatic hypermutation mechanisms.

  2. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    of 6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N...... muscle size and strength, while tendon size and collagen turnover were unchanged. While recovery resulted in an increase in muscle size, strength was unchanged. No significant difference in tendon size could be detected between the two legs after 2 wk of recovery, although collagen synthesis......Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease...

  3. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Gómez-Abellán

    Full Text Available AIMS: to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V and subcutaneous (S adipose tissue (AT in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX on positive and negative clock genes expression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2 (n = 6. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements in the SAT (situation not present in VAT. A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS: 24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements and PER2 (negative element mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure.

  4. Leptin intake in suckling rats restores altered T3 levels and markers of adipose tissue sympathetic drive and function caused by gestational calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, J; Palou, M; Sánchez, J; Picó, C; Palou, A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal calorie restriction during gestation in rats has been associated with altered white adipose tissue (WAT) sympathetic innervation and function in offspring. Here, we aimed to investigate whether supplementation with oral leptin (a breast milk component) throughout the lactation period may revert the aforementioned adverse programming effects. Three groups of male and female rats were studied at the postnatal day 25: the offspring of control dams, the offspring of 20% calorie-restricted dams during pregnancy (CR) and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels and its immunoreactive area, and mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and of deiodinase iodothyronine type II (Dio2) were determined in WAT. Triiodothyronine (T3) levels were determined in the blood. In CR males, leptin treatment restored the decreased TH levels and its immunoreactive area in WAT, and partially normalized expression levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation (adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha). Leptin treatment also reverted the decreased T3 plasma levels and WAT lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels occurring in CR males and females, and the decreased Dio2 mRNA levels in CR females. Leptin supplementation throughout the lactation period reverts the malprogrammed effects on WAT structure and function induced by undernutrition during pregnancy. These findings support the relevance of the intake of leptin during lactation, bearing clear characteristics of essential nutrient, and provide a strategy to treat and/or prevent the programmed trend to obesity acquired by inadequate fetal nutrition.

  5. [Influence of implant restoration on traditional restoration idea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H C

    2016-01-01

    Implant restoration affected the traditional restoration idea. Artificial implant restoration has a profound influence on the design of dental restoration. Implant supported prostheses have not only changed the method of oral rehabilitation, but also integrated revolutionary concept with the traditional treatment protocol. By using implants, posterior missing molars can be effectively restored and thus eliminating the disadvantages of traditional removable partial denture for Kennedy classification Ⅰ, Ⅱ partically edentulous dentition. Full edentulous arch can also be restored with implant fixed denture which provide much better oral health related quality of life compared with the traditional complete denture. It is useful to master the theory and skills of artificial implant restoration, and to provide a reference for the restoration of oral physiological function.

  6. Astrocyte-derived tissue Transglutaminase affects fibronectin deposition, but not aggregation, during cuprizone-induced demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia Pinzon, Nathaly; Sanz-Morello, Berta; Brevé, John J. P.; Bol, John G. J. M.; Drukarch, Benjamin; Bauer, Jan; Baron, Wia; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Astrogliosis as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) develops into astroglial scarring, which is beneficial because it seals off the site of central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, astroglial scarring also forms an obstacle that inhibits axon outgrowth and (re)myelination in brain lesions. This is possibly an important cause for incomplete remyelination in the CNS of early stage MS patients and for failure in remyelination when the disease progresses. In this study we address whether under demyelinating conditions in vivo, tissue Transglutaminase (TG2), a Ca2+ -dependent enzyme that catalyses posttranslational modification of proteins, contributes to extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and/or aggregation. We used the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination. TG2 immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity time-dependently appeared in astrocytes and ECM, respectively, in the corpus callosum of cuprizone-treated mice. Enhanced presence of soluble monomeric and multimeric fibronectin was detected during demyelination, and fibronectin immunoreactivity was slightly decreased in cuprizone-treated TG2−/− mice. In vitro TG2 overexpression in astrocytes coincided with more, while knock-down of TG2 with less fibronectin production. TG2 contributes, at least partly, to fibronectin production, and may play a role in fibronectin deposition during cuprizone-induced demyelination. Our observations are of interest in understanding the functional implications of TG2 during astrogliosis. PMID:28128219

  7. Sarcopenia Does Not Affect Survival or Outcomes in Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Sarcopenia is associated with decreased survival and increased complications in carcinoma patients. We hypothesized that sarcopenic soft-tissue sarcoma (STS patients would have decreased survival, increased incidence of wound complications, and increased length of postresection hospital stay (LOS. Methods. A retrospective, single-center review of 137 patients treated surgically for STS was conducted. Sarcopenia was assessed by measuring the cross-sectional area of bilateral psoas muscles (total psoas muscle area, TPA at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae on a pretreatment axial computed tomography scan. TPA was then adjusted for height (cm2/m2. The association between height-adjusted TPA and survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. A logistical model was used to assess the association between height-adjusted TPA and wound complications. A linear model was used to assess the association between height-adjusted TPA and LOS. Results. Height-adjusted TPA was not an independent predictor of overall survival (p=0.746. Patient age (p=0.02 and tumor size (p=0.009 and grade (p=0.001 were independent predictors of overall survival. Height-adjusted TPA was not a predictor of increased hospital LOS (p=0.66, greater incidence of postoperative infection (p=0.56, or other wound complications (p=0.14. Conclusions. Sarcopenia does not appear to impact overall survival, LOS, or wound complications in patients with STS.

  8. Cell culture density affects the stemness gene expression of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Lee, Tae-Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2017-03-01

    The results of clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are controversial due to the heterogeneity of human MSCs and differences in culture conditions. In this regard, it is important to identify gene expression patterns according to culture conditions, and to determine how the cells are expanded and when they should be clinically used. In the current study, stemness gene expression was investigated in adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) harvested following culture at different densities. AT-MSCs were plated at a density of 200 or 5,000 cells/cm(2). After 7 days of culture, stemness gene expression was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The proliferation rate of AT-MSCs harvested at a low density (~50% confluent) was higher than that of AT-MSCs harvested at a high density (~90% confluent). Although there were differences in the expression levels of stemness gene, such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4, nanog homeobox (Nanog), SRY-box 2, Kruppel like factor 4, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc), and lin-28 homolog A, in the AT-MSCs obtained from different donors, RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated differential gene expression patterns according to the cell culture density. Expression levels of stemness genes, particularly Nanog and c-Myc, were upregulated in AT-MSCs harvested at a low density (~50% confluent) in comparison to AT-MSCs from the same donor harvested at a high density (~90% confluent). These results imply that culture conditions, such as the cell density at harvesting, modulate the stemness gene expression and proliferation of MSCs.

  9. Exercise does not affect stiffness and mineralisation of third metacarpal condylar subarticular calcified tissues in 2 year old thoroughbred racehorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VL Ferguson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Impact exercise has a profound effect in increasing volumetric density of epiphyseal bone, as clearly shown in 2 year old thoroughbred racehorses from which we derived the tissue studied in the present investigation. Here, we asked the question whether the fabric-level properties of the mineralised tissues immediately below hyaline articular cartilage which transmit the extra loads are themselves altered in consequence. We therefore studied the nanoindentation elastic modulus and its relationship to the concentration of mineral determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in the heavily loaded palmar medial and lateral condyles of the distal third metacarpal bone (Mc3 of 4 untrained and 4 trained 2-year old Thoroughbred racehorses. We found no difference between trained and untrained horses in either subchondral bone or calcified cartilage in the mean stiffness or mineral content or their correlation. Thus neither articular calcified cartilage nor the immediately adjacent subchondral bone were affected by exercise, even though they transmitted the higher load associated with athletic training through to the deeper bone, which itself responded floridly to exercise. Under the circumstances of this experiment and at least in the very small regions studied, therefore, the structure of these two tissues was apparently optimised to function.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants.I Pathology of conducting tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in anatomy and cytology of conducting tissues of Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants affected by aster yellows phytoplasma were investigated. In the phloem tissues of affected plants stem necrosis takes place. In necrotic regions no sieve tubes were observed only necrotic cells and parenchyma cells. The sieve tubes present on the border of necrosis showed collapsed walls and were rich in vesicles. Phytoplasma cells were observed in sieve tubes present in nonnecrotic regions of the phloem. Various structural changes in sieve elements were investigated. The endoplasmic reticulum cistemae were often localised in the lumen of the sieve element without contact with the walls. Such localisation of endoplasmic reticulum was never observed in healthy plants. Vesicles of different size, fuzzy material and clumping of p-proteins were characteristic for sieve elements from nonnecrotic part of phloem. No correlation with the sieve tube structure and the appearance of phytoplasma in a single sieve element was found. In control plants of L. sinuatum phloem observed were phloem parenchyma cells with spiny vesicles (SV. In infected plants there were a remarkable increase in cells with SV. Also the SV itself had not only a vesicular but also a tubular or extended cistern shape.

  11. Soil-restoration rate and initial soil formation trends on example of anthropogenically affected soils of opencast mine in Kursk region, Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigareva, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    The mining industry is one of the main factors which anthropogenically change the environment. Mining process results in removing of the rocks and mechanical changes of considerable amounts of ground. One of the main results of mining arising of antropic ecosystems as well as increasing of the new created soils total area is technosols. The main factor controlling the soil formation in postmining environment is the quality of spoiled materials. Initial soil formation has been investigated on spoils of the largest iron ore extraction complex in Russia - Mikhailovsky mining and concentration complex which is situated in Kursk region, Russia. Investigated soils are presented by monogenetic weak developed soils of different age (10-15-20 years). Young soils are formed on the loess parent materials (20 year-old soil), or on a mix of sand and clay overburdens (15 and 10-year-old soils). Anthropogenically affected soils are characterized by well-developed humus horizon which is gradually replaced by weakly changed soil-building rocks (profile type A-C for 10-, 15-years old soils, and A-AC-C for 20 years old soils). Gray-humus soils are characterized by presence of diagnostic humus horizon gradually replaced by soil-building rock. The maximum intensity of humus accumulation has been determined in a semi-hydromorphic 10-year-old soil developed on the mixed heaps which is connected with features of water-air conditions complicating mineralization of plant remnants. 20-year-old soil on loess is characterized by rather high rate of organic substances accumulation between all the automorphous soils. It was shown that one of the most effective restoration ways for anthropogenically affected soils is a biological reclamation. Since overburdens once appeared on a day surface are overgrown badly in the first years, they are subject to influence of water and wind erosion. Our researchers have found out that permanent grasses are able to grow quickly; they accumulate a considerable

  12. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Martin; Eiden, Martin; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Greenlee, Justin; Schatzl, Hermann; Fast, Christine; Richt, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Groschup, Martin H

    2012-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that mainly affects cattle. Transmission of BSE to humans caused a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Following infection, the protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in the central nervous system and in other tissues. Many countries have defined bovine tissues that may contain prions as specified risk materials, which must not enter the human or animal food chains and therefore must be discarded. Ultrasensitive techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) have been developed to detect PrP(Sc) when present in minuscule amounts that are not readily detected by other diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. This study was conducted to determine when and where PrP(Sc) can be found by PMCA in cattle orally challenged with BSE. A total of 48 different tissue samples from four cattle infected orally with BSE at various clinical stages of disease were examined using a standardized PMCA protocol. The protocol used brain homogenate from bovine PrP transgenic mice (Tgbov XV) as substrate and three consecutive rounds of PMCA. Using this protocol, PrP(Sc) was found in the brain, spinal cord, nerve ganglia, optic nerve and Peyer's patches. The presence of PrP(Sc) was confirmed in adrenal glands, as well as in mesenteric lymph nodes - a finding that was reported recently by another group. Interestingly, additional positive results were obtained for the first time in the oesophagus, abomasum, rumen and rectum of clinically affected cattle.

  13. Identification of pro-angiogenic markers in blood vessels from stroked-affected brain tissue using laser-capture microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldellou Maribel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis correlates with patient survival following acute ischaemic stroke, and survival of neurons is greatest in tissue undergoing angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is critical for the development of new microvessels and leads to re-formation of collateral circulation, reperfusion, enhanced neuronal survival and improved recovery. Results Here, we have isolated active (CD105/Flt-1 positive and inactive (CD105/Flt-1 minus (n=5 micro-vessel rich-regions from stroke-affected and contralateral tissue of patients using laser-capture micro-dissection. Areas were compared for pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression using targeted TaqMan microfluidity cards containing 46 genes and real-time PCR. Further analysis of key gene de-regulation was performed by immunohistochemistry to define localization and expression patterns of identified markers and de novo synthesis by human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC was examined following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Our data revealed that seven pro-angiogenic genes were notably up-regulated in CD105 positive microvessel rich regions. These were, beta-catenin, neural cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, hepatocyte growth factor-alpha (HGF-alpha, monocyte chemottractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and and Tie-2 as well as c-kit. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong staining of MMP-2, HGF-alpha, MCP-1 and Tie-2 in stroke-associated regions of active remodeling in association with CD105 positive staining. In vitro, OGD stimulated production of Tie-2, MCP-1 and MMP-2 in HBMEC, demonstrated a de novo response to hypoxia. Conclusion In this work we have identified concurrent activation of key angiogenic molecules associated with endothelial cell migration, differentiation and tube-formation, vessel stabilization and stem cell homing mechanisms in areas of revascularization. Therapeutic stimulation of these

  14. Factors affecting immunoreactivity in long-term storage of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Federica; Pigozzi, Simona; Ceriolo, Paola; Calamaro, Paola; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Antigen decay in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections for immunohistochemistry is a well-known phenomenon which may have repercussions on translational and research studies and length of storage time appears fundamental. The aim of this study was to evaluate all possible factors which may lead to antigen decay on a prospective standardized collection of human tissues with a panel of 14 routinely used antibodies. Serial slide sections from FFPE control tissues were stored using different methods (routine storage at room temperature, Parafilm(®) protected, paraffin coated and cold stored at 4 °C) and for different time periods: 1, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed at each time cutoff simultaneously on stored sections and on freshly cut sections using a panel of 14 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was compared with immunoreactions performed at time zero. Reduction in immunostaining was observed for a subset of antibodies (CD3, CD 31, CD117, estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, p53, TTF-1, vimentin) while for others (smooth muscle actin, keratins 7, 20, AE1/AE3, 34βE12), no antigen decay was observed. Loss of antigenicity was proportional to tissue section age and was dependent on mode of storage with cold storage slides being the least affected. All antigens with reductions in immunosignal were nuclear or membranous, and they all required heat pre-treatment for antigen retrieval. In contrast to results from other studies, when pre-analytical factors are strictly controlled and standardized, antigen decay seems to be restricted to nuclear or membrane antigens which require heat antigen retrieval.

  15. Non-Gaussian diffusion imaging for enhanced contrast of brain tissue affected by ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Grinberg

    Full Text Available Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC considered so far as the "gold standard". The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI. As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF, the stretched exponential model (SEM, and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes.

  16. Voice restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Tan, I.B.; Remacle, M.; Eckel, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical prosthetic voice restoration is the best possible option for patients to regain oral communication after total laryngectomy. It is considered to be the present "gold standard" for voice rehabilitation of laryngectomized individuals. Surgical prosthetic voice restoration, in essence, is alwa

  17. Experimental colitis and malnutrition differentially affect the metabolism of glutathione and related sulfhydryl metabolites in different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilyadi, Photios; Harding, Scott V; Nitschmann, Evan; Wykes, Linda J

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by severe inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This inflammation is known to drive the catabolism of protein in the affected tissue and modulate systemic protein metabolism. Yet despite the established increase in oxidative stress and changes in protein catabolism, little is known as to the effects of IBD on metabolism of glutathione (GSH) and related metabolites. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the response of GSH and related sulfhydryl metabolites to malnutrition and GI inflammation. We hypothesized that the inflammatory stress of colitis would decrease the concentration and the synthesis of GSH in various tissues of well-nourished piglets. Additionally, the superimposition of malnutrition on colitis would further decrease glutathione status. Healthy, well-nourished piglets were compared to those receiving dextran sulphate sodium-induced, a macronutrient-restricted diet or both. The synthesis of GSH was determined by primed constant infusion of [(15)N,(13)C2]glycine and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Additionally, the concentrations of GSH and related sulfhydryl metabolites were also determined by UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-a novel analytic technique. In healthy piglets, GSH synthesis was highest in the liver, along with the concentrations of both cysteine and γ-glutamylcysteine. Piglets with colitis had decreased synthesis of GSH and decreased concentrations of GSH, cysteine and γ-glutamylcysteine in the distal colon compared to healthy controls. Additionally, there was no change with superimposition of malnutrition on colitis in the distal colon. Synthesis and metabolism of GSH are uniquely regulated in each tissue. Colitis, independent of nutrition, compromises GSH status and the concentration of cysteine in the distal colon of piglets with GI inflammation. The techniques developed in this study have translational applications and can be scaled for

  18. Breast epithelial tissue morphology is affected in 3D cultures by species-specific collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Soto, Ana M; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Collagen-based gels have been widely used to determine the factors that regulate branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland. The patterns of biomechanical gradients and collagen reorganization influence the shape and orientation of epithelial structures in three-dimensional (3D) conditions. We explored in greater detail whether collagen type I fibers with distinct biomechanical and fiber-assembling properties, isolated from either bovine or rat tail tendon, differentially affected the epithelial phenotype in a tissue culture model of the human breast. Rat tail collagen fibers were densely packed into significantly longer and thicker bundles compared to those of the bovine type (average fascicle length 7.35 and 2.29 μm, respectively; p = 0.0001), indicating increased fiber alignment and biomechanical enablement in the former. MCF10A epithelial cells formed elaborated branched tubular structures in bovine but only nonbranched ducts and acini in rat tail collagen matrices. Ductal branching in bovine collagen was associated with interactions between neighboring structures mediated through packed collagen fibers; these fiber-mediated interactions were absent in rat tail collagen gels. Normal breast fibroblasts increased the final size and number of ducts only in rat tail collagen gels while not affecting branching. Our results suggest that the species of origin of collagen used in organotypic cultures may influence epithelial differentiation into alveolar or ductal structures and the patterns of epithelial branching. These observations underscore the importance of considering the species of origin and fiber alignment properties of collagen when engineering branching organs in 3D matrices and interpreting their role in the tissue phenotype.

  19. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field affects proliferation, tissue-specific gene expression, and cytokines release of human tendon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Girolamo, L; Stanco, D; Galliera, E; Viganò, M; Colombini, A; Setti, S; Vianello, E; Corsi Romanelli, M M; Sansone, V

    2013-07-01

    Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has proven to be effective in the modulation of bone and cartilage tissue functional responsiveness, but its effect on tendon tissue and tendon cells (TCs) is still underinvestigated. PEMF treatment (1.5 mT, 75 Hz) was assessed on primary TCs, harvested from semitendinosus and gracilis tendons of eight patients, under different experimental conditions (4, 8, 12 h). Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted to identify the possible effect of PEMF on tendon-specific gene transcription (scleraxis, SCX and type I collagen, COL1A1); the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also assessed. Our findings show that PEMF exposure is not cytotoxic and is able to stimulate TCs' proliferation. The increase of SCX and COL1A1 in PEMF-treated cells was positively correlated to the treatment length. The release of anti-inflammatory cytokines in TCs treated with PEMF for 8 and 12 h was significantly higher in comparison with untreated cells, while the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was not affected. A dramatically higher increase of VEGF-A mRNA transcription and of its related protein was observed after PEMF exposure. Our data demonstrated that PEMF positively influence, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation, tendon-specific marker expression, and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factor in a healthy human TCs culture model.

  20. 三种材料烤瓷冠修复后对牙周组织的影响%Effect of restoration with three different porcelain crown on periodontal tissue.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of restoration with three kinds of porcelain fused to metal crown (PFM) on periodontal tissue, Ni-Cr alloy PFM crown, Co-Cr alloy PFM, and zirconia all-ceramic crown.Methods 148 patients received restoration of maxillary molar with PFM from Oct. 2005 to Oct. 2010 were involved in this research. Of the 148 cases, 48 received restoration with Ni-Cr alloy PFM, 62 with Co-Cr alloy PFM, and 38 with zirconia all-ceramic crown. All the patients were followed up regularly, and examined for periodontal tissue one year after restoration. Results 148 patients received restoration of maxillary molar with PFM from Oct. 2005 to Oct.2010 were involved in this research. Of the 148 cases, 48 received restoration with Ni-Cr alloy PFM, 62 with Co-Ct alloy PFM, and 38 with zirconia all-ceramic crown. All the patients were followed up regularly, and examined for periodontal tissue one year after restoration. Conclusion Of the three kinds of PFM, restoration with zirconia all-ceramic crown is the most beneficial for the health of periedontal tissue.%目的 分析镍铬合金、钴铬合金烤瓷熔附金属全冠和氧化锆全瓷冠修复上颌磨牙后对患牙牙周组织的影响.方法 选取2005年10月至2009年10月于我院就诊行烤瓷全冠修复上颌磨牙的148例患者,其中有48例患者行镍铬合金烤瓷冠修复,62例患者行钴铬合金烤瓷冠修复,38例患者行氧化锆全瓷冠.所有患者定期按时随访,观察修复后1年患牙的牙周情况.结果 镍铬合金烤瓷冠修复后患牙出现龈染的概率最高,其次是钴铬合金;镍铬合金烤瓷冠修复后患牙的牙周情况较钴铬合金烤瓷冠和氧化锫全瓷冠修复差,但氧化锫全瓷冠修复后患牙的牙周情况优于钴铬合金烤瓷冠.结论 镍铬合金烤瓷冠修复后最不利于维护患牙的牙周健康,氧化锫全瓷冠修复后有利于患牙的牙周健康.

  1. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  2. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  3. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stress Analysis of a Mandibular Molar Tooth Restored by Different Indirect Restorations Using a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Köycü, Berrak; İmirzalıoğlu, Pervin

    2017-07-01

    Daily consumption of food and drink creates rapid temperature changes in the oral cavity. Heat transfer and thermal stress caused by temperature changes in restored teeth may damage the hard and soft tissue components, resulting in restoration failure. This study evaluates the temperature distribution and related thermal stress on mandibular molar teeth restored via three indirect restorations using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). A 3D finite element model was constructed of a mandibular first molar and included enamel, dentin, pulp, surrounding bone, and indirect class 2 restorations of type 2 dental gold alloy, ceramic, and composite resin. A transient thermal FEA was performed to investigate the temperature distribution and the resulting thermal stress after simulated temperature changes from 36°C to 4 or 60°C for a 2-second time period. The restoration models had similar temperature distributions at 2 seconds in both the thermal conditions. Compared with 60°C exposure, the 4°C condition resulted in thermal stress values of higher magnitudes. At 4ºC, the highest stress value observed was tensile stress (56 to 57 MPa), whereas at 60°C, the highest stress value observed was compressive stress (42 to 43 MPa). These stresses appeared at the cervical region of the lingual enamel. The thermal stress at the restoration surface and resin cement showed decreasing order of magnitude as follows: composite > gold > ceramic, in both thermal conditions. The properties of the restorative materials do not affect temperature distribution at 2 seconds in restored teeth. The pulpal temperature is below the threshold for vital pulp tissue (42ºC). Temperature changes generate maximum thermal stress at the cervical region of the enamel. With the highest thermal expansion coefficient, composite resin restorations exhibit higher stress patterns than ceramic and gold restorations. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Relationship between periodontics and restorative procedures: surgical treatment of the restorative alveolar interface (rai)--case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A L P F; Esper, L A; Sbrana, M C; Cunha, M J S; Greghi, S L A; Carrilho, G P B; Pegoraro, L F

    2013-12-01

    Maintenance of a healthy periodontium is fundamental for the long term success of prosthetic restorations. Thus, prosthetic procedures with subgingival margins may affect the periodontal health if the distances between the junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue attachment aren't respected, or if there is insufficient space to maintain the health of the interproximal tissues, leading to gingival inflammation, connective tissue attachment loss and bone resorption. The restorative alveolar interface (RAI) technique was described as the portion of the root surface extending from the alveolar crest apically to the restorative margin coronally. RAI consists of modifying the restorative margin position into a healthier environment, respecting the biological width and therefore allowing effective plaque control. This paper describes four clinical cases with indication for the RAI technique for maintenance of periodontal health. The cases were associated with prostheses. All cases were evaluated at 90 days and exhibited a healthy periodontal tissue. Successful outcomes were observed in the different indications for the RAI technique.

  5. Exposure to activity based anorexia impairs contextual learning in weight-restored rats without affecting spatial learning, taste, anxiety, or dietary-fat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Treesukosol, Yada; Cordner, Zachary A.; Kastelein, Anneke; Choi, Pique; Moran, Timothy H.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.

    2016-01-01

    Relapse rates are high amongst cases of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) suggesting that some alterations induced by AN may remain after weight restoration. Objective To study the consequences of AN without confounds of environmental variability, a rodent model of activity based anorexia (ABA) can be employed. We hypothesized that exposure to ABA during adolescence may have long-term consequences in taste function, cognition, and anxiety-like behavior after weight restoration. Methods To test this hypothesis we exposed adolescent female rats to ABA (1.5 hrs food access, combined with voluntary running wheel access) and compared their behavior to that of control rats after weight restoration was achieved. The rats were tested for learning /memory, anxiety, food preference and taste in a set of behavioral tests performed during the light period. Results Our data show that ABA exposure leads to reduced performance during the novel object recognition task, a test for contextual learning, without altering performance in the novel place recognition task or the Barnes maze, both tasks that test spatial learning. Furthermore, we do not observe alterations in unconditioned lick responses to sucrose nor quinine (described by humans as “sweet” and “bitter” respectively). Nor did we find alterations in anxiety-like behavior during an elevated plus maze or an open field test. Finally, preference for a diet high in fat was not altered. Discussion Overall our data suggest that ABA exposure during adolescence impairs contextual learning in adulthood without altering spatial leaning, taste, anxiety, or fat preference. PMID:26711541

  6. The characterization of neural tissue ablation rate and corresponding heat affected zone of a 2 micron Tm3+ doped fiber laser(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrew J.; Jivraj, Jamil; Reyes, Robnier; Ramjist, Joel; Gu, Xijia J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Tissue removal using electrocautery is standard practice in neurosurgery since tissue can be cut and cauterized simultaneously. Thermally mediated tissue ablation using lasers can potentially possess the same benefits but with increased precision. However, given the critical nature of the spine, brain, and nerves, the effects of direct photo-thermal interaction on neural tissue needs to be known, yielding not only high precision of tissue removal but also increased control of peripheral heat damage. The proposed use of lasers as a neurosurgical tool requires that a common ground is found between ablation rates and resulting peripheral heat damage. Most surgical laser systems rely on the conversion of light energy into heat resulting in both desirable and undesirable thermal damage to the targeted tissue. Classifying the distribution of thermal energy in neural tissue, and thus characterizing the extent of undesirable thermal damage, can prove to be exceptionally challenging considering its highly inhomogenous composition when compared to other tissues such as muscle and bone. Here we present the characterization of neural tissue ablation rate and heat affected zone of a 1.94 micron thulium doped fiber laser for neural tissue ablation. In-Vivo ablation of porcine cerebral cortex is performed. Ablation volumes are studied in association with laser parameters. Histological samples are taken and examined to characterize the extent of peripheral heat damage.

  7. Clinical evaluation on soft tissue of immediate implant combined with immediate restoration on anterior maxil-lary%上前牙区即刻种植修复的软组织效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪佳; 李少冰; 张雪洋; 容明灯; 卢海宾; 周磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate on soft tissue of immediate implant combined with immediate restoration on anteri-or maxillary.Methods Twenty-six patients with single failed tooth in anterior maxillaryhad received 26 ZIMMER TSV implants placed immediately after minimally invasive extraction.Good primary stability was achieved and immediate resto-ration was carried out.Final restoration was finished after 6-12 months.The situation of soft tissue was recorded at 6 months post operation.Results All final restoration was finished with normal loading.No bleeding of probing and swelling of gingiva was recorded.The recession of mesial gingival papilla, distal gingival papilla and gingival margin were, respectively, (-0.52 ±0.22) mm, (-0.56 ±0.31) mm, ( -0.71 ±0.34) mm (F=1.297, P=0.29). Conclusion Gingival recession with varying degrees was observed at immediate implant combined with immediate resto-ration at anterior maxillary.%目的:评估上前牙区即刻种植联合即刻修复的软组织效果。方法上前牙区单牙即刻种植患者26例,微创拔牙后植入ZIMMER TSV种植体,获得良好初期稳定性并实施即刻修复,经过6~12个月骨结合和牙龈塑形后完成上部修复,观察负重6个月后牙龈组织情况。结果26例患者完成骨整合及最终修复,负重正常,无探诊出血、牙龈红肿,近中龈乳头、远中龈乳头及龈缘高度降低分别为(0.52±0.22) mm、(0.56±0.31) mm 和(0.71±0.34) mm,差异无统计学意义(F=1.297,P=0.29)。结论上前牙区单牙即刻种植联合即刻修复存在不同程度的软组织退缩。

  8. Discrimination of tooth layers and dental restorative materials using cutting sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Vahid; Arzanpour, Siamak; Chehroudi, Babak

    2015-03-01

    Dental restoration begins with removing carries and affected tissues with air-turbine rotary cutting handpieces, and later restoring the lost tissues with appropriate restorative materials to retain the functionality. Most restoration materials eventually fail as they age and need to be replaced. One of the difficulties in replacing failing restorations is discerning the boundary of restorative materials, which causes inadvertent removal of healthy tooth layers. Developing an objective and sensor-based method is a promising approach to monitor dental restorative operations and to prevent excessive tooth losses. This paper has analyzed cutting sounds of an air-turbine handpiece to discriminate between tooth layers and two commonly used restorative materials, amalgam and composite. Support vector machines were employed for classification, and the averaged short-time Fourier transform coefficients were selected as the features. The classifier performance was evaluated from different aspects such as the number of features, feature scaling methods, classification schemes, and utilized kernels. The total classification accuracies were 89% and 92% for cases included composite and amalgam materials, respectively. The obtained results indicated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. The effect of different prosthetic restorations on the dietary selection in edentulous patients. A longitudinal study of patients initially treated with optimal complete dentures and finally with tissue-integrated prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Lindquist, L W

    1987-12-01

    The effect of prosthetic restoration of masticatory ability on dietary selection was evaluated in 23 edentulous patients with denture adaptation problems. The patients were first given optimal complete dentures and then a fixed prosthesis on tissue-integrated implants in the lower jaw. Changes in dietary selection were evaluated from 4-day records obtained before prosthetic treatment and on six occasions up to 78 months after treatment. With the method used, no significant changes in food selection were recorded during the rehabilitation period, except for a slight increase in intake of crisp bread and fresh fruit after treatment with fixed tissue-integrated prostheses in the mandibular jaw. It is concluded that an improved oral function will not in itself lead to a change in dietary selection and that dietary changes probably require professional and individually given dietary advice by a trained dietitian.

  10. What Is the Critical Value of Glenoid Bone Loss at Which Soft Tissue Bankart Repair Does Not Restore Glenohumeral Translation, Restricts Range of Motion, and Leads to Abnormal Humeral Head Position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Koh, Yong Won; Bui, Christopher; Jeong, Woong Kyo; Akeda, Masaki; Cho, Nam Su; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-11-01

    A general consensus has been formed that glenoid bone loss greater than 20% to 25% is the critical amount at which bony augmentation procedures are needed; however, recent clinical results suggest that the critical levels must be reconsidered to lower values. This study aimed to find the critical value of anterior glenoid bone loss when a soft tissue repair is not adequate to restore anterior-inferior glenohumeral translation, rotational range of motion, or humeral head position using a biomechanical anterior shoulder instability model. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested with a customized shoulder testing system. Range of motion, translation, and humeral head position were measured at 60° of glenohumeral abduction in the scapular plane under a total of 40-N rotator cuff muscle loading in the following 11 conditions: intact; soft tissue Bankart lesion and repair; Bankart lesion with 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% glenoid bone defects based on the largest anteroposterior width of the glenoid; and soft tissue Bankart repair for each respective glenoid defect. Serial osteotomies for each percentage of bone loss were made parallel to the long axis of the glenoid. There was significantly decreased external rotation (121.2° ± 2.8° to 113.5° ± 3.3°; P = .004), increased anteroinferior translation with an externally applied load (3.0 ± 1.2 mm to 7.5 ± 1.1 mm at 20 N; P = .008), and increased posterior (0.2 ± 0.6 mm to 2.7 ± 0.8 mm; P = .049) and inferior shift (2.9 ± 0.7 mm to 6.6 ± 1.1 mm; P = .018) of the humeral head apex in the position of maximum external rotation after soft tissue Bankart repair of a 15% glenoid defect compared with the repair of a Bankart lesion without a glenoid defect, respectively. Glenoid defects of 15% or more of the largest anteroposterior glenoid width should be considered the critical bone loss amount at which soft tissue repair cannot restore glenohumeral translation, restricts rotational range of motion

  11. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  12. Factors Affecting the Use of Human Tissues in Biomedical Research: Implications in the Design and Operation of a Biorepository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Sexton, Katherine C; Otali, Dennis; Bell, Walter C; Grizzle, William E

    2016-01-01

    The availability of high-quality human tissues is necessary to advance medical research. Although there are inherent and induced limitations on the use of human tissues in research, biorepositories play critical roles in minimizing the effects of such limitations. Specifically, the optimal utilization of tissues in research requires tissues to be diagnosed accurately, and the actual specimens provided to investigators must be carefully described (i.e., there must be quality control of each aliquot of the tissue provided for research, including a description of any damage to tissues). Tissues also should be collected, processed, stored, and distributed (i.e., handled) uniformly under a rigorous quality management system (QMS). Frequently, tissues are distributed to investigators by tissue banks which have collected, processed, and stored them by standard operating procedures (SOPs). Alternatively, tissues for research may be handled via SOPs that are modified to the specific requirements of investigators (i.e., using a prospective biorepository model). The primary goal of any type of biorepository should be to ensure its specimens are of high quality and are utilized appropriately in research; however, approaches may vary based on the tissues available and requested. For example, extraction of specific molecules (e.g., microRNA) to study molecular characteristics of a tissue may require less clinical annotation than tissues that are utilized to identify how the molecular expression might be used to clarify a clinical outcome of a disease or the response to a specific therapy. This review focuses on the limitations of the use of tissues in research and how the design and operations of a tissue biorepository can minimize some of these limitations.

  13. Clinical analysis of the effect of porcelain restoration on dental pulp tissue%临床分析烤瓷修复牙体预备对牙髓组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析烤瓷修复牙体预备对牙髓组织的影响。方法选取2012年1月到2013年2月在我院进行烤瓷牙修复牙体的患者50例作为研究对象,修复完毕后对患者进行两年的回访,观察患者牙体修复后对牙髓组织的影响。结果患者80颗活髓牙中有17颗牙髓组织发生病变,病变率达21.3%;21~40和41~60年龄段的患者牙髓组织病变率明显低于61~65岁患者的牙髓组织病变率,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论临床上采用烤瓷修复牙体引起牙髓组织病变的发生率较高,在修复过程中需要采取针对性的措施,以预防牙髓组织发生病变。%Objectiveto study the analysis of PFM restoration tooth preparation impact on dental pulp tissue. Selection Methods from January 2012 to February 2012 in our hospital in 50 patients with porcelain teeth repair tooth as the research object, after the repair of patients with two years of pay a return visit, the tooth repair were observed after impact on dental pulp tissue.Results80 patients with live pulp teeth in 17 tooth pulp tissue lesions, disease rate by 21.3%; 21 to 40 and 41-60 age group of patients with dental pulp tissue pathological change rate is signiifcantly lower than the 61— year— old rate of the patient's dental pulp tissue pathological changes, the difference was statistically signiifcant,P< 0.05.Conclusionusing clinical PFM restoration tooth cause a high incidence of dental pulp tissue pathological changes, need to take corresponding measures in the process of repair, in order to prevent dental pulp tissue lesions.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of conventional restorative filling materials and advances in antimicrobial properties of composite resins and glass ionomer cements-A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Cher; Camilleri, Josette

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that complete caries removal from cavities during restoration of teeth is difficult. Furthermore with the tissue saving approach it is expected that more of the saved affected tissue will possibly harbor more residual bacteria. Antimicrobial restorative filling materials would be ideal to prevent the spread of caries after completion of tooth restoration, thus preventing recurrent decay and eventually restoration failure. This paper reviews the literature on the antimicrobial properties of dental restorative filling materials. Pubmed searches on the antibacterial properties of restorative materials were carried out. Keywords were chosen to assess antibacterial properties of conventional filling materials. Methods of introducing antimicrobial agents in restorative materials were also reviewed together with the methodology used to assess antimicrobial activity. 174 articles from 1983 till 2014 were included. Adhesive materials have decreased antimicrobial activity when compared to amalgams and zinc oxides. Several techniques have been employed in order to increase the antimicrobial activity of restorative materials. Although antimicrobial activity of restorative materials is important, the introduction of antimicrobial agents/techniques should not be at the expense of other material properties. Environmental changes within a material may affect the bacterial response to the antimicrobial. Bacterial adhesion to the restorative materials should be assessed. Long term assessment of antimicrobial activity is important and is clinically relevant. The use of antimicrobial dental materials is important unless such characteristics are gained to the detriment of other material properties. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  16. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  17. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  18. Replacement of Anterior Composite Resin Restorations Using Conservative Ceramics for Occlusal and Periodontal Rehabilitation: An 18-Month Clinical Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a patient with discolored and fractured composite resin restorations on the anterior teeth in whom substitution was indicated. After wax-up and mock-up, the composite was removed and replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. An established and predictable protocol was performed using resin cement. Minimally invasive ceramic restorations are increasingly being used to replace composite restorations. This treatment improves the occlusal and periodontal aspects during the planning and restorative phases, such as anterior guides, and laterality can be restored easily with ceramic laminates. In addition, the surface smoothness and contour of ceramic restorations do not affect the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues. Here we present the outcome after 18 months of clinical follow-up in a patient in whom composite resin restorations in the anterior teeth were replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates.

  19. 贵金属、镍铬合金烤瓷修复体与中国人牙周组织健康关系的系统评价%Effect of gold alloy restorations and nickel-chromium restorations to the periodontal tissue of the Chinese: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菁文; 李春洁; 吕俊; 刘雯雯; 梁星

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chinese researchers have done many corresponding clinical trials and mostly agree that, compared with nickel-chromium restorations, gold alloy restorations are better to the Chinese periodontal tissue in the long term. However, there is still no relevant systematic review analyzing and evaluating those results in a more rigorous and convincing way.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nickel-chromium restorations and gold alloy restorations to the periodontal tissue of the Chinese.METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc, 1978-01/2011-03) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, 1979-01/2011-03). Hand-searching covered 10 Chinese dental journals. Randomized controlled trials satisfying the eligible criteria were selected and the risks of bias were assessed. With the data extracted by two well-trained investigators independently, Meta-analysis was processed by Revman 5.0.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Six studies with moderate risk of bias were included. The results indicated gold alloy restorations could reduce 79% of the risk of post -restorative gingivitis in nickel-chromium restorations (P < 0.05), and gold alloy restorations could also reduce the risk of gingival coloration by 94% of nickel-chromium restorations (P < 0.05). The results on the restoration fitness with four studies pooled indicated better restoration fitness in gold alloy restorations than nickel-chromium restorations (P < 0.05). Present evidences indicated that gold alloy rest orations have lower risk in inducing gingivitis and gingival coloration compared to nickel-chromium. But more high quality studies are still needed to confirm the conclusion.%背景:国内许多学者认为贵金属烤瓷修复体较镍铬合金更有利于保持牙周组织的长期健康,但国内外尚无相关的系统评价.目的:评价贵金属与镍铬合金烤瓷修复体对中国人牙周组织健康的影响.方法:计算机检索中

  20. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  1. Assessment of impacts and evaluation of restoration methods on areas affected by a well blowout, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrick, G.D.; Kato, T.T.; Phillips, M.V. [and others

    1996-12-01

    In June 1994, an oil well on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 blew-out and crude oil was deposited downwind. After the well was capped, information was collected to characterize the release and to assess effects to wildlife and plants. Oil residue was found up to 13.7 km from the well site, but deposition was relatively light and the oil quickly dried to form a thin crust on the soil surface. Elevated levels of hydrocarbons were found in livers collected from Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) from the oiled area but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (known carcinogens or mutagens) were not detected in the livers. Restoration techniques (surface modification and bioremediation) and natural recovery were evaluated within three portions of the oiled area. Herbaceous cover and production, and survival and vigor of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were also monitored within each trapping grid.

  2. Pollination and Restoration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kingsley W. Dixon

    2009-01-01

    Pollination services underpin sustainability of restored ecosystems. Yet, outside of agri-environments, effective restoration of pollinator services in ecological restoration has received little attention...

  3. Optimizing environmental flows for multiple reaches affected by a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan: Restoring natural flow regimes at multiple temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    For reservoirs that are operated for multiple purposes such as water supply, flood control, and power generation, any attempts to incorporate environmental flow targets in the reservoir operation rules need to take into account both the human and ecosystem demands. To date, however, none of the reservoir operation schemes that consider environmental flow requirements includes subdaily flow regimes and is able to optimize for multiple reaches. Here, we address the temporal and spatial issues associated with the optimal environmental flow and operation strategies for a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan. We propose an environmental flow proportion strategy and three-period release approach, and multireach operation scenarios that simultaneously optimize reservoir performances and environmental flow objectives at subdaily to interannual timescales for a maximum of three connected reaches. Our results imply that taking into account the environmental flow objectives does not necessarily degrade the overall reservoir performance due to the positive effect on flood control, which in turn would compensate for the adverse effects on domestic water supply and hydropower generation. The three-period release approach benefits mainly the subdaily flow regime, while the environmental flow proportion strategy benefits primarily the daily flow regime. Spatially, a mutual exclusion is observed between the reaches above and below a diversion weir, a fact that revises the conventional perception that restoring the flow regimes of a downstream reach would automatically restore those of upstream reaches. An overall evaluation reveals that the three-reach scenario outperforms the two-reach scenarios, which then outperform the one-reach scenarios. The one- or two-reach scenario that incorporates the midstream reach may be taken as an alternative because such scenario would benefit the upstream or downstream reach in addition to the midstream reach.

  4. Malpositioned implants in the anterior maxilla: a novel restorative approach to reestablish peri-implant tissue health and acceptable esthetics. Part II: Case report and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Vailati, Francesca; Belser, Urs C

    2015-01-01

    This two-part case presentation describes the prosthetic challenge of managing complications in a 50-year-old female patient after inadequate esthetic risk assessment, treatment planning, and implant placement in the anterior maxilla. In Part I, the clinical situation was described, and different restorative solutions were proposed to correct the extreme facial inclination of the implants, excluding major surgical procedures, namely implant removal. In Part II, different prosthetic options are discussed, and the final treatment is revealed. A noninvasive treatment protocol was applied to transform a severely compromised postsurgical situation into an esthetically acceptable result. An unconventional prosthesis design was implemented, including the use of ceramic veneers bonded to the CAD/CAM-generated screw-retained zirconia- based fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), to correct major axis-related problems and spatial discrepancies.

  5. Malpositioned implants in the anterior maxilla: a novel restorative approach to reestablish peri-implant tissue health and acceptable esthetics. Part I. Case presentation and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Vailati, Francesca; Belser, Urs C

    2015-01-01

    This two-part case presentation describes the prosthetic challenge of managing complications after inadequate esthetic risk assessment, treatment planning, and implant positioning in the anterior maxilla. Here, the case report of a 50-year-old woman, referred after inappropriate execution of immediate implant placement, is presented. Different restorative treatment alternatives are proposed, excluding major surgical procedures. In the next part of the article, the advantages and shortcomings of the various prosthetic options will be discussed and the selected treatment revealed. The aim of this part of the article is to illustrate the importance of treatment planning, emphasizing that the correction of esthetic implant failures consistently leads to compromised results when compared to what could have been achieved first time round.

  6. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel

    2010-01-01

    of estrogen receptor a was decreased, and expression of leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was unaffected. These findings suggest that early postnatal estradiol exposure of female rats result in long-lasting effects on the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue at adult age.......Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene...... expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased...

  7. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    .3%) groups. All groups significantly increased HR strength pre- to posttraining (33%: 7.5 +/- 6.1%; 66%: 6.6 +/- 3.7%; 100%: 12.2 +/- 1.8%; 138%: 11.0 +/- 6.4%) except for the 0% (4.9 +/- 9.1%) group. There were no differences between groups. LLM increased significantly pre- to post-training in only the 138% group; there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eight wks of lower body resistive exercise training with eccentric overload resulted in greater increases in LP strength than training with eccentric loads of 66% or less. Post-training HR strength was not affected by eccentric training load, perhaps because of the predominance of Type I fibers typical in the gastrocnemius. Only 138% eccentric training significantly increased LLM. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For athletes or others desiring to maximize muscle strength and hypertrophy gains, training with eccentric loads greater than 100% of concentric resistance will provide greater increases in muscle strength and lean tissue mass in some muscle groups. In a rehabilitation or geriatric exercise setting that places primary emphasis on program adherence and moderate strength gains, training with an eccentric underload may provide strength increases comparable to those of traditional 1:1 training but with less muscle soreness and physiologic insult to the patient, but this has yet to be proven.

  8. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    .3%) groups. All groups significantly increased HR strength pre- to posttraining (33%: 7.5 +/- 6.1%; 66%: 6.6 +/- 3.7%; 100%: 12.2 +/- 1.8%; 138%: 11.0 +/- 6.4%) except for the 0% (4.9 +/- 9.1%) group. There were no differences between groups. LLM increased significantly pre- to post-training in only the 138% group; there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eight wks of lower body resistive exercise training with eccentric overload resulted in greater increases in LP strength than training with eccentric loads of 66% or less. Post-training HR strength was not affected by eccentric training load, perhaps because of the predominance of Type I fibers typical in the gastrocnemius. Only 138% eccentric training significantly increased LLM. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For athletes or others desiring to maximize muscle strength and hypertrophy gains, training with eccentric loads greater than 100% of concentric resistance will provide greater increases in muscle strength and lean tissue mass in some muscle groups. In a rehabilitation or geriatric exercise setting that places primary emphasis on program adherence and moderate strength gains, training with an eccentric underload may provide strength increases comparable to those of traditional 1:1 training but with less muscle soreness and physiologic insult to the patient, but this has yet to be proven.

  9. MRI analyses show that kinesio taping affects much more than just the targeted superficial tissues and causes heterogeneous deformations within the whole limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Uluç; Yucesoy, Can A

    2015-12-16

    Kinesio taping (KT) is widely used in the treatment of sports injuries and various neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. However, it is considered as selectively effective on targeted tissues and its mechanical effects have not been quantified objectively. Ascribed to continuity of muscular and connective tissues, mechanical loading imposed can have widespread heterogeneous effects. The aim was to characterize the mechanical effects of KT objectively and to test the hypotheses that KT causes acutely, local deformations not necessarily (I) in agreement with tape adhering direction and (II) limited to the directly targeted tissues. High-resolution 3D magnetic resonance image sets were acquired in healthy human subjects (n=5) prior to and acutely after KT application over the skin along m. tibialis anterior (TA). Hip, knee and ankle angles were kept constant. Demons image registration algorithm was used to calculate local tissue deformations within the lower leg, in vivo. Mean peak tissue strains were significantly higher than strain artifacts. Only KT-to-TA region in part shows local deformations in agreement with tape adhering direction whereas, superficial skin, the rest of KT-to-TA and TA regions show deformations (up to 51.5% length change) in other directions. Non-targeted tissues also show sizable heterogeneous deformations, but in smaller amplitudes. Inter-subject variability is notable. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for a detailed assessment of local tissue deformation occurring acutely after KT application. The findings confirm our hypotheses and characterize how KT affects the underlying tissues, both immediately targeted and distant. This allows revealing mechanisms that can affect clinical outcomes of KT objectively.

  10. Analysis of the relative factors affecting the functional restoration of knee joint after the fracture of patella%髌骨骨折后影响屈膝功能恢复的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国新; 江钟立; 李涛; 陈文红

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the relative factors affecting the functional restoration of knee joint after the fracture of patella, and to anticipate the effect of middle term and short time rehabilitation therapy. Method 23 patients with limited flexion function of knee joint after the fracture of patella, accepted the routine rehabilitation treatment in out  patient service, and some of the patients adopted local heat therapy at the same time. The 13 factors have been selected for regression analysis step by step under the help of SPSS statistical software. Result The flexible degree of the knee joint before rehabilitation (X1), the non smooth posterior edge of patella (X2), and the immobilization time of the joint (X3) are relative factors for the flexible degree of knee joint 1 month after ehabilitation (Y1) and the flexible degree of knee joint 3 onths after rehabilitation (Y2), and Y1 can also be affected by whether surgery therapy or not (X4), (partial regression coefficient P< 0.05). The differences between theoretical mean and practical mean of Y1 and Y2 are 5.6% and 4.2% respectively in the 23 cases. Conclusion The flexible degree of the knee joint before rehabilitation, whether the posterior edge of patella is smooth or not, and the immobilization time of the joint are relative factors affecting the middle term and short term flexible function of knee joint after the fracture of patella, and short term restoration can also be affected by whether surgery therapy or not. The effects of middle term and short term rehabilitation can be predicted by regression equation primarily.

  11. Dietary energy source largely affects tissue fatty acid composition but has minor influence on gene transcription in Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvilo, C; Benítez, R; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A I; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; Silió, L; López-Bote, C

    2014-03-01

    A trial was performed to compare the effects of different dietary sources of MUFA on the fatty acid (FA) composition, lipid metabolism, and gene transcription in different tissues of Iberian pigs. Twenty-seven Iberian male pigs of 28 kg live weight (LW) were divided in 2 groups and fed with 1 of 2 isocaloric diets: a standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) and a diet enriched with high-oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at 44 and 70 kg LW. At 110 kg LW pigs were slaughtered and backfat, loin, and liver tissues were sampled. Animals of the HO group showed higher MUFA content and lower SFA in all the analyzed tissues (P dietary groups (PP < 0.01), 37 genes were considered differentially expressed (DE). Gene ontology allowed relating them with several biological functions including lipid metabolic processes. Quantitative PCR confirmed several DE genes in adipose tissue (RXRG, LEP, and ME1; P < 0.0001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.0001, respectively), but no DE gene was found in loin or liver tissues. Joint results agree with a metabolic adjustment of adipose tissue FA levels by the subtle effect of the diet on the regulation of several lipid metabolism pathways, mainly FA oxidation and prostanoid synthesis, with LEP, RXRG, and PTGS2 genes playing mayor roles.

  12. Lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-related molecules affected by tributyltin exposure in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Ma, Dongdong; Liu, Min; Huang, Shuntao

    2017-09-26

    Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). After 60 d of exposure, TBT increased contents of total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids in muscle tissues. Interestingly, TBT exposure disrupted fatty acid composition and increased contents of unsaturated fatty acids (such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in muscle tissues, which might be a response to preserve membrane functions from TBT exposure. Meanwhile, the concentrations of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 2 (Δ6-desaturase) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Δ9-desaturase) were increased after TBT exposure, which might contribute the increase of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, TBT increased muscle lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), and the expression of immune-related molecules (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta and nuclear factor kappa B) in muscle tissues. The disruption of TBT on the lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-toxic effects in muscle tissues of fish might reduce nutritional qualities, and affect growth and health status, which might pose a constant and serious threat to fish and result in economic loss in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Treatment with TUG891, a free fatty acid receptor 4 agonist, restores adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction following chronic sleep fragmentation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozal, D; Qiao, Z; Almendros, I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep fragmentation (SF), a frequent occurrence in multiple sleep and other diseases leads to increased food intake and insulin resistance via increased macrophage activation and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) is reduced in pedi...... FFA4 activity may serve as potentially useful adjunctive therapies for sleep disorders accompanied by metabolic morbidity.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 March 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.37....

  14. [Pulp response to restorative materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokaat, J G

    1990-03-01

    Restorations may affect the pulp negatively, rather due to microleakage than to toxic properties of the materials used. Hyperalgesia occurs more frequently after restoration with composite resins than with amalgam, though the resins in contrast to amalgam may be bonded to the enamel margins. A number of recommendations are presented in order to minimize the marginal gap between cavity walls and amalgam and to prevent marginal fracture.

  15. 青少年依恋环境的情绪启动和注意恢复功能%Function of Affective Priming and Attention Restoration in Environment Adolescents Attaching to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池丽萍; 苏谦

    2012-01-01

    In the field of environmental psychology, some researches focused on the environments where people can recover from stress and mental fatigue. Kaplan and Ulrich developed theories to describe and explain the mechanism of affective priming and attention restoration in those environments. An interesting issue is whether the restoration of affect and attention in some environments are different, when people become to attach to those environments? The present study would examine the impact of place attachment on affective priming and attention restoration. Ninety-six seventh grade students were divided into two groups based on their scores on the Place Attachment Scale. One group named high place attachment group scored higher, and the other named low place attachment group scored lower. The study consisted of two experiments. In the experiment 1, whether environment participants attaching to would elicit rapid positive affection responses was examined. An affective priming paradigm with pictures of environmental scenes and facial expressions as primes and targets, respectively, was employed. In the experiment 2, pretest-posttest design in attention task was used to investigate the impact of place attachment on restore of participants' attention. The results of experiment 1 showed that : (1) after viewing natural scene pictures, participants from low attachment group responded to disgusted faces significantly faster than those from high attachment group and the other two control groups who were assigned to view geometric pictures; (2) there was no difference in response time to happy faces for the participants assigned to view natural scene pictures or geometric pictures. In the experiment 2, the results revealed that, ( 1 ) there were no differences on the accuracy and reaction times of pretest between two experiment groups and two control groups; (2) in the posttest of experiment group, participants who high attaching to the natural environment

  16. Calcium and ascorbic acid affect cellular structure and water mobility in apple tissue during osmotic dehydration in sucrose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Maria A; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Tylewicz, Urszula; Tappi, Silvia; Laghi, Luca; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

    2016-03-15

    The effects of the addition of calcium lactate and ascorbic acid to sucrose osmotic solutions on cell viability and microstructure of apple tissue were studied. In addition, water distribution and mobility modification of the different cellular compartments were observed. Fluorescence microscopy, light microscopy and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) were respectively used to evaluate cell viability and microstructural changes during osmotic dehydration. Tissues treated in a sucrose-calcium lactate-ascorbic acid solution did not show viability. Calcium lactate had some effects on cell walls and membranes. Sucrose solution visibly preserved the protoplast viability and slightly influenced the water distribution within the apple tissue, as highlighted by TD-NMR, which showed higher proton intensity in the vacuoles and lower intensity in cytoplasm-free spaces compared to other treatments. The presence of ascorbic acid enhanced calcium impregnation, which was associated with permeability changes of the cellular wall and membranes.

  17. Delivery of human mesenchymal adipose-derived stem cells restores multiple urological dysfunctions in a rat model mimicking radical prostatectomy damages through tissue-specific paracrine mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiou, René; Mahrouf-Yorgov, Meriem; Trébeau, Céline;

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are the most common functional urological disorders and the main sequels of radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy holds promise for repairing tissue damage due to RP. Because animal studies...... accurately replicating post-RP clinical UI and ED are lacking, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the urological benefits of MSC in this setting. To determine whether and by which mechanisms MSC can repair damages to both striated urethral sphincter (SUS) and penis in the same animal, we...

  18. Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zheng, Keke; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    The principle of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is to limit removal of carious tooth tissue while maximizing its repair and survival potential. The objective of this study is to explore the fracture resistance of a permanent molar tooth with a fissure carious lesion along with three clinical restoration procedures, namely one traditional and two conservative approaches, based upon MID. The traditional restoration employs extensive surgical removal of enamel and dentine about the cavity to eliminate potential risk of further caries development, while conservative method #1 removes significantly less enamel and infected dentine, and conservative method #2 only restores the overhanging enamel above the cavity and leaves the infected and affected dentine as it was. An extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted here to analyze the fracture behaviors of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of these four different scenarios. It was found that the two conservative methods exhibited better fracture resistance than the traditional restorative method. Although conservative method #2 has less fracture resistance than method #1, it had significantly superior fracture resistance compared to other restorations. More important, after cavity sealing it may potentially enhance the opportunity for remineralization and improved loading bearing capacity and fracture resistance.

  19. Does the Length of Disability between Injury and Functional Restoration Program Entry Affect Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Chronic Disabling Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Sali; Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2017-02-21

    Purpose Functional restoration programs (FRPs), for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs), have consistently demonstrated positive socioeconomic treatment outcomes, including decreased psychosocial distress and increased work return. The pre-treatment length of disability (LOD), or time between injury and treatment admission, has been shown to influence FRP work outcomes. Some studies have found that shorter LOD is associated with better work outcomes. However, few studies have actually examined cohorts with LOD duration longer than 18 months. This present study evaluated the effects of extended LOD (beyond 18 months) on important treatment outcomes. Methods A total cohort of 1413 CDOMD patients entered an FRP. Of those, 312 did not complete the program, so they were eliminated from outcome analyses. The 1101 patients who completed the FRP were classified based on LOD: Late Rehabilitation (LR, 3-6 months, n = 190); Chronic Disability (CD, 7-17 months, n = 494); and Late Chronic Disability (LCD). The LCD, in turn, consisted of four separate subgroups: 18-23 months (LCD-18, n = 110); 24-35 months (LCD-24, n = 123); 36-71 months (LCD-36, n = 74); and 72+ months (LCD-72, n = 110). Patients were evaluated upon admission and were reassessed at discharge. Those patients who chose to pursue work goals post-treatment (n = 912) were assessed 1-year later. Results Longer LOD was associated with less likelihood of completing the FRP (p disability group were receiving social security disability benefits. Associations were found between longer LOD and more severe patient-reported pain, disability, and depressive symptoms at treatment admission. At discharge, symptom severity decreased for these patient-reported variables in all LOD groups (p disability. Furthermore, long LOD was a significant predictor for work outcomes at 1 year following FRP discharge. Nevertheless, a large percentage of longer LOD (>24

  20. Delivery of human mesenchymal adipose-derived stem cells restores multiple urological dysfunctions in a rat model mimicking radical prostatectomy damages through tissue-specific paracrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, René; Mahrouf-Yorgov, Meriem; Trébeau, Céline; Zanaty, Marc; Lecointe, Cécile; Souktani, Richard; Zadigue, Patricia; Figeac, Florence; Rodriguez, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are the most common functional urological disorders and the main sequels of radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy holds promise for repairing tissue damage due to RP. Because animal studies accurately replicating post-RP clinical UI and ED are lacking, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the urological benefits of MSC in this setting. To determine whether and by which mechanisms MSC can repair damages to both striated urethral sphincter (SUS) and penis in the same animal, we delivered human multipotent adipose stem cells, used as MSC model, in an immunocompetent rat model replicating post-RP UI and ED. In this model, we demonstrated by using noninvasive methods in the same animal from day 7 to day 90 post-RP injury that MSC administration into both the SUS and the penis significantly improved urinary continence and erectile function. The regenerative effects of MSC therapy were not due to transdifferentiation and robust engraftment at injection sites. Rather, our results suggest that MSC benefits in both target organs may involve a paracrine process with not only soluble factor release by the MSC but also activation of the recipient's secretome. These two effects of MSC varied across target tissues and damaged-cell types. In conclusion, our work provides new insights into the regenerative properties of MSC and supports the ability of MSC from a single source to repair multiple types of damage, such as those seen after RP, in the same individual.

  1. Technical issues affecting the implementation of US environmental protection agency's proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the ‘‘what, where, and...

  2. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J;

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV...

  3. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 桂培春; 何新华

    2000-01-01

    Objeaive. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury. Methods. Lipopolysaeeharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasoue group.Macroscopic and histopathological e~aminatiom were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimem. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA. Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P < 0.01),demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasoue and rhubarb emfld decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P< 0.01, P < 0.05) ; the correslxmding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were simifieantlv decreased or ameliorated. Conclusions. The increase of the expression d ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI.The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM-1 m

  4. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury.Methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasone group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimens. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA.Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P<0.01), demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasone and rhubarb could decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05); the corresponding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were significantly decreased or ameliorated.Conclusions. The increase of the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI. The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM

  5. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  6. Guidelines for Selection of Tissues for Electron Microscopy Confirmation of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in Huanglongbing-affected Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Achor, Diann; Davis, Craig L.; Brlansky, Ronald H.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the pathogen-specific primers and electron microscopy are the two techniques of choice that have been used for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in the Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus. Due to the low population and uneven distribution of Liberibacter in the diseased citrus trees finding the bacteria with transmission electron microscopy has been a challenge. Work with samples from HLB-affected citrus during the past 5 years h...

  7. Augmenter of liver regeneration, a protective factor against ROS-induced oxidative damage in muscle tissue of mitochondrial myopathy affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeno, Lorenzo; Rossi, Roberta; Mastrodonato, Maria; Montagnani, Monica; Piscitelli, Domenico; Pesetti, Barbara; De Benedictis, Leonarda; Girardi, Bruna; Resta, Leonardo; Napoli, Anna; Francavilla, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria-related myopathies (MM) are a group of different diseases defined by a varying degree of dysfunctions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain which leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by oxidative stress and cellular damage. In mitochondrial myopathy muscle tissue an overexpression of antioxidant enzymes has been documented probably as an attempt to counteract the free radical generation. We previously documented, in human non-pathological muscle fibres, the expression of the augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme, whose presence is related to the mitochondria; indeed it has been demonstrated that ALR mainly localizes in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space. Furthermore we reported, in different experimental models, in vivo and in vitro, the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative capacities of ALR, achieved by up-regulating Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic family factors and the anti-apoptotic/anti-oxidative secretory isoform of clusterin (sClu). With the present study we aimed to determine ALR, Bcl-2 protein, clusterin and ROS expression in muscle tissue biopsies from MM-affected patients. Non-pathological muscle tissue was used as control. Enzymatic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and immune electron microscopy techniques were performed. The data obtained revealed in MM-derived muscle tissue, compared to non-pathological tissue, the over-expression of ROS, ALR and Bcl-2 and the induction of the nuclear, pro-apoptotic, isoform of clusterin (nCLU).

  8. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Blood from a turnip: tissue origin of low-coverage shotgun sequencing libraries affects recovery of mitogenome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F. Keith; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Tomback, Diana F.

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methods allow rapid, economical accumulation of data that have many applications, even at relatively low levels of genome coverage. However, the utility of shotgun sequencing data sets for specific goals may vary depending on the biological nature of the samples sequenced. We show that the ability to assemble mitogenomes from three avian samples of two different tissue types varies widely. In particular, data with coverage typical of microsatellite development efforts (∼1×) from DNA extracted from avian blood failed to cover even 50% of the mitogenome, relative to at least 500-fold coverage from muscle-derived data. Researchers should consider possible applications of their data and select the tissue source for their work accordingly. Practitioners analyzing low-coverage shotgun sequencing data (including for microsatellite locus development) should consider the potential benefits of mitogenome assembly, including internal barcode verification of species identity, mitochondrial primer development, and phylogenetics.

  10. Parameters affecting the efficient delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials and gold nanorods into plant tissues by the biolistic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ortigosa, Susana; Valenstein, Justin S; Sun, Wei; Moeller, Lorena; Fang, Ning; Trewyn, Brian G; Lin, Victor S-Y; Wang, Kan

    2012-02-06

    Applying nanotechnology to plant science requires efficient systems for the delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) to plant cells and tissues. The presence of a cell wall in plant cells makes it challenging to extend the NP delivery methods available for animal research. In this work, research is presented which establishes an efficient NP delivery system for plant tissues using the biolistic method. It is shown that the biolistic delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials can be improved by increasing the density of MSNs through gold plating. Additionally, a DNA-coating protocol is used based on calcium chloride and spermidine for MSN and gold nanorods to enhance the NP-mediated DNA delivery. Furthermore, the drastic improvement of NP delivery is demonstrated when the particles are combined with 0.6 μm gold particles during bombardment. The methodology described provides a system for the efficient delivery of NPs into plant cells using the biolistic method.

  11. Factors affecting the infectivity of tissues from pigs with classical swine fever: thermal inactivation rates and oral infectious dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Lucie; Haines, Felicity J; Everett, Helen E; Crudgington, Bentley; Johns, Helen L; Clifford, Derek; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2015-03-23

    Outbreaks of classical swine fever are often associated with ingestion of pig meat or products derived from infected pigs. Assessment of the disease risks associated with material of porcine origin requires knowledge on the likely amount of virus in the original material, how long the virus may remain viable within the resulting product and how much of that product would need to be ingested to result in infection. Using material from pigs infected with CSFV, we determined the viable virus concentrations in tissues that comprise the majority of pork products. Decimal reduction values (D values), the time required to reduce the viable virus load by 90% (or 1 log10), were determined at temperatures of relevance for chilling, cooking, composting and ambient storage. The rate of CSFV inactivation varied in different tissues. At lower temperatures, virus remained viable for substantially longer in muscle and serum compared to lymphoid and fat tissues. To enable estimation of the temperature dependence of inactivation, the temperature change required to change the D values by 90% (Z values) were determined as 13 °C, 14 °C, 12 °C and 10 °C for lymph node, fat, muscle and serum, respectively. The amount of virus required to infect 50% of pigs by ingestion was determined by feeding groups of animals with moderately and highly virulent CSFV. Interestingly, the virulent virus did not initiate infection at a lower dose than the moderately virulent strain. Although higher than for intranasal inoculation, the amount of virus required for infection via ingestion is present in only a few grams of tissue from infected animals.

  12. [Periodontitis and tissue regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2005-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.

  13. Histone Acetylation Modifications Affect Tissue-Dependent Expression of Poplar Homologs of C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra homologs of maize (Zea mays C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues. We found that poplar homologs of C4 homologous genes had tissue-dependent expression patterns that were mostly well-correlated with the level of histone acetylation modification (H3K9ac and H4K5ac determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A further confirmed the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of the nine target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that both H3K9ac and H4K5ac positively regulate the tissue-dependent expression pattern of the PsnCAs, PsnPPDKs, PsnPCKs, and PsnPEPCs genes and that this regulatory mechanism seems to be conserved among the C3 and C4 species. Our findings provide new insight that will aid efforts to modify the expression pattern of these homologs of C4 genes to engineer C4 plants from C3 plants.

  14. Central action of xenin affects the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins in mouse white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavya, Sharma; Lew, Pei San; Mizuno, Tooru M

    2017-06-01

    Xenin is a gastrointestinal hormone that reduces food intake when administered centrally and it has been hypothesized that central action of xenin participates in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. The present study was performed to address this hypothesis by investigating the central effect of xenin on the expression of genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male obese ob/ob mice received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of xenin (5μg) twice 12h apart. Food intake and body weight change during a 24-h period after the first injection were measured. Epididymal WAT was collected at the end of the 24-h treatment period and levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins were measured. Xenin treatment caused significant reductions in food intake and body weight compared to control vehicle treatment. Levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein were significantly reduced by xenin treatment, while levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and beta-3 adrenergic receptor (Adrb3) mRNA and phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (Ser(660)-pHSL and Ser(563)-pHSL) were significantly increased by xenin treatment. These findings suggest that central action of xenin causes alterations in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue toward reduced lipogenesis and increased lipolysis, possibly contributing to xenin-induced body weight reduction. Thus, enhancing central action of xenin and its downstream targets may be possible targets for the treatment of obesity by reducing the amount of stored fat in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal, Diagnostic, and Tissue-Specific Regulation of NRG3 Isoform Expression in Human Brain Development and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Clare; Wang, Yanhong; Hyde, Thomas M; Weinberger, Daniel R; Kleinman, Joel E; Law, Amanda J

    2017-03-01

    Genes implicated in schizophrenia are enriched in networks differentially regulated during human CNS development. Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a brain-enriched neurotrophin, undergoes alternative splicing and is implicated in several neurological disorders with developmental origins. Isoform-specific increases in NRG3 are observed in schizophrenia and associated with rs10748842, a NRG3 risk polymorphism, suggesting NRG3 transcriptional dysregulation as a molecular mechanism of risk. The authors quantitatively mapped the temporal trajectories of NRG3 isoforms (classes I-IV) in the neocortex throughout the human lifespan, examined whether tissue-specific regulation of NRG3 occurs in humans, and determined if abnormalities in NRG3 transcriptomics occur in mood disorders and are genetically determined. NRG3 isoform classes I-IV were quantified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in human postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from 286 nonpsychiatric control individuals, from gestational week 14 to 85 years old, and individuals diagnosed with either bipolar disorder (N=34) or major depressive disorder (N=69). Tissue-specific mapping was investigated in several human tissues. rs10748842 was genotyped in individuals with mood disorders, and association with NRG3 isoform expression examined. NRG3 classes displayed individually specific expression trajectories across human neocortical development and aging; classes I, II, and IV were significantly associated with developmental stage. NRG3 class I was increased in bipolar and major depressive disorder, consistent with observations in schizophrenia. NRG3 class II was increased in bipolar disorder, and class III was increased in major depression. The rs10748842 risk genotype predicted elevated class II and III expression, consistent with previous reports in the brain, with tissue-specific analyses suggesting that classes II and III are brain-specific isoforms of NRG3. Mapping the temporal expression of genes

  16. Evaluation of peri-implant soft tissue and bone levels around early loaded implant in restoring single missing tooth: A clinico-radiographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Isha; Bhushan, Anoop; Baiju, Chandrababu Sudha; Bali, Shweta; Joshi, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Background: One-stage nonsubmerged protocol which can achieve success rates comparable to implants placed in a two-staged submerged procedure also the preconditions for periimplant bone regeneration has lead to more refined concepts of implant loading. Materials and Methods: Twenty sites with single missing tooth were included in this study. Clinical parameters included sulcus bleeding index (sBI), probing pocket depth (PD), and papilla index (PI) and radiographic parameters included crestal bone level were assessed for a period of 9 months. Results: The crestal bone loss showed mean value ranging from baseline 0.25 ± 0.11 to 0.31 ± 0.08 at 3 weeks, to 0.67 ± 0.13 at 3 months, to 0.85 ± 0.09 at 6 months, and to 0.88 ± 0.12 at 9 months. Probing PD, the mean value for probing PD at 3 weeks 1.20 ± 0.83, 3 months 1.60 ± 1.1, at 6 months 1.40 ± 1.14, and at 9 months 1.20 ± 1.0. sBI, mean value for sBI at 3 weeks 0.00 ± 0.00, 3 months 0.3 ± 0.11, at 6 months 0.09 ± 0.25, and at 9 months 0.08 ± 0.24. PI, showed a significant difference among at different points of time with P = 0.000. Conclusion: The dental implants showed <1 mm of crestal bone loss at 9 months follow-up, clinically significant marginal bone loss occurred between the time of implant placement and 3 months. Subsequent to that, bone loss observed around the implant up to 9 months was minimal. The periimplant soft tissue maturity was maintained throughout the study. PMID:27041836

  17. A comprehensive factorial design study of variables affecting protein extraction from formalin-fixed kidney tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J E; Oliveira, E; Otero-Glez, A; Santos Nores, J; Igrejas, G; Lodeiro, C; Capelo, J L; Santos, H M

    2014-02-01

    Formalin-fixed tissues are an important source of biological samples for biomedical research. However, proteomics analysis of formalin-fixed tissues has been set aside by formalin-induced protein modifications, which reduce protein extraction efficiency. In this study, a two level full factorial experimental design (2(4)) was used to determine the effects of the extracting conditions in the efficiency of protein recovery from formalin-fixed kidney samples. The following variables were assessed: temperature of extraction, pH of extraction, composition of the extracting buffer and the use ultrasonic energy applied with probe. It is clearly demonstrated that when hating and ultrasonic energy are used in conjunction, a 7-fold increase (p protein extraction is obtained if compared to extracting conditions for which neither heating nor ultrasonic energy are used. The optimization study was done following the amount of protein extracted by UV (Nanodrop(®) technology, protein ABS at 280 nm) and by 1D SDS-PAGE. Extracts obtained with the optimized conditions were subjected to LC-MALDI MS/MS. A total of 112 proteins were identified.

  18. Finite element analysis of multi-piece post-crown restoration using different types of adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Wei Lu; Guang-Wei Meng; Zhi-Hui Liu

    2013-01-01

    The multi-piece post-crown technique is more effective in restoring residual root than other restoration techniques. Various types of adhesives have different material properties that affect restoration. Therefore, the choice of adhesive is particularly important for patients. However, the effect of different kinds of adhesives was not too precise by experimental methods when concerning about individual differences of teeth. One tooth root can only be restored with one type of adhesive in experiment. After the mechanical test, this tooth root cannot be restored with other adhesives. With the help of medical imaging technology, reverse engineering and finite element analysis, a molar model can be reconstructed precisely and restored using different types of adhesives. The same occlusal and chewing loads were exerted on the same restored residual root models with different types of adhesives separately. Results of von Mises stress analysis showed that the adhesives with low Young’s modulus can protect the root canal effectively. However, a root canal concentration is apparently produced around the root canal orifice when chewing. Adhesives with large Young’s modulus can buffer the stress concentration of the root canal orifice. However, the root canal tissue may be destroyed because the adhesive is too hard to buffer the load.

  19. Guidelines for Direct Adhesive Composite Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society Of Cariology And Endodontology, Chinese Stomatological Association Csa

    2015-01-01

    Direct adhesive composite restoration, a technique to restore tooth defects by bonding composite resin materials, has been widely used in the restoration of dental caries or other tooth defects. Retention of composite resin restoration mainly relies on bonding strength between the materials and dental tissue. The clinical outcomes rely greatly on the regulated clinical practice of dentists. In 2011, the Society of Cariology and Endodontology of Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA) published the 'Practices and evaluation criteria of composite resin bonded restoration (Discussion Version)'. Since then, opinions and comments regarding the 'Discussion Version' have been widely circulated within the Society. The final version of the guideline was based on systematic reviews of scientific literature and requirements for the edit of technical guidelines, and through several rounds of discussions, revisions and supplements. The society recommends this guideline for clinicians to use in their practices, when conducting direct composite restorations.

  20. Tissue Doppler imaging for detection of radial and longitudinal myocardial dysfunction in a family of cats affected by dystrophin-deficient hypertrophic muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetboul, Valérie; Blot, Stephane; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Granger, Nicolas; Tissier, Renaud; Bruneval, Patrick; Gaschen, Frederic; Gouni, Vassiliki; Nicolle, Audrey P; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy currently is based on the presence of myocardial hypertrophy detected using conventional echocardiography. The accuracy of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for earlier detection of the disease has never been described. The objective of this sudy was to quantify left ventricular free wall (LVFW) velocities in cats with hypertrophic muscular dystrophy (HFMD) during preclinical cardiomyopathy using TDI. The study animals included 22 healthy controls and 7 cats belonging to a family of cats with HFMD (2 affected adult males, 2 heterozygous adult females, one 2.5-month-old affected male kitten, and 2 phenotypically normal female kittens from the same litter). All cats were examined via conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional color TDI. No LVFW hypertrophy was detected in the 2 carriers or in the affected kitten when using conventional echocardiography and histologic examination, respectively. The LVFW also was normal for 1 affected male and at the upper limit of normal for the 2nd male. Conversely, LVFW dysfunction was detected in all affected and carrier cats with HFMD when using TDI. TDI consistently detects LVFW dysfunction in cats with HFMD despite the absence of myocardial hypertrophy. Therefore, TDI appears more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detecting regional myocardial abnormalities.

  1. Chemical composition and oxidative status of tissues from Iberian pigs as affected by diets: extensive feeding v. oleic acid- and tocopherol-enriched mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Tejeda, J F; Estévez, M

    2008-04-01

    The present work was intended to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the muscle biceps femoris and adipose tissues from Iberian pigs fed different finishing diets: free-range feeding on grass and acorns in a 'Montanera' traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115 g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement with a tocopherol-non-supplemented control mixed diet (CON). Muscles from MON pigs contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat than those from HOVE and CON pigs. Muscles from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than muscles from CON pigs whereas free-range feeding provided significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol to muscles from MON pigs than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. Adipose tissues from MON and HOVE pigs contained significantly lower proportions of saturated fatty acids and significantly higher levels of oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids than those from CON pigs. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than those from CON and HOVE pigs. To a higher extent, feeding background affected the fatty acid composition of polar lipids from the muscle biceps femoris than that of neutral lipids. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller ω-6/ω-3 values than those from pigs fed mixed diets. Compared to tissues from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels.

  2. Long-term feeding of Atlantic salmon in seawater with low dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids affects tissue status of the brain, retina and erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, N H; Torstensen, B E; Stubhaug, I; Rosenlund, G

    2016-06-01

    In two long-term feeding trials in seawater, Atlantic salmon were fed EPA+DHA in graded levels, from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (FA, 4-24 g/kg feed) combined with approximately 10 % 18 : 3n-3, at 6 and 12°C. Dietary EPA appeared to be sufficient in all diet groups, as no differences were seen in polar lipid tissue concentrations of either the brain, retina or erythrocytes. For DHA, a reduction in tissue levels was observed with low dietary supply. Effects on brain DHA at ≤1·4 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA and retina DHA at ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA were only observed in fish reared at 6°C, suggesting an effect of temperature, whereas tissue levels of n-6 FA increased as a response to increased dietary n-6 FA in both the brain and the retina at both temperatures. DHA levels in erythrocytes were affected by ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA at both temperatures. Therefore, DHA appears to be the limiting n-3 FA in diets where EPA and DHA are present in the ratios found in fishmeal and fish oil. To assess the physiological significance of FA differences in erythrocytes, the osmotic resistance was tested, but it did not vary between dietary groups. In conclusion, ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of FA (≤9 g/kg feed) is not sufficient to maintain tissue DHA status in important tissues of Atlantic salmon throughout the seawater production cycle despite the presence of dietary 18 : 3n-3, and effects may be more severe at low water temperatures.

  3. BmPLA2 containing conserved domain WD40 affects the metabolic functions of fat body tissue in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville Singh, Chabungbam; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-Ting; Wang, Mei-Xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-Zheng; Miao, Yun-Gen

    2016-02-01

    PLA2 enzyme hydrolyzes arachidonic acid, and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, from the sn-2 position to release free arachidonic acid and a lysophospholipid. Previous studies reported that the PLA2 in invertebrate organisms participates in lipid signaling molecules like arachidonic acid release in immune-associated tissues like hemocytes and fat bodies. In the present study, we cloned the BmPLA2 gene from fat body tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, which has a total sequence of 1.031 kb with a 31.90 kDa protein. In silico results of BmPLA2 indicated that the protein has a putative WD40 conserved domain and its phylogeny tree clustered with Danaus plexippus species. We investigated the transcriptional expression in development stages and tissues. The highest expression of BmPLA2 was screened in fat body among the studied tissues of third day fifth instar larva, with a high expression on third day fifth instar larva followed by a depression of expression in the wandering stage of the fifth instar larva. The expression of BmPLA2 in female pupa was higher than that of male pupa. Our RNAi-mediated gene silencing results showed highest reduction of BmPLA2 expression in post-24 h followed by post-48 and post-72 h. The BmPLA2-RNAi larvae and pupa could be characterized by pharate adult lethality and underdevelopment. The phenotypic characters of fat body cells in RNAi-induced larva implied that BmPLA2 affects the metabolic functions of fat body tissue in silkworm Bombyx mori.

  4. Dietary Methionine Affect Meat Qulity and Myostatin Gene Exon 1 Region Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Tissues of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-qing; ZONG Kai; ZHANG Li-li; CAO Shu-qing

    2010-01-01

    Dietary amino acids imbalance will result in stunted broiler performance and deteriorated meat quality,which are involved in various biochemical cycles in vivo.In this study,the effects of dietary methionine on meat quality and methylation of myostatin exon 1 were investigated.Drip loss of the broilers fed with diet of high methionine levels(0.2%)increased from(6.3±0.1)%(control group)to(10.1±1.0)%,and the muscle shearing force increased from(22.8±1.9)N(control group)to(26.3±2.3)N.Moreover,many CpG sites were found at the myostatin exon 1 region(nucleotides 2360-2540 bp).To further understand the regulation of broiler myostatin expression,the methylation status of broiler myostatin exon 1 and its mRNA expression were analyzed.At the myostatin exon 1 region where CG enriches(nucleotides 2360-2540 bp),the percentages of methylation were 46 and 84% in low Met and high Met content groups after 55-d feeding,respectively.In skeletal muscle tissues,the exon 1 hypermethylation status of myostatin gene was found to be negatively correlated with the gene expression.These results suggested that methylation of this gene is a dynamic process,which plays a dominant role in regulating gene expression for development of individuals.

  5. Factors affecting proliferation and elongation of shoots of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. through tissue culture technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. was investigated for micropropagation. The types of explant, culture media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, orientation of explant and section of explant were tested for their efficacy in inducing and proliferating shoot buds. The elongation of shoots and root induction was also studied. Young leaves gave the highest number of shoot buds when they were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l IBA and 1.53 mg/l BA. The medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ alone provided the best result on multiple shoot bud induction both in percentage of explant forming shoots and number of shoot buds per explant. The percentage of explant forming shoot buds and number of shoot buds obtained from leaves were 90% and 26.50 shoot buds, while those from stems were 96.25% and 23.00 shoot buds, respectively. One hundred percent friable callus was induced from stem explant in the same medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D after 2 months of culture. Culturing whole leaf in the position of dorsal contact with medium gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 92% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant. Cutting stem into half and culturing in horizontal position gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 96% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant after culture for 2 months. The best elongation of shoot buds (2.54 shoots derived from cultured leaves was induced in the liquid medium. While stem-derived shoot buds (3.45 shoots was induced in the solid medium of the same medium components. However, root could not be induced from elongated shoots.

  6. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  7. Structural analysis of tissues affected by cytochrome C oxidase deficiency due to mutations in the SCO2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesela, Katerina; Hulkova, Helena; Hansikova, Hana; Zeman, Jiri; Elleder, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Structural and histochemical studies carried out in a series of seven cases (from five families) with isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency caused by mutations in the SCO2 gene (1, 2) disclosed changes concentrated in the nervous system, skeletal muscle and myocardium. In five patients homozygous for the E140K mutation, the phenotype was predominantly neuromuscular and the average life span ranged between 9 and 15 months. In two cases, the course was more rapid (death at 7 and 11 weeks of life) and featured marked cardiac hypertrophy (3- and 4-fold increase in heart weight). This predominantly cardiomyopathic phenotype was associated with compound heterozygosity (E140K with another nonsense mutation) in the SCO2 gene. Polioencephalopathy with neurodegeneration and neuronal drop out was present in all cases with evidence that retinal neurons might be seriously affected too. Involvement of spinal motoneurons together with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in muscle represents a "double hit" for the skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial population was not found to be significantly increased or structurally altered, with the exception of two compound heterozygotes in which the cardiac mitochondria were increased in number and size. Our report extends knowledge of the pathology of COX deficiency caused by mutations in the SCO2 gene.

  8. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  9. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid affects {gamma}H2AX expression in osteosarcoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor and normal tissue cell lines after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattmann, C.; Oertel, S.; Thiemann, M.; Weber, K.J.; Schmezer, P.; Zelezny, O.; Lopez Perez, R.; Kulozik, A.E.; Debus, J.; Ehemann, V. [Univ. Children' s Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology, Immunology and Pulmology

    2012-02-15

    Osteosarcoma and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors are tumor entities with varying response to common standard therapy protocols. Histone acetylation affects chromatin structure and gene expression which are considered to influence radiation sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and irradiation on atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and osteosarcoma compared to normal tissue cell lines. Clonogenic assay was used to determine cell survival. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were examined by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) as well as by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining involving flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and immunoblot analysis. SAHA lead to an increased radiosensitivity in tumor but not in normal tissue cell lines. {gamma}H2AX expression as an indicator for DSB was significantly increased when SAHA was applied 24 h before irradiation to the sarcoma cell cultures. In contrast, {gamma}H2AX expression in the normal tissue cell lines was significantly reduced when irradiation was combined with SAHA. Analysis of initial DNA fragmentation and fragment rejoining by PFGE, however, did not reveal differences in response to the SAHA pretreatment for either cell type. SAHA increases radiosensitivity in tumor but not normal tissue cell lines. The increased H2AX phosphorylation status of the SAHA-treated tumor cells post irradiation likely reflects its delayed dephosphorylation within the DNA damage signal decay rather than chromatin acetylation-dependent differences in the overall efficacy of DSB induction and rejoining. The results support the hypothesis that combining SAHA with irradiation may provide a promising strategy in the treatment of solid tumors. (orig.)

  10. Adipose triglyceride lipase expression and fasting regulation are differently affected by cold exposure in adipose tissues of lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimari, Antoni; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2012-09-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerols to diacylglycerols in the first step of lipolysis, providing substrates for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Here we studied whether ATGL messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were affected by 24-h cold exposure in different white adipose tissue depots and in interscapular brown adipose tissue of lean and obese Zucker rats submitted to feeding and 14-h fasting conditions. HSL mRNA expression was also studied in selected depots. In both lean and obese rats, as a general trend, cold exposure increased ATGL mRNA and protein levels in the different adipose depots, except in the brown adipose tissue of lean animals, where a decrease was observed. In lean rats, cold exposure strongly improved fasting up-regulation of ATGL expression in all the adipose depots. Moreover, in response to fasting, in cold-exposed lean rats, there was a stronger positive correlation between circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ATGL mRNA levels in the adipose depots and a higher percentage increase of circulating NEFA in comparison with control animals not exposed to cold. In obese rats, fasting-induced up-regulation of ATGL was impaired and was not improved by cold. The effects of obesity and cold exposure on HSL mRNA expression were similar to those observed for ATGL, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for both proteins. Thus, cold exposure increases ATGL expression and improves its fasting-up-regulation in adipose tissue of lean rats. In obese rats, cold exposure also increases ATGL expression but fails to improve its regulation by fasting, which could contribute to the increased difficulty for mobilizing lipids in these animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological restoration: A 4/5 crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monize Ferreira Figueiredo de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent conditions in humans; the purpose of restorative dentistry is to recreate the anatomy of the affected tooth thus the use of fragments from natural teeth as an effective restorative method. A maxillary first premolar left was prepared for an inverted 4/5 crown due to involvement of the vestibular face, after prepared received an allogeneic collage with similar color and dimension. Follow-up after 12 months indicated a stable restoration. Clinically, the site was without signs of caries, migration of the fragment or marginal infiltration. Biological restoration is a viable alternative for reestablishing function and esthetics to damaged/decayed teeth and therefore, biological restoration as an alternative to other restorative options.

  12. The effect of correlative risk factors on esthetic outcome of soft tissue for implant-supported single tooth restoration in anterior maxilla%上颌前牙区单牙种植软组织美学的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤; 张志勇; 赖红昌; 黄伟; 吴轶群

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the soft tissue around single-tooth implant in anterior maxilla with a newly developed pink esthetic score (PES) at the time of crown placement and 6-month follow-up, and to analyze the correlative factors affecting the assessment of PES. METHODS: 31 patients subjective to single-tooth replacement with ITI implant-supported restoration in anterior maxilla were included. Assessments of soft tissue after crown placement and 6-month follow-up were made. At the same time, age of the patients, abutment type, gingival biotype were recorded and the height of keratinized mucosa , the distance between alveolar crest and implant shoulder, periodontal index were measured. The correlations between PES and the factors were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: PES for single-tooth implant was 6.90±2.52 at the time of crown placement and 9.55±2.15 after 6-month follow-up. PES had a higher score correlated with thick gingival biotype, solid abutment, wider keratinized mucosa, less distance between alveolar crest and implant shoulder and had no relation to the age of patients and periodontal index. CONCLUSIONS: Esthetic outcome of soft tissue for single tooth implant restoration is affected by many factors according to PES assessment. "Supported by Research Fund of Excellent Young Teachers of Shanghai Municipality(Grant No.jdy-07066).%目的:通过PES(pink esthetic score)评分指数对上颌前牙区单牙种植修复后软组织的美学效果进行评价,分析多组因素与PES得分的相关性.方法:随机选择31例上颌前牙区单牙缺失患者,共植入31枚ITI种植体,于修复完成当天及随访6个月后,使用PES指数对种植修复体周围软组织进行评分.记录患者年龄、牙周组织类型、基台类型,测量种植区角化龈宽度、邻面牙槽嵴顶至肩台的距离、牙周指数,使用Spearman等级相关分析各个因素与基线期、随访期PES总分的相关性.结果:修复完成当天PES值为6.90

  13. Dietary linseed oil in the maternal diet affects immunoglobulins, tissue fatty acid composition and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X L; Wang, N; Tian, M L; Wang, L; Liu, T; Zhang, X W; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2016-11-21

    This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with linseed oil (LSO) and soya bean oil (SBO) on immunoglobulins, the fatty acid composition and hepatic expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. Multiparous sows (twenty-four per diet) were fed on diets containing a supplement of either SBO or LSO during last week of gestation and lactation. The results indicated that supplementation of maternal diet with LSO could improve the weaning weight of piglets and average daily gain (ADG) (p plasma, colostrum and milk by the addition of LSO (p plasma IgG, IgA and the tissues n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in piglets (p composition and affects the gene of D5D and D6D expression of piglets.

  14. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the key factors of the restoration in the posterior endodontically treated teeth, through a literature review and clinical cases presentation. To focus on the clinical advantages of the adhesive indirect restorations, describing the basic principles for long-term success. Materials and methods: The biomechanical changes due to the root canal therapy and the degree of healthy dental tissue lost because of pathology and iatrogenic factors are the critical points leadin...

  15. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauner, Gat, E-mail: gat.rauner@mail.huji.ac.il [Institute of Animal Science, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250 (Israel); The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Barash, Itamar, E-mail: itamar.barash@mail.huji.ac.il [Institute of Animal Science, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250 (Israel)

    2014-10-15

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine's effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers—which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation—bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. - Highlights: • Novel “bovinized“ mouse model for exogenous effects on bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine did not affect stem cell number/function in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine caused an immediate decrease in IMPDH expression in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine had latent negative effect on cell proliferation in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine administration limited mammary tumor growth.

  16. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2014-10-15

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine׳s effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers-which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation-bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-analysis reveals an association of PTPN22 C1858T with autoimmune diseases, which depends on the localization of the affected tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Ibrahim, S; Petersen, F; Yu, X

    2012-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a strong susceptibility gene shared by many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying this relationship. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the association between PTPN22 polymorphism C1858T and autoimmune diseases. The results showed a remarkable pattern; PTPN22 C1858T was strongly associated with type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, immune thrombocytopenia, generalized vitiligo with concomitant autoimmune diseases, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, Graves' disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Addison's disease. By contrast, PTPN22 C1858T showed a negligible association with systemic sclerosis, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, pemphigus vulgaris, ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Crohn's disease and acute anterior uveitis. Further analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two groups of diseases with regard to their targeted tissues: most autoimmune diseases showing an insignificant association with PTPN22 C1858T manifest in skin, the gastrointestinal tract or in immune privileged sites. These results showed that the association of PTPN22 polymorphism with autoimmune diseases depends on the localization of the affected tissue, suggesting a role of targeted organ variation in the disease manifestations.

  18. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned.

  19. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  20. Collarless metal ceramic restorations to obscure the umbrella effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Shaista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetics with porcelain fused to metal restoration in the anterior region can be adversely affected due to the inadequate teeth preparations and design of the prosthesis. We presented here a case report where esthetics was compromised due to darkening of the interdental papilla and marginal gingival and overcontoured restorations in relation to porcelain fused to metal restorations. Good esthetic results were obtained by using basic principles of tooth preparation and using collarless metal ceramic restorations.

  1. CAD/CAM氧化锆全瓷冠修复对牙周组织的影响%Effect of the CAD/CAM zirconia all-ceramic crown restoration on periodontal tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商丽娟; 吴岩; 徐永军

    2014-01-01

    背景:全冠修复体远期疗效的维持很大程度上取决于牙周组织的健康状况。目的:探讨CAD/CAM氧化锆全瓷冠修复体对牙周组织健康状况的影响。方法:随机选择需行全冠修复的55例患者64颗基牙作为研究对象,实验组为CAD/CAM氧化锆全瓷冠修复的29例患者32颗基牙,对照组为进行镍铬合金烤瓷冠修复的26例患者32颗基牙。检测两组修复前和修复后12个月的龈沟液含量、肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素6水平,以及牙龈出血指数、牙周探诊深度、菌斑指数及附着丧失。结果与结论:实验组修复前后各指标比较差异均无显著性意义(P >0.05)。对照组修复12个月后的龈沟液含量、肿瘤坏死因子α、白细胞介素6、牙龈出血指数、牙周探诊深度及菌斑指数均高于修复前(P >0.05)。修复12个月后,实验组龈沟液含量、肿瘤坏死因子α、白细胞介素6、牙龈出血指数、牙周探诊深度及菌斑指数均低于对照组(P0.05). At 12 months after restoration, in the control group, the volume of gingival crevicular fluid, the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and plaque index were al increased (P>0.05);meanwhile, these indexes in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Experimental findings suggest that the CAD/CAM zirconia al-ceramic crown restoration is more favorable to the health of periodontal tissues.

  2. Effect of prophylactic treatments on the superficial roughness of dental tissues and of two esthetic restorative materials Efeito de tratamentos profiláticos na rugosidade superficial de tecidos dentais e de dois materiais restauradores estéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Salami

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental prophylaxis is a common way to remove dental plaque and stain, both undesirable factors in most dentistry procedures. However, besides cleaning the tooth surface, prophylactic techniques may increase the surface roughness of restorations and dental tissues, which, in turn, may result in plaque accumulation, superficial staining and superficial degradation. This study evaluated the effect of three prophylactic techniques - sodium bicarbonate jet, pumice paste and whiting paste - on the superficial roughness of two restorative materials - a composite resin and a compomer - and on the superficial roughness of two dental surfaces - enamel and cementum/dentin - through rugosimetric and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Statistical analysis of the rugosimetric data showed that the use of pumice paste on enamel produced a significantly smoother surface than the natural surface. However, comparing the effect of the three techniques, prophylaxis with the pumice paste produced a rougher surface than did the other techniques as regards enamel and cementum/dentin probably due to its abrasiveness. On composite resin, the pumice paste only produced a rougher surface than did the whiting paste. On compomer, all of the applied treatments produced similar results. Based on rugosimetric and SEM analysis, we could conclude that the prophylactic treatments employed did not improve roughness of the studied surfaces. As to the effects of the techniques, they were different depending on the surfaces on which the prophylactic treatments were applied.A profilaxia dental é uma prática comum para a remoção de placa bacteriana e outros indutos que dificultam a realização dos procedimentos restauradores. Entretanto, como efeito secundário à limpeza, pode-se ter uma superfície mais rugosa e sujeita a manchamentos e degradações. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de três técnicas de profilaxia - jato de bicarbonato de sódio, pasta de pedra

  3. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood.

  4. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  5. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  6. Restoring the incisal edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    Restorative dentistry evolves with each development of new material and innovative technique. Selection of improved restorative materials that simulate the physical properties and other characteristics of natural teeth, in combination with restorative techniques such as the proximal adaptation and incremental layering, provide the framework that ensures the optimal development of an esthetic restoration. These advanced placement techniques offer benefits such as enhanced chromatic integration, polychromatism, ideal anatomical form and function, optimal proximal contact, improved marginal integrity and longer lasting directly placed composite restorations. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a better understanding of the complex restorative challenge in achieving true harmonization of the primary parameters in esthetics (that is, color, shape and texture) represented by the replacement of a single anterior tooth. The case presented demonstrates the restoration of a Class IV fracture integrating basic adhesive principles with these placement techniques and a recently developed nanoparticle hybrid composite resin system (Premise, Kerr/Sybron, Orange, CA). The clinical presentation describes preoperative considerations, tooth preparation, development of the body layer, internal characterization with tints, development of the artificial enamel layer, shaping and contouring, and polishing of a Class IV composite restoration. The clinical significance is that anterior tooth fractures can be predictably restored using contemporary small particle hybrid composite resin systems with the aforementioned restorative techniques. These placement techniques when used with proper attention to preparation design, adhesive protocol and finishing and polishing procedures, allow the clinician to successfully restore form, function and esthetics to the single anterior tooth replacement.

  7. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Brini, Anna Teresa [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Girolamo, Laura de [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Niada, Stefania [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal

  8. Chronic improvement of amino acid nutrition stimulates initiation of global messenger ribonucleic acid translation in tissues of sheep without affecting protein elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M T; Poppi, D P; Cant, J P

    2010-02-01

    Initiation of mRNA translation and elongation of the polypeptide chain are 2 regulated processes responsible for the short-term postprandial acceleration of protein synthesis in animal tissues. It is known that a chronic increase in the absorptive supply of AA stimulates protein synthesis in ruminant animals, but effects on translation initiation and elongation are unknown. To determine whether initiation or elongation phases of global mRNA translation are affected by chronic elevation of AA supply, 24 ewe lambs of 25.9 +/- 2.5 kg of BW were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups of 6 lambs each. All lambs received a basal diet of barley and hay at 1.2 times maintenance ME intake. Treatments were an intravenous (i.v.) saline infusion as a control, i.v. infusion of 6 essential AA (EAA; Arg, Lys, His, Thr, Met, Cys) for 10 d, i.v. infusion of the same EAA excluding Met and Cys (EAA-SAA) for 10 d, and an oral drench of fishmeal twice daily for 17 d. Fishmeal supplementation supplied an extra 719 mg of N x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and N retention was increased 519 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) over the control. The EAA treatment supplied an extra 343 mg of N x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) directly into the blood, and N balance was increased by 268 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1). Deletion of Met plus Cys from EAA had no effect on N balance. The results indicate that Met plus Cys did not limit body protein gain on the basal diet alone or the basal diet plus 6 AA. Protein fractional synthesis rates in liver, duodenum, skin, rumen, semimembranosus, and LM were measured by a flooding dose procedure using L-[ring-2,6-(3)H]-Phe. Ribosome transit times were estimated from the ratio of nascent to total protein-bound radioactivities. Fishmeal and EAA treatments had no effect on RNA, DNA, or protein contents of tissues, but fractional synthesis rate, translational efficiency, and concentrations of active ribosomes were consistently elevated. Ribosome transit time was not affected by long-term AA supply. We

  9. Long-lasting neuronal loss following experimental focal cerebral ischemia is not affected by combined administration of tissue plasminogen activator and hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobohm, Carsten; Laignel, Félix; Kacza, Johannes; Küppers-Tiedt, Lea; Heindl, Marita; Schneider, Dietmar; Grosche, Jens; Härtig, Wolfgang; Michalski, Dominik

    2011-10-12

    Acute focal cerebral ischemia and consecutive energy failure are accompanied by neuronal death in regions with impaired cerebral blood flow. Several translational attempts of potential neuroprotective agents have failed, hence extended perspectives are required regarding the regional differences of neuronal impairment and glial involvement by using clinically relevant stroke models. This study aimed on neuronal loss following experimental focal cerebral ischemia, considering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as established treatment in stroke and hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) as potential neuroprotective co-treatment. Wistar rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and underwent either treatment with tPA only, combined tPA+HBO, or no treatment. Neuronal impairment was assessed by Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) staining in 4 ischemia-related areas and at 4 different time points after stroke induction (24hours, 7, 14 and 28 days). Additionally, spatial relationships between neuronal loss and gliosis were revealed by triple fluorescence staining of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, comparing the ipsi- and contra-lesional hemisphere. Analyzing the ischemic injury in general, a shell-like distribution of neuronal damage was observed, starting in the ischemic core and diminishing over the general ischemic area to the ischemic border zone and the primary non-affected area. This pattern remained detectable up to 4weeks after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, tPA and tPA+HBO did not markedly affect the post-ischemic course of neuronal impairment. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of treatment with tPA or potential neuroprotective agents on neuronal integrity, with emphasis on the separation of intact neurons from those undergoing apoptosis or necrosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. From Stem to Roots: tissue engineering in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Chandki, Rita; Kala, M; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    The vitality of dentin-pulp complex is fundamental to the life of tooth and is a priority for targeting clinical management strategies. Loss of the tooth, jawbone or both, due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma or some genetic disorders, affects not only basic mouth functions but aesthetic appearance and quality of life. One novel approach to restore tooth structure is based on biology: regenerative endodontic procedure by application of tissue engineering. Regenerative endodontics...

  11. The Hip Restoration Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Allston Julius; Atilla, Halis Atil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Despite the rapid advancement of imaging and arthroscopic techniques about the hip joint, missed diagnoses are still common. As a deep joint and compared to the shoulder and knee joints, localization of hip symptoms is difficult. Hip pathology is not easily isolated and is often related to intra and extra-articular abnormalities. In light of these diagnostic challenges, we recommend an algorithmic approach to effectively diagnoses and treat hip pain. Methods In this review, hip pain is evaluated from diagnosis to treatment in a clear decision model. First we discuss emergency hip situations followed by the differentiation of intra and extra-articular causes of the hip pain. We differentiate the intra-articular hip as arthritic and non-arthritic and extra-articular pain as surrounding or remote tissue generated. Further, extra-articular hip pain is evaluated according to pain location. Finally we summarize the surgical treatment approach with an algorithmic diagram. Conclusion Diagnosis of hip pathology is difficult because the etiologies of pain may be various. An algorithmic approach to hip restoration from diagnosis to rehabilitation is crucial to successfully identify and manage hip pathologies. Level of evidence: V. PMID:28066734

  12. Restoring primary anterior teeth: updated for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature associated with the techniques and materials for the restoration of primary anterior teeth and make clinical recommendations based upon the available literature. A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available to utilize for restoring primary incisors. Awareness of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material can enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are either some type of stainless steel or zirconia crown. There is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, the amount of tooth structure remaining, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables that affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative solution is chosen.

  13. The perio-esthetic-restorative approach for anterior rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Nitin; Bansal, Tushika; Bhandari, Marisha; Sharma, Anamika

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring clinical success begins with a careful discussion of treatment planning, comprehensively covering all variables in simple to complex cases. Procedures including the crown lengthening surgery, furcation treatment and mucogingival therapy and tooth restoration are essential treatment regimens requiring multifaceted expertise. The interplay of periodontics and restorative dentistry is present at many fronts including the response of the gingival tissue to the restorative preparations. Dental restorations and periodontal health are inseparably interrelated. The adaptation of the margins, the contours of the restoration, the proximal relationships and the surface smoothness have a critical biological impact on the gingiva and the supporting periodontal tissues. The different surgical procedures used for crown lengthening are gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, apically positioned flap with or without osseous resection and orthodontic extrusion. The paper presents crown lengthening of severely mutilated teeth to increase the clinical crown height for adequate restoration.

  14. The perio-esthetic-restorative approach for anterior rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Tomar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring clinical success begins with a careful discussion of treatment planning, comprehensively covering all variables in simple to complex cases. Procedures including the crown lengthening surgery, furcation treatment and mucogingival therapy and tooth restoration are essential treatment regimens requiring multifaceted expertise. The interplay of periodontics and restorative dentistry is present at many fronts including the response of the gingival tissue to the restorative preparations. Dental restorations and periodontal health are inseparably interrelated. The adaptation of the margins, the contours of the restoration, the proximal relationships and the surface smoothness have a critical biological impact on the gingiva and the supporting periodontal tissues. The different surgical procedures used for crown lengthening are gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, apically positioned flap with or without osseous resection and orthodontic extrusion. The paper presents crown lengthening of severely mutilated teeth to increase the clinical crown height for adequate restoration.

  15. The perio-esthetic-restorative approach for anterior rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Nitin; Bansal, Tushika; Bhandari, Marisha; Sharma, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring clinical success begins with a careful discussion of treatment planning, comprehensively covering all variables in simple to complex cases. Procedures including the crown lengthening surgery, furcation treatment and mucogingival therapy and tooth restoration are essential treatment regimens requiring multifaceted expertise. The interplay of periodontics and restorative dentistry is present at many fronts including the response of the gingival tissue to the restorative preparations. Dental restorations and periodontal health are inseparably interrelated. The adaptation of the margins, the contours of the restoration, the proximal relationships and the surface smoothness have a critical biological impact on the gingiva and the supporting periodontal tissues. The different surgical procedures used for crown lengthening are gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, apically positioned flap with or without osseous resection and orthodontic extrusion. The paper presents crown lengthening of severely mutilated teeth to increase the clinical crown height for adequate restoration. PMID:24174740

  16. Acute myocardial infarction does not affect functional characteristics of adipose-derived stem cells in rats, but reduces the number of stem cells in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaijkens, B A; Krijnen, P A J; Meinster, E; ter Horst, E N; Vo, K; Musters, R J P; Kamp, O; Niessen, H W M; Juffermans, L J M; van Dijk, A

    2015-12-01

    In most pre-clinical animal studies investigating stem cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the administered stem cells are isolated from healthy donors. In clinical practice, however, patients who suffer from AMI will receive autologous cells, for example using adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). During AMI, inflammation is induced and we hypothesized that this might affect characteristics of ASC. To investigate this, ASC were isolated from rat adipose tissue 1 day (1D group, n = 5) or 7 days (7D group, n = 6) post-AMI, and were compared with ASC from healthy control rats (Control group, n = 6) and sham-operated rats (Sham 1D group, n = 5). We found that significantly fewer ASC were present 1 day post-AMI in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), determined by a colony-forming-unit assay (p cells in SVF of the 1D group. When cultured, no differences were found in proliferation rate and cell size between the groups in the first three passages. Also, no difference in the differentiation capacity of ASC was found. In conclusion, it was shown that significantly fewer stem cells were present in the SVF 1 day post-AMI; however, the stem cells that were present showed no functional differences.

  17. Increased body fat mass and tissue lipotoxicity associated with ovariectomy or high-fat diet differentially affects bone and skeletal muscle metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Salles, Jérôme; Landrier, Jean-François; Giraudet, Christophe; Patrac, Véronique; Lebecque, Patrice; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Chanet, Audrey; Pouyet, Corinne; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Boirie, Yves; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the musculoskeletal effects induced by ovariectomy-related fat mass deposition against the musculoskeletal effects caused by a high-fat diet. A group of adult female rats was ovariectomized and fed a control diet. Two additional groups were sham-operated and fed a control or a high-fat diet for 19 weeks. Distal femur and serum bone parameters were measured to assess bone metabolism. Muscle protein metabolism, mitochondrial markers and triglyceride content were evaluated in tibialis anterior. Triglyceride content was evaluated in liver. Circulating inflammatory and metabolic markers were determined. The high-fat diet and ovariectomy led to similar increases in fat mass (+36.6-56.7%; p muscle tissues and inflammatory markers. Consumption of the high-fat diet led to decreased bone formation (-38.4%; p muscle mitochondrial metabolism, muscle lipotoxicity and a 20.9% increase in tibialis anterior protein synthesis rate (p increased +72.7% (p increased +76.4% (p muscle protein synthesis rate (p fat diet and ovariectomy triggered similar gains in fat mass but had different impacts on bone and muscle metabolism. The ovariectomy-induced mechanisms affecting the musculoskeletal system are mainly caused by estrogen depletion, which surpasses the potential-independent effect of adiposity.

  18. Restoring the worn dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, R L; Ouellet, D F

    1992-01-01

    Strong dental materials and dental porcelains are providing dentists with restorative opportunities that are more conservative because they require less destruction of healthy tooth structure and yield a more esthetic result. In cases of severe wear due to attrition, abrasion, and erosion, this process can be stopped, restoring the esthetics and function by using proper techniques and materials. The case report described in this article demonstrates the conservative restoration of severe wear due to attrition and erosion. Teeth were lengthened, wear was restored, and further wear was ceased by using a combination of bonded porcelain, a heat, light, and self-cure resin system, and a new glass-ionomer restorative material. The result was a strong, durable restoration (that required no anesthesia) with high esthetics.

  19. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  20. Restoring gingival harmony around single tooth implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikie, D F

    1995-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges to restoring a single tooth implant in the esthetic zone of the mouth is the creation of harmonious gingival contour around the restoration. Soft- or hard-tissue deficiencies of the edentulous space are the most common obstacles to achieving gingival symmetry around the proposed restoration. Numerous gingival and osseous grafting and regeneration techniques are available but may complicate treatment by increasing the number of surgical procedures and sites necessary. This article describes a technique for treating mild-to-moderate ridge defects without the required additional surgical procedures or a surgical donor site. Soft-tissue overcontouring is provided around the healing abutment by modification of the surgical flap at second-stage implant surgery. Subsequent gingivoplasty allows establishment of anatomic gingival architecture that surrounds the single implant prosthesis.

  1. Disease dynamics and potential mitigation among restored and wild staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret W. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The threatened status (both ecologically and legally of Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has prompted rapidly expanding efforts in culture and restocking, although tissue loss diseases continue to affect populations. In this study, disease surveillance and histopathological characterization were used to compare disease dynamics and conditions in both restored and extant wild populations. Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites. A subset of 20 haphazardly selected colonies at each site observed over a four-month period revealed widely varying disease incidence, although not between restored and wild sites, and a case fatality rate of 8%. A tropical storm was the only discernable environmental trigger associated with a consistent spike in incidence across all sites. Lastly, two field mitigation techniques, (1 excision of apparently healthy branch tips from a diseased colony, and (2 placement of a band of epoxy fully enclosing the diseased margin, gave equivocal results with no significant benefit detected for either treatment compared to controls. Tissue condition of associated samples was fair to very poor; unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples had severe degeneration of mesenterial filament cnidoglandular bands. Polyp mucocytes in all samples were infected with suspect rickettsia-like organisms; however, no bacterial aggregates were found. No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD and rapid tissue loss (RTL. Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys.

  2. Disease dynamics and potential mitigation among restored and wild staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret W; Lohr, Kathryn E; Cameron, Caitlin M; Williams, Dana E; Peters, Esther C

    2014-01-01

    The threatened status (both ecologically and legally) of Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has prompted rapidly expanding efforts in culture and restocking, although tissue loss diseases continue to affect populations. In this study, disease surveillance and histopathological characterization were used to compare disease dynamics and conditions in both restored and extant wild populations. Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites. A subset of 20 haphazardly selected colonies at each site observed over a four-month period revealed widely varying disease incidence, although not between restored and wild sites, and a case fatality rate of 8%. A tropical storm was the only discernable environmental trigger associated with a consistent spike in incidence across all sites. Lastly, two field mitigation techniques, (1) excision of apparently healthy branch tips from a diseased colony, and (2) placement of a band of epoxy fully enclosing the diseased margin, gave equivocal results with no significant benefit detected for either treatment compared to controls. Tissue condition of associated samples was fair to very poor; unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples had severe degeneration of mesenterial filament cnidoglandular bands. Polyp mucocytes in all samples were infected with suspect rickettsia-like organisms; however, no bacterial aggregates were found. No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL). Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys.

  3. An apolipoprotein E4 fragment affects matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and cytokine levels in brain cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafnis, I; Tzinia, A K; Tsilibary, E C; Zannis, V I; Chroni, A

    2012-05-17

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 isoform, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), is more susceptible to proteolysis than apoE2 and apoE3 isoforms. ApoE4 fragments have been found in AD patients' brain. In the present study, we examined the effect of full-length apoE4 and apoE4 fragments apoE4[Δ(186-299)] and apoE4[Δ(166-299)] on inflammation in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and human astrocytoma SW-1783 cells. Western blot and zymography analysis showed that treatment of SK-N-SH cells with apoE4[Δ(186-299)], but not full-length apoE4 or the shorter apoE4[Δ(166-299)] fragment, leads to increased extracellular levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1). Real-time PCR showed that interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression is also increased in SK-N-SH cells treated with apoE4[Δ(186-299)]. Treatment of SK-N-SH cells with IL-1β leads to increased MMP9 and TIMP1 extracellular levels, suggesting that the induction of IL-1β may be the mechanism by which apoE4[Δ(186-299)] regulates MMP9 and TIMP1 levels in these cells. In contrast to SK-N-SH cells, treatment of SW-1783 cells with apoE4[Δ(186-299)], and to a lesser extent with apoE4, leads to increased TIMP1 extracellular levels without affecting MMP9 levels. Additionally, apoE4[Δ(186-299)] leads to decreased IL-10 gene expression in SK-N-SH cells, whereas both apoE4 and apoE4[Δ(186-299)] lead to decreased TNFα gene expression without affecting IL-1β and IL-10 gene expression in SW-1783 cells. Overall, our findings indicate that a specific apoE4 fragment (apoE4[Δ(186-299)]), with molecular mass similar that of apoE4 fragments detected in AD patients' brain, can influence the level of inflammatory molecules in brain cell lines. It is possible that these phenomena contribute to AD pathogenesis.

  4. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Core competencies for hair restoration surgeons recommended by the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carlos J; Beehner, Michael L; Cotterill, Paul C; Elliott, Vance W; Haber, Robert S; Harris, James A; Martinick, Jennifer H; Niedbalski, Robert P; Rose, Paul; Rousso, Daniel E; Shapiro, Ronald L

    2009-03-01

    Because hair restoration surgery has changed so significantly, the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery (ISHRS) recently developed and published a Core Curriculum for Hair Restoration Surgery (CCHRS). The ISHRS organized a task force to develop training programs that would not only present the CCHRS but also provide the practical experience necessary to allow a physician to practice safe, aesthetically sound hair restoration surgery. The task force recognized early on that identification of core competencies for hair restoration surgeons was essential to guiding the development of these training experiences. This article presents the competencies that have been identified. The intent of the Core Competencies for Hair Restoration Surgery is to outline the knowledge and skills that are essential to accurately diagnose and treat hair loss, to ensure patient safety, and to optimize aesthetic results. The ISHRS hopes that all existing surgery and dermatology training programs teaching hair restoration surgery procedures will find the Core Competencies useful in developing their curriculums. The Core Competencies were developed through an organized review of the CCHRS by a team of experienced hair restoration surgeons and educators and reviewed and approved by the ISHRS Board of Governors. The diversity of these competencies demonstrate that contemporary hair restoration surgery is a specialty requiring knowledge of several medical disciplines, including genetics, endocrinology, dermatology, tissue preservation, and surgery. The International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery believes identification of these Core Competencies is an important contribution to physician education in hair restoration surgery, and physicians who demonstrate competency in these skills will satisfy patients with contemporary results in a safe environment.

  6. How do red and infrared low-level lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue in comparison with clomiphene under in vivo condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Paria; Alihemmati, Alireza; Rasta, Seyed Hossein

    2017-08-11

    Folliculogenesis is a cycle that produces the majority of oocyte. Any disruption to this cycle leads to ovulation diseases, like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Treatments include drugs and surgery; lasers have also been used complementarily. Meanwhile, still there is no definite treatment for PCOS. This study investigated the photo-bio stimulation effect of near-infrared and red low-level laser on producing follicles and compared the result with result of using common drug, clomiphene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose the use of lasers autonomously treatment. So, there was one question: how do lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue? In this study, 28 rats were assigned to four groups as follows: control (CT), clomiphene drug (D), red laser (RL), and near-infrared laser (NIRL). Afterwards, 14 rats of RL and NIRL groups received laser on the first 2 days of estrous cycle, each 6 days, for 48 days. During treatment period, each rat received energy density of 5 J/cm(2). Seven rats in D group received clomiphene. After the experiment, lasers' effects at two wavelengths of 630 and 810 nm groups have been investigated and compared with clomiphene and CT groups. Producing different follicles to complement folliculogenesis cycle increased in NIRL and RL groups, but this increase was significant only in the NIRL group. This indicates that NIRL increases ovarian activity to produce oocyte that certainly can be used in future studies for finding a cure to ovarian negligence to produce more oocyte and treat diseases caused by it like PCOS.

  7. Toponymic Restoration in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Snarsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the discussion on restoration of historical names of public spaces in Irkutsk. It also reviews different approaches to the problem that appeared in the historical science and publicism. The author says about the necessity of a strictly historical approach to the toponymic restoration.

  8. Guiding Restoration Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    restoration of important ecosystem functions requires reintegrating landscapes or restorating the func- tional aspects of landscapes ( Risser 1992...51-64. Risser , P. G. 1992. Landscape ecology approach to ecosystem rehabilitation. Pages 37-46 in M. L. Wali (ed.), Ecosystem Rehabilitation

  9. Restoration of optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You SW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Si-Wei You,1 Ming-Mei Wu,2 Fang Kuang,2 Kin-Sang Cho,3 Kwok-Fai So4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, 2Institute of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China; 3Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4GHM Institute of CNS Regeneration, Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 5Department of Ophthalmology, The State Key laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China Abstract: Optic neuropathy refers to disorders involving the optic nerve (ON. Any damage to ON or ON-deriving neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, may lead to the breakdown of the optical signal transmission from the eye to the brain, thus resulting in a partial or complete vision loss. The causes of optic neuropathy include trauma, ischemia, inflammation, compression, infiltration, and mitochondrial damages. ON injuries include primary and secondary injuries. During these injury phases, various factors orchestrate injured axons to die back and become unable to regenerate, and these factors could be divided into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic inhibitory factors refer to the environmental conditions that influence the regeneration of injured axons. The presence of myelin inhibitors and glial scar, lack of neurotrophic factors, and inflammation mediated by injury are regarded as these extrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors need to trigger the intracellular signals to exert inhibitory effect. Proper regulation of these intracellular signals has been shown to be beneficial to ON regeneration. Intrinsic factors of RGCs are the pivotal reasons that inhibit ON regeneration and are closely linked with extrinsic factors. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and calcium levels affect axon guidance and growth cone response to guidance molecules

  10. Pulp-dentin biology in restorative dentistry. Part 4: Dental caries--characteristics of lesions and pulpal reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, L; Mjör, I A

    2001-10-01

    The infectious disease dental caries results in lesions that may affect enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum. If a caries lesion has progressed to the stage at which it requires restorative intervention, it is important that the clinician understand the tissue changes in the dentin that are likely to have taken place during lesion development. Until the present, no major distinction between the restorative treatment of active (rapidly progressing) and arrested (slowly progressing) lesions has been made, despite the fact that the two conditions exhibit major differences in tissue changes in the pulp-dentin complex. Intratubular changes and tertiary dentin formation will affect the outcome of the restorative treatment. In unaffected dentin and in rapidly progressing lesions, permeable tubules persist, and when the preparation of carious teeth results in the opening of unaffected dentin, greater care must be taken in all phases of the restorative procedures than if the dentin is impermeable. An active, deep lesion can be changed to an arrested lesion by a two-step excavation approach. Optimal assessment of the prevailing clinical conditions can only be made on the basis of thorough knowledge of the biology of the pulp-dentin organ.

  11. Nonsurgical gingival displacement in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Manuel S; Joseph, Robin Mathai; Parolia, Abhishek

    2011-06-01

    Gingival displacement is critical for obtaining accurate impressions for the fabrication of fixed restorations, especially when the finish line is at or just within the gingival sulcus. Displacement of the gingival tissue is also important when dealing with the restoration of cervical lesions due to their proximity to the periodontal tissue. The methods of gingival tissue displacement can be broadly classified as nonsurgical and surgical techniques, with nonsurgical being the more commonly practiced method. Dentists must alter their armamentarium and gingival displacement techniques to meet specific demands and obtain predictable results. Hence, the purpose of this article is to describe the different means by which nonsurgical gingival displacement can be achieved effectively under a variety of clinical situations.

  12. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT affects obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation without systemic effects in humans and in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov B Ballak

    Full Text Available Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. We used human adipose tissue biopsies to study the relationship of MAP3K8 expression with markers of obesity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, we evaluated obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice lacking MAP3K8 and WT mice on a high-fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks. Individuals with a BMI >30 displayed a higher mRNA expression of MAP3K8 in adipose tissue compared to individuals with a normal BMI. Additionally, high mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, but not TNF -α, in human adipose tissue were associated with higher expression of MAP3K8. Moreover, high plasma SAA and CRP did not associate with increased MAP3K8 expression in adipose tissue. Similarly, no association was found for MAP3K8 expression with plasma insulin or glucose levels. Mice lacking MAP3K8 had similar bodyweight gain as WT mice, yet displayed lower mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 in adipose tissue in response to the HFD as compared to WT animals. However, MAP3K8 deficient mice were not protected against HFD-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration or the development of insulin resistance. Together, the data in both human and mouse show that MAP3K8 is involved in local adipose tissue inflammation, specifically for IL-1β and its responsive cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but does not seem to have systemic effects on insulin resistance.

  13. Effect of composite/amalgam thickness on fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth, restored with combined amalgam-composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzmandi, Maryam; Doozandeh, Maryam; Abbasi, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Combined amalgam-composite restorations have been used through many years to benefit from the advantages of both dental amalgam and composite resin. Two variations have been mentioned for this technique, this study investigated the fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth with extended mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities, restored with the two variations of combined amalgam-composite restorations. Material and Methods Sixty intact extracted premolar teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (G1-G6) of 10 teeth. G1; consisted of intact teeth and G2; consisted of teeth with MOD preparations were assigned as the positive and negative control groups respectively. Other experimental groups after MOD preparations were as follows: G3, amalgam restoration; G4, composite restoration; G5 combined amalgam-composite restoration with amalgam placement only on 1mm of the gingival floor of the proximal boxes; G6, combined amalgam-composite restoration with amalgam placement to the height of contact area of the proximal surface of the tooth. Fracture strength of the specimens was measured and the data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of significance was Pamalgam-composite restoration was similar to that achieved with composite restoration alone and more than that of amalgam restoration alone. It can be concluded that the thickness of amalgam in combined amalgam-composite restorations did not affect fracture resistance of the teeth. Key words:Amalgam, composite, fracture resistance, restoration. PMID:27398176

  14. In vitro evaluation of marginal leakage in bonded restorations, with mechanical or chemical-mechanical (Carisolv removal of carious tissue Avaliação in vitro da infiltração marginal em restaurações adesivas, com remoção mecânica ou químico-mecânica (Carisolv do tecido cariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coelho Okida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out an in vitro evaluation and comparison of the occurrence of marginal leakage in bonded restorations using mechanical or chemical-mechanical (Carisolv removal of carious tissue. For that purpose, 40 extracted decayed human molars were divided into 4 groups: GI (burs + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GII (Carisolv + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GIII (burs + SBMP + Z100 and GIV (Carisolv + SBMP + Z100. After accomplishment of the restorations and thermal cycling, the teeth were exposed to dye, sectioned and qualitatively evaluated. The results demonstrated that the system of removal of carious tissue did not influence the results of microleakage at any of the cavity margins. At dentinal margins, use of the Prime & Bond NT + TPH restorative system allowed the occurrence of less microleakage than the SBMP + Z100 system.Este estudo avaliou e comparou in vitro a ocorrência da infiltração marginal em restaurações adesivas, com a utilização de remoção mecânica e químico-mecânica do tecido cariado. Para a proposição, 40 dentes molares humanos extraídos cariados foram divididos em quatro grupos: GI (brocas + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GII (Carisolv + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GIII (brocas + SBMP + Z100 e GIV (Carisolv + SBMP + Z100. Após a execução das restaurações e termociclagem, os dentes foram expostos a corante, seccionados e avaliados qualitativamente. Os resultados demonstraram que o sistema de remoção de tecido cariado não influenciou a ocorrência de microinfiltração em quaisquer margens cavitárias. Nas margens dentinárias, a utilização do sistema restaurador Prime & Bond NT + TPH demonstrou menor ocorrência de microinfiltração do que o sistema SBMP + Z100.

  15. IL-21 is a major negative regulator of IRF4-dependent lipolysis affecting Tregs in adipose tissue and systemic insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Marta; Marchetti, Valentina; Mavilio, Maria; Marino, Arianna; Casagrande, Viviana; Cavalera, Michele; Moreno-Navarrete, Josè Maria; Mezza, Teresa; Sorice, Gian Pio; Fiorentino, Loredana; Menghini, Rossella; Lauro, Renato; Monteleone, Giovanni; Giaccari, Andrea; Fernandez Real, José Manuel; Federici, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Obesity elicits immune cell infiltration of adipose tissue provoking chronic low-grade inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are specifically reduced in adipose tissue of obese animals. Since interleukin (IL)-21 plays an important role in inducing and maintaining immune-mediated chronic inflammatory processes and negatively regulates Treg differentiation/activity, we hypothesized that it could play a role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. We found IL-21 and IL-21R mRNA expression upregulated in adipose tissue of high-fat diet (HFD) wild-type (WT) mice and in stromal vascular fraction from human obese subjects in parallel to macrophage and inflammatory markers. Interestingly, a larger infiltration of Treg cells was seen in the adipose tissue of IL-21 knockout (KO) mice compared with WT animals fed both normal diet and HFD. In a context of diet-induced obesity, IL-21 KO mice, compared with WT animals, exhibited lower body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased adipose and hepatic inflammation. This metabolic phenotype is accompanied by a higher induction of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), a transcriptional regulator of fasting lipolysis in adipose tissue. Our data suggest that IL-21 exerts negative regulation on IRF4 and Treg activity, developing and maintaining adipose tissue inflammation in the obesity state. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... ecosystem services remain at high level. However, extensive areas of northern forests are heavily exploited and have lost a major part of their biodiversity value. There is a strong requirement to restore these areas towards a more natural condition in order to meet the targets of the Convention...

  17. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  18. Science of landscape restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Benita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the ecological restoration of industrial land has developed into a specialist science combined with highly sophisticated management activities. A prime example of this approach is a unique partnership between the CSIR...

  19. Image restoration scale space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Mazorra, L.; Santana, F.

    1995-09-01

    We present a study of some image resoration techniques based on partial differential equations. We study separately the denoising problem and the restoration of discontinuities. We analyze the capabilities of the differential operators to restore images. In particular, we analyze a number of models present in the literature, and we present comparative results. Finally, we present a model based in the combination of the anisotropic diffusion of Alvarez, Lions, and Morel and the shock filters of Osher and Rudin.

  20. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available is restoration? Our human population continues to grow at an unprecedented rate, demanding ever-increasing amounts of goods and services from the natural ecosystems upon which we depend. No part of the planet has been left untouched, and many areas.... Another selection criterion was the need for historic data and a restoration history. In each of the cases the ASSET Research team collaborates with partners, that include the Working for Water programme, Flower Valley, the Ostrich Business Chamber...

  1. Seasonal heat stress affects adipose tissue proteome toward enrichment of the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in late-pregnant dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Kra, G; Livshitz, L; Portnick, Y; Yakoby, S; Friedlander, G; Levin, Y

    2017-03-31

    Environmental heat stress and metabolic stress during transition from late gestation to lactation are main factors limiting production in dairy cattle, and there is a complex interaction between them. Many proteins expressed in adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress. We aimed to investigate the effects of seasonal heat stress on adipose proteome in late-pregnant cows, and to identify biomarkers of heat stress. Late pregnant cows during summer heat stress (S, n=18), or during the winter season (W, n=12) were used. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies sampled 14days prepartum from S (n=10) and W (n=8) were analyzed by intensity-based, label-free, quantitative shotgun proteomics (nano-LC-MS/MS). Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and cortisol were higher in S than in W cows. Proteomic analysis revealed that 107/1495 proteins were differentially abundant in S compared to W (Padipose were Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response, acute-phase response, and FXR/RXR and LXR/RXR activation. Novel biomarkers of heat stress in adipose tissue were found. These findings indicate that seasonal heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows. This work shows that seasonal heat stress increases plasma concentrations of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and cortisol in transition dairy cows. As many proteins expressed in the adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress, we investigated the effects of heat stress on the proteome of adipose tissue from late-pregnant cows during summer or winter seasons. We demonstrated that heat stress enriches several stress-related pathways, such as the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response and the acute-phase response in adipose tissues. Thus, environmental heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows, as part of the regulatory adaptations to chronic heat load during the summer season. In addition, this study presents the widest available

  2. Management of periodontal destruction caused by overhanging dental restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnova Misnova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal tissue inflammations are occasionally caused by positions of restoration margins, particularly if they are placed subgingivally. A 44-year old male was referred to the Dental and Mouth Hospital of Dentistry Faculty Hasanuddin University with the chief complaint of severe pain at right posterior maxillary. Clinical examinations demonstrate a 7-mm periodontal pocket at buccal aspect of 16 teeth with tooth mobility °2. Overhanging dental composite restorations of Class V were detected at the subgingival areas of 15, 16, and 17. Radiographic results show vertically and horizontally alveolar bone loss. This case report is aimed to describe the management of periodontal tissue destruction as a result of overhanging dental composite restorations. Scaling and root planing were conducted as the initial therapy. The periodontal surgery was performed a week after the initial therapy. A full-thickness flap design with sulcular incision from 14 to 18 was made before the pocket curretage and necrotic tissue debridement along with restoration recontouring. The flap was sutured with simple suture technique. Periodontal dressing was packed for a week. Antibiotics, analgetics and antiinflammatory drugs were prescribed per orally. There was no history of pain a week after the surgical procedure. Tooth mobility was decreased to °1 and the periodontal pocket was reduced to 3 mm. Overhanging dental restorations may lead to periodontal tissue destruction. The subgingivally placement of those restorations should consider the health of periodontal tissues.

  3. Membrane supported scaffold : architectures for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli, Narasimha Murthy Srivatsa

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue. Often the tissue recreation occurs by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, onto a 3D porous matrix, functioning as a scaffold. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is the inability to provide sufficie

  4. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes. PMID:27990188

  5. Control of Scar Tissue Formation in the Cornea: Strategies in Clinical and Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.

  6. Control of scar tissue formation in the cornea: strategies in clinical and corneal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samantha L; El Haj, Alicia J; Yang, Ying

    2012-09-18

    Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.

  7. Mechanical cues in orofacial tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Katrien M; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Middelkoop, Esther; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients suffer from functional, aesthetical, and psychosocial problems due to suboptimal regeneration of skin, mucosa, and skeletal muscle after restorative cleft surgery. The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE/RM) aims to restore the normal physiology of tissues and organs in conditions such as birth defects or after injury. A crucial factor in cell differentiation, tissue formation, and tissue function is mechanical strain. Regardless of this, mechanical cues are not yet widely used in TE/RM. The effects of mechanical stimulation on cells are not straight-forward in vitro as cellular responses may differ with cell type and loading regime, complicating the translation to a therapeutic protocol. We here give an overview of the different types of mechanical strain that act on cells and tissues and discuss the effects on muscle, and skin and mucosa. We conclude that presently, sufficient knowledge is lacking to reproducibly implement external mechanical loading in TE/RM approaches. Mechanical cues can be applied in TE/RM by fine-tuning the stiffness and architecture of the constructs to guide the differentiation of the seeded cells or the invading surrounding cells. This may already improve the treatment of orofacial clefts and other disorders affecting soft tissues.

  8. Biophysical Properties of Optogenetic Tools and Their Application for Vision Restoration Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Simon D.; Swiersy, Anka; Bamberg, Ernst; Busskamp, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is the use of genetically encoded light-activated proteins to manipulate cells in a minimally invasive way using light. The most prominent example is channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), which allows the activation of electrically excitable cells via light-dependent depolarization. The combination of ChR2 with hyperpolarizing-light-driven ion pumps such as the Cl− pump halorhodopsin (NpHR) enables multimodal remote control of neuronal cells in culture, tissue, and living animals. Very soon, it became obvious that this method offers a chance of gene therapy for many diseases affecting vision. Here, we will give a brief introduction to retinal function and retinal diseases; optogenetic vision restoration strategies will be highlighted. We will discuss the functional and structural properties of rhodopsin-based optogenetic tools and analyze the potential for the application of vision restoration. PMID:27642278

  9. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p  0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  10. The materials used in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshchenko, V. P., E-mail: tervp@ngs.ru; Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Larionov, P. M. [Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. Ya.L. Tsivyan, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Bone tissue engineering looking for an alternative solution to the problem of skeletal injuries. The method is based on the creation of tissue engineered bone tissue equivalent with stem cells, osteogenic factors, and scaffolds - the carriers of these cells. For production of tissue engineered bone equivalent is advisable to create scaffolds similar in composition to natural extracellular matrix of the bone. This will provide optimal conditions for the cells, and produce favorable physico-mechanical properties of the final construction. This review article gives an analysis of the most promising materials for the manufacture of cell scaffolds. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the basis for the scaffold, but it alone cannot provide adequate physical and mechanical properties of the construction, and favorable conditions for the cells. Addition of natural polymers improves the strength characteristics and bioactivity of constructions. Of the inorganic compounds, to create cell scaffolds the most widely used calcium phosphates, which give the structure adequate stiffness and significantly increase its osteoinductive capacity. Signaling molecules do not affect the physico-mechanical properties of the scaffold, but beneficial effect is on the processes of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Biodegradation of the materials will help to fulfill the main task of bone tissue engineering - the ability to replace synthetic construct by natural tissues that will restore the original anatomical integrity of the bone.

  11. Hydromorphological restoration stimulates river ecosystem metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupilas, Benjamin; Hering, Daniel; Lorenz, Armin W.; Knuth, Christoph; Gücker, Björn

    2017-04-01

    Both ecosystem structure and functioning determine ecosystem status and are important for the provision of goods and services to society. However, there is a paucity of research that couples functional measures with assessments of ecosystem structure. In mid-sized and large rivers, effects of restoration on key ecosystem processes, such as ecosystem metabolism, have rarely been addressed and remain poorly understood. We compared three reaches of the third-order, gravel-bed river Ruhr in Germany: two reaches restored with moderate (R1) and substantial effort (R2) and one upstream degraded reach (D). Hydromorphology, habitat composition, and hydrodynamics were assessed. We estimated gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) using the one-station open-channel diel dissolved oxygen change method over a 50-day period at the end of each reach. Moreover, we estimated metabolic rates of the combined restored reaches (R1 + R2) using the two-station open-channel method. Values for hydromorphological variables increased with restoration intensity (D macrophyte cover of total wetted area was highest in R2 and lowest in R1, with intermediate values in D. Station R2 had higher average GPP and ER than R1 and D. The combined restored reaches R1 + R2 also exhibited higher GPP and ER than the degraded upstream river (station D). Restoration increased river autotrophy, as indicated by elevated GPP : ER, and net ecosystem production (NEP) of restored reaches. Temporal patterns of ER closely mirrored those of GPP, pointing to the importance of autochthonous production for ecosystem functioning. In conclusion, high reach-scale restoration effort had considerable effects on river hydrodynamics and ecosystem functioning, which were mainly related to massive stands of macrophytes. High rates of metabolism and the occurrence of dense macrophyte stands may increase the assimilation of dissolved nutrients and the sedimentation of particulate nutrients, thereby positively

  12. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  13. Ecosystem Restoration: A Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Kenna; Gilpin R., Jr. Robinson; Bill Pell; Michael A. Thompson; Joe McNeel

    1999-01-01

    Elements of ecological restoration underlie much of what we think of as ecosystem management, and restoration projects on federal lands represent some of the most exciting, challenging, and convincing demonstrations of applied ecosystem management. The Society for Ecological Restoration defined restoration as "the process of reestablishing to the extent possible...

  14. Comparative in vivo evaluation of restoring severely mutilated primary anterior teeth with biological post and crown preparation and reinforced composite restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare the success rate of biological and composite restorations when used to replace structural loss of primary anterior teeth using intracanal post for radicular support of the restoration. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients aged between 3-5 years presenting with early childhood caries (ECC received at least one or more composite and biological restorations for comparative evaluation. A total of 150 restorations were done (75 biological restorations and 75 composite restorations. The restorations were evaluated single-blind according to a modified USPHS system. Assessment of the patient′s response in accepting a biological restoration, psychological impact of the restorations, view of the parents, and peer group reviews, etc. were recorded in a response sheet in presence of the child and the parents. Observations and Results: In vivo clinical performance of biological post and crown restorations and intracanal reinforced composite restorations was comparable with respect to shade match, marginal discoloration, marginal integrity, surface finish, gingival health, retention, and recurrent carious lesions. The cost effectiveness of biological restorations was certainly a positive attribute. Conclusion: The biological restoration presented as a cost effective, clinician friendly, less-technique sensitive, and esthetic alternative to commercially available restorative materials used for restoring deciduous teeth affected by ECC.

  15. Comparative in vivo evaluation of restoring severely mutilated primary anterior teeth with biological post and crown preparation and reinforced composite restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, N; Seth, R

    2008-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the success rate of biological and composite restorations when used to replace structural loss of primary anterior teeth using intracanal post for radicular support of the restoration. Forty-two patients aged between 3-5 years presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) received at least one or more composite and biological restorations for comparative evaluation. A total of 150 restorations were done (75 biological restorations and 75 composite restorations). The restorations were evaluated single-blind according to a modified USPHS system. Assessment of the patient's response in accepting a biological restoration, psychological impact of the restorations, view of the parents, and peer group reviews, etc. were recorded in a response sheet in presence of the child and the parents. In vivo clinical performance of biological post and crown restorations and intracanal reinforced composite restorations was comparable with respect to shade match, marginal discoloration, marginal integrity, surface finish, gingival health, retention, and recurrent carious lesions. The cost effectiveness of biological restorations was certainly a positive attribute. The biological restoration presented as a cost effective, clinician friendly, less-technique sensitive, and esthetic alternative to commercially available restorative materials used for restoring deciduous teeth affected by ECC.

  16. Radiopacity of restorative materials using digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzedas, Leda Maria Pescinini; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; de Oliveira Filho, Antonio Braz

    2006-04-01

    The radiopacity of esthetic restorative materials has been established as an important requirement, improving the radiographic diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of six restorative materials using a direct digital image system, comparing them to the dental tissues (enamel-dentin), expressed as equivalent thickness of aluminum (millimeters of aluminum). Five specimens of each material were made. Three 2-mm thick longitudinal sections were cut from an intact extracted permanent molar tooth (including enamel and dentin). An aluminum step wedge with 9 steps was used. The samples of different materials were placed on a phosphor plate together with a tooth section, aluminum step wedge and metal code letter, and were exposed using a dental x-ray unit. Five measurements of radiographic density were obtained from each image of each item assessed (restorative material, enamel, dentin, each step of the aluminum step wedge) and the mean of these values was calculated. Radiopacity values were subsequently calculated as equivalents of aluminum thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences in radiopacity values among the materials (Pcomposite restorations it is important that the restorative material to be used has enough radiopacity, in order to be easily distinguished from the tooth structure in the radiographic image. Knowledge on the radiopacity of different materials helps professionals to select the most suitable material, along with other properties such as biocompatibility, adhesion and esthetic.

  17. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) Affects Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation without Systemic Effects in Humans and in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Essen, van P.; Diepen, van J.A.; Jansen, H.; Hijmans, A.; Matsuguchi, T.; Sparrer, H.; Tack, C.J.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.; Stienstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose

  18. Low dietary protein intake during pregnancy differentially affects mitochondrial copy number in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examined the influence of protein intake during pregnancy on mitochondrial metabolism in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous (SVSu) and visceral (SVVi) adipose tissue of offspring fed a high fat diet. Obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 8% or 20% p...

  19. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) Affects Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation without Systemic Effects in Humans and in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Essen, P. van; Diepen, J.A. van; Jansen, H.J.; Hijmans, A.G.; Matsuguchi, T.; Sparrer, H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Stienstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose ti

  20. Fructose rich diet differently affects angiotensin II receptors content in the nucleus and a plasma membrane fraction of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundalo, Maja; Djordjevic, Ana; Bursac, Biljana; Zivkovic, Maja; Koricanac, Goran; Stankovic, Aleksandra

    2017-08-03

    The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is proposed to be a pathophysiological link between adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic disorders induced by fructose rich diet (FRD). RAS can act intracellularly. We hypothesized that adipocytes nuclear membranes possess angiotensin receptors type 1 and type 2 (AT1R and AT2R) that couple to nuclear signaling pathways and regulate oxidative gene expression under the FRD. We analyzed the effect of nine-week consumption of 10% fructose solution on biochemical parameters, adipocyte morphology and expression of AT1R, AT2R, AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), NOX4, MMP-9, and MnSOD in adipose tissue of Wistar rats. We detected AT1R and AT2R in nuclear fraction. FRD decreased protein level of nuclear angiotensin receptors, while increased AT1R and decreased AT2R levels were observed at plasma membrane. FRD increased mRNA level of ATRAP, while MnSOD mRNA and protein levels were decreased. No significant differences were observed for MMP9 and NOX4 mRNA levels. These findings coincide with hyperleptinemia, elevated blood pressure and triglyceride level, as well as with unchanged visceral adipose tissue mass and morphology upon FRD. Besides providing evidence for nuclear localization of angiotensin receptors in visceral adipose tissue, this study also points to the different effect of FRD on AT1R expression in different cellular compartments. Elevated blood pressure and decreased antioxidative capacity in visceral fat of fructose fed rats were accompanied by an increased AT1R level in plasma membrane while upregulation of ATRAP and decrease of nuclear membrane AT1R suggest an increase in capacity for attenuation of excessive AT1R signaling and visceral adiposity.

  1. Clinical application of abductor hallucis flap in restoration of soft tissue defects in calcar pedis malignant%拇展肌肌皮瓣在足跟部恶性肿瘤软组织缺损修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商冠宁; 孙平; 王玉名; 王巍; 赵岩

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨拇展肌肌皮瓣修复足跟部恶性肿瘤软组织缺损的临床疗效.方法 采用带血管神经蒂的拇展肌肌皮瓣修复足跟部恶性肿瘤广泛切除术的软组织缺损26例,其中伴有溃疡出血者9例.皮肤缺损面积(2~6)cm×(5~9)cm,肌皮瓣切取面积(4~8)cm×(7~11)cm,深层拇展肌肌肉面积3 cm×7 cm,供区全部应用中厚皮片游离植皮.结果 术后26例肌皮瓣完全存活,创面Ⅰ期愈合.随访时间7~37个月,平均22个月,局部无复发;肌皮瓣质地优良,外观满意,行走正常,皮肤感觉恢复良好.结论 拇展肌肌皮瓣血运可靠,转移方便,是修复足跟部位恶性肿瘤广泛切除软组织缺损的良好选择.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the abductor hallucis flap in restoration of the soft-tissue defects in calcar pedis malignant. Methods We utilized abductor hallucis flap with neurovascular pedicle to restore soft-tissue defects in 26 cases of calcar pedis Malignant. Among these cases, 9 cases were combined with ulcer and bleeding, the sizes of skin defects being 2~6 cm ×5~9 cm, myocutaneous flap were 4~8 cm ×7 ~11 cm,muscular of abductor hallucis 3 cm ×7 cm. Intermediate thickness free skin grafts were used in donor site. Results All 18 cases of musculo cutaneous flap survived after surgery. Wound healing were stage Ⅰ. After 7 ~ 36 months of follow-up, we observed no complications or local recurrence. The muscle flaps maintained good quality with satisfactory appearance of satisfaction, proper walk, comfort feel of musculocutaneous flap. Conclusion The abductor hallucis flap has advantages, such as reliable blood supply and easy to transfer. It is a good choice in restoration of soft tissue defects in calcar pedis malignant.

  2. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  3. An Intron 9 CYP19 Gene Variant (IVS9+5G>A), Present in an Aromatase-Deficient Girl, Affects Normal Splicing and Is Also Present in Normal Human Steroidogenic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraco, Nora; Nesi-Franca, Suzana; Sainz, Romina; Marino, Roxana; Marques-Pereira, Rosana; La Pastina, Julia; Perez Garrido, Natalia; Sandrini, Romolo; Rivarola, Marco Aurelio; de Lacerda, Luiz; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Splicing CYP19 gene variants causing aromatase deficiency in 46,XX disorder of sexual development (DSD) patients have been reported in a few cases. A misbalance between normal and aberrant splicing variants was proposed to explain spontaneous pubertal breast development but an incomplete sex maturation progress. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize a novel CYP19A1 intronic homozygote mutation (IVS9+5G>A) in a 46,XX DSD girl presenting spontaneous breast development and primary amenorrhea, and to evaluate similar splicing variant expression in normal steroidogenic tissues. Genomic DNA analysis, splicing prediction programs, splicing assays, and in vitro protein expression and enzyme activity analyses were carried out. CYP19A1 mRNA expression in human steroidogenic tissues was also studied. A novel IVS9+5G>A homozygote mutation was found. In silico analysis predicts the disappearance of the splicing donor site in intron 9, confirmed by patient peripheral leukocyte cP450arom and in vitro studies. Protein analysis showed a shorter and inactive protein. The intron 9 transcript variant was also found in human steroidogenic tissues. The mutation IVS9+5G>A generates a splicing variant that includes intron 9 which is also present in normal human steroidogenic tissues, suggesting that a misbalance between normal and aberrant splicing variants might occur in target tissues, explaining the clinical phenotype in the affected patient. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [New direct restorative materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, R; Dasch, W; Janda, R; Tyas, M; Anusavice, K

    1999-04-01

    People worldwide have become increasingly aware of the potential adverse effects on the environment, of pollution control and of toxic effects of food, drugs and biomaterials. Amalgam and its potential toxic side effects (still scientifically unproven) continue to be discussed with increasing controversy by the media in some countries. Consequently, new direct restorative materials are now being explored by dentists, materials scientists and patients who are searching for the so-called 'amalgam substitute' or 'amalgam alternative'. From a critical point of view some of the new direct restorative materials are good with respect in aesthetics, but all material characteristics must be considered, such as mechanical properties, biological effects, and longterm clinical behaviour.

  5. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  6. Possible Role of GADD45γ Methylation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Does It Affect the Progression and Tissue Involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İkbal Cansu Barış

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma among adults and is characterized by heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, and genetic features. Different mechanisms deregulating cell cycle and apoptosis play a role in the pathogenesis of DLBCL. Growth arrest DNA damage-inducible 45 (GADD45γ is an important gene family involved in these mechanisms. The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of GADD45γ methylation, to evaluate the correlation between GADD45γ methylation and protein expression, and to investigate the relation between methylation status and clinicopathologic parameters in DLBCL tissues and reactive lymphoid node tissues from patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. METHODS: Thirty-six tissue samples of DLBCL and 40 nonmalignant reactive lymphoid node tissues were analyzed in this study. Methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis was used for the determination of GADD45γ methylation status. The GADD45γ protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: GADD45γ methylation was frequent (50.0% in DLBCL. It was also significantly higher in advanced-stage tumors compared with early-stage (p=0.041. In contrast, unmethylated GADD45γ was associated with nodal involvement as the primary anatomical site (p=0.040. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that, in contrast to solid tumors, the frequency of GADD45γ methylation is higher and this epigenetic alteration of GADD45γ may be associated with progression in DLBCL. In addition, nodal involvement is more likely to be present in patients with unmethylated GADD45γ.

  7. Fine-mapping quantitative trait loci affecting murine external ear tissue regeneration in the LG/J by SM/J advanced intercross line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverud, J M; Lawson, H A; Bouckaert, K; Kossenkov, A V; Showe, L C; Cort, L; Blankenhorn, E P; Bedelbaeva, K; Gourevitch, D; Zhang, Y; Heber-Katz, E

    2014-05-01

    External ear hole closure in LG/J mice represents a model of regenerative response. It is accompanied by the formation of a blastema-like structure and the re-growth of multiple tissues, including cartilage. The ability to regenerate tissue is heritable. An F34 advanced intercross line of mice (Wustl:LG,SM-G34) was generated to identify genomic loci involved in ear hole closure over a 30-day healing period. We mapped 19 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ear hole closure. Individual gene effects are relatively small (0.08 mm), and most loci have co-dominant effects with phenotypically intermediate heterozygotes. QTL support regions were limited to a median size of 2 Mb containing a median of 19 genes. Positional candidate genes were evaluated using differential transcript expression between LG/J and SM/J healing tissue, function analysis and bioinformatic analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in and around positional candidate genes of interest. Analysis of the set of 34 positional candidate genes and those displaying expression differences revealed over-representation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation/DNA damage, cell migration and adhesion, developmentally related genes and metabolism. This indicates that the healing phenotype in LG/J mice involves multiple physiological mechanisms.

  8. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P brain (P brain, liver, and kidney (all P brain (all P brain (P drug tissue targeting index, and the tissue-plasma hysteresis-like plots also showed sex-based ibuprofen-sunitinib drug interaction differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences.

  9. Neuromedin B Restores Erectile Function by Protecting the Cavernous Body and the Nitrergic Nerves from Injury in a Diabetic Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nishimatsu

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a major health problem worldwide and affects approximately 75% of diabetic patients, likely due to severely damaged cavernous body. While screening for cytokines produced by adipose tissue-derived stem cells, we detected neuromedin B (NMB. To explore a potential treatment option for ED, we examined whether NMB was capable of restoring erectile function. We also examined the potential mechanism by which NMB could restore erectile function. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetes. An adenovirus expressing NMB (AdNMB was injected into the penis 6 weeks after STZ administration. Four weeks after the injection of AdNMB, erectile function, penile histology, and protein expression were analyzed. As assessed by the measurement of intracavernous pressure, AdNMB injection significantly restored erectile function compared with the injection of an adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein. This restoration was associated with conservation of the cavernous body structure and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-expressing nerves, together with recovery of α-smooth muscle actin, vascular endothelial-cadherin, and nNOS expression. Furthermore, NMB significantly stimulated the survival of SH-SY5Y cells derived from human neuroblastoma tissue with characteristics similar to neurons. Collectively, these results suggested that NMB restored erectile function via protection of the cavernous body from injury and stimulation of the survival of the associated nerves. NMB may be useful to treat ED patients with a severely damaged cavernous body.

  10. Dietary manganese source does not affect Mn, Zn and Cu tissue deposition and the activity of manganese-containing enzymes in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresakova, Lubomira; Venglovska, Katarina; Cobanova, Klaudia

    2016-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element required for normal physiological processes in animals and humans. Organic forms of trace elements are expected to have higher bioavailability in comparison with inorganic sources. The effect of feeding a diet supplemented with different sources of manganese to lambs was studied in a 112-d feeding trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the deposition of Mn in relation to activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and arginase in the tissues of lambs fed the diet supplemented with an inorganic or an organic source of manganese up to the maximum total Mn content allowed in the European Union (150mg Mn/kg). A total of eighteen female lambs of the improved Valachian breed were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments and fed an unsupplemented basal diet (Control, 31mg Mn/kg) or the identical diet supplemented with manganese sulphate (MnSO4) or manganese chelate of glycine hydrate (Mn-Gly) with a total Mn content up to 150mg/kg. Regardless of the source, feed supplementation with manganese increased Mn concentrations in plasma (P˂0.05) and the liver (P˂0.001) as well as the activity of liver MnSOD (P˂0.05) and arginase (P˂0.001) compared with the control lambs. In the kidney cortex, the concentration of Mn was greatest in lambs fed the diet supplemented with the chelated Mn source compared with animals receiving the inorganic Mn source (P˂0.05) and the unsupplemented diet (P˂0.001). The 112-d intake of feed enriched with manganese did not result in any change in Mn levels, SOD or MnSOD activity in pancreas and kidney tissues. Plasma Cu concentration was depressed in both supplemented treatments. No analyzed tissue showed a change in zinc and copper levels, except the greater Cu concentration in the liver of lambs fed the diet with Mn-Gly. The presented results did not indicate any differences between dietary Mn sources either in Mn tissue deposition or activity of SOD, MnSOD and

  11. An estimation of fluoride release from various dental restorative materials at different pH: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Bahadure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the mid of 1980s, the cariostatic effect of fluoride ions on enamel caries had been demonstrated in many studies. The use of fluoride releasing dental restorative materials has seen increasing from many years for the specific purpose of leaching of fluoride into the surrounding tissues to inhibit secondary dental caries as well as prevention of caries in the newly erupted tooth. In the dental caries, acidic environment causes the demineralization of tooth structure and also affect the restorative margins of dental restoration. Aim: various restorative materials show different behavior in different pH conditions of oral cavity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of the various restorative materials at different pH. Design: In this in vitro study, 30 samples of each dental restorative material were prepared and grouped into five with six samples in each group as per the pH of the solution 4.3, 4.6, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.2. All the samples were subjected to alternate cycling of the demineralizing solution (6 h and remineralizing solution (18 h for 15 days. Results: the fluoride release was measured by using fluoride ion specific electrode and digital ion analyzer. The result showed that the fluoride release rate was significantly higher in first day and reduced after third day to nearly constant level. At pH 4.3, the fluoride release was highest and lowest at pH 6.2. Conclusion: the Amalgomer CR showed the highest fluoride release among all the experimental dental restorative materials.

  12. THC (Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) Exerts Neuroprotective Effect in Glutamate-affected Murine Primary Mesencephalic Cultures Through Restoring Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Anti-apoptosis Involving CB1 Receptor-dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi Huu; Krewenka, Christopher; Radad, Khaled; Kranner, Barbara; Huber, Alexandra; Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Miller, Ingrid; Moldzio, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or related disorders, are an increasing societal and economic burden worldwide. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is discussed as a neuroprotective agent in several in vitro and in vivo models of brain injury. However, the mechanisms by which THC exhibits neuroprotective properties are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated neuroprotective mechanisms of THC in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary murine mesencephalic cultures, as a culture model for PD. Glutamate was administered for 48 h with or without concomitant THC treatment. Immunocytochemistry staining and resazurin assay were used to evaluate cell viability. Furthermore, superoxide levels, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined to explore the mode of action of this compound. THC protected dopaminergic neurons and other cell types of primary dissociated cultures from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, THC significantly counteracted the glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis. SR141716A, a CB1 receptor antagonist, concentration-dependently blocked the protective effect of THC in primary mesencephalic cultures. In conclusion, THC exerts anti-apoptotic and restores mitochondrial membrane potential via a mechanism dependent on CB1 receptor. It strengthens the fact that THC has a benefit on degenerative cellular processes occurring, among others, in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases by slowing down the progression of neuronal cell death. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Failure to restore sagittal tibiotalar alignment in total ankle arthroplasty: Its relationship to the axis of the tibia and the positioning of the talar component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Yi, Y; Ahn, T K; Choi, H J; Park, C H; Chun, D I; Lee, J S; Lee, W C

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in sagittal tibiotalar alignment after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) for osteoarthritis and to investigate factors affecting the restoration of alignment. This retrospective study included 119 patients (120 ankles) who underwent three component TAA using the Hintegra prosthesis. A total of 63 ankles had anterior displacement of the talus before surgery (group A), 49 had alignment in the normal range (group B), and eight had posterior displacement of the talus (group C). Ankles in group A were further sub-divided into those in whom normal alignment was restored following TAA (41 ankles) and those with persistent displacement (22 ankles). Radiographic and clinical results were assessed. Pre-operatively, the alignment in group A was significantly more varus than that in group B, and the posterior slope of the tibial plafond was greater (p < 0.01 in both cases). The posterior slope of the tibial component was strongly associated with restoration of alignment: ankles in which the alignment was restored had significantly less posterior slope (p < 0.001). An anteriorly translated talus was restored to a normal position after TAA in most patients. We suggest that surgeons performing TAA using the Hintegra prosthesis should aim to insert the tibial component at close to 90° relative to the axis of the tibia, hence reducing posterior soft-tissue tension and allowing restoration of normal tibiotalar alignment following surgery.

  14. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  15. Restoration of thiamine status with white or whole wheat bread in a thiamine-depleted rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batifoulier, F; Verny, M A; Besson, C; Chanliaud, E; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    2007-01-01

    Long-term thiamine deficiency has been largely documented, whilst little is known about effects of short-term depletion/repletion periods on thiamine vitamers status. Rats were submitted to short-term depletion (8 days) followed by different durations of repletion (3 or 14 days) with thiamine from bread (whole wheat bread or white bread, whole B and white B respectively) or corresponding controls. Short-term depletion drastically decreased plasma thiamine (-97%) and its urinary excretion (-77%). TDP (thiamine diphosphate) was strongly affected in liver (-67%) but less affected in cerebellum (-38%) or kidneys (-45%). Short-term repletion (3 days) with whole B diet or its control restored TDP at initial values in cerebellum and kidneys. A longer repletion (14 days) was required to restore liver TDP. Comparison of the diet groups indicates that thiamine status in tissues of rat fed whole B or white B diet was comparable to that of rats fed purified thiamine. Plasma thiamine concentration could not be restored at initial values in the bread groups or respective controls. In conclusion, thiamine in whole wheat bread appears effective in preventing marginal deficiencies and plasma thiamine is a less reliable indicator of thiamine status than tissue TDP levels.

  16. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    ), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% T, 35% SFO and 10% LO) and fish oil (FO) blend (40% FO and 60% LO). Pigs were slaughtered at 100 kg BW and autopsies from liver, adipose tissue and muscle semimembranousus were collected for qPCR. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundances of genes related...... of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO...

  17. EFFICIENCY OF IMMUNOCORRECTION WITH MEDICAL OZONE IN PROTRACTED PURULENT INFLAMMATORY DISEASES AFFECTING SOFT TISSUES IN THE PATIENTS OF SENIOR AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Vitkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We performed a clinical and immunological study of patients from senior age group suffering with protracted purulent inflammation of soft tissues in maxillo-facial area. The patients underwent either common medication, or combined treatment including ozone therapy. Application of medicinal ozone, along with basic treatment schedule, resulted into more marked and rapid normalization of non-specific resistance markers, Т-cell immunity. This approach allows of reducing the terms of inpatient care and variety of possible complications. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 277-282.

  18. Evaluation of Four Different Restorative Materials for Restoration of the Periodontal Condition of Wedge-Shaped Defect: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jian-Yong; Gong, Zheng-Lin; Zhang, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Ran; Li, Da-Xu; Ren, Le; Tao, Hong

    2017-09-16

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to conduct a clinical evaluation of four restorative materials for restoration of dental wedge-shaped defect (WSD) and their impacts on periodontal tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 280 maxillary premolars with dental WSD were selected from 106 patients; the patient cases were divided into eight groups according to different combinations of restorative materials (flowable resin composites, Dyract compomers, glass ionomer cement (GIC), light-curing composite resin), and WSD positions (approaching gingival and subgingival positions). Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume, levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in GCF were analyzed, while probing depth (PD), plaque index (PLI), and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were also measured. The periodontal conditions of all patients were followed prior to restoration, as well as six months and 12 months after restoration. RESULTS After six months of restoration, the overall clinical success rates of flowable resin composites, Dyract compomers, and light-curing composite resin were greater than those of GIC. GCF volume, GCF-AST, IL-1β levels, PD, PLI, and SBI of cases restored by GIC were higher than those restored by the other three materials. After 12 months of restoration, the overall clinical success rates of flowable resin composites and Dyract compomers were greater than those of light-curing composite resin and GIC. GCF volume, GCF-AST, GCF-ALP, IL-1β levels, PD, PLI, and SBI of cases restored by GIC were higher than those restored by the other three materials. CONCLUSIONS Our study provided evidence that the clinical efficacy of flowable resin composites, Dyract compomers, and light-curing composite resin was greater than that of GIC for restoration of dental WSD.

  19. Immediate provisional restoration of a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sung Fu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Immediate implant restoration of single implants may demonstrate a positive effect on peri-implant soft tissue. Placement of a provisional restoration following implant surgery can create soft tissue contours that resemble normal gingival topography before placement of the definitive prosthesis. This article describes a staged approach of the mandibular permanent right central incisor, which was congenital missing. The proper space for restoration of the missing incisor was created through orthodontic treatment. The scheduled implant site was reconstructed using autogenous bone harvested from the chin region. After a healing period of four months, an implant was installed with the connection of a fixed provisional crown to a prefabricated temporary abutment. The soft tissue around the implant healed according to the contours of the provisional restoration and the emergence profile was used to duplicate the definitive restoration. Peri-implant esthetics was achieved through the staged approach and immediate restoration of the implant.

  20. Factors affecting the rise of treatment of resistant bacteria in skin and soft tissue infections in the United States: 1993-2012().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Margaret E; Fleischer, Alan B

    2017-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) prevalence has been steadily increasing for the past 40 years. The increase in such infections has contributed to a change in the treatment patterns of the patient. This study aimed to detail the factors determining prescription practices associated with MRSA-related skin and soft tissue infections. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) was searched for data from 1993 to 2012 regarding the factors associated with resistant vs. non-resistant-antibiotic prescription. Of all physician visits, 34.0% received resistant-antibiotic therapy and 66.0% received non-resistant-antibiotic therapy. Prescription of antibiotic-resistant therapy increased over the time period studied (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.07; 95% CI 1.05, 1.09; p resistant-antibiotics (OR = 0.25; 0.12, 0.53; p = .0003), non-primary care physicians were more likely to prescribe resistant-antibiotics (OR = 2.89; 1.75, 4.77; p resistant antibiotics (OR = 3.03; 1.30, 7.05; p = .01). With the increasing prevalence of MRSA-related SSTIs, the treatment of these infections is changing. Understanding of the factors contributing to the prescription of resistant antibiotics could aid in the selection of appropriate treatment of SSTIs, and hopefully, avoidance of development of additionally resistant organisms.

  1. The Affection of High-fat Diet on CTGF of Rat Lung Tissue%高脂饮食对大鼠肺组织CTGF的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪志

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between high-fat diet and interstitial lung damage by detecting the content of SOD, MDA, HYP and CTGF in lung tissue with the set-up rat model of high-fat diet. Methods 20 SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:high-fat diet and control group, 10 in each, and high-fat diet and Lieber-Decarli liquid were provided respectively every day;all rats were single-caged with no water feeding;rats in both groups were killed after feeding for 12 weeks;HE staining was applied to ob-serve the structure of lung tissues while Masson staining to observe the collagen deposition of interstitial lung, colorimetry to detect the content of SOD, MDA and HYP in lung tissues and enzyme linked immunoassay to detect the content of CTGF in lung tissues. Results Pathological study suggested that, in high-fat diet group, there was an inflammatory cell infiltration in alveolar and alveolar septum, some alveolar walls were damaged or collapsed, collagen deposition among alveolar septum increased and the septum became wider;the content of MDA, HYP and CTGF in lung homogenate in high-fat diet group was higher than that in control group while its content of SOD was lower than that in control group. Conclusions High-fat diet leads to the increase of the expression of CTGF in lung tissues of rats, the damage of alveolar structure and the increase of interstitial collagen, it may be one of the factors in causing interstitial lung damage.%目的建立高脂饮食大鼠模型,测定肺组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、羟脯氨酸(HYP)和结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)含量,探讨高脂饮食与肺间质损伤的关系。方法 SD大鼠20只,随机分为高脂饮食组与对照组各10只,每日分别给予高脂(脂肪占71%总热量)和对照(脂肪占35%总热量)Lieber-De-Carli液体饲料单笼喂养,不再提供饮水。各组动物均于12周后处死,HE染色观察肺组织结构;Masson染色观察

  2. 引导组织再生术用于牙周组织再生的影响因素%Factors affecting the guided tissue regeneration in periodontal tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丹; 刘利锋; 王宝彦

    2005-01-01

    1982年Nyman S首先提出了引导组织再生(Guided Tissue Regeneration,GTR)的概念。引导组织再生的基本原理是用外科的方法放置一个物理屏障来选择性地分隔不同的牙周组织,即就是阻止牙龈结缔组织来源的成纤维细胞首先与根面接触,在膜与牙根之问形成楔状间隙,引导牙周膜细胞向冠方迁移生长,形成真正的牙周再生。随着GTR膜材料研究的不断深入,

  3. Discoloration of gingiva in the presence of fixed dental restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ljubiša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the frequency of discoloration of gingiva in the presence of fixed dental restorations, regarding the type of alloy of which restorations were made, and to show histopathological changes of discolored gingiva. Methods. One hundred and eighty four patients of both sexes were examined. The average age of the examinees was 52. They were divided into four groups according to the alloys from which their restorations were made. Standardized history questionnaires and clinical examination procedures were developed for this study. In ten examinees, whose teeth were indicated for extraction and who had a discoloration of gingiva, the samples of tissue were taken from the discolored gingiva for histopathological examination. Results. Our results showed the presence of discolored gingiva in all four groups. It was most frequent in the examinees with fixed restorations made of Ni-Cr alloy (43,5% and less frequent in those with fixed dental restorations made of gold alloy (26,5%. Histopathological examination showed the presence of tissue foreign body granulomas with giant cells in which the metal particles were found, partially as small and partially as large particles. Conclusion. Results suggested that grayish discoloration of gingiva was present in all four groups of examinees. The highest number of examinees with discolored gingiva was in the group with restorations made of Ni-Cr alloy. Grayish discoloration of gingiva was a consequence of incorporation of metal particles into gingival tissue.

  4. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  5. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah

    2006-01-01

    . A genomic approach, such as the use of microarrays, provides much insight in this regard, especially if combined with the use of gene-targeted animals. We report here the results of one of these studies comparing wild-type and metallothionein-I + II knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion...... times consistent with the processes involved in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma, as well as a prominent effect of MT-I + II deficiency. The results thoroughly confirmed the importance of the antioxidant proteins MT-I + II in the response of the brain to injury...

  6. How economics can further the success of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Polyakov, Maksym; Ansell, Dean; Gibson, Fiona; Kay, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Restoration scientists and practitioners have recently begun to include economic and social aspects in the design and investment decisions for restoration projects. With few exceptions, ecological restoration studies that include economics focus solely on evaluating costs of restoration projects. However, economic principles, tools, and instruments can be applied to a range of other factors that affect project success. We considered the relevance of applying economics to address 4 key challenges of ecological restoration: assessing social and economic benefits, estimating overall costs, project prioritization and selection, and long-term financing of restoration programs. We found it is uncommon to consider all types of benefits (such as nonmarket values) and costs (such as transaction costs) in restoration programs. Total benefit of a restoration project can be estimated using market prices and various nonmarket valuation techniques. Total cost of a project can be estimated using methods based on property or land-sale prices, such as hedonic pricing method and organizational surveys. Securing continuous (or long-term) funding is also vital to accomplishing restoration goals and can be achieved by establishing synergy with existing programs, public-private partnerships, and financing through taxation. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  8. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic tests for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the tissues of sheep affected with distinct pathology of paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh G Sonawane

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity of all the tests in the detection of MAP was lower in PB sheep than in MB sheep. Bacterial culture detected MAP in only 50% of sheep and was found less sensitive than other tests used in the present study. Comparing the overall sensitivity of both the PCR assays, 251 gene PCR was found superior to IS900 gene PCR. The sensitivity of IPT was found superior (95% to the ZN staining (80% in the demonstration of acid-fast bacteria in the tissues. In the present study, IPT was found superior in the detection of MAP in PB and MB form of ovine paratuberculosis. This test can be used in the confirmation of post mortem diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis along with histopathology. However, 251 gene PCR assay was found easier to perform than IPT and could be used as paratuberculosis screening test in endemic sheep farms for blood and fecal samples.

  9. Towards improved scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to restore, maintain or improve tissue function of damaged tissues. In a classical set-up, a scaffold functions as a supporting structure and a carrier for growth factors and/or cells. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have the ability to differentiate into bone, cartil

  10. Engineering vascular development for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivron, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim at restoring a damaged tissue by recreating in vitro or promoting its regeneratin in vovo. The vasculature is central to these therapies for the irrigation of the defective tissue (oxygen, nutrients or circulating regenerative cells) and as an

  11. Differential tissue accumulation of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin in Arabidopsis thaliana affects plant chronology, lipid metabolism and seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Moursel, Nour; Shahadeh, AbdAlbaset; Alhajji, Eskander

    2015-08-11

    Dioxins are one of the most toxic groups of persistent organic pollutants. Their biotransmission through the food chain constitutes a potential risk for human health. Plants as principal actors in the food chain can play a determinant role in removing dioxins from the environment. Due to the lack of data on dioxin/plant research, this study sets out to determine few responsive reactions adopted by Arabidopsis plant towards 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins. Using a high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis plant uptakes TCDD by the roots and accumulates it in the vegetative parts in a tissue-specific manner. TCDD mainly accumulated in rosette leaves and mature seeds and less in stem, flowers and immature siliques. Moreover, we observed that plants exposed to high doses of TCDD exhibited a delay in flowering and yielded fewer seeds of a reduced oil content with a low vitality. A particular focus on the plant fatty acid metabolism showed that TCDD caused a significant reduction in C18-unsaturated fatty acid level in plant tissues. Simultaneously, TCDD induced the expression of 9-LOX and 13-LOX genes and the formation of their corresponding hydroperoxides, 9- and 13-HPOD as well as 9- or 13-HPOT, derived from linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. The current work highlights a side of toxicological effects resulting in the administration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the Arabidopsis plant. Similarly to animals, it seems that plants may accumulate TCDD in their lipids by involving few of the FA-metabolizing enzymes for sculpting a specific oxylipins "signature" typified to plant TCDD-tolerance. Together, our results uncover novel responses of Arabidopsis to dioxin, possibly emerging to overcome its toxicity.

  12. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  13. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  14. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  15. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  16. Distribution of lichens biomass and its affecting factors during restoration process of Inner Mongolia steppe%内蒙古草原放牧恢复过程地衣生物量分布及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠宽; 汪诗平; 韩建国; 王艳芬; 陈佐忠

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was installed in the typical steppe area of Central Inner Mongolia to study the distribution characteristics of lichen biomass in the restoration process. The experimental areas were continuously grazed for ten years (1989 to 1998) under different stocking rate, and stopped grazing since 1999. Two years (2001 to 2002) monitoring on the distribution of lichen biomass and its affecting factors showed that no significant difference was found between different stocking rate treatments (P<0.05 ). There existed positive correlations between lichen biomass and plant species diversity and between soil water content and soil organic matter content (P < 0.05 ), and negative correlations between lichen biomass and soil bu/k density, and between Gramineae plant functional group and plant communirv coveratage and biomass(P<0.05).

  17. A lympho-follicular microenvironment is required for pathological prion protein deposition in chronically inflamed tissues from scrapie-affected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Maestrale

    Full Text Available In sheep scrapie, pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc deposition occurs in the lymphoreticular and central nervous systems. We investigated PrP(Sc distribution in scrapie-affected sheep showing simultaneous evidence of chronic lymphofollicular, lymphoproliferative/non-lymphofollicular, and/or granulomatous inflammations in their mammary gland, lung, and ileum. To do this, PrP(Sc detection was carried out via immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting techniques, as well as through inflammatory cell immunophenotyping. Expression studies of gene coding for biological factors modulating the host's inflammatory response were also carried out. We demonstrated that ectopic PrP(Sc deposition occurs exclusively in the context of lymphofollicular inflammatory sites, inside newly formed and well-organized lymphoid follicles harboring follicular dendritic cells. On the contrary, no PrP(Sc deposition was detected in granulomas, even when they were closely located to newly formed lymphoid follicles. A significantly more consistent expression of lymphotoxin α and β mRNA was detected in lymphofollicular inflammation compared to the other two types, with lymphotoxin α and β signaling new lymphoid follicles' formation and, likely, the occurrence of ectopic PrP(Sc deposition inside them. Our findings suggest that, in sheep co-affected by scrapie and chronic inflammatory conditions, only newly formed lymphoid follicles provide a suitable micro-environment that supports the scrapie agent's replication in inflammatory sites, with an increased risk of prion shedding through body secretions/excretions.

  18. A lympho-follicular microenvironment is required for pathological prion protein deposition in chronically inflamed tissues from scrapie-affected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrale, Caterina; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Cancedda, Maria Giovanna; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Masia, Mariangela; Sechi, Stefania; Macciocu, Simonetta; Santucciu, Cinzia; Petruzzi, Mara; Ligios, Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    In sheep scrapie, pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition occurs in the lymphoreticular and central nervous systems. We investigated PrP(Sc) distribution in scrapie-affected sheep showing simultaneous evidence of chronic lymphofollicular, lymphoproliferative/non-lymphofollicular, and/or granulomatous inflammations in their mammary gland, lung, and ileum. To do this, PrP(Sc) detection was carried out via immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting techniques, as well as through inflammatory cell immunophenotyping. Expression studies of gene coding for biological factors modulating the host's inflammatory response were also carried out. We demonstrated that ectopic PrP(Sc) deposition occurs exclusively in the context of lymphofollicular inflammatory sites, inside newly formed and well-organized lymphoid follicles harboring follicular dendritic cells. On the contrary, no PrP(Sc) deposition was detected in granulomas, even when they were closely located to newly formed lymphoid follicles. A significantly more consistent expression of lymphotoxin α and β mRNA was detected in lymphofollicular inflammation compared to the other two types, with lymphotoxin α and β signaling new lymphoid follicles' formation and, likely, the occurrence of ectopic PrP(Sc) deposition inside them. Our findings suggest that, in sheep co-affected by scrapie and chronic inflammatory conditions, only newly formed lymphoid follicles provide a suitable micro-environment that supports the scrapie agent's replication in inflammatory sites, with an increased risk of prion shedding through body secretions/excretions.

  19. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation.

  20. Critical evaluation of ex vivo restoration of carious equine maxillary cheek teeth infundibulae following high-pressure gas and micro-particle abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P M; Savill, D; Horbyl, A; Reardon, R J M; Liuti, T

    2014-06-01

    Infundibular caries of the equine maxillary cheek teeth is an important disorder that can lead to dental fracture or apical infection. Treatment by removing food debris and carious dental tissue from affected infundibulae using high-pressure abrasion with aluminium hydroxide micro-particles, followed by filling the cleaned defect with endodontic restorative materials is a recommended treatment. However, although anecdotally considered a successful treatment option, there is currently no objective evidence to support this claim. Forty maxillary cheek teeth (CT) that contained 55 infundibulae with caries (mainly grade 2) were extracted post-mortem from 21 adult horses. Five of the CT were sectioned prior to treatment to facilitate visual examination of the carious infundibulae. The remaining carious infundibulae were cleaned using high-pressure abrasion with aluminium hydroxide particles and five CT were sectioned to assess the efficacy of this cleaning process. The remaining 30 CT containing 39 carious infundibulae were then filled with a composite restorative material. The efficacy of this restoration was assessed by computed tomography imaging followed by direct visual examination after sectioning the teeth. Only 46% (18/39) of restored infundibulae, all with shallow (mean 9.6 mm deep) defects, were fully cleaned of food debris and carious material, and filled with restorative material to their full depth. Of these 18, 11 had peripheral defects around the restoration, leaving just 18% (7/39) of restorations without any gross defects. The remaining 54% (21/39) of infundibulae (mean depth of infundibular caries defect, 18.3 mm) still contained food debris and/or carious material in more apical locations, with infundibulae with the deepest caries defects being the least effectively cleaned. The findings of this study indicate that high-pressure micro-particle abrasion is only effective in cleaning food debris from shallow, carious CT infundibulae and consequently

  1. A Mutation in Arabidopsis SEEDLING PLASTID DEVELOPMENT1 Affects Plastid Differentiation in Embryo-Derived Tissues during Seedling Growth1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Nicholas J.; Logsdon, Charles A.; Whippo, Craig W.; Inoue, Kentaro; Hangarter, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed plants like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) develop green photosynthetically active embryos. Upon seed maturation, the embryonic chloroplasts degenerate into a highly reduced plastid type called the eoplast. Upon germination, eoplasts redifferentiate into chloroplasts and other plastid types. Here, we describe seedling plastid development1 (spd1), an Arabidopsis seedling albino mutant capable of producing normal green vegetative tissues. Mutant seedlings also display defects in etioplast and amyloplast development. Precocious germination of spd1 embryos showed that the albino seedling phenotype of spd1 was dependent on the passage of developing embryos through the degreening and dehydration stages of seed maturation, suggesting that SPD1 is critical during eoplast development or early stages of eoplast redifferentiation. The SPD1 gene was found to encode a protein containing a putative chloroplast-targeting sequence in its amino terminus and also domains common to P-loop ATPases. Chloroplast localization of the SPD1 protein was confirmed by targeting assays in vivo and in vitro. Although the exact function of SPD1 remains to be defined, our findings reveal aspects of plastid development unique to embryo-derived cells. PMID:21045120

  2. Interrelations between blood-brain barrier permeability and matrix metalloproteinases are differently affected by tissue plasminogen activator and hyperoxia in a rat model of embolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ischemic stroke, blood-brain barrier (BBB regulations, typically involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inhibitors (TIMPs as mediators, became interesting since tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-related BBB breakdown with risk of secondary hemorrhage was considered to involve these mediators too. Despite high clinical relevance, detailed interactions are purely understood. After a pilot study addressing hyperoxia as potential neuroprotective co-treatment to tPA, we analyzed interrelations between BBB permeability (BBB-P, MMPs and TIMPs. Findings Rats underwent embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO and treatment with normobaric (NBO or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO, tPA, tPA+HBO, or no treatment. BBB-P was assessed by intravenously applied FITC-albumin at 4 or 24 hours. MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 serum levels were determined at 5 or 25 hours. Time point-corrected partial correlations were used to explore interrelations of BBB-P in ischemic regions (extra-/intravasal FITC-albumin ratio and related serum markers. BBB-P correlated positively with MMP-2 and MMP-9 in controls, whereas hyperoxia led to an inverse association, most pronounced for HBO/MMP-9 (r = -0.606; P Conclusions HBO was found to reverse the positively directed interrelation of BBB-P and MMPs after eMCAO, but this effect failed to sustain in the expected amount when HBO and tPA were given simultaneously.

  3. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects.

  4. [Wear and different restorative materials--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyth, N; Sharon, E; Lipovetsky, M; Smidt, A

    2006-07-01

    Wear of materials is a complex and unpredictable phenomenon. The variables affecting the mechanism of wear include the properties of the two contacting materials and the surrounding and interfacial media. This paper reviews the dental wear of different restorative materials and their counter effect on the tooth structure. It presents the updated classifications for tooth surface lesions termed dental wear, and discusses the wear behavior of various restorative materials. Some guidelines for restorative material selection are given. Clinical wear bears a multifactorial etiology, understanding the mechanism of action is an important step in an appropriate restoration material selection. Each material selected should meet the individual wear behavior and needs. Individual factors may enhance the wear rates: aggressive tooth brushing, parafunctions, diet, acidic/aqueous environment, surface geometry, and diminished tooth support. Supportive treatment following restoration is important to monitor wear rates.

  5. Influence of light curing units on failure of directcomposite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Jadhav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Light polymerizable tooth colored restorative materials are most widely preferred for advantages such as esthetics, improved physical properties and operator′s control over the working time. Since the introduction of these light polymerizable restorative materials, there has been a concern about the depth of appropriate cure throughout the restoration. Photopolymerization of the composite is of fundamental importance because adequate polymerization is a crucial factor for optimization of the physical and mechanical properties and clinical results of the composite material. Inadequate polymerization results in greater deterioration at the margins of the restoration, decreased bond strength between the tooth and the restoration, greater cytotoxicity, and reduced hardness. Therefore, the dentist must use a light curing unit that delivers adequate and sufficient energy to optimize composite polymerization. Varying light intensity affects the degree of conversion of monomer to polymer and depth of cure.

  6. Dietary structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid given from birth affect visual and auditory performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. M.; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.;

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether it is possible to enhance the level of 22:6(n-3) in the central nervous system, newborn rats were fed dietary supplements containing oils with either specific or random triacylglycerol structure, but similar concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the specific...... in metabolism of fatty acids resulting from their position in the dietary triacylglycerol molecule. The higher levers of 22:6(n-3) were accompanied by significantly lower levels of the long-chain (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with the reference group. The fatty acid profiles, including the level...... of 22:6(n-3), in the retina phospholipids were not affected by the three different diets apart from a lower level of 20:4(n-6) in rats fed the experimental diets, indicating a strong tendency to maintain a high level of 22:6(n-3) in the retina. The changes in the fatty acid profiles did not result...

  7. The Position of the Patella and Extensor Mechanism Affects Intraoperative Compartmental Loads During Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Pilot Study Using Intraoperative Sensing to Guide Soft Tissue Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaser, Erik; Lee, Yuo-yu; Boettner, Friedrich; Gonzalez Della Valle, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The achievement of a well-balanced total knee arthroplasty is necessary for long-term success. We hypothesize that the dislocation of the patella during surgery affects the distribution of loads in the medial and lateral compartments. Intraoperative load sensors were used to record medial and lateral compartment loads in 56 well-balanced TKAs. Loads were recorded in full extension, relaxed extension, at 45 and 90° of flexion at full gravity-assisted flexion, with the patella in four different positions: dislocated (everted and not), located, and located and secured with two retinacular sutures. The loads in the lateral compartment in flexion were higher with a dislocated patella than with a located patella (Ppatella in a physiologic position are more likely to replicate postoperative compartment loads. II (prospective comparative study). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Restorative effects of virtual nature settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtchanov, Deltcho; Barton, Kevin R; Ellard, Colin

    2010-10-01

    Previous research regarding the potential benefits of exposing individuals to surrogate nature (photographs and videos) has found that such immersion results in restorative effects such as increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and decreased stress. In the current experiment, we examined whether immersion in a virtual computer-generated nature setting could produce restorative effects. Twenty-two participants were equally divided between two conditions, while controlling for gender. In each condition, participants performed a stress-induction task, and were then immersed in virtual reality (VR) for 10 minutes. The control condition featured a slide show in VR, and the nature experimental condition featured an active exploration of a virtual forest. Participants in the nature condition were found to exhibit increased positive affect and decreased stress after immersion in VR when compared to those in the control condition. The results suggest that immersion in virtual nature settings has similar beneficial effects as exposure to surrogate nature. These results also suggest that VR can be used as a tool to study and understand restorative effects.

  9. A review of ecological restoration techniques in fluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu Pan; Mengzhen Xu; Jianping Yuan; Xinhua Zhang; Zhaoyin Wang; Jiao Chen; Jinyou Lu; Wenjun Yang; Zhiwei Li; Na Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Rivers play an important role in people's living and agricultural production, however, intense human activities have broken the original ecological balance, and affected structures and functions of the river ecosystem. To restore the damaged river ecosystem back to a healthy status, effective ecological restoration measures need to be implemented. The main problems that the damaged rivers face are either the locally altered hydrological processes affected by construction of hydraulic facilities, or the deterioration of water quality resulted from pollution emissions, or both. In this study, ecological restoration techniques of the rivers affected by engineering control or pollution are reviewed respec-tively. In addition, three kinds of methods, i.e. physical, chemical and biological–ecological methods are introduced in details for the rivers affected by water pollution. At present, the development of river restoration techniques shows the following trends: 1) the scale of ecological restoration is becoming larger; 2) ecological restoration measures are required to meet multiple objectives; and 3) the man-agement of water environment is changing from water quality management to aquatic ecosystem management.

  10. Effect of Bumble Bee Venom in the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, the Relationship Between Tissue Factor Affecting the Level of TNFα in the Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nabiuni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine failure leading to anovulation. TNFα is an effective factor in the regulation of normal functioning of the ovaries. High levels of TNFα causes PCOS is further. In this study, the effects of bumble bee venom (HBV on TNFα and other symptoms of ovarian PCOS were studied. Methods: In this experimental study, 60 female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, sham and experimental groups. The experimental group was injected with estradiol valerate-induced PCOS direction. Induced rats (PCOS were divided into two groups and treated with HBV. The treatment Group received 0.2mg of HBV for 10 consecutive days. Serum and ovarian tissue was collected from each of the four groups to compare the histological and changes in blood sugar levels. Results: A significant increase in ovarian PCOS weight was observed in the control group , whereas in the treated group with HBV rate fell (15.5 mg Glucose levels in PCOS was 256.5, the control group138, and the treatment group 158. Thickness of the theca layer of antral follicles in the treated group compared with PCOS showed a significant decrease (110 μm and 150 μm respectively. Immunohistochemical results showed increased TNFα factor in PCOS group than in the control group, whereas these levels in samples treated with HBV Reduced. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the beneficial effects of HBV in PCOS may be due to the inhibitory effect on factor TNFα. Key words: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Bumble bee venom, Tumor necrosis factor, Immunohistochemistry

  11. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gericke, Martin [Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Berger, Claudia [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kunath, Anne [German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB Adiposity Disease, Core Unit Animal Models, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  12. mRNA Quantification of NIPBL Isoforms A and B in Adult and Fetal Human Tissues, and a Potentially Pathological Variant Affecting Only Isoform A in Two Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisac, Beatriz; Teresa-Rodrigo, María-Esperanza; Hernández-Marcos, María; Baquero-Montoya, Carolina; Gil-Rodríguez, María-Concepción; Visnes, Torkild; Bot, Christopher; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Kaiser, Frank J; Ramos, Feliciano J; Ström, Lena; Pié, Juan

    2017-02-23

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphia, growth retardation, limb malformations, and intellectual disability. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS carry a recognizable pathological variant in the NIPBL gene, of which two isoforms, A and B, have been identified, and which only differ in the C-terminal segment. In this work, we describe the distribution pattern of the isoforms A and B mRNAs in tissues of adult and fetal origin, by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Our results show a higher gene expression of the isoform A, even though both seem to have the same tissue distribution. Interestingly, the expression in fetal tissues is higher than that of adults, especially in brain and skeletal muscle. Curiously, the study of fibroblasts of two siblings with a mild CdLS phenotype and a pathological variant specific of the isoform A of NIPBL (c.8387A > G; P.Tyr2796Cys), showed a similar reduction in both isoforms, and a normal sensitivity to DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that the position of the pathological variant at the 3´ end of the NIPBL gene affecting only isoform A, is likely to be the cause of the atypical mild phenotype of the two brothers.

  13. mRNA Quantification of NIPBL Isoforms A and B in Adult and Fetal Human Tissues, and a Potentially Pathological Variant Affecting Only Isoform A in Two Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Puisac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphia, growth retardation, limb malformations, and intellectual disability. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS carry a recognizable pathological variant in the NIPBL gene, of which two isoforms, A and B, have been identified, and which only differ in the C-terminal segment. In this work, we describe the distribution pattern of the isoforms A and B mRNAs in tissues of adult and fetal origin, by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results show a higher gene expression of the isoform A, even though both seem to have the same tissue distribution. Interestingly, the expression in fetal tissues is higher than that of adults, especially in brain and skeletal muscle. Curiously, the study of fibroblasts of two siblings with a mild CdLS phenotype and a pathological variant specific of the isoform A of NIPBL (c.8387A > G; P.Tyr2796Cys, showed a similar reduction in both isoforms, and a normal sensitivity to DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that the position of the pathological variant at the 3´ end of the NIPBL gene affecting only isoform A, is likely to be the cause of the atypical mild phenotype of the two brothers.

  14. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Arco, Raquel; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Noemí Blanco, Rosario; Alén, Francisco; Suárez, Juan; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a) the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b) the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c) the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a) sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b) features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c) tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed. PMID:27806128

  15. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Quintana, Albert; Molinero, Amalia; Carrasco, Javier; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan

    2006-11-15

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability, especially among young people. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress likely underlie much of the damage elicited by injury, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known. A genomic approach, such as the use of microarrays, provides much insight in this regard, especially if combined with the use of gene-targeted animals. We report here the results of one of these studies comparing wild-type and metallothionein-I + II knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 16 days postlesion (dpl) using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays interrogating approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). Hierarchical clustering analysis of these genes readily shows an orderly pattern of gene responses at specific times consistent with the processes involved in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma, as well as a prominent effect of MT-I + II deficiency. The results thoroughly confirmed the importance of the antioxidant proteins MT-I + II in the response of the brain to injury and opened new avenues that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Data in KO, MT-I-overexpressing, and MT-II-injected mice strongly suggest a role of these proteins in postlesional activation of neural stem cells.

  16. 夹板式黏结桥修复牙周炎伴牙列缺损的临床效果%Clinical affect of splinted fixed prostheses on restoration of periodontitis combined with denture defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹裕杰; 魏斌; 吴赟; 吴乐平

    2011-01-01

    , 12, and 24 months after treatment, and the difference between pretreatment and post-treatment had statistical significance (all P0.05). TM improved in all loose teeth after splint fixation, and was not aggravated in abutment teeth. With time going, TM increased in several abutment teeth, but TM in grade I was significantly increased after splint fixation (all P0.05). X-ray showed clear images of laminadura and periodontal ligament, stable height of alveolar bone and increased bone density. Conclusion Splinted fixed prostheses can effectively fix loose teeth in the patients with moderate and severe periodontitis and restore defect of dentition.

  17. Cytogenetic genotoxic investigation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects with dental composite restorative filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettini, F; Savino, M; Corsalini, M; Cantore, S; Ballini, A

    2015-01-01

    Dental composite resins are biomaterials commonly used to aesthetically restore the structure and function of teeth impaired by caries, erosion, or fracture. Residual monomers released from resin restorations as a result of incomplete polymerization processes interact with living oral tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a common dental composite material (Enamel Plus-HFO), in subjects with average 13 filled teeth with the same material, compared to a control group (subjects having neither amalgam nor composite resin fillings). Genotoxicity assessment of composite materials was carried out in vitro in human peripheral blood leukocytes using sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic tests. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses confirmed the absence of a relationship between SCE/cell, high frequency of SCE(HFC) or CA frequencies and exposure to dental composite materials. These results indicate that composite resins used for dental restorations differ extensively in vivo in their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and in their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair.

  18. Investigation on chilling affected banana plantations during early spring season and restoration strategies%2011年早春我国香蕉寒害调查及寒害后恢复对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贵美; 李小泉; 韦绍龙; 邹瑜; 牟海飞; 李朝生; 韦华芳; 张进忠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解2011年早春低温对我国香蕉生产的影响,提出寒害后香蕉恢复生产的技术措施,为香蕉抗寒栽培提供技术支持.[方法]2011年3月9~16日对我国香蕉主产区广西、广东、海南、云南、福建进行分片区实地寒害调查,对挂果株及待生产用的大、中、小吸芽进行田间解剖分析诊断.[结果]挂果株受寒害影响较吸芽植株敏感,大、中、小吸芽抗寒能力依次增强;同纬度区域高海拔香蕉受寒害比低海拔严重;此次低温对广西中部区域香蕉影响最为严重,挂果株产量损失超过50%,且只能留中小型吸芽作为生产株;广东、海南区域香蕉受寒害影响最小,其他区域居中.[建议]采用覆盖天地膜过冬、喷水保湿、套袋护果御寒等措施;选留受寒害后萌发的吸芽为下造生产株,做好蕉园管理工作,促进吸芽早萌发、早定芽;选育抗寒品种.%[ Objective ]The experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of low temperature on banana yield during early spring season of the year 2011 in order to develop proper measures for recovering banana plantations after being injured, and to sustain banana production under cold temperature conditions. [Method]Investigations were carried out to observe the effects of chilling temperatures on banana plantations in main banana production regions viz., Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan, and Fujian from March 9th to March 16th, 2011. Large, middle and small sized banana suckers and fruited plants were dissected and diagnosed under field conditions. [Result]The results showed that the fruited banana plants were more sensitive to low temperature compared to suckers. Large sized suckers responded more imperceptibly in cold weather compared to the smaller ones. The chilling damages to banana plants were more severe at high altitude compared to low altitude at same latitude. Banana plantations in central areas of Guangxi were severly affected

  19. Tissue engineering for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sujata K

    2010-12-01

    Tissue engineering is increasingly being recognized as a beneficial means for lessening the global disease burden. One strategy of tissue engineering is to replace lost tissues or organs with polymeric scaffolds that contain specialized populations of living cells, with the goal of regenerating tissues to restore normal function. Typical constructs for tissue engineering employ biocompatible and degradable polymers, along with organ-specific and tissue-specific cells. Once implanted, the construct guides the growth and development of new tissues; the polymer scaffold degrades away to be replaced by healthy functioning tissue. The ideal biomaterial for tissue engineering not only defends against disease and supports weakened tissues or organs, it also provides the elements required for healing and repair, stimulates the body's intrinsic immunological and regenerative capacities, and seamlessly interacts with the living body. Tissue engineering has been investigated for virtually every organ system in the human body. This review describes the potential of tissue engineering to alleviate disease, as well as the latest advances in tissue regeneration. The discussion focuses on three specific clinical applications of tissue engineering: cardiac tissue regeneration for treatment of heart failure; nerve regeneration for treatment of stroke; and lung regeneration for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The skin tissue is adversely affected by TNF-alpha blockers in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis: a 5-year prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P. Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%, parasitic (23.5%, fungal (20.6% and viral (8.8% agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab.

  1. Progress on Factors Affecting Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Activity%影响棕色脂肪组织产热活性因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁慧琦; 侯少贞

    2016-01-01

    全球性肥胖流行问题愈发严峻,而脂肪组织本身可能是解决这个问题的关键。人和哺乳动物体内存在两种脂肪组织,发挥着截然相反的作用。与白色脂肪组织存储机体过剩的能量不同,棕色脂肪组织中存在独特的解偶联蛋白,能将脂肪酸氧化磷酸化,释放热能,增加能量消耗。因此,通过激活棕色脂肪组织产热,加速体内储存的脂质氧化磷酸化,成为了一种新的预防和治疗肥胖的手段。论文阐述影响棕色脂肪产热活性的因素以及相关机制,旨在为肥胖的治疗提供新的思路和方向。%The global obesity epidemic is increasingly serious,while the adipose tissue itself may be the key to solving it.There are two types adipose tissue in human and mammals,and they play opposite roles.Un-like white adipose tissue stores excess energy,brown adipose tissue has unique uncoupling protein,so it can oxidative phosphorylate fatty acid,then release heat,and increase energy consumption.Therefore,it be-comes a new means to prevent and treat obesity by activiting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis,then speeding the oxidative phosphorylation of fat.In present review,we explicated the factors that affect brown adipose tissue thermogenesis activity and related mechanisms,aiming at providing a new method and direction for the treatment of obesity.

  2. Tissue engineered bone scaffold material in restoration of alveolar socket after extraction of lower impacted third molar%骨组织工程支架材料充填下颌阻生智牙拔牙窝的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志方

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of tissue engineered bone scaffold material in the restoration of alveolar socket after extraction of lower impacted third molar. METHODS: Thirteen patients were immediately implanted with Bio-oss or PerioGlas~ in the alveolar cavity after impacted mandibular third molar extraction. Clinical observation and Xray were taken I to 12 weeks after operation. Paired t test was used for statistical analysis by SPSS10.0 software package.RESULTS: Thirteen patients did not experience postoperative complications. The distal alveolar height of the second molar and the gingival attachment did decrease significantly 1 to 12 weeks after operation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:Tissue engineered bone scaffold material is helpful in the restoration of alveolar socket after impacted third molar extraction.%目的:探讨下颌阻生智牙拔除后,用骨组织工程支架材料充填拔牙窝,修复第二磨牙远中牙槽骨高度的临床效果.方法:13例患者在阻生智牙拔除后,即刻植入组织工程骨微粒(小牛无机松质骨Bio-oss、倍骼生PerioGlasf?)于牙槽窝内,术后定期随访,并从临床和X线影像检查比较术后1、12周时,第二磨牙远中牙龈附着水平和牙槽嵴高度的变化.采用SPSS10.0软件包对数据进行配对样本t检验.结果:所有患者术后未出现并发症,术后12周时,第二磨牙远中牙槽嵴高度显著降低(P<0.05).结论:下颌阻生智牙拔除术后即刻植入组织工程骨支架材料,有利于保持第二磨牙远中牙槽嵴的高度.

  3. Bionic restorative system: its potential value in caries therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M M Hao; Zheng, M M Ren; Lin, M D Yinghe

    2009-07-01

    Dental defect caused by dental caries is usually restored by fillings, inlays or onlays at the present day. Although the therapeutic effects of these methods have already been confirmed, complications occasionally set in, such as pulp injury, fracture and secondary caries. Bionic dental organic center possesses similar functions of the natural dental organic center. So we put forward a hypothesis that bionic organic center can be transplanted onto the conditioned pulpal walls of the prepared cavity and a specific filling material, which the cavity will be filled with, provides oxygen, nutrition and raw materials for it to regenerate the lost odontal tissue in vivo. The regenerated odontal tissue which has similar properties of the healthy odontal tissue will restore the defect and it will be combined with the residual odontal tissue tightly, not only in physical structure but also in function. Then the teeth suffering from dental caries could live and function like healthy ones.

  4. Longevity of silicate ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    The demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of dental ceramics as a biocompatible and functionally sufficient alternative to conventional restorative materials. Silicate ceramic restorations are widely used for veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns in dentistry. Long-term data are of crucial importance to optimize clinical practice. The purpose of the present article is to summarize data of the Innsbruck ceramic evaluation up to 261 months with the focus on longevity and failure characteristics.

  5. Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M; Goldstein, Bradley J

    2014-03-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic.

  6. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  7. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  8. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria begins to grow and release harmful substances (toxins) that kill tissue and affect blood flow to ... pressure ( hyperbaric oxygen therapy ) for certain types of bacterial infections Outlook (Prognosis) How well you do depends ...

  9. Multiplexed lasing in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Qiushu; Fan, Xudong

    2017-02-01

    Biolasers are an emerging technology for next generation biochemical detection and clinical applications. Progress has recently been made to achieve lasing from biomolecules and single living cells. Tissues, which consist of cells embedded in extracellular matrix, mimic more closely the actual complex biological environment in a living body and therefore are of more practical significance. Here, we developed a highly versatile tissue laser platform, in which tissues stained with fluorophores are sandwiched in a high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavity. Distinct lasing emissions from muscle and adipose tissues stained respectively with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY), and hybrid muscle/adipose tissue with dual-staining were achieved with a threshold of only 10 μJ/mm2. Additionally, we investigated how tissue structure/geometry, tissue thickness, and staining dye concentration affect the tissue laser. It is further found that, despite large fluorescence spectral overlap between FITC and BODIPY in tissues, their lasing emissions could be clearly distinguished and controlled due to their narrow lasing bands and different lasing thresholds, thus enabling highly multiplexed detection. Our tissue laser platform can be broadly applicable to various types of tissues/diseases. It provides a new tool for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics/screening of tissues and identification/monitoring of biological transformations in tissue engineering.

  10. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia.

  11. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... of Dissonance in Nature Restoration’, Journal of Landscape Architecture 2/2014: 58-67. Danish Nature Agency (2005), Skjern Å: Ådalens historie. De store projekter. Det nye landskab og naturen. På tur i ådalen [The Skjern River: The History of the River Delta. The Big Projects. The New Landscape and Nature...... heritage. While the meanders of the Skjern River were reconstructed according to its assumed course in 1870s, the embanked canal, which was the main feature and symbol of a comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s, was deconstructed and reduced to incomprehensible traces of the past. Not only did...

  12. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a child affected from anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Bucci, Paolo; Carile, Francesco; Riccitiello, Francesco; Scotti, Claudio; Coccia, Erminia; Rappelli, Giorgio

    2005-08-15

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the management of a young patient, affected by ectodermal dysplasia, during a nine-year period. Dental treatment can vary depending on the severity of the disease (tooth size, morphology, and amount of available alveolar bone). New technologies, such as adhesive dentistry, and new materials, such as composite resin, represent current options in the management of the dental rehabilitation of patients affected by ectodermal dysplasia. Removable partial dentures were used to replace congenitally missing teeth, and composite resin materials were used to restore conical-shaped maxillary teeth to achieve a favorable esthetic result. This option minimized the sacrifice of healthy dental tissue. Prosthodontic and restorative treatment was provided for the psychological and social comfort of the young patient.

  13. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Review of Etiology, Clinical Management, and Tissue Engineering Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan K.; MacBarb, Regina F.; Wong, Mark E.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology reports state temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) affect up to 25% of the population, yet their etiology and progression are poorly understood. As a result, treatment options are limited and fail to meet the long-term demands of the relatively young patient population. TMD are a class of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with morphological and functional deformities. In up to 70% of cases, TMD are accompanied by malpositioning of the TMJ disc, termed “internal derangement.” Though onset is not well characterized, correlations between internal derangement and osteoarthritic change have been identified. Due to the complex and unique nature of each TMD case, diagnosis requires patient-specific analysis accompanied by various diagnostic modalities. Likewise, treatment requires customized plans to address the specific characteristics of each patient’s disease. In the mechanically demanding and biochemically active environment of the TMJ, therapeutic approaches capable of restoring joint functionality while responding to changes in the joint have become a necessity. Capable of integration and adaptation in the TMJ, one such approach, tissue engineering, carries significant potential in the development of repair and replacement tissues. The following review presents a synopsis of etiology, current treatment methods, and the future of tissue engineering for repairing and/or replacing diseased joint components, specifically the mandibular condyle and TMJ disc. Preceding the current trends in tissue engineering is an analysis of native tissue characterization, toward identifying tissue engineering objectives and validation metrics for restoring healthy and functional structures of the TMJ. PMID:24278954

  14. Temporomandibular disorders: a review of etiology, clinical management, and tissue engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan K; MacBarb, Regina F; Wong, Mark E; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a class of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with morphologic and functional deformities that affect up to 25% of the population, but their etiology and progression are poorly understood and, as a result, treatment options are limited. In up to 70% of cases, TMD are accompanied by malpositioning of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc, termed "internal derangement." Although the onset is not well characterized, correlations between internal derangement and osteoarthritic change have been identified. Because of the complex and unique nature of each TMD case, diagnosis requires patient-specific analysis accompanied by various diagnostic modalities. Likewise, treatment requires customized plans to address the specific characteristics of each patient's disease. In the mechanically demanding and biochemically active environment of the TMJ, therapeutic approaches that can restore joint functionality while responding to changes in the joint have become a necessity. One such approach, tissue engineering, which may be capable of integration and adaptation in the TMJ, carries significant potential for the development of repair and replacement tissues. The following review presents a synopsis of etiology, current treatment methods, and the future of tissue engineering for repairing and/or replacing diseased joint components, specifically the mandibular condyle and TMJ disc. An analysis of native tissue characterization to assist clinicians in identifying tissue engineering objectives and validation metrics for restoring healthy and functional structures of the TMJ is followed by a discussion of current trends in tissue engineering.

  15. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  16. Minimally invasive use of coloured composite resin in aesthetic restoration of periodontially involved teeth: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, M A; Al Sharief, H S; Tayeb, H; Bokhari, A

    2013-04-01

    Gingival recession causes not only aesthetic problems, but problems with oral hygiene, plaque accumulation, speech, and tooth sensitivity. Replacing the missing gingival tissue with composite resin, when indicated, can be a time- and cost-effective solution. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old female who presented with generalized gingival recession. Black triangles were present between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth due to loss of interdental tissues, caused by recent periodontal surgery. She also had slightly malposed maxillary anterior teeth. The patient elected to replace gingival tissue with pink composite resin and to alter the midline with composite resin veneers. The first treatment phase involved placement of pink gingival composite to restore the appearance of interdental papilla to her upper (16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, and 24) and lower (34, 33, 32, 31, 41, 42, 43, and 44) teeth. Phase two was to place direct composite resin bonded veneers on her upper (16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, and 24) teeth to alter the midline and achieve desired colour. The third treatment phase was to level the lower incisal edge shape by enameloplasty (31, 32, 41, and 42) to produce a more youthful and attractive smile. This case report and brief review attempt to describe the clinical obstacles and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol. Use of contemporary materials such as gingival coloured composite to restore lost gingival tissue and improve aesthetics can be a simple and cost-effective way to manage patients affected by generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP).

  17. Advanced Esthetic Management of Dental Implants: Surgical and Restorative Considerations to Improve Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry P; Rubinstein, Sergio; Rose, Louis F

    2015-01-01

    Successful dental implant therapy in the maxillary anterior dentition requires meticulous attention to surgical and prosthodontic measures. Proper diagnosis, extraction technique, implant selection, and placement significantly impact outcomes. Respect of hard and soft tissue physiology following tooth loss and implant placement requires specific steps be taken. Management tissue contours properly, via regenerative therapy, results in successful framing of the restoration. Provisionalization and definitive restorative therapy also impacts the level of esthetic success. The contours of the temporary abutment and crown develop soft tissue contours for the final restoration. Overcontouring can lead to soft tissue recession and mucosal asymmetry. Design of the definitive crown(s) is crucial for long-term maintenance of esthetically acceptable results. Visualizing the outcome of treatment prior to its inception, following specific surgical and restorative guidelines, increases the likelihood of success. This article demonstrates the importance of proper surgical and prosthetic principles in achieving esthetic implant results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. From stem to roots: Tissue engineering in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, M.; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    The vitality of dentin-pulp complex is fundamental to the life of tooth and is a priority for targeting clinical management strategies. Loss of the tooth, jawbone or both, due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma or some genetic disorders, affects not only basic mouth functions but aesthetic appearance and quality of life. One novel approach to restore tooth structure is based on biology: regenerative endodontic procedure by application of tissue engineering. Regenerative endodontics is an exciting new concept that seeks to apply the advances in tissue engineering to the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The basic logic behind this approach is that patient-specific tissue-derived cell populations can be used to functionally replace integral tooth tissues. The development of such ‘test tube teeth’ requires precise regulation of the regenerative events in order to achieve proper tooth size and shape, as well as the development of new technologies to facilitate these processes. This article provides an extensive review of literature on the concept of tissue engineering and its application in endodontics, providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. Key words:Regenerative, tissue engineering, stem cells, scaffold. PMID:24558528

  19. From stem to roots: Tissue engineering in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandki, Rita; Kala, M; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2012-02-01

    The vitality of dentin-pulp complex is fundamental to the life of tooth and is a priority for targeting clinical management strategies. Loss of the tooth, jawbone or both, due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma or some genetic disorders, affects not only basic mouth functions but aesthetic appearance and quality of life. One novel approach to restore tooth structure is based on biology: regenerative endodontic procedure by application of tissue engineering. Regenerative endodontics is an exciting new concept that seeks to apply the advances in tissue engineering to the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The basic logic behind this approach is that patient-specific tissue-derived cell populations can be used to functionally replace integral tooth tissues. The development of such 'test tube teeth' requires precise regulation of the regenerative events in order to achieve proper tooth size and shape, as well as the development of new technologies to facilitate these processes. This article provides an extensive review of literature on the concept of tissue engineering and its application in endodontics, providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. Key words:Regenerative, tissue engineering, stem cells, scaffold.

  20. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-05-04

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangameshwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABASTRACT: Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART was origina lly developed in field settings in African subcontinent (Tanzania by Univ ersity of Dar el Salaam in 1980s; subsequently World Health Organization (WHO promote s the use of ART especially with children. As the name indicates Atraumatic Restorat ive Treatment (ART is basically a minimally invasive procedure that involves removing of softened carious dentine using hand instruments and then restoring the cavity with an a dhesive material usually the Glass Ionomer Cement [1]. ART is based on the maximum preservation of sound tooth tissue and the minimum feeling of discomfort and pain, since there is use o f hand instruments it perhaps also reduces pain due to reduced vibrations as occurs while use o f rotary dental instruments. This technique is gaining popularity and acceptability especially in c hildren, elderly and with those individuals who have fear and anxiety about dental treatment [2 , 3]. ART requires use of very minimal portable dental equipment and was designed to use in field/community settings. It was developed for use in less developed countries of the world, where art was seen as an affordable option for patents who can’t afford to pay for more s ophisticated treatments, but with improved technique and use of improved restorative materials its use has considerable expanded to developed countries as well [4-6]. This article give s a brief overview of ART and its uses in the present scenario. KEY WORDS: ART = Atraumatic Restorative Technique, GIC = Glas s Ionomer Cement

  2. Archived film analysis and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The progressive degradation of current film archives poses a serious threat to the preservation of our cultural and technical heritage. Digitization and digital restoration are currently the most viable solutions for the long term preservation and high quality restoration of filmed material. They

  3. SOCIAL WELFARE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.

  4. Archived film analysis and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The progressive degradation of current film archives poses a serious threat to the preservation of our cultural and technical heritage. Digitization and digital restoration are currently the most viable solutions for the long term preservation and high quality restoration of filmed material. They al

  5. Identification of Acceptable Restoration Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Tae Cha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have seen several catastrophic and cascading failures of power systems throughout the world. Power system breakup and blackouts are rare events. However, when they occur, the effects on utilities and general population can be quite severe. To prevent or reduce cascading sequences of events caused by the various reasons, KEPRI is researching ways to revolutionize innovative strategies that will significantly reduce the vulnerability of the power system and will ensure successful restoration of service to customers. This paper describes a restoration guidelines / recommendations for the KEPS simulator, which allows power system operator and planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The KEPS simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. Further, the paper will draw on research using information from a Jeju case study.

  6. Biological restorations: an alternative esthetic treatment for restoration of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Grewal; S, Reeshu

    2008-09-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) affects more than one out of seven preschoolers and is more prevalent in lowincome families, who generally have limited access to dental services. The seriousness and societal costs of ECC continue to be a significant health issue for children from racial/ethnic minorities and from developing countries. Hence, a biological restoration seems to be a successful cost-effective alternative approach for treating such cases.

  7. Influence of thermal stress on marginal integrity of restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Sérgio Cenci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thermal stress on the marginal integrity of restorative materials with different adhesive and thermal properties. Three hundred and sixty Class V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual surfaces of 180 bovine incisors. Cervical and incisal walls were located in dentin and enamel, respectively. Specimens were restored with resin composite (RC; glass ionomer (GI or amalgam (AM, and randomly assigned to 18 groups (n=20 according to the material, number of cycles (500 or 1,000 cycles and dwell time (30 s or 60 s. Dry and wet specimens served as controls Specimens were immersed in 1% basic fuchsine solution (24 h, sectioned, and microleakage was evaluated under x40 magnification. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests: Thermal cycling regimens increased leakage in all AM restorations (p<0.05 and its effect on RC and GI restorations was only significant when a 60-s dwell time was used (p<0.05. Marginal integrity was more affected in AM restorations under thermal cycling stress, whereas RC and GI ionomer restoration margins were only significantly affected only under longer dwell times.

  8. Development of multilayer constructs for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli, N. M. S.; Groen, N.; Steg, H.; Unadkat, H.; de Boer, J.; van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Wessling, M.; Stamatialis, D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly developing field of tissue engineering produces living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve the function of tissues or organs. In contrast to standard therapies, the engineered products become integrated within the patient, affording a potentially permanent and specific cure of

  9. Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-r

  10. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Custers, M.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-r

  11. Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-r

  12. Polymeric Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering Application: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brahatheeswaran Dhandayuthapani; Yasuhiko Yoshida; Toru Maekawa; D Sakthi Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Current strategies of regenerative medicine are focused on the restoration of pathologically altered tissue architectures by transplantation of cells in combination with supportive scaffolds and biomolecules. In recent years, considerable interest has been given to biologically active scaffolds which are based on similar analogs of the extracellular matrix that have induced synthesis of tissues and organs. To restore function or regenerate tissue, a scaffold is necessary that will act as a te...

  13. Development of restorative justice in the context of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Annett Cynthia Sáenz López

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has developed in the past few years due to the verifiable benefits of providing an alternative conflict resolution approach which favors remedies, out-ofcourt arrangements and dialogue between the parties directly involved in disputes. Despite being mostly applied within the sphere of criminal justice –especially within the juvenile criminal justice system in force in many countries– the philosophy of restorative justice has affected other areas of social conflict such as domestic violence and violence against women. Analyzing how other countries apply Restorative Justice in cases of domestic violence and of violence against women, provides Uruguay with a framework to streamline the efforts towards providing victims, offenders, and communities with quality law enforcement processes primarily focused on a comprehensive restoration for all those involved.

  14. Factors to achieve aesthetics in all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2010-11-01

    The demand for aesthetic restorations has increased during the last years. Dental ceramics are a successful alternative for some cases because of aesthetics and biocompatibility. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to present the factors necessary to fabricate all-ceramic restorations with aesthetics similar to natural dentition. A search of English-language peer-review literature was completed using MEDLINE database from 1975 to 2009 including the keywords "aesthetic," "metal-free crown," "all-ceramic," and "color." It was observed that several factors influence aesthetics of all-ceramic restorations. Color scale, light source during color evaluation, characteristic of core material, color of supporting tooth, presence of root post, and type of cement are clinical factors that may influence color of the restorations. Laboratorial factors as technique for ceramic condensation, thickness, temperature, and number of firing cycles also influence the result of these crowns. Although several clinical and laboratorial factors influence aesthetics of all-ceramic restorations, the aesthetic success and longevity of these restorations depend on the integration with surrounding periodontal tissue.

  15. Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babitha Nugala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry.

  16. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Atala, M D

    2012-10-11

    The proposed work aims to address three major challenges to the field of regenerative medicine: 1) the growth and expansion of regenerative cells outside the body in controlled in vitro environments, 2) supportive vascular supply for large tissue engineered constructs, and 3) interactive biomaterials that can orchestrate tissue development in vivo. Toward this goal, we have engaged a team of scientists with expertise in cell and molecular biology, physiology, biomaterials, controlled release, nanomaterials, tissue engineering, bioengineering, and clinical medicine to address all three challenges. This combination of resources, combined with the vast infrastructure of the WFIRM, have brought to bear on projects to discover and test new sources of autologous cells that can be used therapeutically, novel methods to improve vascular support for engineered tissues in vivo, and to develop intelligent biomaterials and bioreactor systems that interact favorably with stem and progenitor cells to drive tissue maturation. The Institute's ongoing programs are aimed at developing regenerative medicine technologies that employ a patient's own cells to help restore or replace tissue and organ function. This DOE program has provided a means to solve some of the vexing problems that are germane to many tissue engineering applications, regardless of tissue type or target disease. By providing new methods that are the underpinning of tissue engineering, this program facilitated advances that can be applied to conditions including heart disease, diabetes, renal failure, nerve damage, vascular disease, and cancer, to name a few. These types of conditions affect millions of Americans at a cost of more than $400 billion annually. Regenerative medicine holds the promise of harnessing the body's own power to heal itself. By addressing the fundamental challenges of this field in a comprehensive and focused fashion, this DOE program has opened new opportunities to treat

  17. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  18. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  19. Serendipity and the discovery of novel compounds that restore mitochondrial plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, H H; Birk, A V

    2014-12-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) plays a central role in energy generation in the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunctions diminish adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and result in insufficient energy to maintain cell function. As energy output declines, the most energetic tissues are preferentially affected. To satisfy cellular energy demands, the mitochondrial ETC needs to be able to elevate its capacity to produce ATP at times of increased metabolic demand or decreased fuel supply. This mitochondrial plasticity is reduced in many age-associated diseases. In this review, we describe the serendipitous discovery of a novel class of compounds that selectively target cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane to optimize efficiency of the ETC and thereby restore cellular bioenergetics in aging and diverse disease models, without any effect on the normal healthy organism. The first of these compounds, SS-31, is currently in multiple clinical trials.

  20. Restorative Rehabilitation of a Patient with Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShahrani, Mohammed Thamer; Haralur, Satheesh B; Alqarni, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Dental erosion is the chemical dissolution of the tooth structure. Factors like eating disorders and gastrointestinal diseases are recognized as intrinsic factors for dental erosion. Advanced stages of dental erosion extensively damage the tooth morphology, consequently affecting both esthetics and functions. Reports indicate the growing prevalence of erosion, and hence knowledge of restorative rehabilitation of tooth erosion is an integral part of the contemporary dental practice. This clinical report describes an adult patient with gastroesophageal reflux induced dental erosion involving the palatal surface of the maxillary anterior teeth. The extensive involvement of the palatal surfaces compromised the esthetics, incisal guidance, and functional occlusal efficiency. Indirect all-ceramic restorations were utilized to restore the esthetics and occlusal reconstruction. In conclusion, patients affected by severe dental erosion require prosthetic rehabilitation besides the management of the associated medical condition.

  1. Restorative Rehabilitation of a Patient with Dental Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Thamer AlShahrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is the chemical dissolution of the tooth structure. Factors like eating disorders and gastrointestinal diseases are recognized as intrinsic factors for dental erosion. Advanced stages of dental erosion extensively damage the tooth morphology, consequently affecting both esthetics and functions. Reports indicate the growing prevalence of erosion, and hence knowledge of restorative rehabilitation of tooth erosion is an integral part of the contemporary dental practice. This clinical report describes an adult patient with gastroesophageal reflux induced dental erosion involving the palatal surface of the maxillary anterior teeth. The extensive involvement of the palatal surfaces compromised the esthetics, incisal guidance, and functional occlusal efficiency. Indirect all-ceramic restorations were utilized to restore the esthetics and occlusal reconstruction. In conclusion, patients affected by severe dental erosion require prosthetic rehabilitation besides the management of the associated medical condition.

  2. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  3. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  4. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  5. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  6. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Optimizing investments in national-scale forest landscape restoration in Uganda to maximize multiple benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Jesse D.; Hawthorne, Peter L.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Beatty, Craig R.; Greve, Michelle; Verdone, Michael A.

    2016-11-01

    Forest loss and degradation globally has resulted in declines in multiple ecosystem services and reduced habitat for biodiversity. Forest landscape restoration offers an opportunity to mitigate these losses, conserve biodiversity, and improve human well-being. As part of the Bonn Challenge, a global effort to restore 350 million hectares of deforested and degraded land by 2030, over 30 countries have recently made commitments to national forest landscape restoration. In order to achieve these goals, decision-makers require information on the potential benefits and costs of forest landscape restoration to efficiently target investments. In response to this need, we developed an approach using a suite of ecosystem service mapping tools and a multi-objective spatial optimization technique that enables decision-makers to estimate the potential benefits and opportunity costs of restoration, visualize tradeoffs associated with meeting multiple objectives, and prioritize where restoration could deliver the greatest benefits. We demonstrate the potential of this approach in Uganda, one of the nations committed to the Bonn Challenge. Using maps of the potential benefits and costs of restoration and efficiency frontiers for optimal restoration scenarios, we were able to communicate how ecosystem services benefits vary spatially across the country and how different weights on ecosystem services objectives can affect the allocation of restoration across Uganda. This work provides a generalizable approach to improve investments in forest landscape restoration and illuminates the tradeoffs associated with alternative restoration strategies.

  8. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  9. The influence of hyperthyroidism on implant restoration treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information about bone implant restoration treatment on edentulous patient with hyperthyroidism. This clinical report is presenting the making of dental bone implant restoration on patient with hyperthyroidism history. A 60 years old male patient with hyperthyroidism came to Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia to improve his ailing denture. After comprehensive evaluation we treated the patient with Implant-Tissue-Supported Overdenture (4 Implants for rehabilitating upper edentulous jaw, and 2 Implant-Tooth-Supported Fixed Partial Denturesfor rehabilitating Kennedy class II lower edentulous jaw respectively. Short term clinical and radiographic evaluation based on Buser’s criteria showed positive result. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:191-5Keywords: Hyperthyroidsm, implant restoration

  10. Clinical considerations in restorative dentistry - A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Tumkur Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between periodontal health and the restoration of teeth is intimate and inseparable. Human teeth are designed in such a way that the individual tooth contributes significantly to their own support as well as collectively the teeth in the arch. Decay on the proximal surfaces occurs mainly due to the faulty interrelationship between the contact area, marginal ridge, the embrasures and the gingiva. An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure an adequate form, function, aesthetics and comfort of the dentition. For long-term survival of restoration, both functionally and esthetically, certain biological considerations are very critical to preserve the health of the periodontium and thus must be given due importance in clinical practice. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainly remains regarding specific concept such as biologic width and its maintainces.

  11. Mesoglycan treatment restores defective fibrinolytic potential in cutaneous necrotizing venulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, T; Celasco, G; Tsampau, D; Teofoli, P; Benci, M; Dahm, M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    1993-05-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing venulitis (CNV) is a clinical disorder associated with segmental inflammation and fibrinoid necrosis of the dermal venules. It usually presents clinically as palpable purpura, even sometimes as nodules, bullae, ulcers, and urticarial lesions. This form, when showing as leukocytoclastic vasculitis is apparently characterized by the tissue deposition of circulating immune complexes and by reduced cutaneous (CFA) and plasma (PFA) fibrinolytic activity due to reduced release of plasminogen activator (PA) from the venular endotheliocytes. Reduced CFA and PFA cause large amounts of fibrin deposits in both intra- and perivascular areas, which are able to magnify and self perpetuate the inflammatory processes following immune complex deposition. We have studied both the PFA and CFA potential (the maximum amount of PA released in the skin after certain stimuli) and the deposits of immunoglobulins, C3, and fibrin related antigen, before and after intradermal injection of histamine (a substance able to provoke endothelial release of PA), in three subjects affected by CNV before and 20 days after 10 mg/kg/day I.M. treatment with the fibrinolytic agent mesoglycan. Cutaneous fibrinolytic activity and CFA potential, reduced prior to treatment, was normal after treatment, while the deposits of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM), C3, and fibrin related antigen, detected with direct immune fluorescence (DIF) showed similar findings before and after treatment. These data suggest that reduced CFA may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the immunologically mediated injury in CNV. The intraperivascular deposition of fibrin is favored. The fibrinolytic agent mesoglycan seems effective in restoring defective fibrinolysis in patients affected by cutaneous necrotizing venulitis, suggesting that in cases with reduced cutaneous fibrinolytic activity (or potential) the use of a fibrinolytic agent should be considered.

  12. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish N. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  13. Toward efficient riparian restoration: integrating economic, physical, and biological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Michio; Adams, Richard M; Wu, Junjie; Bolte, John P; Cox, Matt M; Johnson, Sherri L; Liss, William J; Boggess, William G; Ebersole, Joseph L

    2005-04-01

    This paper integrates economic, biological, and physical models to explore the efficient combination and spatial allocation of conservation efforts to protect water quality and increase salmonid populations in the Grande Ronde basin, Oregon. We focus on the effects of shade on water temperatures and the subsequent impacts on endangered juvenile salmonid populations. The integrated modeling system consists of a physical model that links riparian conditions and hydrological characteristics to water temperature; a biological model that links water temperature and riparian conditions to salmonid abundance, and an economic model that incorporates both physical and biological models to estimate minimum cost allocations of conservation efforts. Our findings indicate that conservation alternatives such as passive and active riparian restoration, the width of riparian restoration zones, and the types of vegetation used in restoration activities should be selected based on the spatial distribution of riparian characteristics in the basin. The relative effectiveness of passive and active restoration plays an important role in determining the efficient allocations of conservation efforts. The time frame considered in the restoration efforts and the magnitude of desired temperature reductions also affect the efficient combinations of restoration activities. If the objective of conservation efforts is to maximize fish populations, then fishery benefits should be directly targeted. Targeting other criterion such as water temperatures would result in different allocations of conservation efforts, and therefore are not generally efficient.

  14. Various Effects of Sandblasting of Dental Restorative Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Nishigawa

    Full Text Available Sandblasting particles which remain on the surfaces of dental restorations are removed prior to cementation. It is probable that adhesive strength between luting material and sandblasting particle remnants might exceed that with restorative material. If that being the case, blasting particles adhere to sandblasted material surface could be instrumental to increasing adhesive strength like underlying bonding mechanism between luting material and silanized particles of tribochemical silica coating-treated surface. We hypothesize that ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces, which were pretreated with sandblasting, may affect adhesive strength of a resin luting material to dental restorative materials.We therefore observed adhesive strength of resin luting material to aluminum oxide was greater than those to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy beforehand. To measure the shear bond strengths of resin luting material to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, forty specimens of each restorative material were prepared. Bonding surfaces were polished with silicon abrasive paper and then treated with sandblasting. For each restorative material, 40 sandblasted specimens were equally divided into two groups: ultrasonic cleaning (USC group and non-ultrasonic cleaning (NUSC group. After resin luting material was polymerized on bonding surface, shear test was performed to evaluate effect of ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces pretreated with sandblasting on bond strength.For both zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, NUSC group showed significantly higher shear bond strength than USC group.Ultrasonic cleaning of dental restorations after sandblasting should be avoided to retain improved bonding between these materials.

  15. Biofilm Formation on Dental Restorative and Implant Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, H. J.; Rinastiti, M.; Siswomihardjo, W.; van der Mei, H. C.

    Biomaterials for the restoration of oral function are prone to biofilm formation, affecting oral health. Oral bacteria adhere to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, but due to fluctuating shear, little biofilm accumulates on hydrophobic surfaces in vivo. More biofilm accumulates on rough than on

  16. Student Outcomes of Eco-Restoration Service-Learning Experiences in Urban Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knackmuhs, Eric; Farmer, James; Reynolds, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Service learning with ecological restoration projects can positively affect participants' attitudes, behaviors, and learning, but little is known about the longevity of these effects. Furthermore, urban green spaces are an understudied, yet increasingly important, context for eco-restoration service learning. This study examined the persistence of…

  17. Mineral exploitation by surface mining and environmental restoration. Explotacion minera a cielo abierto y restauracion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The subject of environmental restoration of zones affected by the opencast exploitation of coal, is one of the most interesting for mineral zones since at the end of the industrial process the reclaimed land is appropriate for subsequent use. In all, HUNOSA has restored more than 1000 Ha of pasture. 1 fig.

  18. THE RESTORATIVE CLASSROOM: Using Restorative Approaches to Foster Effective Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Martha A. BROWN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The book is divided into three sections. Part One, chapters 1-3, provides the reader with a framework for understanding relational and restorative pedagogy based on the Five Key Restorative Themes: Everyone has their own unique and equally valued perspectives Thoughts influence emotions, emotions influence actions Empathy and consideration Needs and unmet needs Collective responsibility for problem solving and decision making. (Hopkins, 2011, p.32These five themes form the basis for the rest of the book. Part Two, chapters 4-9, describes a range of restorative practices and exercises, such as mixers, circles, and community-building games, as well as the step-by-step instructions on how to implement and conduct them. Part Three, Chapter 10, succinctly discusses the whole-school approach, which is explained in greater detail in Just Schools (Hopkins, 2004. Still, Hopkins would be remiss not to emphasize the need for the whole-school adoption of restorative practices based on current school effectiveness and improvement literature, and again asserts that "developing a restorative staffroom and staff team is likely to be a pre-requisite for a successful, high-achieving school" (Hopkins, 2011, p. 225.

  19. Landscape context mediates avian habitat choice in tropical forest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Leighton Reid

    Full Text Available Birds both promote and prosper from forest restoration. The ecosystem functions birds perform can increase the pace of forest regeneration and, correspondingly, increase the available habitat for birds and other forest-dependent species. The aim of this study was to learn how tropical forest restoration treatments interact with landscape tree cover to affect the structure and composition of a diverse bird assemblage. We sampled bird communities over two years in 13 restoration sites and two old-growth forests in southern Costa Rica. Restoration sites were established on degraded farmlands in a variety of landscape contexts, and each included a 0.25-ha plantation, island treatment (trees planted in patches, and unplanted control. We analyzed four attributes of bird communities including frugivore abundance, nectarivore abundance, migrant insectivore richness, and compositional similarity of bird communities in restoration plots to bird communities in old-growth forests. All four bird community variables were greater in plantations and/or islands than in control treatments. Frugivore and nectarivore abundance decreased with increasing tree cover in the landscape surrounding restoration plots, whereas compositional similarity to old-growth forests was greatest in plantations embedded in landscapes with high tree cover. Migrant insectivore richness was unaffected by landscape tree cover. Our results agree with previous studies showing that increasing levels of investment in active restoration are positively related to bird richness and abundance, but differences in the effects of landscape tree cover on foraging guilds and community composition suggest that trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and bird-mediated ecosystem functioning may be important for prioritizing restoration sites.

  20. Decomposition and its affecting factors of Stipa baicalensis shoot tissues collected at different months%不同月份采集的贝加尔针茅地上部的分解特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩虹; 张雷明; 刘杏认; 辛晓平; 李胜功

    2012-01-01

    The nutrient contents in plant tissues have a seasonal variation during the process of plant growth. Aiming at this feature, the shoot tisses (induding stems and leaves) of Stipa baicalensis were collected in growth season (from May to September, 2009) , and their decomposition characteristics and related affecting factors were studied by using litterbags. The shoot tissues collected in different months had obvious difference in their decomposition rates, being decreased in the order of May > June > July > August > September. The decomposition rates of the substrates were significantly positively correlated with their initial nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and manganese contents, significantly negatively correlated with their initial carbon content and C : N, but less correlated with their initial calcium content and N : P. There was an obvious correlation between the soil microbial biomass nitrogen and the remaining mass of the substrates. In addition, the soil microbial biomass nitrogen had obvious correlations with the substrate carbon and nitrogen contents. The mass loss of the substrates had significant positive correlation with soil moisture content but weak correlation with soil temperature, suggesting that precipitation change could affect litter decomposition via affecting soil moisture content.%利用植物生长过程中植物组织内养分元素化学性质的季节性变化特点,在2009年生长季的不同月份(5-9月)采集了呼伦贝尔地区贝加尔针茅地上部(茎和叶),作为分解底物,采用分解袋法,研究其分解特点及其影响因素.结果表明:不同月份采集的贝加尔针茅分解底物之间的分解速度存在明显差异,依采集月份逐渐递减,5月>6月>7月>8月>9月;分解底物初始N、P、Zn、K、Mg和Mn含量与分解速度均呈显著正相关,而碳含量和C∶N与分解速度呈显著负相关,初始钙含量、N∶P与分解速度无显著相关性;土壤微生物

  1. Restoration enhances wetland biodiversity and ecosystem service supply, but results are context-dependent: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Rey Benayas, José María; Balvanera, Patricia; Martínez Ramos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable ecosystems because they harbor a huge biodiversity and provide key services to societies. When natural or human factors degrade wetlands, ecological restoration is often carried out to recover biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Although such restorations are routinely performed, we lack systematic, evidence-based assessments of their effectiveness on the recovery of biodiversity and ES. Here we performed a meta-analysis of 70 experimental studies in order to assess the effectiveness of ecological restoration and identify what factors affect it. We compared selected ecosystem performance variables between degraded and restored wetlands and between restored and natural wetlands using response ratios and random-effects categorical modeling. We assessed how context factors such as ecosystem type, main agent of degradation, restoration action, experimental design, and restoration age influenced post-restoration biodiversity and ES. Biodiversity showed excellent recovery, though the precise recovery depended strongly on the type of organisms involved. Restored wetlands showed 36% higher levels of provisioning, regulating and supporting ES than did degraded wetlands. In fact, wetlands showed levels of provisioning and cultural ES similar to those of natural wetlands; however, their levels of supporting and regulating ES were, respectively, 16% and 22% lower than in natural wetlands. Recovery of biodiversity and of ES were positively correlated, indicating a win-win restoration outcome. The extent to which restoration increased biodiversity and ES in degraded wetlands depended primarily on the main agent of degradation, restoration actions, experimental design, and ecosystem type. In contrast, the choice of specific restoration actions alone explained most differences between restored and natural wetlands. These results highlight the importance of comprehensive, multi-factorial assessment to determine the ecological status of degraded, restored

  2. Tissue Engineering-Current Challenges and Expanding Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Linda G.; Naughton, Gail

    2002-02-01

    Tissue engineering can be used to restore, maintain, or enhance tissues and organs. The potential impact of this field, however, is far broader-in the future, engineered tissues could reduce the need for organ replacement, and could greatly accelerate the development of new drugs that may cure patients, eliminating the need for organ transplants altogether.

  3. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  4. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  5. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambai Sampathkumar Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment.

  6. Sperm Affects Head Sensory Neuron in Temperature Tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Sonoda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to environmental temperature change is essential for the survival and proliferation of animals. The process is controlled by various body tissues, but the orchestration of activity within the tissue network has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we show that sperm affects the activity of temperature-sensing neurons (ASJ that control cold tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetic impairment of sperm caused abnormal cold tolerance, which was unexpectedly restored by impairment of temperature signaling in ASJ neurons. Calcium imaging revealed that ASJ neuronal activity in response to temperature was decreased in sperm mutant gsp-4 with impaired protein phosphatase 1 and rescued by expressing gsp-4 in sperm. Genetic analysis revealed a feedback network in which ASJ neuronal activity regulates the intestine through insulin and a steroid hormone, which then affects sperm and, in turn, controls ASJ neuronal activity. Thus, we propose that feedback between sperm and a sensory neuron mediating temperature tolerance.

  7. Gene therapies that restore dystrophin expression for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases and is caused by mutations to the DMD gene that encodes the dystrophin protein. Recent advances in genome editing and gene therapy offer hope for the development of potential therapeutics. Truncated versions of the DMD gene can be delivered to the affected tissues with viral vectors and show promising results in a variety of animal models. Genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been used to restore dystrophin expression by deleting one or more exons of the DMD gene in patient cells and in a mouse model that led to functional improvement of muscle strength. Exon skipping with oligonucleotides has been successful in several animal models and evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Next-generation oligonucleotide formulations offer significant promise to build on these results. All these approaches to restoring dystrophin expression are encouraging, but many hurdles remain. This review summarizes the current state of these technologies and summarizes considerations for their future development.

  8. The role of astrocytes in mediating exogenous cell-based restorative therapy for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Zhongwu; Xin, Hongqi; Chopp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes have not been a major therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke, with most research emphasis on the neuron. Given the essential role that astrocytes play in maintaining physiological function of the central nervous system and the very rapid and sensitive reaction astrocytes have in response to cerebral injury or ischemic insult, we propose to replace the neurocentric view for treatment with a more nuanced astrocytic centered approach. In addition, after decades of effort in attempting to develop neuroprotective therapies, which target reduction of the ischemic lesion, there are no effective clinical treatments for stroke, aside from thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator, which is used in a small minority of patients. A more promising therapeutic approach, which may affect nearly all stroke patients, may be in promoting endogenous restorative mechanisms, which enhance neurological recovery. A focus of efforts in stimulating recovery post stroke is the use of exogenously administered cells. The present review focuses on the role of the astrocyte in mediating the brain network, brain plasticity, and neurological recovery post stroke. As a model to describe the interaction of a restorative cell-based therapy with astrocytes, which drives recovery from stroke, we specifically highlight the subacute treatment of stroke with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of restoring oak savannas on bird communities and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2006-04-01

    Efforts to restore and maintain oak savannas in North America, with emphasis on the use of prescribed fire, have become common. Little is known, however about how restoration affects animal populations, especially those of birds. I compared the breeding densities, community structure, and reproductive success of birds in oak savannas maintained by prescribed fire (12 sites) with those in closed-canopy forests (13 sites). All sampling was conducted in Illinois (U.S.A.). Of the 31 bird species analyzed, 12 were more common in savannas, 14 were not affected by habitat structure, and 5 were more common in forest habitat. The species favored by disturbance and restoration included Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), and Baltimore Orioles (Icterus galbula). Those more common in closed-canopy forest included Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina). Few species were unique to one type of habitat, but overall avian community structure in oak savannas and closed-canopy forests was generally distinctive. Estimates of nesting success (derived from 785 nests) revealed that 6 of the 13 species considered experienced greater productivity in the savanna habitat. Rates of brood parasitism were unaffected by restoration and habitat structure. Within savannas, tract size had little effect on breeding abundances and reproductive success. My results illustrate that restoration techniques can significantly affect the ecology of constituent animal populations and communities and have key implications regarding avian conservation and the management of forest habitat in fragmented landscapes. Small patches of forest habitat that regularly function as population sinks may offer far better prospects for birds if they are subjected to disturbance and ecosystem restoration.

  10. Restorative rehabilitation in a patient with sports trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Haroon; Vohra, Fahim; Lillywhite, Graeme R.

    2016-01-01

    Sports trauma frequently involves insult to oral soft and hard tissues resulting in loss of tooth structure and tooth loss. Multiple sporting equipment's are employed to prevent irreversible damage to oro-facial structures, and to reduce the overall cost of treatment. However in the undesired consequence of loss of oral structures, multiple treatment options are utilized to restore, esthetics, comfort and function. Osseointegrated implant supported rehabilitation of oral structures in trauma cases provides highly predictable treatment outcomes along with preservation of remaining tissues. This case report presents the management of avulsed teeth caused by hockey stick injury, with osseointegrated dental implant supported fixed partial dentures in esthetic zone using contemporary restorative techniques. PMID:28042278

  11. The material science of minimally invasive esthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nový, Brian B; Fuller, Cameron E

    2008-01-01

    The term esthetic dentistry usually conjures up mental images of porcelain crowns and veneers. To some dentists, the term minimally invasive dentistry evokes thoughts of observing early lesions, and postponing treatment until lesions are closer to the pulp. (The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry defines minimally invasive dentistry as those techniques which respect health, function, and esthetics of oral tissue by preventing disease from occurring, or intercepting its progress with minimal tissue loss.) It would seem these two niches within dentistry are on opposite ends of the spectrum; however, composite resin and glass ionomer restorative materials unite these two ideologies. Understanding the limitations, benefits, and science behind each material allows clinicians to produce highly esthetic restorations that can resist future decay, internally remineralize the tooth, and help protect adjacent teeth from cariogenic attack.

  12. Mechanical cues in orofacial tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, K.M.; Lundvig, D.M.S.; Middelkoop, E.; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients suffer from functional, aesthetical, and psychosocial problems due to suboptimal regeneration of skin, mucosa, and skeletal muscle after restorative cleft surgery. The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE/RM) aims to restore the normal physiology of

  13. Restoration of primary anterior teeth: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacob K

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the published data on restorations of primary anterior teeth. The discussion includes Class III restorations, Class V restorations, various forms of full coronal restorations, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) and recommendations for future research.

  14. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety; Final Rule #0;#0... Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and...

  15. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A F; Innes, N P T

    2016-05-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth tissue and retaining teeth long-term. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  16. Hymen Restoration: "My" Discomfort, "Their" Culture, and Women's Missing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The discourse among medical and scientific communities on hymen restoration is largely missing the voice of women affected. This article calls for a more nuanced reflection on women's real life experiences and the complexities inherent in the negotiation process about the surgery going beyond "ideologies" and the extremes of rape and threats to life. By taking the clinical experience of a woman who requests restoration surgery before her arranged marriage, this article illuminates the grey zone beyond these extremes and explores an individual woman's options for making her own choices.

  17. The Right to Dignity and Restorative Justice in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Reyneke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A retributive and punitive approach is normally adopted in dealing with misbehavior in South African schools. Despite the legal abolition of corporal punishment, more than 50 percent of schools still administer it. Other forms of punishment generally applied are also punitive in nature. The right to dignity of all of the parties affected by misbehaviour in schools is considered in this analysis. The possibility of adopting restorative justice as an alternative disciplinary approach is examined as a way of protecting, promoting and restoring the dignity of the victims of such misbehaviour.

  18. Restoration of depressed prostanoid-induced ileal contraction in spontaneously hypertensive rats by dietary fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Glen S; Adams, Michael J; Dallimore, Julie A; Rogers, Paul F; Topping, David L; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y

    2005-01-01

    We have reported that dietary fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 PUFA modulates gut contractility. It was further demonstrated that the gut of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has a depressed contractility response to prostaglandins (PG) compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We investigated whether feeding diets supplemented with n-3 PUFA increased gut contractility and restored the depressed prostanoid response in SHR gut. Thirteen-week-old SHR were fed diets containing fat at 5 g/100 g as coconut oil (CO), lard, canola oil containing 10% (w/w) n-3 FA as alpha-linolenic acid (1 8:3n-3), or FO (as HiDHA, 22:6n-3) for 12 wk. A control WKY group was fed 5 g/100 g CO in the diet. As confirmed, the SHR CO group had a significantly lower gut response to PGE2 and PGF2alpha compared with the WKY CO group. Feeding FO increased the maximal contraction response to acetylcholine in the ileum compared with all diets and in the colon compared with lard, and restored the depressed response to PGE2 and PGF2alpha in the ileum but not the colon of SHR. FO feeding also led to a significant increase in gut total phospholipid n-3 PUFA as DHA (22:6n-3) with lower n-6 PUFA as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Canola feeding led to a small increase in ileal EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA and in colonic DHA without affecting contractility. However, there was no change in ileal membrane muscarinic binding properties due to FO feeding. This report confirms that dietary FO increases muscarinic- and eicosanoid receptor-induced contractility in ileum and that the depressed prostanoid response in SHR ileum, but not colon, is restored by tissue incorporation of DHA as the active nutrient.

  19. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fracture: restoration of the Gothic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sumant G; Bennion, Phillip W; Reineck, John R; Burkhead, Wayne Z

    2008-10-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the shoulder girdle, and initial management of these injuries often determines final outcome. When arthroplasty is used to manage proximal humeral fractures, surgery remains technically demanding, and outcomes have been unpredictable. Recent advances in both technique and prosthetic implants have led to more successful and reproducible results. Key technical points include restoration of the Gothic arch, anatomic tuberosity reconstruction, and minimal soft tissue dissection.

  20. 颞浅筋膜瓣吻合移植修复手部软组织损伤及重建手功能%Compatible grafting of temporoparietal fascial flaps in restoration of soft-tissue injury and remodeling of hand function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘育凤; 归来

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many advantages in treatment of deglovinginjury in hand with compatible grafting of temporoparietal fascial flaps(TFFs), while there are few relevant reports in China.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate function and appearance of hands after restora-tion of soft tissue defects with compatible grafting of TFFs.DESIGN: Case retrospective analysis.SETTING: Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital,Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.PARTICIPANTS: Eleven patients with hand injuries received compatiblegrafting of TFFs in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of PlasticSurgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy ofMedical Sciences from January 2001 to May 2005 were selected including8 males and 3 females with a mean age of 30 years. All subjects participat-ed in the observation and analysis voluntarily. All patients presented expo-sures of tendon, bone or joint.METHODS: Preoperative location was done with Doppler or palpation methods and the orientation of temporal vascular nerve tracts were labelled. Re-cutization of surface of fascial flap was achieved through fullthickness skin transplantation. Sizes of fascial flaps were limited between 10 cm×9 cm and 4 cm×6 cm. Follow-up was 8 months (6-11 months),the items of which included postoperative functional inspection and satisfactory degree of appearance. Ratio of total active range of motion (AROM) with joints injured and corresponding uninjured joints were used for functional evaluation, and the meso was zero. Functional rehabilitation was divided into 3 grades according to the ratio: Good as the ratio above 0.75, fair as the ratio between 0.5 and 0.75, poor as the ratio below 0.5. Evaluation on appearances of hands contained satifactions of both patients and doctor including whether there were fat and clumsy or visible scars.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative functional recovery of hand after compatible grafting of TFFs.RESULTS: Eleven

  1. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developinggeneric methodologies for ranking restoration...... techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  2. Decision analysis in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1992-12-01

    Standardization of clinical decisions in restorative dentistry should be based on the tenets of the Hippocratic Oath. Although there is wide variability in preventive and operative treatment decisions, some of these decisions may lead along parallel courses to similar, clinically ethical outcomes. However, what parameters must be considered in judging the relative magnitude of positive and negative outcomes? This paper proposes several decision-making strategies for selecting optimum treatment plans for preventive and restorative situations. The caries-risk level of patients must first be identified in a systematic way and then it must be coupled with treatment options that are consistent with the potential future caries increment. A decision-tree approach and/or the treatment-index concept can then be applied to specific clinical conditions and preventive-restorative options to derive an "expected value" for each possible outcome.

  3. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwendicke, F.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.F.; Innes, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental

  4. Repair of amalgam restorations with composite resin and bonded amalgam: A microleakage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo Veloso Popoff

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of adhesive systems significantly affected the ability to seal the repair/ tooth interface. However, at the level of the repair/restoration interface, the bonded amalgam technique may increase microleakage.

  5. Restoration of New Chicago Marsh : Hydrologic and water-quality influences and proposed operations plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on directions which the Peninsula Open Space Trust (POST) might pursue in managing the hydrology and water quality influences affecting restoration...

  6. Conservative preparations for cast restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingburg, H T

    1976-04-01

    Partial veneer crowns still play a role in modern restorative dentistry. They must be used in the right situation with thoughtful treatment planning, and they must be done well in accordance with certain principles. Three-quarter crowns are less retentive than full crowns, but they can be used successfully as single unit restorations and retainers for short span bridges. Retention can be enhanced by the use of proximal boxes. The M.O.D. onlay, a modified inlay with occlusal coverage, minimizes the damaging effects of stress generated by occlusal forces. There is little indication for the use of M.O.D. inlays or large two surface inlays.

  7. Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

    1983-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

  8. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Bohlen, C.

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  9. Impact of erosive conditions on tooth-colored restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian J

    2014-01-01

    To give an overview of the impact of erosive conditions on the behavior of tooth-colored restoratives and performance of dental adhesives. Acid-induced erosive lesions of enamel and dentin often need restorative procedures for rehabilitation. Nowadays, mostly tooth-colored restoratives (ceramics or resin composites), which are adhesively fixed to the dental substrate are used for this purpose. In some cases it might be necessary to seal the exposed dentin before achieving this goal in order to combat hypersensitivities and to protect those teeth from further erosive and abrasive loss. Moreover, it is conceivable that patients will fall back into their old "erosive behavior" after the application of restoratives. The following overview describes in how far intra-oral erosive conditions might affect the integrity of restorative materials, such as composite resins and ceramics, or of dentin sealants. Additionally, the use of erosively altered enamel and dentin as substrate for adhesive technologies is elucidated. In the literature, information of the behavior of tooth-colored restoratives under still persisting erosive conditions are limited and mostly based on in vitro-studies. There is information that the adhesion of dental adhesives to eroded dentin is compromised as compared to regular dentin. The impact of erosive conditions relevant for the oral cavity on ceramics and resin composites seems to be rather low, although only few clinical studies are available. The review showed that erosive conditions might have only little impact on behavior of tooth-colored restorative materials, such as composites and ceramics. Dentin sealants also seem to be rather resistant against erosive conditions and might therefore serve as an intermediary treatment option for exposed dentin surfaces. The adhesion of dentin adhesives to eroded dentin might be increased by mechanical pre-treatment of the substrate, but needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental

  10. Incorporating food web dynamics into ecological restoration: A modeling approach for river ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Newsom, Michael; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Dombroski, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help incorporate these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a model that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the model to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon. Three restoration strategies were simulated: riparian vegetation restoration, nutrient augmentation via salmon carcass addition, and side-channel reconnection. We also added populations of nonnative aquatic snails and fish to the modeled food web to explore how changes in food web structure mediate responses to restoration. Simulations suggest that side-channel reconnection may be a better strategy than carcass addition and vegetation planting for improving conditions for salmon in this river segment. However, modeled responses were strongly sensitive to changes in the structure of the food web. The addition of nonnative snails and fish modified pathways of energy through the food web, which negated restoration improvements. This finding illustrates that forecasting responses to restoration may require accounting for the structure of food webs, and that changes in this structure—as might be expected with the spread of invasive species—could compromise restoration outcomes. Unlike habitat-based approaches to restoration assessment that focus on the direct effects of physical habitat conditions on single species of interest, our approach dynamically links the success of target organisms to the success of competitors, predators, and prey. By elucidating the direct and indirect pathways by which restoration affects target species

  11. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  12. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  13. Origins of the Restoration Playhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis D.

    Contrary to the popular theory that the proscenium type of playhouse was imported from France by the Court of Charles II in 1660, the Restoration playhouse in fact developed from Elizabethan theatres and court masques. These Elizabethan theatres were the private theatres, and were generally small, rectangular, roofed structures where aristocratic…

  14. Zirconia-reinforced dental restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The series of studies conducted in this thesis showed that there are several ways to enhance the performance of fixed restorations regarding the application of zirconia. One possible way is to change the sintering procedure of zirconia, so that the physical properties of zirconia such BFS, density o

  15. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc...

  16. Weed biocontrol in landscape restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed biological control programs in natural areas are often undertaken with the goal of restoring native plant communities and/or ecosystem services to a pre-invasion level. These objectives may be achieved in some areas with biological control alone; however, in other sites integration of biologica...

  17. A review on anterior teeth restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorations of teeth have been a need of time since very long. As the time have passed, there have been different advances in the field of restorative materials and tooth restorations. Many newer restorative materials are now available to us for the purpose of tooth restorations still some of the older materials are materials of choice for a sector of society. This article focuses on few such restorative materials and also tells us about a few patents granted in such field.

  18. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue ... and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of ...

  19. An optimisation approach for shallow lake restoration through macrophyte management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. H.; Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.

    2014-06-01

    Lake eutrophication is a serious global environmental issue. Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technology for water quality restoration. However, besides nutrient removal, macrophytes also deeply affect the hydrologic cycle of a lake system through evapotranspiration. Changes in hydrologic cycle caused by macrophytes have a great influence on lake water quality restoration. As a result of the two opposite effects of macrophytes on water quality restoration (i.e. an increase in macrophytes can increase nutrient removal and improve water quality while also increasing evapotranspiration, reducing water volume and consequently decreasing water quality), rational macrophyte control through planting and harvest is very important. In this study, a new approach is proposed to optimise the initial planting area and monthly harvest scheme of macrophytes for water quality restoration. The month-by-month effects of macrophyte management on lake water quality are considered. Baiyangdian Lake serves as a case study, using the common reed. It was found that water quality was closest to Grade III on the Chinese water quality scale when the reed planting area was 123 km2 (40% of the lake surface area) and most reeds would be harvested at the end of June. The optimisation approach proposed in this study will be a useful reference for lake restoration.

  20. An optimisation approach for shallow lake restoration through macrophyte management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake eutrophication is a serious global environmental issue. Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technology for water quality restoration. However, besides nutrient removal, macrophytes also deeply affect the hydrologic cycle of lake system through evapotranspiration. Changes in hydrologic cycle caused by macrophytes have a great influence on lake water quality restoration. As a result of the two opposite effects of macrophytes on water quality restoration (i.e. an increase in macrophytes can increase nutrient removal and improve water quality while also increasing evapotranspiration, reducing water volume and consequently decreasing water quality, rational macrophyte control through planting and harvest is very important. In this study, a new approach is proposed to optimise the initial planting area and monthly harvest scheme of macrophytes for water quality restoration. The month-by-month effects of macrophyte management on lake water quality are considered. Baiyangdian Lake serves as a case study, using the common reed. It was found that water quality was closest to Grade III on the Chinese water quality scale when the reed planting area was 123 km2 (40% of the lake surface area and most reeds would be harvested at the end of June. The optimisation approach proposed in this study will be a useful reference for lake restoration.

  1. Collagen for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-09-01

    In the last decades, increased knowledge about the organization, structure and properties of collagen (particularly concerning interactions between cells and collagen-based materials) has inspired scientists and engineers to design innovative collagen-based biomaterials and to develop novel tissue-engineering products. The design of resorbable collagen-based medical implants requires understanding the tissue/organ anatomy and biological function as well as the role of collagen's physicochemical properties and structure in tissue/organ regeneration. Bone is a complex tissue that plays a critical role in diverse metabolic processes mediated by calcium delivery as well as in hematopoiesis whilst maintaining skeleton strength. A wide variety of collagen-based scaffolds have been proposed for different tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds are designed to promote a biological response, such as cell interaction, and to work as artificial biomimetic extracellular matrices that guide tissue regeneration. This paper critically reviews the current understanding of the complex hierarchical structure and properties of native collagen molecules, and describes the scientific challenge of manufacturing collagen-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of innovative techniques for scaffold and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to the preparation of biomimetic substrates that modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, retention or enhancement of bone tissue function.

  2. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  3. Brain functional connectivity network breakdown and restoration in blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Michał; Gall, Carolin; Moewes, Christian; Fedorov, Anton; Hinrichs, Hermann; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2014-08-05

    To characterize brain functional connectivity in subjects with prechiasmatic visual system damage and relate functional connectivity features to extent of vision loss. In this case-control study, resting-state, eyes-closed EEG activity was recorded in patients with partial optic nerve damage (n = 15) and uninjured controls (n = 13). We analyzed power density and functional connectivity (coherence, Granger causality), the latter as (1) between-areal coupling strength and (2) individually thresholded binary graphs. Functional connectivity was then modulated by noninvasive repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS; 10 days, 40 minutes daily; n = 7; sham, n = 8) to study how this would affect connectivity networks and perception. Patients exhibited lower spectral power (p = 0.005), decreased short- (p = 0.015) and long-range (p = 0.033) coherence, and less densely clustered coherence networks (p = 0.025) in the high-alpha frequency band (11-13 Hz). rtACS strengthened short- (p = 0.003) and long-range (p = 0.032) alpha coherence and this was correlated with improved detection abilities (r = 0.57, p = 0.035) and processing speed (r = 0.56, p = 0.049), respectively. Vision loss in the blind is caused not only by primary tissue damage but also by a breakdown of synchronization in brain networks. Because visual field improvements are associated with resynchronization of alpha band coherence, brain connectivity is a key component in partial blindness and in restoration of vision. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. The Soil Program of the Restoration Seedbank Initiative: addressing knowledge gaps in degraded soils for use in dryland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Bateman, Amber; Erickson, Todd E.; Turner, Shane; Merritt, David J.

    2017-04-01

    Global environmental changes and other anthropogenic impacts are rapidly transforming the structure and functioning of ecosystems worldwide. These changes are leading to land degradation with an estimated 25 % of the global land surface being affected. Landscape-scale restoration of these degraded ecosystems has therefore been recognised globally as an international priority. In the resource-rich biodiverse semi-arid Pilbara region of north-west Western Australia hundreds of thousands of hectares are disturbed due to established and emerging iron-ore mine operations. At this scale, the need to develop cost-effective large-scale solutions to restore these landscapes becomes imperative to preserve biodiversity and achieve functionality and sustainability of these ecosystems. The Restoration Seedbank Initiative (RSB) (http://www.plants.uwa.edu.au/ research/restoration-seedbank-initiative) is a five-year multidisciplinary research project that aims to build knowledge and design strategies to restore mine-impacted landscapes in the Pilbara and other arid and semi-arid landscapes worldwide (Kildiseheva et al., 2016). The RSB comprises four research programs that focus on seedbank management and curation, seed storage, seed enhancement, and the use of alternative soil substrates (soil or growing medium program) respectively. These multi-disciplinary programs address the significant challenges of landscape scale restoration in arid systems. In the soil program we follow an integrated approach that includes the characterization of undisturbed ecosystems, assessment of restored soils with the use of soil quality indicators, and design of alternative soil substrates to support the establishment of native plant communities. A series of glasshouse studies and field trials have been conducted in the last three years to advance our knowledge on soil limitations and to provide solutions to effectively overcome these challenges in arid ecosystem restoration. These studies include

  5. Periodontal and Restorative Treatment of Gingival Recession Associated with Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Analice Giovani; Teixeira, Daniela Navarro Ribeiro; Soares, Michelle Pereira Costa Mundim; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa de Queiroz; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Paulo Vinícius

    2016-01-14

    The association between the presence of gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions is a common finding in dentistry. These diseases have multifactorial etiology and the treatment should be multidisciplinary. Although traditionally the majority of professionals treat non-carious cervical lesions only with conventional restorative procedures, in most cases a combination of periodontal and restorative treatments provides the best functional and esthetic results. Thus, the objective of this case report was to present a new option for treatment, which consists of a subepithelial connective tissue graft associated with a coronally advanced flap placed on dentin and non-carious cervical lesions restored with lithium disilicate partial veneers. A patient complaining about the esthetic aspects of her teeth and cervical dentin hypersensitivity was submitted to occlusal adjustments and daily diet analysis in order to manage etiologic factors. Experienced operators then performed restorative and surgical treatments. Periodontal clinical attachment level (probing depth + gingival margin), bleeding on probing, plaque index, and the integrity of the restorations were observed. During the monitoring period, the treatment was effective, with good functional and esthetic results. The hypersensitivity disappeared, and neither inflammatory characteristics in gingival tissue nor failures in restorations were noted. It might be concluded that treatment with a combination of techniques can be effective and predictable for patients with gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions that may or may not require restorative procedures under controlled conditions. Copyright© by the International Academy of Periodontology.

  6. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  7. Introduction to tissue engineering applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Birla, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Covering a progressive medical field, Tissue Engineering describes the innovative process of regenerating human cells to restore or establish normal function in defective organs. As pioneering individuals look ahead to the possibility of generating entire organ systems, students may turn to this textbook for a comprehensive understanding and preparation for the future of regenerative medicine. This book explains chemical stimulations, the bioengineering of specific organs, and treatment plans for chronic diseases. It is a must-read for tissue engineering students and practitioners.

  8. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2017-09-16

    analysis (log-rank post hoc test at α=.05 for pairwise comparisons). None of the tested specimen withstood all 140 000 cycles. All specimens without a ferrule were affected by an initial failure phenomenon (wide gap at the lingual margin between the core foundation restoration/crown assembly and the root). NfPfP, NfPt, and NfPtB had similar survival (29649 to 30987 mean cycles until initial failure). NfPfB outperformed NfPt and NfPtB. None of the post-and-core foundation restoration materials were able to match the performance of the ferrule group FPf (72667 cycles). In all groups, 100% of failures were catastrophic. The survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule was slightly improved by the use of a fiber post with a bulk-fill composite resin core foundation restoration. However, none of the post-and-core techniques was able to compensate for the absence of a ferrule. The presence of the posts always adversely affected the failure mode. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient restoration of variable area soundtracks:

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelâali Hassaïne; Etienne Decencière; Bernard Besserer

    2009-01-01

    The restoration of motion picture films using digital image processing has been an active research field for many years. The restoration of the soundtrack however, has mainly been performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, in spite of the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. In this paper a restoration method for variable area soundtrack restoration at the image level is presented. First, a novel method is pro...

  10. Efficient restoration of variable area soundtracks:

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelâali Hassaïne; Etienne Decencière; Bernard Besserer

    2009-01-01

    The restoration of motion picture films using digital image processing has been an active research field for many years. The restoration of the soundtrack however, has mainly been performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, in spite of the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. In this paper a restoration method for variable area soundtrack restoration at the image level is presented. First, a novel method is pro...

  11. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...... engineering approaches and many of these are discussed and their in vitro and in vivo applications covered in this review. Tissue engineering is entering an exciting era; significant advances have been made; however, many technical challenges remain to be solved before this technology becomes widely...... therefore involves a melange of approaches encompassing developmental biology, tissue mechanics, medicine, cell differentiation and survival biology, mechanostransduction and nano-fabrication technology. The central tissue of interest in this review is cartilage. Traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities...

  12. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...... therefore involves a melange of approaches encompassing developmental biology, tissue mechanics, medicine, cell differentiation and survival biology, mechanostransduction and nano-fabrication technology. The central tissue of interest in this review is cartilage. Traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities...... and age-related degenerative diseases can all lead to cartilage loss; however, the low cell density and very limited self-renewal capacity of cartilage necessitate the development of effective therapeutic repair strategies for this tissue. The ontogeny of the chondrocyte, which is the cell that provides...

  13. [Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirskiĭ, V N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. The data on the presence of stem (clonogenic) cell pool in the corneal tissues (epithelium, endothelium, stroma) are given; these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. Particular attention is given to the successes of translational medicine in the treatment of corneal tissue fibrosis. The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. Gene therapy provides more opportunities; one of its main objectives is the suppression of the myofibroblast proliferation responsible for the development of fibrosis.

  14. Does the number of tissue fragments removed from the cervix with excisional treatment for CIN pathology affect the completeness of excision and cytology recurrence at follow-up? An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, D; Panikkar, J; Gornall, A; Blundell, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether removing multiple pieces of cervical tissue during large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) reduced the margin positivity of excision and cytology recurrence rates at follow-up. We conducted an observational cohort study and identified 462 women having had a single LLETZ treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) over a two-year period. Women with previous cervical treatment, cervical cancer on the excised tissue or missing follow-up data were excluded. Multiple regression analysis showed that removal of cervical tissue in multiple pieces did not offer any benefit in removing more disease and less recurrence rates. When multiple pieces were taken there was a four-fold increased risk for inconclusive excision margins as reported by the histopathologist. Removal of multiple pieces led to significantly more tissue being removed which may expose the patient to an increased risk of preterm delivery in a future pregnancy.

  15. A General Approach for Establishing National Priorities for River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effort to restore the nation's rivers necessarily involves the interplay among physical and biological science, engineering design and implementation, and policy science. Policy science helps decision-makers prioritize where to undertake restoration and what the goal or objective of remediation should be. Some commentators have advocated that restoration be pursued on streams that constitute the "low hanging fruit," that is the streams where the greatest gain can be obtained for the least investment. There is a general need for a unifying concept with which to evaluate these policy tradeoffs. The restoration response function defines the relationship between the costs of flow and sediment alteration and the results of those actions in reversing undesired channel change. Development of these functional relations should be an essential element in stream restoration, especially where there are many environmental management programs in a basin and they all affect regional water delivery and hydroelectric power production. The nation's regulated streams - those that are extensively dammed or diverted - are typically proposed for restoration. These streams can be distinguished into three categories: (1) physically transformed, (2) essentially wild and in sediment deficit, and (3) essentially wild and in sediment surplus. Physically transformed streams are those that have been channelized or leveed. Streams in sediment deficit are those whose sediment delivery has been decreased much more than has the ability to transport the available supply. Those in surplus are those whose sediment delivery now exceeds the ability to transport the available supply. Major efforts at riverine ecosystem rehabilitation are underway in all types of streams. The Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program and efforts on the lower Missouri River and the Columbia Rivers are focused on transformed rivers. The Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program is focused on a river in

  16. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  17. Digital color restoration of old paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2000-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained.

  18. 5 CFR 353.301 - Restoration rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration rights. 353.301 Section 353... DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.301 Restoration rights. (a.... Although these restoration rights are agencywide, the employee's basic entitlement is to the...

  19. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan A Pol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C-400°C-600°C-800°C-1000°C on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Results: Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Conclusion: Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics.

  20. Surgical lasers and hard dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S

    2007-04-28

    The cutting of dental hard tissue during restorative procedures presents considerable demands on the ability to selectively remove diseased carious tissue, obtain outline and retention form and maintain the integrity of supporting tooth tissue without structural weakening. In addition, the requirement to preserve healthy tissue and prevent further breakdown of the restoration places the choice of instrumentation and clinical technique as prime factors for the dental surgeon. The quest for an alternative treatment modality to the conventional dental turbine has been, essentially, patient-driven and has led to the development of various mechanical and chemical devices. The review of the literature has endorsed the beneficial effects of current laser machines. However utopian, there is additional evidence to support the development of ultra-short (nano- and femto-second) pulsed lasers that are stable in use and commercially viable, to deliver more efficient hard tissue ablation with less risk of collateral thermal damage. This paper explores the interaction of laser energy with dental hard tissues and bone and the integration of current laser wavelengths into restorative and surgical dentistry.

  1. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Cottingham

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  2. UV completion without symmetry restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Endlich, Solomon; Penco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that it is not possible to UV-complete certain low-energy effective theories with spontaneously broken space-time symmetries by embedding them into linear sigma models, that is, by adding "radial" modes and restoring the broken symmetries. When such a UV completion is not possible, one can still raise the cutoff up to arbitrarily higher energies by adding fields that transform non-linearly under the broken symmetries, that is, new Goldstone bosons. However, this (partial) UV completion does not necessarily restore any of the broken symmetries. We illustrate this point by considering a concrete example in which a combination of space-time and internal symmetries is broken down to a diagonal subgroup. Along the way, we clarify a recently proposed interpretation of inverse Higgs constraints as gauge-fixing conditions.

  3. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc...... their image as a faceless monopoly with a humanized, personalised version. However, it should also be questioned if, in the long run, it was the image campaign rather than the visible efforts of the company to behave with consideration that brought about the desired change. Keywords: Image restoration......., and made them available to readers as experts providing inspiration and advice, or as writers blogging about the world of company, or as responsible people answering readers' frank questions about their practices in an open forum. It is argued that the electronic platform allowed the company to substitute...

  4. Image Restoration And Resolution Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Charles L.; Fitzgerald, Raymond M.

    1983-09-01

    We consider mathematical algorithms for the restoration of object information from finitely many measurements of the object's spectrum, with particular emphasis on the development of linear and nonlinear non-iterative methods that can incorporate prior information about object extent and shape. The linear method presented here generalizes the minimum energy bandlimited extrapolation procedure, which is the closed form limit of Gerchberg-Papoulis iteration in this case. The nonlinear method generalizes the maximum entropy method (MEM) of Burg.

  5. Articulator selection for restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, S; Shillingburg, H T; Whitsett, L D

    1976-07-01

    There are many types of articulators that can be used for making fixed restorations. While unquestionably the most accurate, the fully adjustable instrument is not feasible or necessary for many forms of simple occlusal treatment. The effects of tooth-hinge axis radius, intercondylar distance, and condylar inclination on occlusal morphology have been discussed. Guidelines have been proposed for ma